WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground freight transportation

  1. FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. REGGIANI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of European policy on the interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU. In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future – both international (EU and national (the Alpine countries – freight transport development. The paper is organised to briefly describe the main objectives of EU transport policy, to generally introduce the concept of intermodal transport with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport and to describe past, present and future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport. The scenarios of future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport have been particularly analysed.

  2. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  3. Urban freight transportation: challenges, failures and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.J.; Peeters, R.; Woensel, T. van

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Teslenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizational structure of management of railway freight transportations based on product principle is offered that allows functioning of private operator companies and realizing of transportations on competition basis.

  5. Safeguarding Schiphol Airports accessibility for freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Ebben, Mark; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly

  6. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  7. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  8. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  9. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  10. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  11. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without

  12. Environmental assessment of freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    This report is a short version in English of two reports in Swedish: KFB report 1994:6 `Environmental effects of change of transport mode for goods transportation` and `Combining of transport models` which was performed as a commission for the Swedish environmental protection agency. The aim of both studies is to investigate the environmental effects of political measures to transfer goods from one transport mode to another. To be able to calculate the environmental effects a method to follow the transport chains has been developed. By defining the transport chains with a main transport mode it has been possible to relate the emissions to the different modes. The main results are that the transferable volumes are limited and even if a maximum volume is transferred, the positive environmental effects are small compared to the effects of measures to reduce the emissions from the vehicles 3 refs, 22 figs, 34 tabs

  13. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  14. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing

  15. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  16. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  17. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    Considering the externalities of freight transport activity (energy use, accidents, congestion, its related GHG emissions, and lost oil revenues) this article reviews trends from 1990-2005 in truck freight fuel intensity (energy use per tonne-km moved), on road truck fuel economy (L/ 100 km driven......). We review changes in decoupling truck freight activity from GDP. We examine separately five manufacturing sectors using data from Statistics Denmark on vehicle performance for 1980-2006. Our four major findings are: (1) truck freight energy intensity (mj/tonne-km) continues to grow as well as CO2...... emissions; (2) decoupling has not been large enough to reduce overall energy use of truck; (3) because of the absence of fuel economy regulations, a low average vehicle load, increased hauling distance, overall energy use of truck freight will continue to expand; (4) results show that standard freight...

  18. Setting up a freight transportation model for Java in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baat, M.J.; Den Hertog, V.; De Jong, S.; De Regt, K.; Wijgergangs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The project consisted of the development of a freight transportation model for the island Java in Indonesia. A literature study concerning freight modelling has been performed to formulate an appropriate framework of such a model for the given situation. Different data sources have been identified,

  19. The Logistical Aspects of Freight Transportation and Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimina Anna I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the theoretical and practical aspects of freight transportation and forwarding services based on the principles of logistics. The indicators of dynamics of freight transportation in Ukraine compared to last year and the structure by types of transport have been provided. The indicators of the foreign trade performance of Ukraine have been presented, including the counter-current export and import flows, as well as the external trade balance, which directly impacts the volume and dynamics of freight transportation and forwarding services. The main parameters of the transportation and forwarding logistics system were systematized, taking into consideration the technical and operational characteristics of the rolling stock, the route of communication, and the terminals. The role and features of the functions of the inter/multimodal transportation operators – freight forwarders of the «tonnage customers» have been considered. The article determines principles for the organization of work of freight forwarders, as well as the terms of agreement of the parties when the freight forwarding contract is concluded. The conditions for developing a logistics approach to the implementation of freight transportation and forwarding services have been generalized.

  20. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail.......Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  1. User manual for freight transportation analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Wilson, L.B.

    1976-12-01

    Under sponsorship of the Federal Energy Administration, The Center for Transportation Studies at M.I.T. developed and tested a methodology for analysis of the impacts of various government and carrier policies on the demand for freight transportation. The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the computer programs included in this methodology. The purpose of the computer software developed for this project is threefold. First, programs are used to calculate the cost of each of the transport alternatives available for the purchase of a given commodity by a receiver in a given industrial sector. Furthermore, these programs identify the least-cost alternative, and thus provide a forecasting capability at the disaggregate level. Given a description of the population of receivers in the destination city, a second group of programs applies the costing and forecasting programs to each receiver in a sample drawn from the population. The disaggregate forecasts are summed to produce an aggregate forecast of modal tonnages for the given origin/destination city-pair. Finally, a third group of programs computes fuel consumed in transportation from the aggregate modal tonnages. These three groups of programs were placed under the control of a master routine which coordinates the input and output of data.

  2. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  3. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  4. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  5. Backcasting in freight transport demand modelling – chances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Peter; Huber, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport demand models are important tools to support policy decision-making by enabling decision makers to evaluate transport policies and correlated effects. This significance puts high pressure on freight models regarding their accuracy. In order to ensure model accuracy there are different methods within the wide area of quality assurance that can be applied. Although backcasting is such a method it is, however, often neglected or implemented insufficiently. The paper presents ma...

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For Ukraine as for a post-socialist state there is an objective need of reforming on railway transport. In order to meet the requirements of consumers both within the country and outside of it, it is necessary to solve transport problems in time and to introduce new technologies, without lagging behind the developed European states. The purpose of this article is identification of problems in the process of freight transportations and development of ways of their overcoming, formation of the principles of economic efficiency increase for the use of freight cars using the improvement of management mechanism of freight transportations in the conditions of reforming. Methodology. Methods of strategic planning, system approach for research on improvement of the management mechanism of freight transportations, as well as the organizational-administrative method for structure of management construction were used in this research. Findings. Authors have explored the problems arising in the process of transportation of goods and measures, which will increase the efficiency of goods transportation. Advanced mechanism of freight transportation management for its application in the conditions of the railway transport reforming was developed. It is based on management centralization. Originality. The major factors, which slow down process of cargo transportations, are investigated in the article. The principles of management mechanism improvement of freight transportations are stated. They are based on association of commercial and car-repair activity of depots. All this will allow reducing considerably a car turn by decrease in duration of idle times on railway transport, increasing the speed of freight delivery and cutting down a transport component in the price of delivered production. Practical value. The offered measures will improve the efficiency of rolling stock use and increase cargo volumes turnover, promote links of Ukraine with

  7. ORGANIZATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN UKRAINE IN THE REFORMATION CONDTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the former Soviet Union carries out railroad industry reformation according to different models depending on orienting points and the goals it establishes. All railway administrations have faced the problem of considerable reduction of freight and passenger transportation volumes, aging of main assets, lack of investments for their renovation. The purpose of the paper is the development of optimal management structure of freight cars in conditions of railway transport reformation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis for research is a systematic analysis of problems of providing the competitiveness of the transport industry in the field of freight railway transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the production efficiency, market economics transformation and management of the national economy. Findings. The author has developed an improved mechanism for freight traffic management, which differs from the existing one by its adaptation to the conditions of industry being reformed and the organization of management companies. These companies together with the Ukrainian transport and logistics center centralize management of all freight cars of both domestic and foreign operating companies. Originality. Author presents the theoretical generalization and new solution of the scientific problem. It appears in the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to the management structure of the freight cars by operating companies in conditions of railway transport reforming through the management companies organization in Ukraine. The above mentioned companies will combine two types of activity – the commercial one and the cars repair of different property, it will reduce car turnover, stay time of rolling stock in the inoperative park and thereby improve the efficiency of freight transportations. Particularly, they will lease and have the right to dispose universal cars of domestic

  8. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t

  9. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  10. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  11. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  12. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical

  13. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  14. Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport: Retail Distribution and Local Regulations in Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Quak (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough our urbanized civilization requires freight transport in order to sustain it, urban freight transport is especially recognized for its unsustainable impacts. To reduce the unsustainable impacts of urban freight transport, many local governments develop policies that focus someti

  15. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  17. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while enhancin

  18. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  19. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  20. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to freigh

  1. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D. [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  2. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...

  3. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender; Koovendhran Naidu

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service qual...

  4. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  5. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of i

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Prediction of Freight Transport Impacts on Urban Road Volumes: A Case Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Oral

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning paradigms, which aim to overcome urban transport problems, have to evaluate the mobility prediction of goods besides the mobility of individuals. This is a requirement and it comes up with different scales and features in the cities which contain high density of regional interactions. Urban roads respond from freight transport due to economy besides relation of productions and consumptions. This study is an instance to generate solutions for future which tries to evaluate respective interaction in the process of urban planning and transport planning. Study area has been stated as the city Izmir, TURKEY. The exact area is the legal responsibility border of the law 3030. The location and impact of freight transport generation stations cause total freight transport demands to rise up. Concurrently, there is a high ratio of freight transport in the transit traffic. Freight vehicles may be seen in every level of roads due to features of the road network. Therefore, it has been aimed to correlate freight transport moves with the location and impacts of the freight generation stations. This study also assumes that freight transport moves may have some measurable reasons and may contain usable parameters, for this purpose. The measurement of freight transport in Izmir, the density of the vehicles which interacts with the several aggregation areas and the location or impacts of the freight transport generation stations in those areas have been tried to evaluate simultaneously. The stages of the paradigm are determined as below: • To determine the categories of the freight transport generation stations and measurement values on urban roads,• To draw the borders of several aggregations areas and CBD area borders by determining enumeration points,• To measure density of freight vehicles move in terms of inner traffic,

  8. THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ROAD FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi YOSHIMOTO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying the recent trend toward e-commerce and computerization in the trucking industry, this paper establishes a framework for analyzing the impact of information and communication technology on road freight transportation in terms of commerce, logistics and fleet management, and proposes hypothetical mechanisms of influence. The authors note that the rapid growth of e-commerce and freight fleet management systems make it difficult to arrive at firm, statistics-based conclusions about their impact on road freight transportation, but suggest that more sophisticated government management of transportation demand as well as freight fleet management systems could cancel out the negative impact of e-commerce on road transportation.

  9. Logistics chains in freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis has been motivated by the fact that the Netherlands, and the Randstad region in particular, are affected by the large transport flows and extensive operations of the logistics sector. These operations create welfare for those people who work in the sector, w

  10. Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which estim

  11. Logistics chains in freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis has been motivated by the fact that the Netherlands, and the Randstad region in particular, are affected by the large transport flows and extensive operations of the logistics sector. These operations create welfare for those people who work in the sector,

  12. Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which

  13. Incorporating Logistics in Freight Transport Demand Models: State-of-the-Art and Research Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ruijgrok, K.; Davydenko, I.

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport demand is a demand derived from all the activities needed to move goods between locations of production to locations of consumption, including trade, logistics and transportation. A good representation of logistics in freight transport demand models allows us to predict the effects

  14. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-indiv

  15. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  17. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  18. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  19. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  20. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  1. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  2. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  3. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  4. THE EFFICIENCY FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE VARIABLE NATURE OF DEMANDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Smyrnova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  5. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  6. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    econometric models make use of a deterministic trend to explain fuel intensity and cannot accommodate long-run effects such as asymmetric diesel price effects and relationship between the variables in the freight demand. Our results do not confirm that decoupling truck freight has accelerated in recent years...

  7. THE IMPROVEMENT OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CALCULATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Vnukova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested to bring in changes into the Rules of Complex Payments applied by the states-participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States in payments for international freight transportations.

  8. Avoiding congestion in freight transport planning : a case study in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in transport intensity for passenger and freight traffic has been observed during the last decades and research confirms that this trend will continue in the years to come. Economic centres have turned into heavily congested areas. The freight transport sector incurs excessive waiting times on the road as well as at intermediate stops (e.g. sea terminals, loading or unloading points). This may cause economic losses and environmental damages. Waiting times may be avoided...

  9. Affordable Freight Logistics Transport Information Management Optimisation and Asset Tracking Solution Using Smartphone GPS Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Joseph T.; Prescott, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, freight transport and telematics solutions that exploit the GPS capabilities of in- vehicle devices to provide innovative Location Based Services (LBS) including track and trace transport systems have been the preserve of a select cluster of transport operators and organisations with the financial resources to develop the requisite custom software and hardware on which they are deployed. The average cost of outfitting a typical transport vehicle or truck with the latest Intelligent Transport System (ITS) increases the cost of the vehicle by anything from a couple to several thousand Euros, depending on the complexity and completeness of the solution. Though this does not generally deter large fleet transport owners since they typically get Return on Investment (ROI) based on economies of scale, it presents a barrier for the smaller independent entities that constitute the majority of freight transport operators [1].The North Sea Freight Intelligent Transport Solution (NS FRITS), a project co-funded by the European Commission Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme, aims to make acquisition of such transport solutions easier for those organisations that cannot afford the expensive, bespoke systems used by their larger competitors.The project addresses transport security threats by developing a system capable of informing major actors along the freight logistics supply chain, of changing circumstances within the region's major transport corridors and between transport modes. The project also addresses issues of freight volumes, inter-modality, congestion and eco-mobility [2].

  10. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may...

  11. A social perceptual approach to freight transport modal choice

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, R.

    1990-01-01

    This research develops a conceptual model of freight modal choice in which the basic unit of analysis is the socio-organisational group. Research into freight modal choice at the level of the firm has tended to disregard the nature of human choice and to assume that modal choice can be explained in terms of technological phenomena or cost relationships. There is also a tendency to equate the modal choice of organisational members with the modal use of firms. The approa...

  12. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  13. What drives the high price of road freight transport in Central America ?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, the...

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Application of an Intelligent Fuzzy Regression Algorithm in Road Freight Transportation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Najaf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Road freight transportation between provinces of a country has an important effect on the traffic flow of intercity transportation networks. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the road freight transportation for provinces of a country is so crucial to improve the rural traffic operation in a large scale management. Accordingly, the focused case study database in this research is the information related to Iran’s provinces in the year 2008. Correlation between road freight transportation with variables such as transport cost and distance, population, average household income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP of each province is calculated. Results clarify that the population is the most effective factor in the prediction of provinces’ transported freight. Linear Regression Model (LRM is calibrated based on the population variable, and afterwards Fuzzy Regression Algorithm (FRA is generated on the basis of the LRM. The proposed FRA is an intelligent modified algorithm with an accurate prediction and fitting ability. This methodology can be significantly useful in macro-level planning problems where decreasing prediction error values is one of the most important concerns for decision makers. In addition, Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN is developed to evaluate the prediction capability of the models and to be compared with FRA. According to the final results, the modified FRA estimates road freight transportation values more accurately than the BPNN and LRM. Finally, in order to predict the road freight transportation values, the reliability of the calibrated models is analyzed using the information of the year 2009. Results show higher reliability for the proposed modified FRA.

  16. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  17. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  18. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  19. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  20. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers: Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more eff

  1. Improving urban freight transport sustainability by carriers - Best practices from The Netherlands and the EU project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carriers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport mor

  2. Economic Valorisation of the Freight Transport Centre Kutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Badanjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the conditions for constructing a freight- transp01t centre in Kutilza with special emphasis on the positiveinfluences that such a project could have for the town ofKutina and the Moslavina region. The analysis of the locationhas shown that the conditions for its establishment have beenmet, provided that town administration determines the ways inwhich the project will be realised regarding the necesswy financialscheme.

  3. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  4. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  5. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  6. New SP-values of time and reliability for freight transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G. de; Kouwenhoven, M.; Bates, J.; Koster, P.; Verhoef, E.; Tavasszy, L.; Warffemius, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods used in a study on the values of time and reliability in freight transport in the Netherlands. SP surveys were carried out among more than 800 shippers and carriers. A novel feature is that both for the value of time and reliability two additive components are

  7. A freight transport optimization model for integrated network, service, and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Janic, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a freight transport optimization model that simultaneously incorporates multimodal infrastructure, hub-based service network structures, and the various design objectives of multiple actors. The model has been calibrated and validated using real-life data from the case study of

  8. The economic performance of supply chain(s) served by the mega freight transport vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic performances of supply chain(s) served by different including the mega freight transport vehicles. These performances are considered as a dimension of the supply chain’s sustainability together with the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational,

  9. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    the experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building...

  10. Flexibility of Freight Transport Sectors : An Exploration of Carriers’ Responses to External Pressure on Prices and Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der; Kuipers, Bart

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how government policies in the field of transport may affect future freight rates, transit times, and delivery reliability. In particular, attention is paid to the ‘absorptive capacity’ of freight carriers, i.e. the extent to which they can reduce the effects of such polici

  11. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Egba Ubogu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  12. SKF Freight Transports and CO{sub 2} emissions. A Study in Environmental Management Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Helen; Stenqvist, Christian

    2007-11-15

    In this study of CO{sub 2} emissions accounting, freight transports of the SKF company are examined. The identification of emission sources, the handling of transport activity data, the application of proper calculation methodologies, organizational aspects and questions of liability are all integrated parts of the study. Emission calculations are carried out for two specific logistics systems managed by SKF Logistics Services; the Daily Transport System (DTS) and the Global Air Freight Program. The DTS, which is based on road freight transports, operates the European distribution of finished products. It is estimated to contribute with 9 700 tonnes CO{sub 2} during 2007. Since the system is optimized to a reasonable degree, the CO{sub 2} impact per tonne-km is relatively low. Over the same period the air freight's estimated emissions are 40 000 tonnes. Together these transport activities contributes to about ten percent of the SKF total CO{sub 2} equivalents based on the reporting of 2006. Adding the emissions from the remaining transport activities that SKF utilizes will make this share increase considerably, particularly if also inbound transports are accounted for. The potential for CO{sub 2} reductions is covered by two change-oriented case studies. It can be concluded that short-sea transportation seldom is an alternative to road transports. Intermodal transports combining road and rail can, depending on the circumstances, reduce the CO{sub 2} impact considerably compared to only using road transports. Reducing transportation work by optimizing a transport activity is seen as the best option for CO{sub 2} reductions. Efforts should be put into reducing the need for air freight transports, considering the high emission levels per tonne-km. Monitoring emissions for all transport activities that falls under SKF responsibility will reduce the risk of sub optimization. Introducing system changes in order to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions will have a range of

  13. Private–public partnerships: A mechanism for freight transport infrastructure delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Ittmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors.Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa.Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa.Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable.Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.

  14. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  15. Models of travel time and reliability for freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Roberts, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    The model produces a probability distribution of the trip time associated with the shipment of freight between a given origin and destination by a given mode and route. Using distributions of the type produced by the model, it is possible to determine two important measures of the quality of service offered by the carrier. These measures are the main travel time and the reliability of delivery. The reliability measure describes the spread of the travel-time distribution. The model described herein was developed originally as part of the railroad rationalization study conducted at MIT and sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration. This work built upon earlier research in railroad reliability models. Because of the predominantly rail background of this model, the initial discussion focuses on the problem of modeling rail-trip-time reliability. Then, it is shown that the model can also be used to study truck and barge operations.

  16. First Cost Calculation Methods for Road Freight Transport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács György

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain. Forwarding and transport companies focuses on the optimization of transportation and the reduction of transport costs.

  17. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    ). The traditional role of forwarding firms as freight integrators is being challenged by other actors within the transport system, e.g. ferry and shipping lines, ports and train operators. The rationale for this development has been the increased focus by the transport sectors stakeholders on the control of guiding...... transport flows through specific transport networks of own interest. Most transport firms are mobile in their activities by nature, but are in reality confined in their day-to-day operations to different forms of relative fixed network structure - e.g. railway lines, ferry routes and ports, cost....... In this study stakeholders from Danish and Norwegian ports, ferry operators, train operators, forwarding and road haulage firms has been interviewed in order to analyse how logistical decision-making affect the organisational and physical configuration of intermodal transport solutions in the transport corridor...

  18. The rebound effect on road freight transport: Empirical evidence from Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Fernando J.F., E-mail: fjmatos@uac.p [University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Silva, Francisco J.F., E-mail: fsilva@uac.p [CEEAplA - University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Because a large proportion of total operating costs for transportation companies goes towards energy, a reduction in energy operating costs, brought about by an increase in fleet fuel efficiency, or an increase in operational efficiency, results in a change in the relative cost of road freight transportation. This fact could result in an increase in the demand for such services. If this is true, the result would be an increase in total fuel consumption. Consequently, that part of the energy savings obtained through the increased energy efficiency would be lost. The existence of a 'Rebound Effect' is especially important in the road freight transportation sector and is crucial for the definition of a national energy policy. In this study, data from the road freight transportation sector in Portugal for the years of 1987 through 2006 was analyzed. It was determined that an increase in energy efficiency did not cause a backfire, but did cause a total direct rebound effect of 24.1%. In addition, fleet operators were more inclined to adopt operational efficiencies than technological fuel efficiencies as a means of increasing the total operational efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate a direct rebound effect for road freight transportation in Portugal. {yields} The functional form chosen was a log-log model and the estimation method used was the two stage least squares model. {yields} Increasing energy efficiency by 1% results in a reduction of 0.759% in energy consumption (a direct rebound effect of about 24.1%). {yields} Estimates of reduced fuel consumption without considering the direct rebound effect may be overestimated by about 0.87 million liters of diesel per year for each percentage point increase in energy efficiency.

  19. The importance of disaggregated freight flow forecasts to inform transport infrastructure investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comprehensive disaggregated commodity flow model for South Africa. The wealth of data available enables a segmented analysis of future freight transportation demand in order to assist with the prioritisation of transportation investments, the development of transport policy and the growth of the logistics service provider industry. In 2011, economic demand for commodities in South Africa’s competitive surface-freight transport market amounted to 622 million tons and is predicted to increase to 1834m tons by 2041, which is a compound annual growth rate of 3.67%. Fifty percent of corridor freight constitutes break bulk; intermodal solutions are therefore critical in South Africa. Scenario analysis indicates that 80%of corridor break-bulk tons can by serviced by four intermodal facilities – in Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. This would allow for the development of an investment planning hierarchy, enable industry targeting (through commodity visibility, ensure capacity development ahead of demand and lower the cost of logistics in South Africa.

  20. A Road Network for Freight Transport in Flanders: Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Assessment of Alternative Ring Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Macharis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though road transport is an essential part of freight distribution, there is a lack of customized routing networks to convey freight over the road. The present paper addresses this deficit by proposing general principles to elaborate a regional freight route network in Flanders. However, assigning regional freight traffic to a particular road network involves complex trade-offs between multiple interests, such as corporate accessibility, communal livability, additional network links and available space. The paper recommends the multi-actor multi-criteria assessment tool (MAMCA to incorporate stakeholder objectives in the evaluation of possible freight network scenarios. The tool is applied for the specific case of Anzegem, a road village amid regional freight attraction poles that suffers particularly from heavy freight flows. The impact of four alternative ring ways is assessed according to the interests of the involved parties and compared to the reference scenario. Results show that transport companies advocate supra-local accessibility, while governmental and citizen stakeholders value traffic safety and livability. Since the reference scenario does not comply with these critical stakeholder objectives, an alternate scenario is proposed. As such, MAMCA applications assist policy-makers in building consensus among multiple actors in the realization of transportation projects.

  1. Fuel conservation opportunities through changes in mode of freight transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.M.; Moon, A.E.

    1979-06-01

    The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. These industry personnel identified unreliable delivery times and equipment shortages as the key issues in their decision not to use the railroads. A range of actions that railroad management could take to improve transit time reliability is identified. Barriers to implementing changes include (in increasing order of difficulty) changes in operating practices, capital outlays, increased operating costs, and changes in work rules. Ranked by increased order of difficulty to implement actions to improve reliability are as follows: rationalize train schedules, yard crew assignments in terminal areas, system blocking plan, and configuration of complex terminal areas; schedule freight cars from door to door; and operate freight trains more frequently.

  2. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  3. Analysis of Indicators of Corporate Responsibility in Road Freight Transport: Results of Transport Companies and FMCG Retailers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đuranović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of indicators of corporate responsibility in road freight transport, with special emphasis on freight transport and delivery to Fast Moving Consumers Goods (FMCG retailers and final consumer. The main task is to rank the importance of corporate responsibility indicators in freight transport from the perspective of the management of transport companies, as well as management of retail stores. In this context, empirical research was conducted on a sample of 124 managers of transport enterprises and 181 managers of FMCG retailers in Serbia. The results showed that the impact of indicators does not depend on the region, transport company and retail store. The indicators show a statistically significant dependence on FMCG type that is being transported. The conducted analysis and achieved results are important in practice as they show to the management of transport companies which indicators should be developed, so that customers (retailers, and thus the users of final products are satisfied. Disadvantages of the existing research and suggestions for future studies are provided in the paper.

  4. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  5. The Impact of the Airline Freight Transportation on GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okşan Kibritçi Artar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of passenger and freight transportation has been increasing tremendously each day due to the globalization process. Therefore, the acceleration in the transportation demand has a natural impact on the distances that the freights have been carried through in overall. In this prospect, international logistics provides an economic utility from the sustainability viewpoint in the global competition arena. World-wide supply and distribution channels have become so sophisticated, resulting in having vitality in the field therefore boosting its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. High impact of liberalization in the air transportation markets has been affecting the market of Turkey as well as USA and EU. Moreover, it is one of the industries that have survived from the global financial crises which is also critical from the competition based strategies. In this study, the relation between the GDP and the air freight traffic of Turkey has been analyzed by using an econometric model. As a result, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between those parameters.

  6. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Harten, van A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly au

  7. A model for development of freight transport; En model for godstransportens udvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kveiborg, O. [National Environmental Res., Systems Analysis Dept. Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of a large project conducted in a corporation between Statistics Denmark and the Danish National Environmental Research Institute. The main objective of the project has been to analyse the possibilities of prescribing the development in the Danish freight transport in a more appropriate and precise way than it is done by existing models. A secondary objective of the project was to develop a model based on the findings of the analysis. The intention was to be able to describe all areas of freight transport. The analysis has proven it impossible to improve the existing calculations in some areas of transport. Hence, the project has been narrowed down to focus exclusively on road freight transport. The developed model distinguishes itself from existing models by a much higher level of detail in the calculations. This enables the model to describe the structural relations between transport and economic activity, which has previously been subsumed in the aggregate calculations of existing models. The work carried out in the process of developing a model for the freight transport has encountered many difficulties. The findings described in this report are merely one step towards a better understanding of the relation between economic development and transport. The descriptions on the following pages will describe some of the difficulties we have had in achieving an appropriate statistical description of the different linkages. Furthermore, the calculations carried out with the model point at other unsolved problems. There is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the developments in freight transport. In this respect, the very disaggregate calculations of the model can be seen as both an advantage and as a disadvantage because each extra calculation gives rise to further uncertainties in the overall result. Even though we have had great difficulties finding adequate descriptions of the development in the factors in the model

  8. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Oksana O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr. One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine is absence of a developed network of transportation and logistic centres. The article offers to form a network of transportation and logistic centres in Ukraine as a way of intensification of development of mixed transportations of freight, since they facilitate co-ordination of use of various types of transport and support integrated management of material flows. Transportation and logistic centres should become a start-up complex, around which transportation and logistic clusters would be gradually formed. Transportation and logistic clusters is a new efficient form of network organisation and management of transportation and logistic services and they also ensure growth of efficiency of use of the regional transportation and logistic potential of Ukraine. The article shows prospective supporting transportation and logistic centres and centres of formation of transportation and logistic clusters in the territory of Ukraine. Formation of efficient transportation and logistic system of Ukraine on the basis of a network of transportation and logistic clusters would facilitate entering of Ukraine into the world transportation environment and would allow acceleration of introduction of efficient logistic schemes of freight delivery, in particular, mixed transportation of freight.

  9. Freight transportation efficiency through horizontal cooperation in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Dullaert, W.; Joro, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a practical application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to the Flemish road transportation sector. The efficiency of 82 road transportation companies responding to a large-scale survey focused on horizontal cooperation is evaluated, based on two inputs and two outputs.

  10. Freight transportation efficiency through horizontal cooperation in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Dullaert, W.; Joro, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a practical application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to the Flemish road transportation sector. The efficiency of 82 road transportation companies responding to a large-scale survey focused on horizontal cooperation is evaluated, based on two inputs and two outputs. Variou

  11. MODERN MARKETING FEATURES OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION ON UKRAINIAN MARKET TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Radionova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on searching methods of use of marketing tools for resolving the railway transport development problems and functioning this branch in the market conditions is considered.

  12. A Price Index Model for Road Freight Transportation and Its Empirical analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhishuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of price index for road freight transportation (RFT is to reflect the changes of price in the road transport market. Firstly, a price index model for RFT based on the sample data from Alibaba logistics platform is built. This model is a three levels index system including total index, classification index and individual index and the Laspeyres method is applied to calculate these indices. Finally, an empirical analysis of the price index for RFT market in Zhejiang Province is performed. In order to demonstrate the correctness and validity of the exponential model, a comparative analysis with port throughput and PMI index is carried out.

  13. Increasing the Efficiency of Railway Transport by Improvement of Suspension of Freight Wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Petrović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Railway transport has a very important role in economy of every country. The efficiency of railway transport depends both on the quality of transport organization and on the technical reliability of the railway rolling stock. During operation of the railway freight wagons in the last years, a large number of breaks of suspension system elements have been noticed. This feature is especially reported at four-axle double wagon for coal transport (designated Fbd and three-axle wagon for transport of cars (designated DDam. Frequent breaks of suspension system elements reduce the efficiency of transport and in some cases cause derailment of wagons and lead to large economic losses. In this paper, the causes of breakage of suspension on both wagons (Fbd and DDam have been analyzed, but also the possibilities of how to resolve these problems, i.e. how to reduce them to a minimum or avoid them completely.

  14. EVALUTION OF THE SINGLE INTERCITY FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION WAITING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ponomariova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The example of vechicle operation on the pendulum intercity route during single freightages processing is considered. Two approaches to the definition of the single freightage waiting time by the carrier are proposed. These approaches allow to take into account the probability of the single freightage obtaining by the carrier during the different load level of the transport enterprise capacity.

  15. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  16. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  17. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  18. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  19. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . We find that it is necessary to account for changing composition of production across industries, but that the commodity mix within each industry safely can be regarded as constant. Changing value densities account for almost a third of transport growth; however, this is attributable to the first......A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  20. A review of some critical assumptions in the relationship between economic activity and freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . We find that it is necessary to account for changing composition of production across industries, but that the commodity mix within each industry safely can be regarded as constant. Changing value densities account for almost a third of transport growth; however, this is attributable to the first......A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  1. To the question of flowing processes interaction in the logistics of transport-freight complexes of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina SIZOVA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of identification of structure and parameters of material flow and associate with it documentary and informative flows are considered and the principles of their co-operation, representing a basis for optimization of process of material traffic in the logistic transport-freight complexes of enterprises, are exposed.

  2. Forecasting freight flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...

  3. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  4. Uncovering document fraud in maritime freight transport based on probabilistic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A. F.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  5. On railway freight transportation regulations information construction%浅谈铁路货运规章信息化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2012-01-01

    铁路货运规章是铁路货物运输的基本"法",但现行的铁路规章数量众多、修改频繁、不便于现场使用。文章对目前铁路货运规章管理存在问题进行分析,提出采用信息化手段管理规章,并对货运规章管理系统建设提出建议。%Railway freight transportation regulations are railway freight transport basic "method",but the current railway rules and numerous,frequently modified,do not facilitate the field use.This paper discusses the present railway freight transportation rules and management problems for the analysis,the paper proposes the informationization means management rules and regulations to the freight transportation management system construction are proposed.

  6. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2005-07-01

    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  7. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, Hans; Harten, van, A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly automated, using AGVs (Automatic Guided Vehicles) for transport and automated loading and unloading equipment. It is unique in its scale, covering a 15-25 km tube system, and in its complexity, using...

  8. RESEARCHES ON URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE MEXICAN CITY OF QUERETARO: FROM CENTRAL TO PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While in developed countries the effects of urban freight transport on congestion levels, environment and quality of life of the population have been recognized and studied, in Latin American countries a limited amount of reports have been produced on this issue, focusing only on major urban agglomerations and capital cities. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the results and the key analytical concepts supporting a research work carried out in the Queretaro Metropolitan Area, within the 2003−2014 period. The methodological approach considered includes a multi-year research effort for creating analytical tools and evaluation methods. As a result of this effort, urban freight related issues have been characterized in a context of urban and peri-urban interacting environments for a medium-sized city. The resulting methods and tools can now be used for studying metropolitan areas on a nation-wide basis.

  9. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: cost estimating methodology. Volume III, parts A and B. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.A.; Morlok, E.K.; Gimm, K.K.; Zandi, I.

    1976-07-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of an intercity freight pipeline, it was necessary to develop cost equations for various competing transportation modes. This volume presents cost-estimating equations for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar, truck, and freight pipeline. Section A presents mathematical equations that approximate the fully allocated and variable costs contained in the ICC cost tables for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and truck common-carrier intercity freight movements. These equations were developed to enable the user to approximate the ICC costs quickly and easily. They should find use in initial studies of costs where exact values are not needed, such as in consideration of rate changes, studies of profitability, and in general inter-modal comparisons. Section B discusses the development of a set of engineering cost equations for pneumo-capsule pipelines. The development was based on an analysis of system components and can readily be extended to other types of pipeline. The model was developed for the purpose of a feasibility study. It employs a limited number of generalized parameters and its use is recommended when sufficient detailed and specific engineering information is lacking. These models were used in the comparison of modes presented in Volume I and hence no conclusions regarding relative costs or service of the modes are presented here. The primary conclusion is that the estimates of costs resulting from these models is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  10. Potentials for Platooning in U.S. Highway Freight Transport: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Holden, Jacob; Lammert, Michael; Duran, Adam; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2017-03-15

    Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption - and related emissions - while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. A statistical analysis was performed based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning. In particular, our analysis focuses on estimating 'platoonable' mileage based on overall highway vehicle use and prolonged high-velocity traveling, establishing that about 65% of the total miles driven by combination trucks could be driven in platoon formation, leading to a 4% reduction in total truck fuel consumption. This technical potential for 'platoonable' miles in the U.S. provides an upper bound for scenario analysis considering fleet willingness to platoon as an estimate of overall benefits of early adoption of CAV technologies. A benefit analysis is proposed to assess the overall potential for energy savings and emissions mitigation by widespread implementation of highway platooning for trucks.

  11. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  12. Lessons learnt from the market for air freight ground handling at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; Poort, J.; Ritsema, H.

    2014-01-01

    On 16 April 2013, the European Parliament adopted a new, amended airport ground handling Regulation, which will replace the old Directive 96/67 EC on ground handling services. The new Regulation will further open up European airports for competition on the ground handling market. Even long before

  13. Passenger and freight transport perspectives for 2035. Background report for transport policy discussion; Henkiloe- ja tavaraliikenteen kehityskuva 2035. Taustaraportti liikennepoliittiseen keskusteluun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, T.; Maekelae, T.; Pollanen, M.; Kalenoja, H.; Mantynen, J.; Rantala, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to image the perspectives for future transport on the basis of existing estimates and expert views. The results of this study offer a justified perception of how Finnish passenger and freight transport will develop up to year 2035. The study also includes six 'what if' analysis which address how six individual and important changes could affect transports. The development of population and the economy are key factors in the operating environment of passenger and freight transport. To a large extent, they determine the development of the demand for passenger and freight transport. Earlier population forecasts have underestimated population growth in Finland. Uncertainty also surrounds regional demographic development, which is connected both to the development of community structure and land use, and to time use and consumption habits associated with travel preferences. The development of the economy, which also involves considerable uncertainty, is connected to population through developments in employment and income levels, among others, while growing workplace areas also attract people and increase commuting, for example. Changing travel habits and ageing of the population influence the overall demand for passenger transport. Efforts are being made to promote walking, cycling and the use of public transport. In the future these means of transport will be supported by factors such as increased awareness of the environment and health, and concentration of population in cities. While the aim is to constrain the growth of passenger car traffic, rising income levels and travel distances in the operating environment will serve to increase passenger car traffic and the demand for long-distance train, flight and bus traffic. The supply of different transport methods and the costs of their use will, for their part, affect transport mode distribution. The development of the economy and various sectors will determine the demand for freight

  14. RETRACK. Final report. REorganization of Transport networks by advanced RAil freight Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the RETRACK project (038552/ May 2007-August 2012) was to demonstrate that a fully privately owned and operated international “open” rail freight service was achievable using the freedoms endowed by the Railway Reform measures introduced by the EC. The project has successfully achie

  15. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  16. 城际间快捷货物运输系统的探索%An Approach to Express Freight Transportation System in Intercity Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申月; 苏顺虎; 胡思继

    2001-01-01

    The article analizes the present railway freight transportation, and p oints out the main problems that have effected on the railway freight transpo rtation products. According to these problems, the author suggests that the organization way must be reformed, and that is to establish the express freight transportation syste m of economic center areas in China. By this, we could speed up the freight tran spo rtation, make the allotted time of freight arrival in knowing, enhance the compe tence of the railway in the market and thus bring the railway with economic resuits.%分析了我国铁路货物运输的现状,指出了影响铁路货物运输产品质量的主要因素并针对这些问题提出了在我国进行铁路货物运输组织方式的改革,建立城际间快捷货物运输体系的建议,切实提高货物送达速度,提高铁路货物运输的市场竞争力,为铁路带来经济效益.

  17. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  18. 论铁路货运向现代物流转变%Discussion on the Transformation from Railway Freight Transportation to the Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮

    2015-01-01

    In the background of the railway freight reform,along with the fast construction High-speed Rail in China, railway freight provides good opportunities for the development of modern logistics. The railway transportation takes a number of reform policies in order to increase market share,to meet the market demand. By using the SWOT method, this paper analyzes the development of modern logistics in railway freight of our country,points out its advantages,dis-advantages,opportunities and threats. The research also proposes railway freight transportation should exert their own advantages and optimizes freight organization,while it also ought to make full use of network resources,further strengthen the reform,optimize transport both ends of organization,perfect“door to door”logistics transportation or-ganization,actively expand value-added service for railway freight transportation,vigorously develop coordinated trans-port in order to provide a powerful guarantee for modern logistics development of railway freight.%随着我国高铁的快速建设,以及铁路货运机制的不断改革,铁路货运发展现代物流存在非常好的机遇。铁路运输为了提高市场份额,适应市场需求,应采取众多改革方针。通过运用SWOT方法,对我国铁路货运发展现代物流进行了分析,指出了其存在的优势、劣势、机遇与威胁,并提出铁路货运在发挥自身优势、优化货运组织的同时,要充分利用路网资源,进一步加强铁路货运改革,优化两端运输组织,完善“门到门”物流运输,积极拓展铁路货运增值业务,大力发展协同运输,为铁路货运发展现代物流提供有力保证。

  19. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    -efficient choice of road routes, etc. This represents potentials and barriers for promotion of intermodal transport solutions, since it points to the importance of governance of transport networks by different transport stakeholders as "gate-keepers" for what kind of transport modes and routes are selected...

  20. 铁路局货物运输需求大数据分析%Big data analysis of freight transportation demandad for railway ministration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国平

    2016-01-01

    以铁路货运电子商务系统数据为依据,运用大数据手段,对呼和浩特铁路局当前的货物运输需求情况做具体分析。以临河站为例,分析不同品类运量,制定针对性的营销策略,科学合理地安排营销计划,形成具有较强竞争力的货运营销机制,更好地为铁路货运营销服务。%Based on the data of railway freight transportation electronic commerce system, using big data means, this article analyzed the current demand of railway freight transportation for Hohhot Railway Administration, took Linhe Station as an example, analyzed the volume of different category, developed targeted marketing strategies, arranged scientiifc and reasonable marketing plan, formed a strong competitive freight marketing mechanism, served railway freight transportation marketing better.

  1. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the time... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377...

  2. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  3. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C...

  4. Learning from experiences in sustainable transport practice: green freight europe and the implementation of a best cases database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kaledinova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many logistics service providers and shippers sustainable transport is still a relatively recent issue, even if almost every transportation company is engaged in sustainability. Each has had different experiences with making transportation more sustainable. By looking at the efforts and successes of others sharing these experiences could help shippers and logistics service providers to obtain new innovative ideas of how to become more sustainable. The certification organization Green Freight Europe (GFE wants to develop a database for these types of experiences in order to encourage its members to generate sustainable initiatives. Method: In support of this plan, we interviewed several logistics service providers and shippers and conducted a brief survey among GFE members. Results: Sustainability forms one of the goals for all interviewed companies mainly based on cost reduction but followed closely as a tool to attract new customers. At the moment, the information obtained to keep updated on sustainability comes mainly from truck producers and not from information from best cases from other logistics service providers. Conclusions: We have found that there is a willingness to submit best cases, but also a fear that the submitter will miss his competitive advantage by telling others about his innovations.

  5. Environmental Factors and Intermodal Freight Transportation: Analysis of the Decision Bases in the Case of Spanish Motorways of the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López-Navarro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is widespread consensus about the notable, yet simultaneously growing, negative environmental impacts generated by the transportation sector. Experts working in a number of different fields consider the current situation to be unsustainable and possible measures to reduce emissions and foster sustainability are being encouraged. The European Commission has highlighted the need to shift away from unimodal road transport toward a greater use of intermodal transport through, for example, motorways of the sea, in light of the evidence that the former makes a significant contribution to increased CO2 emissions. However, although there is a general perception that sea transport is environmentally preferable to road transport, recent studies are beginning to question this assumption. Moreover, little research has been conducted to quantify environmental aspects and incorporate them into the decision-making processes involved in the modal shift. This study first reviews the existing literature to examine the extent to which environmental aspects are relevant in the modal choice in the case of short sea shipping and motorways of the sea. Related to this, the study also evaluates the role that different agents may play in making decisions about choice of mode, taking into consideration environmental aspects. Secondly, we use the values the European Commission provides to calculate external costs for the Marco Polo freight transport project proposals (call 2013 to estimate the environmental costs for several routes (a total of 72, comparing the use of road haulage with the intermodal option that incorporates the Spanish motorways of the sea. The results of this comparative analysis show that the intermodal option is not always the best choice in environmental terms. Consequently, the traditional environmental argument to justify this alternative must be used carefully.

  6. A Freight Transport Model for Integrated Network, Service, and Policy Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-01-01

    “The goal of the European Transport Policy is to establish a sustainable transport system that meets society’s economic, social and environmental needs…” (ECE, 2009). This statement indicates the challenges that the European transport policy makers are faced with when facilitating an increasing

  7. 78 FR 36723 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Restrictions on International Transportation of Freight and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... readers where to find additional information regarding bilateral or multilateral air transport agreements... provided under a bilateral or multilateral air ] transport agreement, to which the United States Government... is provided under a bilateral or multilateral air transportation agreement to which the United States...

  8. A Freight Transport Model for Integrated Network, Service, and Policy Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-01-01

    “The goal of the European Transport Policy is to establish a sustainable transport system that meets society’s economic, social and environmental needs…” (ECE, 2009). This statement indicates the challenges that the European transport policy makers are faced with when facilitating an increasing frei

  9. Improving Urban Freight Governance and Stakeholder Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bech Godskesen Andersen, Christina; Figueroa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Urban freight transport is a complex field characterised by many actors and stakeholders and thus many rationalities are at stake. This paper contributes to literature on urban freight governance by approaching the field with social system theory combined with the concepts of relationship platforms...... and value co-creation. This approach facilitates an improved process to foster implementation of innovative urban freight solutions that is illustrated by means of an analysis of the Copenhagen Citylogistik-kbh demonstration project. The results of this analysis indicate that attaining a shared sense...... of value creation among stakeholders through this process is key to implementation of new urban freight solutions....

  10. Study and Development suggestions on Full Loaded Shuttle Traffic of Bulk Freight Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xianzhang; Xiao Rui; Zong Yan; Liu Dalei

    2009-01-01

    Full loaded shuttle traffic is a balanced transport concept,and an effective approach for railways to reduce turnround of trains and improve transport efficiency.It is based on the pith of system theory,aims at overall efficiency maximization of transport system,and makes united plan on the basis of giving comprehensive consideration to resource allocation and development planning of the whole sector.In this way,it reflects the ideas of lean management and innovates the concept of transport organization.

  11. Public policy intervention in freight transport costs: effects on printed media logistics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2005-01-01

    Trends in contemporary logistics management have led to an increased transport-intensity of production and distribution activities. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision-making. At the same time, in Europe,

  12. Public policy intervention in freight transport costs: effects on printed media logistics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2005-01-01

    Trends in contemporary logistics management have led to an increased transport-intensity of production and distribution activities. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision-making. At the same time, in Europe, t

  13. Using simulation to design an automated underground system for transporting freight around Schiphol Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Ebben, Mark; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2002-01-01

    To avoid road congestion, we are developing a highly automated underground transport system using automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) around Schiphol Airport. It is unique in its scale, incorporating 16 to 25 km tubes connecting five to 20 terminals, and it includes 200 to 400 AGVs to transport an

  14. PROSPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE EAST-WEST DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assets of building broad-gauge lines in Europe. The delivery time for international transport of goods affects international business in terms of the capital put into goods and subsequently affects its turnover rate. The current disproportion of different line gauges in Europe causes significant problems in the transport of goods especially in commodity streams in the East - West direction. Based on previous research of commodity streams in international trade and a comprehensive analysis of all performed studies for building broad gauge lines, the assets of building these lines included the development of employment, increasing the transport capacity and the building of transshipment stations in Slovakia. The current geopolitical developments have also a significant impact on international transport and important transport links, therefore diversifying these risks is a logical consideration to ensure the smooth delivery of goods and thus the development of international trade.

  15. Design of Railway Freight Transport Security System Based on Internet of Things%铁路货运物联网安防系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of railway freight traffic accidents,internet of things technology is put forward on railway freight transport security,such as RFID,wireless sensor networks,Zigbee,ect.The integrative design of railway freight transportation security system includes RFID identity recognition system,infrared alarm and fire alarm system in train boxcar,important devices' maintenance management system,and so on.The whole system will provide practical application with some relative reference,such as preventing freight stolen and fire happening,monitoring maintenance and inventory management state of important devices,standardizing working habits of staff,and improving economic benefits of safety.%针对铁路货运事故特点,提出了将射频识别、无线传感器网络、Zigbee等物联网技术应用到铁路货运安防中,设计了包含RFID人员身份识别系统、车厢内红外入侵报警和火灾报警系统、机车重点设备检修管理系统等多个子系统的整体化铁路货运安防系统,在防止铁路货运物资被盗和火灾事故的发生,监控货运机车重点设备检修与库存管理状态,规范工作人员工作习惯,提高安全经济效益等方面提供了相应参考.

  16. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  17. Modern marketing instruments of freight transportation in the market conditions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Radionova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues on searching the methods of using marketing instruments for solving the railway transport development problems and functioning this branch in the market conditions.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ON FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN FURNITURE INDUSTRY, A CASE STUDY IN BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Soekamto, C. H.; Priyanto, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Supply Chain Management is a new philosophy encouraging internal and external integration which encompass all the aspects, from the supplier until down to the customers. Transportation plays a major role in achieving efficiency and effectiveness because the role of transportation in the Supply Chain is as the intermediary help to distribute the physical goods from one entity to another entity.  For this reason, the objective of this research is to analyse and measure the effectiveness and...

  19. Regional disparity analysis of Chinese freight transport CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Xiao; Dong, Liang; Dou, Yi

    2016-01-01

    , this research study aims to conduct a decomposition analysis and causal mechanism investigation study on urban transport sector, with comparative studies on two Asian mega cities named Tokyo , Japan and Shanghai, China. We illustrate the driving forces of urban transport sector and the causal mechanism of each...... factor, and provide critical policy insights through comparative studies. The outcomes of this study provide critical insights to the recent practice in Shanghai, as well as the practical guidance to low carbon urban planning in developing countries....

  20. Distribution and modal split models for freight transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, G.; Burgess, A.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Versteegh, R.; De Bok, M.; Schmorak, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands has a tradition of using mathematical models in policy and decision making in transport (and other sectors). In an effort to improve the information provided to policy makers and to maximise the added value of the existing instruments and available knowledge and data, the Dutch

  1. Home Delivery and the Impacts on Urban Freight Transport: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.G.S.N.; Nemoto, T.; Browne, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review paper discusses the latest developments in internet shopping, home delivery and the potential impacts on city logistics and alternative vehicle use. The review has illustrated the rapid changes during the past few years and the potentially important impacts on patterns of transport

  2. Home Delivery and the Impacts on Urban Freight Transport: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.G.S.N.; Nemoto, T.; Browne, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review paper discusses the latest developments in internet shopping, home delivery and the potential impacts on city logistics and alternative vehicle use. The review has illustrated the rapid changes during the past few years and the potentially important impacts on patterns of transport withi

  3. Logistics real estate markets: indicators of structural change, linking land use and freight transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Markus

    2002-01-01

    The system of physical distribution that comprises transport and logistics, warehousing and wholesale, is an ideal indicator of structural change. Distribution and logistics have developed dynamically, with respect to new technologies, corporate restructuring, and a changing market environment. Whereas traditional logistics were characterized primarily by the demand of manufacturing customers for the shipment of bulk-commodities, modern production and service systems require frequent deliveri...

  4. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Analysis of Freight Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    84 156-160 45 331-335 85.5 161-165 A6 335-34n 17 166:171 47 341-345 8 171.175 t 4,8 346-35’) 89" 176- 10 49 351-355 ".5 K. R. Tolonen Director of Transportation May 6, 1980 14~e~cL Qp o S~AJEN4~E F- 21 DAT FILMI

  5. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  6. Betatron Application in Mobile and Relocatable Inspection Systems for Freight Transport Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhlov, S. V.; Kasyanov, S. V.; Kasyanov, V. A.; Osipov, S. P.; Stein, M. M.; Stein, A. M.; Xiaoming, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators with energy level up to 4 MeV having high level of penetration ability by steel equivalent are the popular to control oversize cargo transported by road, by railway and by river. Betatron's usage as cyclic induction accelerator has some advantages in comparison with linear accelerators and other sources. Tomsk Polytechnic University has developed many types of betatrons, most of them are being produced by separate affiliated company " Foton ". Article is shown the results of application of the betatrons in inspection custom systems.

  7. Regression analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport; Regresjonsanalyse av klimagassutslipp fra godstransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The following appendix is a presentation of the analytical work carried out by Klif in connection with the report 'Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces.' The analyzes are carried out with the intention to test and substantiate hypotheses about the various cause and effect relationships for emissions from the transport sector. To document this work Klif has prepared two reports describing the methodology and results of the work. These reports are not peer-reviewed research papers, but a documentation of Klif's internal analysis.(Author)

  8. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  9. Road freight and the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makamo, N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  10. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... identification of significant freight system trends, needs, and issues with respect to the State; ] A description... transportation system; Using advanced technology, performance management, innovation, competition, and..., and what supply chains (including the transportation modes that support them) are critical to...

  11. Identification of critical segments by vulnerability for freight transport on the paved road network of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gradilla Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La posible interrupción de la red carretera mexicana cobra mayor importancia por la dependencia de la economía al transporte automotor. Por ello, en este artículo se propone un análisis para identificar los tramos críticos de la red carretera, de acuerdo con los flujos de carga. Se pone énfasis en la metodología pero también se ofrecen los resultados de su aplicación, mediante el análisis de la afectación en el tiempo total de viaje en la red, incluyendo los efectos de cambios de ruta en atención a la capacidad vial. Se discute la metodología a utilizar, de acuerdo con la propuesta de Scott y colaboradores y se presenta el modelo propio. En seguida se muestra el método para calcular las afectaciones, mediante el uso de una interfaz desarrollada en TransCAD®. A partir de su aplicación a la red carretera de México, se presentan los resultados obtenidos, con la identificación de los tramos críticos donde la red es vulnerable y se demuestra que es factible aplicar la metodología con la información disponible en México.

  12. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre...

  13. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  14. 甩挂运输是我国发展绿色货运的必然选择%Drop and Hoop Transport is China's Choice to Promote the Development of Green Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉泰; 贺亦军

    2012-01-01

    在交通运输业节能减排工作进一步开展和全社会倡导建设低碳交通、绿色货运的背景下,甩挂运输成了国内货运行业关注的焦点。阐述了甩挂运输和绿色货运的内涵,介绍了甩挂运输的发展现状.分析了甩挂运输作为发达国家广泛采用的一种先进的货运组织形式的环境效益和经济效益.最后得出结论:甩挂运输是我国发展绿色货运的必然选择。%With the further development of transportation energy conservation and emission reduction, and China's building of low-carbon traffic and green freight, drop and hoop transport has become the focus of attention of the domestic freight industry. This paper first expounds the connotations of drop and hoop transport, green freight, and then presents the cur- rent situation of the development of drop and hoop transport, analyses the environmental benefits and economic benefits of drop and hoop transport, which is an advanced freight organization form that the developed countries have widely used. Fi nally, a conclusion is drawn that drop and hoop transport is China's choice to promote the development of green freight.

  15. Potentials and limitations for the use of accessibility measures for national transport policy goals in freight transport and logistics: evidence from Västra Götaland County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Larsson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Swedish national transport policy is freight transport regarded as a major facilitator for economic development on all geographical levels. At the same time it is noted that methods and data on business location and transportation is not adequate in order to follow-up transport policy objectives. This paper reports on a pilot study on the potential to develop accessibility measures to support and follow up policy objectives in Swedish context. The concept of accessibility and its practical use in concrete measures is discussed and problematized. A number of practical examples from Region Västra Götaland are used as illustrations. In terms of results the study identifies a number of potentials and limitations of using accessibility measures for freight transport issues. The usefulness is mainly driven by the integration capability of transport and land-use. This opens up for more complex questions and measures and thus supports the integration between planning specialisations. Limitations are to a large extent related to data availability and quality and to the degree of which models are possible to communicate to non-experts. The concluding discussion highlights how the policy and governance context is key in understanding how to best utilise the potential strengths of the accessibility concept and measures.

  16. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  17. Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Popovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this work is the analysis of the interaction of participants of freight forwarding activities. Research methods included analysis of scientific literature, theory of systems and systems analysis, methods of induction and deduction. As sources of information used and applied work of fundamental importance known foreign and local scientists and regulatory and legislative documents of Ukraine for the state transport policy. In the article the basic interactions of participants of freight forwarding activities. Classified components freight forwarding services. Assign the concept freight forwarding system and its aim. Established element and forms of cooperation in the freight forwarding system. The main task of forwarding companies are organizing, coordinating and ensuring the delivery from shipper to consignee. Freight forwarding company responsible for the timely delivery of the goods on the condition of preservation of the quantity and quality specified time conditions. Currently used methods are uneffective decision-making, leading to losses. These circumstances require improvement methodology management of freight forwarding companies. This is possible only using modern mathematical methods and information technologies that will improve the operation of freight forwarding companies. The article presents a theoretical exposition of the basic processes of interaction between participants in freight forwarding system. The article may be of interest to specialists of freight forwarding companies.

  18. Research on Current Market Status and Development Strategy of Railway Freight Transport%我国铁路货运市场现状及营销发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玲玲; 谷海; 张艺

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current market status of railway freight transport, and summarizes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the railway freight market by the method of SWOT. It finally makes some development strategies for the railway freight transport based on previous analysis, including developing direct transport of bulk commodities, strengthening information construction, developing modern logistics of railway transport, providing specialized services, training professional marketing staffs and optimizing the transport organization, and%分析了我国铁路货运市场现状,并运用SWOT分析法对我国铁路货运市场营销的优势和劣势、机会和威胁进行了分析,提出了重点发展大宗货物直达运输、加强信息化建设、发展铁路货运现代化物流、提供特色服务、人才培养、优化运输组织等发展战略。

  19. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  20. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal area within the meaning of 49 U.S.C. 13503 of any motor carrier of property or freight forwarder... of property or motor carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder...

  1. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  2. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  3. Effectiveness of helicopter versus ground ambulance services for interfacility transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Shapiro, M J; Bessey, P Q; Littenberg, B

    1998-10-01

    Helicopters provide rapid interfacility transport, but the effect on patients is largely unknown. Patients requested to be transported between facilities by helicopter were followed prospectively to determine survival, disability, health status, and health care utilization. A total of 1,234 patients were transported by the primary aeromedical company; 153 patients were transported by ground and 25 patients were transported by other aeromedical services because of weather or unavailability of aircraft. There were no differences at 30 days for survivors in disability, health status, or health care utilization. Nineteen percent of helicopter-transported patients died compared with 15% of those transported by ground (p=0.21). The patients transported by helicopter did not have improved outcomes compared with patients transported by ground. These data argue against a large advantage of helicopters for interfacility transport. A randomized trial is needed to address these issues conclusively.

  4. 75 FR 11180 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section...-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder Transportation Intermediary Hafen... President (Qualifying Individual). Jose R. Hoppe, President. Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation...

  5. 75 FR 17743 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section... Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary: OWI Specialized, Inc., 840 Apollo... President (Qualifying Individual) Richard Tsai, President. Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation...

  6. 75 FR 14160 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section...-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder Transportation Intermediary: Reliable... Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary: Jeffery Raymond Sewell dba Cargo Unlimited Worldwide...

  7. 75 FR 4560 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section..., President. Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder Ocean Transportation Intermediary..., President/Secretary (Qualifying Individual). Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary...

  8. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities... freight forwarder subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B, at any unincorporated community having a post... carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder, within which transportation...

  9. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  10. The Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucke, Karen; Seiter, Christoph; Heine, Frank; Gregory, Mark; Tröndle, Daniel; Fischer, Edgar; Berkefeld, Thomas; Feriencik, Mikael; Feriencik, Marco; Richter, Ines; Meyer, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Tesat together with Synopta have built a Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station (TAOGS) under contract of German Aerospace Center DLR for communication with the 1st and 2nd generation of Tesat's spaceborne Laser Communication Terminals (LCTs), which employ coherent homodyne optical communication with 1064 nm and binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. The TAOGS is able to communicate with space segments on low earth orbit (LEO, high pointing and tracking dynamics, 5.625 Gbps), and with space segments on geostationary orbit (GEO, low pointing dynamics, up to 40,000 km distance, optical data rate of 2.8125 Gbps and user data rate of 1.8 Gbps). After an alignment and testing phase at the location of Izana, Tenerife, using the TDP1 LCT on geostationary Alphasat as counter terminal, the TAOGS is now fully functioning. Several up-links, down-links and bi-directional links have been performed. Experimental results of some of these links are presented. An outlook to further activities is given.

  11. Dynamic Multi-period Freight Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Corman, Francesco; Voβ, Stefan; Negenborn, Rudy R.

    2015-01-01

    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) offering hinterland transportation face the trade-off between efficiently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the first and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-off, freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the

  12. Dynamic multi-period freight consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) o ering hinterland transportation face the trade-o between e ciently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the rst and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-o , freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the arrival of

  13. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... information on a GBL or bill of lading does not limit an audit of charges. ...

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  16. 75 FR 3467 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section...). Patrick Turner, Member Manager. Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder..., Officer: Rajiv Dixit, President. (Qualifying Officer) Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation...

  17. 75 FR 9602 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section..., (Qualifying Individuals), Gloria Comins, Member. Lars Courier, Inc. dba Lars International Freight Forwarders... Ocean Freight Forwarder Transportation Intermediary Applicants Intertrans Express (NY), Inc., 10 East...

  18. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the... (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS EXEMPTIONS § 1319.1 Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's...

  19. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders....14 Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition... commerce under 49 CFR 386.83. (b) A broker, freight forwarder, or for-hire motor carrier that has failed to...

  20. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  1. A variation inequality model and the algorithm for risk decision-making of freight transportation network%货运网络风险决策的变分不等式模型及算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方媛; 胡大伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to analyze the conditions for safety and stability development of the traffic freight network while providing guidance for the risk decision-making of the transportation safety. What we would like to do is to make our work different from the ones in pursuing the freight network equilibrium by giving more attention to the balance of the profits among the parties involved, for the previous studies failed to analyze enough of the regularities of the risk factors of transport safety. To solve this problem, we have taken into full account the negative factors influencing the transportation safety, the operation profit of the three parties including the shipper, the carrier and the manager. In addition, we have introduced the risk cost concept for the transport safety into the positive function of the traffic freight network. Thus, we have proposed a variation inequality model of the freight network equilibrium so as to make it optimized while designing the projection algorithm of variable steps and working out the validation of and solution to the proposed model. In hoping to compare better and verify the functions of the model, we have also used this data set to check out all the likely effects of the different parameters on the entire transportation network, which help us to reveal the main regularities of the security risks with the road freight through the simulated data sets. The application results of MATLAB procedure shows that the proposed algorithm proves to be 5 times as efficient as possible as the original algorithm. However, due to the profit margin compressed, the overloading transport has become an inevitable choice for the carrier, and the high cost has also made die inspection frequency restrained. The results of our study indicate that the key factor affecting the safety transportation is to forbid the barbarous loading-unloading and mindless transportation and exert fully qualified function of the crew-members in the transportation

  2. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP, and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts.

  3. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  4. South Africa’s freight rail reform: A demand-driven perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, freight transport in South Africa was employed to attain politicoeconomic ideals, resulting in the overprotection of rail and overregulation of road transport. Increasing industry pressure, combined with the international deregulation trend, led to deregulation in 1988. Myopia resulted in a rail investment hiatus and exponential growth in high-value, long-distance road transport, causing excessive logistics and externality costs for the country. The aim of this study was to propose a freight rail reform agenda based on, (1 lessons from past freight transport policy efforts and (2 the results of freight transport market segmentation driven by models developed over the past two decades. For the study, freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravitymodelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. The standard management approach of founding strategy development on market-driven segmentation provides a neutral input to steer rail reform discussions in South Africa. Market segmentation points to a dualistic rail reform agenda, enabling both a profit-driven core and a development-driven branch line network. Freight flow insights are steering the policy reform debate towards long-term freight strategy development and optimal freight logistics network design.

  5. New approaches to enhancing efficiency of freight railway stations performance within industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ваагн Емілійович Парунакян

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time freight stations operation is complicated by raised dynamics of production and transport processes. Under the given handling capacity, this circumstance affects duration of processing of inbound and internal flow of freight cars. In connection with the abovementioned, the article covers new approaches to the analysis and evaluation of operating characteristics, and designing of railway freight stations within industrial enterprises. These approaches base on the system adaptation of the railway freight stations structural layouts and parameters of technical facilities to new working conditions and production demands. As the criterion of optimization of freight station operation, the index of “transportation work” (freight car-hour was offered. It allows differentiating the elemental flows of freight cars from the overall flow of freight cars at the freight station. It also allows identifying structure, volumes and other parameters of train operation (duration of processing measured in freight car-hours, interpretational and technological idle time denoting the location and the reason for their occurrence. Moreover, the analysis and evaluation of yard operation is offered to be carried out via handling capacity balance, which illustrates the relation between the overall volume of transportation work and the amount of trains handled at the station. This allows establishing additional transportation work and makes it possible to evaluate the real (objective necessity in throughput and handling capacity of station facilities in particular, and the station in general. The operating characteristics that have been examined determine the new methodical approaches to designing of composition-and-structural layouts and parameters of industrial freight stations. As the basis for optimization of the station, the certain method of morphological analysis and synthesis of technical decisions can be accepted, with its modification due to the

  6. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  7. Combining Facility Location and Routing Decisions in Sustainable Urban Freight Distribution under Horizontal Collaboration: How Can Shippers Be Benefited?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanan Ouhader; Malika El Kyal

    2017-01-01

      This article investigates the potential economic, environmental, and social effects of combining depot location and vehicle routing decisions in urban road freight transportation under horizontal collaboration...

  8. 基于威弗组合指数的重点货运产业调查方法%Investigation methods for key freight transport industries based on Weaver-Thomas index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏国辉; 刘世铎; 吴群琪

    2012-01-01

    为有效地从总量上获取区域货物运输需求量的数据,给交通运输规划提供准确依据,在货物投入产出需求分析的基础上,通过运用威弗组合指数对区域内的重点货运需求产业进行分析,甄选出货运需求生成强度大的代表性产业。通过对山东省货运产业进行的实证应用,从山东省43个产业中明确分离出9个具有货运需求生成代表性的产业,为高效地进行山东省货运需求量调查提供了方向,也证明了此方法的可行性。%In order to obtain the data of regional transport demand effectively and to provide accurate reference for transport planning,the research,depending on the demand analysis of freight input-output,uses Weaver-Thomas index to find out the key industries that generate massive transport demand.In the application in Shandong Province,9 industries which can generate representative transport demand were clearly separated from total 43 industries.The result has set a direction for efficiently and fast investigative freight demand in Shandong Province.This method is also proved to be workable.

  9. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2017-02-28

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21st century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  10. When is the helicopter faster? A comparison of helicopter and ground ambulance transport times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marco A; Hendey, Gregory W; Bivins, Herbert G

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 7,854 ground ambulance and 1,075 helicopter transports was conducted. The 911-hospital arrival intervals for three transport methods were compared: ground, helicopter dispatched simultaneously with ground unit, and helicopter dispatched nonsimultaneously after ground unit response. Compared with ground transports, simultaneously dispatched helicopter transports had significantly shorter 911-hospital arrival intervals at all distances greater than 10 miles from the hospital. Nonsimultaneously dispatched helicopter transport was significantly faster than ground at distances greater than 45 miles, and simultaneous helicopter dispatch was faster than nonsimultaneous at virtually all distances. Ground transport was significantly faster than either air transport modality at distances less than 10 miles from the hospital. Ground ambulance transport provided the shortest 911-hospital arrival interval at distances less than 10 miles from the hospital. At distances greater than 10 miles, simultaneously dispatched air transport was faster. Nonsimultaneous dispatched helicopter transport was faster than ground if greater than 45 miles from the hospital.

  11. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing

  12. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing restric

  13. Description, analysis and calculation of pneumatic brake system used in a freight train using a specific example

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A freight train or goods train is a group of freight cars (US) or goods wagons (UIC) hauled by a locomotive on a railway, ultimately transporting cargo between two points as part of the logistics chain. Trains may haul bulk, intermodal containers or specialized cars. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. This kind of trains needs to have a good drive eq...

  14. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  15. Wake Vortex Transport and Decay in Ground Effect: Vortex Linking with the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Han, Jongil

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out with a three-dimensional Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to explore the sensitivity of vortex decay and transport in ground effect (IGE). The vortex decay rates are found to be strongly enhanced following maximum descent into ground effect. The nondimensional decay rate is found to be insensitive to the initial values of circulation, height, and vortex separation. The information gained from these simulations is used to construct a simple decay relationship. This relationship compares well with observed data from an IGE case study. Similarly, a relationship for lateral drift due to ground effect is constructed from the LES data. In the second part of this paper, vortex linking with the ground is investigated. Our numerical simulations of wake vortices for IGE show that a vortex may link with its image beneath the ground, if the intensity of the ambient turbulence is moderate to high. This linking with the ground (which is observed in real cases)gives the appearance of a vortex tube that bends to become vertically oriented and which terminates at the ground. From the simulations conducted, the linking time for vortices in the free atmosphere; i.e., a function of ambient turbulence intensity.

  16. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation... name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. (a) Scope. These...

  17. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport? A prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob; Do, Hien Quoc; Hejselbæk, Julie; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2014-04-01

    Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. In this prospective controlled observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre. Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the regional stroke centre was significantly shorter in the ground group (55 (34-85) vs 68 (40-85) min, pground group (67 (42-136) km) than in the helicopter group (83 (46-143) km) (pground and helicopter transport. We found significantly shorter time from contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the regional stroke centre if stroke patients were transported by primarily dispatched ground ambulance compared with a secondarily dispatched helicopter.

  18. Mortality following helicopter versus ground transport of injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Stephanie F; Zielinski, Martin D; Fahy, Aodhnait S; Wagie, Amy E; Moir, Christopher R; Jenkins, Donald H; Zietlow, Scott P; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-05-01

    Injured children may be transported to trauma centers by helicopter air ambulance (HAA); however, a benefit in outcomes to this expensive resource has not been consistently shown in the literature and there is concern that HAA is over-utilized. A study that adequately controls for selection biases in transport mode is needed to determine which injured children benefit from HAA. The purpose of this study was to determine if HAA impacts mortality differently in minimally and severely injured children and if there are predictors of over-triage of HAA in children that can be identified. Children ≤18 years of age transported by HAA or ground ambulance (GA) from scene to a trauma center were identified from the 2010-2011 National Trauma Data Bank. Analysis was stratified by Injury Severity Score (ISS) into low ISS (≤15) and high ISS (>15) groups. Following propensity score matching of HAA to GA patients, conditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine if transport mode independently impacted mortality in each stratum. Rates and predictors of over-triage of HAA were also determined. Transport by HAA occurred in 8218 children (5574 low ISS, 2644 high ISS) and by GA in 35305 (30506 low ISS, 4799 high ISS). Overall mortality was greater in HAA patients (4.0 vs 1.4%, p15. Many children with minor injuries are transported by helicopter despite frequent dismissal within 24h and no mortality benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. Energy usage optimisation of heavy haul freight trains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available by a large and extensive mining industry. Integral to sustaining the mining economy is the transport of mined raw material via freight rail over large distances, typically from the mines to central distribution or processing centres. Due to the heavy...

  1. Physical stressors during neonatal transport: helicopter compared with ground ambulance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchut, Jean-Christophe; Van Lancker, Eric; Chritin, Vincent; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess concurrent mechanical stresses from shock, vibration, and noise to which a critically ill neonate is exposed during emergency transfer. For neonates transported by a French specialized emergency medical service, we measured and analyzed 27 physical parameters recorded during typical transport by ambulance and by helicopter. The noninvasive sensors were placed to allow better representation of the exposure of the newborn to the physical constraints. Based on 10 hours of transport by ambulance and 2 hours by helicopter, noise, whole body vibration, rate of turn, acceleration, and pitch were extracted as the five most representative dynamic harshness indicators. A helicopter produces a higher-level but more stable (lower relative dispersion) whole body dynamic exposure than an ambulance, with a mean noise level of 86 ± 1 dBA versus 67 ± 3 dBA, mean whole body vibration of 1 ± 0.1 meter per second squared (m/s(2)) versus 0.4 6 0.2 m/s(2), and acceleration of 1 6 0.05 m/s(2) versus 0.4 6 0.1 m/s(2). A ground ambulance has many more dynamic effects in terms of braking, shock, and impulsive noise than a helicopter (1 impulsive event per 2 minutes vs. 1 per 11 minutes). Our results show significant exposure of the sick neonate to both stationary and impulsive dynamic physical stressors during transportation, particularly in a ground ambulance. The study suggests opportunities to reduce physical stressors during neonatal transport. Copyright © 2011 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  3. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels, Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  4. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  5. 铁路快速货运对衡阳物流产业的影响%The Inlfuence of Railway Fast Freight Transport on Hengyang's Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琳玲

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of reform and opening up,China's railway industry development speed is relatively fast,rapid rail freight form as one of the important development has made considerable progress. This paper tries to analyze Hengyang local logistics industry development present situation to elaboratethe development of railway express the impact on the logistics industry,and tries to seek better ways to further improve the disadvantages of Hengyang logistics industry.%随着改革开放的深入推进,我国的铁路行业发展速度也较为迅速,铁路快速货运作为其中一个重要发展形式也有了长足的进步。文章试从分析衡阳本地物流产业的发展现状入手来阐述铁路快运的发展对物流产业的影响,并试图寻求更好的方法进一步改善衡阳物流产业的弊端。

  6. Laser based bi-directional Gbit ground links with the Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Frank; Saucke, Karen; Troendle, Daniel; Motzigemba, Matthias; Bischl, Hermann; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Henninger, Hennes; Meyer, Rolf; Richter, Ines; Sodnik, Zoran

    2017-02-01

    Optical ground stations can be an alternative to radio frequency based transmit (forward) and receive (return) systems for data relay services and other applications including direct to earth optical communications from low earth orbit spacecrafts, deep space receivers, space based quantum key distribution systems and Tbps capacity feeder links to geostationary spacecrafts. The Tesat Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station is operational since September 2015 at the European Space Agency site in Tenerife, Spain.. This paper reports about the results of the 2016 experimental campaigns including the characterization of the optical channel from Tenerife for an optimized coding scheme, the performance of the T-AOGS under different atmospheric conditions and the first successful measurements of the suitability of the Alphasat LCT optical downlink performance for future continuous variable quantum key distribution systems.

  7. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  8. 76 FR 56759 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI... Partnership, dba Villamayor Freight Forwarder (OFF), 8002 N. Oak Trafficway, Suite 108, Kansas City, MO 64118... Change. New Star Freight, Inc. dba American Freight Solutions (NVO & OFF), 7354 Country Fair Drive...

  9. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  10. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  11. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  12. To Forward The Freight Forwarding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's freight forwarding industry is suffering a lot as the country's foreign trade has slowed down. The dwindling overseas markets, the rising RMB exchange rates and the soaring prices of raw materials have been restraining the exports and the imports, and have thereby been depressing the freight volumes, Besides, the global leading freight forwarding companies have expanded their shares in the Chinese market. China'sfreight forwarders are losing the comparative advantages in local market and human resources,

  13. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  14. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  15. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  16. 75 FR 16483 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary Post Oak Management... Individual), Michael A. Boaten, Vice President Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary LHE...

  17. 75 FR 6398 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder--Ocean Transportation Intermediary pursuant to section.../Managing Director. Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier and Ocean Freight Forwarder Transportation... Ocean Freight Forwarder Transportation Intermediary Applicants (Cont'd): Vortex Worldwide Logistics Corp...

  18. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  19. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  20. PASS-THROUGH FREIGHT MODELING AT THE STATEWIDE AND METROPOLITAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine the volumes of freight (specifically trucks passing through a state or metropolitan area is difficult to determine/forecast because transportation professionals have no direct survey mechanism to collect this data. This paper documents various procedures developed to utilize the Freight Analysis Framework Version 2 Database to determine the number of trucks passing through the entire state and an urban area in Alabama. The procedures developed in this research focus on national level pass through data, trips from one state to another that pass through a state only because of that state’s location; pass through from a port of entry to the country where an urbanized area is located on a major corridor; and statewide level through trip data, trips from one part of a state to another that pass through an urbanized area because of its geographic location. The need for, and application of, the pass through freight forecasting is evident in the transportation planning models each metropolitan area and state are expected to develop and maintain for evaluating transportation projects. The ability to accurately forecast the pass through freight movements will benefit transportation planners by identifying freight volumes that must be accommodated by existing and proposed infrastructure, but for which the state or metropolitan area has no direct method to survey.

  1. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight... licensed freight forwarder shall have the option of: (1) Identifying itself as such and/or, where...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other.... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the GBL, Optional Forms 1103 or 1203, to...

  3. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  4. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  5. Air versus ground transport of the major trauma patient: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Jennifer; Petrie, David A; Tallon, John M

    2010-01-01

    1) To compare the outcomes of adult trauma patients transported to a level I trauma center by helicopter vs. ground ambulance. 2) To determine whether using a unique "natural experiment" design to obtain the ground comparison group will reduce potential confounders. Outcomes in adult trauma patients transported to a tertiary care trauma center by air were compared with outcomes in a group of patients who were accepted by the online medical control physician for air transport, but whose air missions were aborted for aviation reasons (weather, maintenance, out on a mission); these patients were subsequently transported by ground ambulance instead. Outcomes were also analyzed for a third ground control group composed of all other adult trauma patients transported by ground during this time period. Data were collected by retrospective database review of trauma patients transferred between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 2003. Outcomes were measured by Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. Z and W scores were calculated. Three hundred ninety-seven missions were flown by LifeFlight during the study period vs. 57 in the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group. The mean ages, gender distributions, mechanisms of injury, and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were similar in the two groups. Per 100 patients transported, 5.61 more lives were saved in the air group vs. the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group (Z = 3.37). As per TRISS analysis, this is relative to the expected mortality seen with a similar group in the Major Trauma Outcomes Study (MTOS). The Z score for the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group was 0.4. The 1,195 patients in the third all-other ground control group had a higher mean age, lower mean ISS, and worse outcomes according to TRISS analysis (W = -2.02). This unique natural experiment led to better matched air vs. ground cohorts for comparison. As per TRISS analysis, air transport of the adult major trauma

  6. Evaluation of Operational Risks in Construction of the Great Channel of Land-sea Ro-ro Drop-and-pull Freight Transportation between Shandong and Liaoning%鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设运营风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远; 李海波; 安伟; 兰天雨

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the problems in the construction and operation of the great channel of the land-sea ro-ro drop-and-pull freight transportation between Shandong and Liaoning, we used the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation process to analyze the risks in the operation of the channel from the aspects of transportation organization, freight terminal, informatization, and policy, etc., and then further proposed the risk prevention measures.%针对鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道项目建设与运营过程中可能遇到的问题,运用模糊综合评价法,从运输组织、货运场站、信息化、政策措施等方面,对鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设运营的风险进行分析与评价,进而提出风险防范措施,以保证鲁辽陆海货滚甩挂运输大通道建设项目的顺利实施,促进交通运输和区域经济综合、低碳、平安、持续发展。

  7. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  8. 75 FR 76466 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI... Intermediaries, Federal Maritime Commission, Washington, DC 20573. CIL Freight Inc. (NVO & OFF), 1990 Lakeside...

  9. 76 FR 71034 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI.... Application Type: Name Change. Abco International Freight (USA) Inc. dba Abco Logistics (NVO), 9420 Telstar...

  10. 75 FR 42446 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI...), Chuck Sun, Vice President/Secretary. Application Type: New NVO & OFF License. E-Freight Solutions Inc...

  11. 75 FR 69080 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO), and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI... License. Freight Forwarder International, Inc. (OFF), 200 Crofton Road, Building 14-A, Kenner, LA 70062...

  12. An Operation Optimization for Express Freight Trains Based on Shipper Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supreme goal of railway express freight transportation is to meet the various demands of shippers. This paper considers the optimization problem of the operation plan for express freight trains based on shipper demands, including transport volume, service frequency, and transit time. An integer programming model that takes maximum shipper demands as optimized objective is proposed to realize the assignment of trains to candidate paths. In this model, the number of marshalling cars for express freight train is set as a decision variable rather than a constant to better satisfy the demand characteristics. A heuristic solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is then designed. Finally, a numerical case is applied to verify the feasibility of the model and the algorithm.

  13. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  14. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  15. Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Lin, Boliang; Wang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Siqi; Wu, Jianping; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway.

  16. Research on Key Points of the Development of Freight Transportation System of Shanghai International Shipping Center%上海国际航运中心货运集疏运体系发展的关键问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔; 张雁

    2012-01-01

    快速高效的集疏运系统,是港口与广大腹地相互联结进行一体化运输组织的关键。以建设第三代国际航运中心为目标,上海国际航运中心将实现由腹地型向复合功能型转变,形成以上海港为核心、宁波-舟山港和苏州港为主要港口的多核化组合港格局。以"高效、集约、复合"为目标,不断优化集疏运结构、转变集疏运发展模式;促进港城融合、提高公路集疏运效率,推动区域协同发展、构筑多核编织的集疏运网络,将是上海国际航运中心货运集疏运体系的三个关键问题。%Fast and efficient freight transportation system is the key point of integrated connection and transport between ports and hinterland. With the goal of being the 3rd generation international shipping center, Shanghai International Shipping Center will achieve the development of complex functions from hinterland-type port and play as a multi-core-port combination formed with Shanghai Port as the core, Ningbo-Zhoushan port and Suzhou port as major hubs. Aimed at efficient, intensive and complex international shipping center, improving freight transportation construction and changing the developing mode, promoting the fusion of port and city and improving road efficiency, enhancing regional collaborative development and building multi-core woven transportation network, will be system for Shanghai International Shipping Center. the three key points of the development of freight transportation

  17. A retrospective comparison of helicopter transport versus ground transport in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rahul; Anderson, Peter W; Vakil, Abhay; Russi, Christopher S; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) extend the reach of a tertiary care center significantly. However, its role in septic patients is unclear. Our study was performed to clarify the role of HEMS in severe sepsis and septic shock. This is a single-center retrospective cohort study. This study was performed at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, in years 2007-2009. This study included a total of 181 consecutive adult patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit meeting criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock within 24 h of admission and transported from an acute care facility by a helicopter or ground ambulance. The primary predictive variable was the mode of transport. Multiple demographic, clinical, and treatment variables were collected and analyzed with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. The patients transported by HEMS had a significantly faster median transport time (1.3 versus 1.7 h, p ground. Distance traveled was not an independent predictor of hospital mortality on multivariate analysis. HEMS transport is associated with faster transport time, carries sicker patients, and is associated with higher hospital mortality compared with ground ambulance services for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

  18. Modelling of the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water; Modellierung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    1999-07-01

    The book describes reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water and its quantitative monitoring by means of numerical reaction transport models. A brief introduction dealing with the importance of and hazards to ground water and opportunities for making use of ground water models is followed by a more detailed chapter on organic pollutants in ground water. Here the focus is on organochlorine compounds and mineral oil products. Described are propagation mechanisms for these substances in the ground and, especially, their degradability in ground water. A separate chapter is dedicated to possibilities for cleaning up polluted ground water aquifers. The most important decontamination techniques are presented, with special emphasis on in-situ processes with hydraulic components. Moreover, this chapter discusses the self-cleaning capability of aquifers and the benefits of the application of models to ground water cleanup. In the fourth chapter the individual components of reaction transport models are indicated. Here it is, inter alia, differences in the formulation of reaction models as to their complexity, and coupling between suspended matter transport and reaction processes that are dealt with. This chapter ends with a comprehensive survey of literature regarding the application of suspended matter transport models to real ground water accidents. Chapter 5 consists of a description of the capability and principle of function of the reaction transport model TBC (transport biochemism/chemism). This model is used in the two described applications to the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water. (orig.) [German] Inhalt des vorliegenden Buches ist die Darstellung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser und dessen quantitative Erfassung mithilfe numerischer Reaktions-Transportmodelle. Auf eine kurze Einleitung zur Bedeutung und Gefaehrdung von Grundwasser und zu den Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Grundwassermodellen folgt ein

  19. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for Hearing... Florida, and OC is currently located at 4458 NW 74th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33166. Omar Collado is identified... its qualifying individual, Mr. Collado, lacked the requisite character to be licensed as an OTI....

  20. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles J; Kennedy, Adam E; McNally, Kerry L; Davis, Deborah G; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress ('transport stress') on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on 'control days' 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four 'stress-associated' parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp's ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These results are likely

  1. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberger, Jörn

    2005-01-01

    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  2. Model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. SLOBODYANYUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered a model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature, showed architecture, macro flowchart of information flow in model, components (modules and their functions. Described calculation method of costs on interactive cargo insurance via proposed system, represented main characteristics and options of existing transport management systems, conceptual cost models.

  3. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general average. 141.112 Section 141.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are... connected with the transportation of the goods. (3) General average. “General average” means the...

  4. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  5. Synthetic Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Station Location and Wagon Flow Organization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization in railway transport are interconnected, and each of them is complicated in a large-scale rail network. In this paper, a two-stage method is proposed to optimize railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization together. The location model is present with the objective to minimize the operation cost and fixed construction cost. Then, the second model of wagon flow organization is proposed to decide the optimal train service between different freight center stations. The location of the stations is the output of the first model. A heuristic algorithm that combined tabu search (TS with adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA is proposed to solve those two models. The numerical results show the proposed solution method is effective.

  6. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  7. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.

  8. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  9. Study on Profiting Mode of Logistics Platforms Based on Freight Transport Transaction%基于货运交易的物流平台盈利模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子健; 陈全朋

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of an introduction of the current status of the freight logistics industry in China and from the perspective of definition and practice, we analyzed the basic concept of the logistics platform, then proposed the multi-channel profiting model of the freight logistics platform driven by the internet, big data and finance, etc., and at the end forecast the development of these modes.%在阐述我国货运物流行业基本现状的基础上,从定义和实践的角度分析了物流平台的基本概念,然后提出了以互联网、大数据、金融等为主要驱动力的货运物流平台存在的多渠道的盈利模式,并对这些盈利模式进行了分析与展望.

  10. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  11. 75 FR 25257 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI... Intermediaries, Federal Maritime Commission, Washington, DC 20573. Atlantic Integrated Freight Inc. (NVO), 19... Individual), Application Type: New NVO License. Direct Service Inc. dba Tiger Freight International...

  12. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an ocean...

  13. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... an inventory of national freight volume conducted by the FHWA Administrator, in consultation with... optimal solution, additional input from stakeholders is critical to prioritizing the miles to achieve a 27... efficiently and effectively move freight in the United States. Consistent with the national freight policy in...

  14. An assembly model for simulation of large-scale ground water flow and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junqi; Christ, John A; Goltz, Mark N

    2008-01-01

    When managing large-scale ground water contamination problems, it is often necessary to model flow and transport using finely discretized domains--for instance (1) to simulate flow and transport near a contamination source area or in the area where a remediation technology is being implemented; (2) to account for small-scale heterogeneities; (3) to represent ground water-surface water interactions; or (4) some combination of these scenarios. A model with a large domain and fine-grid resolution will need extensive computing resources. In this work, a domain decomposition-based assembly model implemented in a parallel computing environment is developed, which will allow efficient simulation of large-scale ground water flow and transport problems using domain-wide grid refinement. The method employs common ground water flow (MODFLOW) and transport (RT3D) simulators, enabling the solution of almost all commonly encountered ground water flow and transport problems. The basic approach partitions a large model domain into any number of subdomains. Parallel processors are used to solve the model equations within each subdomain. Schwarz iteration is applied to match the flow solution at the subdomain boundaries. For the transport model, an extended numerical array is implemented to permit the exchange of dispersive and advective flux information across subdomain boundaries. The model is verified using a conventional single-domain model. Model simulations demonstrate that the proposed model operated in a parallel computing environment can result in considerable savings in computer run times (between 50% and 80%) compared with conventional modeling approaches and may be used to simulate grid discretizations that were formerly intractable.

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.

    2001-01-01

    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  16. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  17. A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpkaya, T.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

  18. Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...

  19. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These

  20. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of... Sections 2.4.12 and 2.4.13 regarding the assessment of ground water flow and transport of...

  1. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  2. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...

  3. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly

  4. A comparison of the association of helicopter and ground ambulance transport with the outcome of injury in trauma patients transported from the scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, P; Rutledge, R; Baker, C C; Clancy, T V

    1997-12-01

    Comprehensive emergency medical services and helicopter aeromedical transport systems have been developed based on the principle that early definitive care improves outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients transported by helicopter and those transported by ground. Data were obtained from the North Carolina Trauma Registry for the period between 1987 and 1993 on all patients transported by helicopter and ground admitted to one of the eight state designated trauma centers. Study patients included only those who were transported directly from the scene of injury to the trauma center (interhospital transfers were excluded). Mortality (outcome) was compared after patient stratification by injury severity and transport time, using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and logistic regression-derived probabilities of survival. One thousand three hundred forty-six patients (7.3% of the total) were transported from scene to trauma center by helicopter and 17,144 were transported by ground. In patients transported by helicopter, the mean Trauma Score was lower (12 +/- 3.6) versus 14.3 +/- 3.6 (p ground ambulance have low injury severity measures. Outcomes were not uniformly better among patients transported by helicopter. Only a very small subset of patients transported by helicopter appear to have any chance of improved survival based on their helicopter transport. This study suggests that further effort should be expended to try to better identify patients who may benefit from this expensive and risky mode of transport.

  5. 美军铁路货车发展研究%On Development of US Army Railway Freights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世坚; 路慧湘; 张印

    2012-01-01

    US army plays importance on the development of railway transportation. According to the main type of railway freights ,the primary characteristics of freights development are analyzed from the 2 aspects of ownership quantity and composition. The management and operation of US army freights is also studied. Considering the military demand of common flatcar in materials and equipments transportation, the main measures adopted are analyzed.%美军重视发展铁路运输。根据美军铁路货车的主要车型,从保有量和构成方面,分析了美军货车发展的主要特点,研究了其管理运营方式。鉴于物资装备运输对通用平车的军事需求,分析了美军采取的主要措施。

  6. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading... therefor on its form with a notation showing the freight forwarder's name, then the freight forwarder, upon...

  7. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  8. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  9. Provincial logistics costs in South Africa’s Western Cape province: Microcosm of national freight logistics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country.Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges.Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers.Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.

  10. Transport and distribution of nutrients in anchovy spawning ground to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shengquan; Lin Yi'an; Jin Mingming; Liu Xiaoya

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of nutrients and the effect of side transport of nutrients on anchovy spawning ground to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula are discussed based on the data collected in June 2000, May and June 2001. The coastal current and upwelling are the main physical processes of nutrient transport to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula. The concentrations of nutrients, Chla, the density of anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish increase obviously where they are greatly affected by these processes, while the contents of nutrients and Chl-a, the density of anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish decrease significantly where these processes diminish or disappear. The investigation suggest that the side transport of nutrients by Lubei (North Shandong) coastal current in the northern area causes the Chl-a content to be high and dense anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish to be dense in the coastal area of the Chengshan Cape. In the southern area, the riverine input from Subei irrigation ditch with high content of nutrients inshore and upwelling in the western edge of the Huanghai Sea Cold Water offshore should be responsible for high Chl-a concentration and dense anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish.It is possible that these processes of nutrient transport have controlled the anchovy spawning ground to the southem waters of Shandong Peninsula.

  11. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  12. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  13. The Energy-Efficient Operation Problem of a Freight Train Considering Long-Distance Steep Downhill Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the energy consumption rising in rail transport, the railway sector is showing increasing interest in the energy-efficient operation of freight trains. Freight trains require more complicated driving strategies than ordinary passenger trains do due to their heavy loads, especially in the long-distance steep downhill (LDSD sections that are very common in freight rail lines in China. This paper studies the energy-efficient operation of a freight train considering LDSD sections. An optimal control model including regenerative and pneumatic braking is developed for the freight train. Then, when a train leaves/enters the LDSD section, we verify the uniqueness of control transitions and discuss the speed profile linkage between LDSD and its adjacent sections, which indicates that the periodic braking should be applied on LDSD sections for optimality. Additionally, given the same running time for the entire journey, our analysis shows that electrical braking-full braking strategy is more energy-efficient than coasting-full braking strategy on LDSD sections. Finally, a numerical algorithm for the optimal driving solution is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate that the driving strategies generated by the proposed algorithm performs better than those from fuzzy predictive control and field operation regarding energy saving.

  14. Technology benefits and ground test facilities for high-speed civil transport development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Matthew M.; Shields, Elwood M.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced technology base necessary for successful twenty-first century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft will require extensive ground testing in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and other disciplines. This paper analyzes the benefits of advanced technology application to HSCT concepts, addresses the adequacy of existing groundbased test facilities, and explores the need for new facilities required to support HSCT development. A substantial amount of HSCT-related ground testing can be accomplished in existing facilities. The HSCT development effort could also benefit significantly from some new facilities initially conceived for testing in other aeronautical research areas. A new structures testing facility is identified as critically needed to insure timely technology maturation.

  15. On the generalized cost - demand elasticity of intermodal container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourquin, B.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Elasticities for freight transport in the context of mode choice are hardly available for markets in which intermodal container transport competes with truck only transport. These elasticities are expected to be different, however, from values found in the literature for traditional freight

  16. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill-neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Alvarado-Socarras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the differences in hospital survival between modes of transport to a tertiary center in Colombia for critically ill neonates. Methods: Observational study of seriously ill neonates transported via air or ground, who required medical care at a center providing highly complex services. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS, and mode of transport were collected. Patients were described, followed by a bivariate analysis with condition (live or dead at time of discharge as the dependent variable. A multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was used to adjust associations. Results: A total of 176 neonates were transported by ambulance (10.22% by air over six months. The transport distances were longer by air (median: 237.5 km than by ground (median: 11.3 km. Mortality was higher among neonates transported by air (33.33% than by ground (7.79%. No differences in survival were found between the two groups when adjusted by the multiple model. An interaction between mode of transport and distance was observed. Live hospital discharge was found to be associated with clinical severity upon admittance, birth weight, hemorrhaging during the third trimester, and serum potassium levels when admitted. Conclusions: Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance.

  17. 蒙华铁路货车段修能力探讨%Discussion on Freight Train Maintenance Capacity in Depot for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆礼伦; 缪东

    2014-01-01

    阐述客货分线后铁路货运能力增强、货车保有量增长的特征,以及铁路货物高效率高质量的运输需求,必然会对货车段修能力提出新的要求。采用调研货车保有量、货车段修台位方法,结合货车保有量预测,分析全路及蒙西至华中煤运通道铁路(简称“蒙华铁路”)沿线区域内货车保有量增长与货车段修能力的矛盾,提出新建(或扩建)车辆段、加强检修工艺装备、优化组织管理、修程修制改革等货车段修能力增强措施,提出蒙华铁路货车车辆段(检修车间)设施布局方案,分析沿线区域货车段修能力增强措施。%This paper pointed out that after separated operation between railway passenger and freight transportations, the railway freight transportation capacity would be improved and the reserves of freight trains would be increased; and then the need of high efficiency and high quality of railway freight transportation would be bound to make demand on the freight train maintenance capacity in depot. In this paper, by means of investigation on the reserves of freight trains and depot repair bays, and in combination with the prediction on the reserves of freight trains, the conflicts between the freight train's growth and the freight train maintenance capacity in depot was analyzed for the whole railways and for the Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway which would be used for coal transportation. Furthermore, this paper proposed the measures to improve the freight train maintenance capacity in depot, such as building new ( or expanding ) freight train depots, enhancing repairing technical equipment, optimizing organization management, reforming repair schedule and repair regulations, and so on. Finally, this paper proposed a scheme of facility layout in the freight train depots ( or repairing workshops) for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway, and analyzed the measures for improving the

  18. Construction of Higher Vocation Customs Clearance and International Freight Transportation Specialties:Based on Experience of Nanyang Polytechnic%借鉴南洋理工学院经验促进高职报关与国际货运专业建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继宏

    2013-01-01

    介绍了新加坡南洋理工学院的课程设置、“双轨制”的课程体系、教学安排、项目教学模式、“教学工厂”和师资队伍建设的先进理念和做法,并以此为借鉴,就促进我国高职报关与国际货运专业建设提出了相关建议.%In this paper,we introduced the curricular setting of Singapore Nanyang Polytechnic,its duo-track course system,teaching arrangement,project-based teaching approach and other advanced teaching ideologies and methodologies concerning the "teaching factory" and teaching resource system construction and then drawing from its successful experience,proposed some suggestions on promoting the development of the higher vocational customs clearance and international freight transportation specialty in China.

  19. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  20. Is freight traffic noise more annoying than passenger traffic noise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new freight-only railway route, the "Betuweroute", is being planned to carry freight traffic from Rotterdam harbour east into Germany. Inhabitants of areas near the future route are concerned about noise and vibration, and question the relevance of current legislation for a

  1. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  2. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  3. Transport hub flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  4. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  5. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...... problem which can be formulated as a dynamic version of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)....

  6. Transportable optical ground station for high-speed free-space laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Near real-time data downlinks from aircrafts, satellites and high altitude platforms via high-speed laser commu- nication links is an important research topic at the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Ground stations for such scenarios are usually fixed at a certain location. With a mo- tivation to provide a ground station that is quickly and easily deployed anywhere in the world, a transportable optical ground station (TOGS) has been developed. TOGS features a pneumatically deployable Cassegrain-type telescope with main mirror diameter of 60 cm, including optical tracking and receiving system. For calibration of position and attitude, multiple sensors like dual-antenna GPS and inclination sensors have been installed. In order to realize these systems, robust software that operates and controls them is essential. The software is platform independent and is aimed to be used on both mobile and ground terminals. It includes implementa- tion of accurate pointing, acquisition and tracking algorithms, hardware drivers, and user interfaces. Important modules of the software are GPS tracking, optical tracking, star- and satellite tracking, and calibration of the TOGS itself. Recently, a first successful data-downlink from an aircraft to TOGS using GPS tracking has been performed. To streamline the software development and testing process, some simulation environments like mount simulator, aircraft path simulator, tracking camera simulator and tracking error analysis tool have also been developed. This paper presents the overall hardware/software structure of the TOGS, and gives results of the tracking accuracy improvement techniques like GPS extrapolation and optical tracking.

  7. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... freight forwarder authority from FMCSA. Section 32918 amended the financial security requirements...

  8. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act as...

  9. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  10. Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined

  11. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  12. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... letter of credit for the portion of the ocean freight not financed by CCC. All banking institution.... (b) Contracting procedures—(1) Invitations for Bids (IFB's). (i) Public freight “Invitations for Bids...

  13. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  14. 48 CFR 47.301-3 - Using the Defense Transportation System (DTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Regulation Part II. This establishes uniform procedures and documents for the generation... marking and freight routing. Contractual documents shall specify that the contractor shall not...

  15. Design of integrated and co-ordinated multimodal transport systems – North Sea – Mediterranean corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil MORTIMER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the North Sea – Mediterranean corridor, part of the Trans-European transport network. A brief discussion on the aspects of multimodality and the possible modes of transport involved in transporting inland freight is presented followed by an introduction to main IT systems that can be implemented to increase the efficiency of freight transport. Presented also is a description on the envisaged investments in freight corridors in Europe. An assessment of information flows is also offered. The study concludes that the concept of a freight corridor should be extended to a network in order for more global benefits to be experienced.

  16. 76 FR 3636 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants Notice is hereby given that the following...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI... NVO & OFF License. Marine Cargo Line, L.C. dba, Active Freight & Logistics (NVO), One Blue Hill...

  17. Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a model that simulates solute transport in flowing ground water. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be applied to a wide range of problem types. It is applicable to one- or two-dimensional problems involving steady-state or transient flow. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, and mixing (or dilution) from fluid sources. The model assumes that the solute is non-reactive and that gradients of fluid density, viscosity, and temperature do not affect the velocity distribution. However, the aquifer may be heterogeneous and (or) anisotropic. The model couples the ground-water flow equation with the solute-transport equation. The digital computer program uses an alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve a finite-difference approximation to the ground-water flow equation, and it uses the method of characteristics to solve the solute-transport equation. The latter uses a particle- tracking procedure to represent convective transport and a two-step explicit procedure to solve a finite-difference equation that describes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, fluid sources and sinks, and divergence of velocity. This explicit procedure has several stability criteria, but the consequent time-step limitations are automatically determined by the program. The report includes a listing of the computer program, which is written in FORTRAN IV and contains about 2,000 lines. The model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite difference grid. It allows the specification of any number of injection or withdrawal wells and of spatially varying diffuse recharge or discharge, saturated thickness, transmissivity, boundary conditions, and initial heads and concentrations. The program also permits the designation of up to five nodes as observation points, for which a summary table of head and concentration versus time is printed at the end of the

  18. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  19. Characterizing demographics, injury severity, and intubation status for patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Van Heukelom, Paul; Harland, Karisa; Denning, Gerene; Liao, Junlin; Born, Janelle; Latenser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Our study was designed to characterize intubation status among patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center. A retrospective chart review of patients arriving at our burn center from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009 was completed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. During the study period, 259 air and 590 ground ambulance patients met inclusion criteria. Air ambulance patients were older and had higher total body surface area burned, lower Glasgow Coma scores, longer lengths of stay, and more frequent inhalation injuries. Approximately 10% of patients arriving by air were intubated after burn center admission, and 49% of intubated patients were extubated within 24 hours of admission. These values were 2% and 40%, respectively, for patients transported by ground. Increasing age and air ambulance transport increased the overall likelihood of change in intubation status. The likelihood of intubation by burn center providers increased with age, with suspicion of inhalation injury, and for patients transported by air. The likelihood of extubation within 24 hours of burn center admission increased with age, decreased with suspected inhalation injury, and was independent of transport mode. Among our patient population, more severely injured patients were being transported by air ambulance. However, age, suspicion of inhalation injury, and mode of transport showed a complex pattern of associations with changes in intubation status, and illustrate the need to develop better prehospital guidelines for intubation in burn patients.

  20. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill-neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Socarras, Jorge Luis; Idrovo, Alvaro Javier; Bermon, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in hospital survival between modes of transport to a tertiary center in Colombia for critically ill neonates. Observational study of seriously ill neonates transported via air or ground, who required medical care at a center providing highly complex services. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS), and mode of transport were collected. Patients were described, followed by a bivariate analysis with condition (live or dead) at time of discharge as the dependent variable. A multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was used to adjust associations. A total of 176 neonates were transported by ambulance (10.22% by air) over six months. The transport distances were longer by air (median: 237.5km) than by ground (median: 11.3km). Mortality was higher among neonates transported by air (33.33%) than by ground (7.79%). No differences in survival were found between the two groups when adjusted by the multiple model. An interaction between mode of transport and distance was observed. Live hospital discharge was found to be associated with clinical severity upon admittance, birth weight, hemorrhaging during the third trimester, and serum potassium levels when admitted. Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation) to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  2. Ukraine in the process of freight market globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Primacheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the entire period of state construction in Ukraine, the strategy of stable economical growth of country’s freight potential has been practically ignored. The solution to this problem requires systematic study of mechanisms and methods of growth and operation of the most important sectors of international freight market. Despite world’s freight statistics being systematic, there is practically no established methodology to assess its sustainable development in the times of globalization. Typically, all that is available are insights into certain aspects of freight market parameters formation. Thus, this article focuses on systematization of the general principles of world’s marine trade development and evaluation of the most realistic directions for establishing Ukraine as a full-scale maritime.

  3. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  4. Railway and road discrete choice model for foreign trade freight between Antioquia and the Port of Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Pineda-Jaramillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Colombian freight is transported on roads with barely acceptable conditions, and although there is a speculation about the need for a railway for freight transportation, there is not a study in Colombia showing the variables that influence the modal choice by the companies that generate freight transportation. This article presents the calculation of demand for a hypothetical railway through a discrete choice model. It begins with a qualitative research through focus group techniques to identify the variables that influence the choice of persons responsible for the transportation of large commercial companies in Antioquia (Colombia. The influential variables in the election were the cost and service frequency, and these variables were used to apply a Stated Preference (SP and Revealed Preference (RP survey, then to calibrate a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL, and to estimate the influence of each of them. We show that the probability of railway choice by the studied companies varies between 67% and 93%, depending on differences in these variables.

  5. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  6. Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Zamora, C.; Essaid, H.; Wilson, J.T.; Johnson, H.M.; Brayton, M.J.; Vogel, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A combination of hydrologic, mineralogical, chemical, dissolved gas, and isotopic data, were used to determine the processes controlling transport and fate of NO3- in streambeds at five sites across the USA. Water samples were collected from streambeds at depths ranging from 0.3 to 3 m at three to five points across the stream and in two to five separate transects. Residence times of water ranging from 0.28 to 34.7 d m-1 in the streambeds of N-rich watersheds played an important role in allowing denitrification to decrease NO3- concentrations. Where potential electron donors were limited and residence times were short, denitrification was limited. Consequently, in spite of reducing conditions at some sites, NO3- was transported into the stream. At two of the five study sites, NO3- in surface water infiltrated the streambeds and concentrations decreased, supporting current models that NO3- would be retained in N-rich streams. At the other three study sites, hydrogeologic controls limited or prevented infiltration of surface water into the streambed, and ground-water discharge contributed to NO 3- loads. Our results also show that in these low hydrologic-gradient systems, storm and other high-flow events can be important factors for increasing surface-water movement into streambeds. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on Forecasting Model of Urban Road Freight%城市公路货运交通预测模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪智勇; 郗海洋

    2016-01-01

    城市货运交通预测一直为城市规划所忽视,成为综合规划的薄弱环节。与客运交通相比,货运交通的预测理论发展滞后,难以满足精细化的城市规划需求。文中首先概述了主要的货运交通预测方法,进而以基于货物的预测框架为基础对货运生成预测、货运分布预测、货运量与货运交通的转换以及货运交通分配预测进行了研究,提出了基于用地的货运生成预测方法、基于产业联系的货运分布重力模型和基于货运组织模式的货运量和货车交通的转换模型。最后,总结了货运分配模型和客运分配模型的主要区别。%The forecasting of urban freight traffic have been always neglected for urban planning,becoming the weak link. Compared to passenger transport,the predict theory of freight transport which is constructed on passenger four-phase approach is always lagging behind and lack of grasp of the differences between passenger and freight characteristics,making it difficult to meet the sophisticated needs of urban planning.This paper outlines the main freight traffic forecasting methods first.Then based on the framework of the cargo forecast this paper predicts freight generation forecast method based on land,forecast freight distribution based on industries relationship and conversion model of freight and truck traffic based on freight wagons organization mode. Finally,this paper summarizes the main differences between passenger and freight assignment model.

  8. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  9. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping

    2011-12-01

    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  10. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  11. Digital-transport model study of Diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) ground-water contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) is an organic compound produced as a by-product of the manufacture and detoxification of GB nerve gas. Ground-water contamination by DIMP from the disposal of wastes into unlined surface ponds at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal occurred from 1952 to 1956. A digital-transport model was used to determine the effects on ground-water movement and on DIMP concentrations in the ground water of a bentonite barrier in the aquifer near the northern boundary of the arsenal. The transport model is based on an iterative-alternating-direction-implicit mathematical solution of the ground-water-flow equation coupled with a method-of-characteristics solution of the solute-transport equation. The model assumes conservative (nonreactive) transient transport of DIMP and steady-state ground-water flow. In the model simulations, a bentonite barrier was assumed that was impermeable and penetrated the entire saturated thickness of the aquifer. Ground water intercepted by the barrier was assumed to be pumped by wells located south (upgradient) of the barrier, to be treated to remove DIMP, and to be recharged by pits or wells to the aquifer north (downgradient) of the barrier. The amount of DIMP transported across the northern boundary of the arsenal was substantially reduced by a ground-water-barrier system of this type. For a 1,500-foot-long bentonite barrier located along the northern boundary of the arsenal near D Street, about 50 percent of the DIMP that would otherwise cross the boundary would be intercepted by the barrier. This barrier configuration and location were proposed by the U.S. Army. Of the ground water with DIMP concentrations greater than 500 micrograms per liter, the safe DIMP-concentration level determined by the U.S. Army, about 72 percent would be intercepted by the barrier system. The amount of DIMP underflow intercepted may be increased to 65 percent by doubling the pumpage, or to 73 percent by doubling the length of the barrier

  12. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  13. El enfoque microeconómico en la estimación de la demanda de transporte de mercancías. Análisis desde una perspectiva regional

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Borra Marcos; Luis Palma Martos

    2004-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized significance of freight transport for a region’s economy, the field of transportation science has focused traditionally on the analytical modeling of passenger systems, relegating the analysis of freight transportation. This paper reviews the methodological framework underlying freight transportation demand analysis, from the microeconomic perspective. Particularly, it presents the main characteristics of this approach, the different types of models available and...

  14. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-04-19

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  15. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Hargrove, Stephanie [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  16. Cost Optimisation in Freight Distribution with Cross-Docking: N-Echelon Location Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influence the economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks and a unified notation for the N-echelon location routing problem. A literature review is also presented, in order to list the main problems and methods that can be helpful for scientists and transportation practitioners.

  17. Ground-based research of crystal growth of II-VI compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Zhou, W.; Dudley, M.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.; Wang, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based investigation of the crystal growth of II-VI semiconductor compounds, including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ZnSe, by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules was performed. The crystal growth experimental process and supporting activities--preparation and heat treatment of starting materials, vapor partial pressure measurements, and transport rate measurements are reported. The results of crystal characterization, including microscopy, microstructure, optical transmission photoluminescence, synchrotron radiation topography, and chemical analysis by spark source mass spectrography, are also discussed.

  18. WHAT WAY DETERMINE THE CORRECT ALLOCATION AND LAYOUT FOR THE NEEDS OF PARKING FREIGHT DESIGN IN CONCRETE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of building a network parking strategies for freight transport may be considered two variants: a building (completing car parks on abandoned of border crossings, respectively building a whole new network of parks. Creating a network of parks for freight is in the interest of the Slovak Republic as well as the European Union. The subsequent optimization is dependent on the quality of road infrastructure and the traffic intensity in the monitored sections. It is therefore important selection of suitable candidates, administrators and their subsequent assessment of the appropriateness and services provided in selected locations. Identification of parking in the SR enables to choose the effective solution for intelligent networking and secure parking.

  19. 78 FR 78472 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders; Association of Independent Property Brokers and Agents' Exemption... brokers and freight forwarders from the $75,000 bond provision included in section 32918 of the Moving... freight forwarders. FMCSA requests comments from all interested parties on AIPBA's exemption request...

  20. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... exemption for all domestic freight forwarders which operate solely in the Department of Defense's (DOD... of all domestic freight forwarders operating solely in the DOD's HHG program, from the $75,000... property brokers and freight forwarders operating under FMCSA's jurisdiction. Public Law 112-141, Sec...

  1. Analysis on the scheme of high definition monitoring system for railway freight train loading condition%铁路货车装载状态高清监控系统方案浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧

    2016-01-01

    Greater demands are being placed on raising the efficiency of freight transport and keeping safe freight transport by China Railway Corporation with the continuous deepening of the railway freight transportation system reform. Combined with the China Railway Corporation freight transport safety system requirements, this paper analyzes and discusses a way to imple-ment HD monitoring system for freight train loading condition, and describes the principle and key technology of the system.%随着铁路货运体制改革的不断深化,中国铁路总公司对提高货运效率、保障货运安全提出了更高的要求,文章结合铁路总公司货安系统相关文件要求,分析探讨了一种货车装载状态高清监控系统的实现方式,并对系统的原理和关键技术进行了说明。

  2. SYNTHETIC APPROACH ON INTERNAL AND INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORT LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Road freight transport is one of the main activities involved in the operation and development of an economyand its practice and organization emphasizes its importance from two points of view: one as it is the necessary tool forthe establishment and functioning of national and international markets and two because international freight becamea more significant modern sector in industrialized countries; in many countries as Switzerland or Germanytransportation is a professional occupation.I think that the theme in achieving this article is useful, permanent, necessary, timely and appropriate. Usefulbecause the results of this research lead to improved performance in carrying out road freight transport, permanent asthe theme of the article highlights the fact that road freight transport is a permanent factor promoting and stimulatingthe economic growth, necessary because without efficient logistics for road freight transport, moving them by landwould be poor, timely because the dynamics of transport logistics development focus increasingly more on themovement of goods and products in space with motor vehicles and towed resources, and appropriate as the continuousimprovement of road freight transport is source of income both from the point of view of firms and in terms of state.The article aims to highlight a number of synthetic issues related to road freight transport logistics, myapproach in this research leaves room for future additions that will certainly help performance improvement intransportation logistics.

  3. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  4. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  5. Rough-Cut Capacity Planning in Multimodal Freight Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    files. The MPS file format is a standard modeling format which is recognized by major math programming solvers like LINGO and CPLEX. Models are solved...using LINGO 11.0 running on a Toshiba Satellite E105 laptop computer with a 2.26 GHz Intel Core2 Duo CPU and 4 GB of RAM running 64-bit Microsoft Windows...each problem size were generated in support of the analysis. The results in table 3.1 include the problem MPS file size and solution time using LINGO

  6. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naidu, Koovendhran; Govender, Jeevarathnam P

    2011-01-01

    ... need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry's active customers, i.e...

  7. Supporting electric vehicles in freight transport in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J.J.; Konings, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Report written within the framework of Activity 7.4 of the Interreg IVB project E-Mobility NSR, file nr. 35-2-6-11. During the last decade the Municipality of Amsterdam has initiated quite elaborate policies to improve the air quality within the city, both for reasons of public health and spatial

  8. Road freight transport across a fixed Fehmarn Belt link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann

    2007-01-01

    Indlæggets baggrund og formål En kommende Femern Bælt bro vil være en vigtig rute for lastbiltrafikken mellem Sverige/det østlige Danmark og Tyskland. Eller vil den? På Øresund har færgerne mellem Helsingør og Helsingborg langt den største markedsandel for den ikke-lokale lastbiltrafik. The Chann...

  9. Road freight transport across a fixed Fehmarn Belt link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann

    2007-01-01

    Indlæggets baggrund og formål En kommende Femern Bælt bro vil være en vigtig rute for lastbiltrafikken mellem Sverige/det østlige Danmark og Tyskland. Eller vil den? På Øresund har færgerne mellem Helsingør og Helsingborg langt den største markedsandel for den ikke-lokale lastbiltrafik. The Chann...

  10. Placebo-controlled double-blind clomipramine trial for the treatment of anxiety or fear in beagles during ground transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Gauthier, Audrey; Bergeron, Renée

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this explorative study was, first, to document changes in physiological parameters and behavior observed in dogs following ground transport and, second, to measure the effects on the above variables of a short-term administration of clomipramine, anecdotally already prescribed in private veterinary practice to reduce fear, anxiety, or both. Twenty-four beagles were randomly allocated to either clomipramine (2 mg/kg, q12h for 7 d) or placebo treatment, and then transported 3 times in a truck for 1 hour. Physiological parameters (cortisol, neutrophil:lymphocyte (N:L) ratio, heart rate) and behavior were recorded and analyzed. Clomipramine significantly reduced plasma cortisol (P anxiety, or both during transport. More research is needed to confirm the efficacy of this treatment and the appropriate dosage.

  11. 浅析铁路货运仓储的发展现状及趋势%The Development Status and Trend of Railway Freight Warehousing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华

    2014-01-01

    铁路货运是现代物流业的重要组成部分,而其中仓储的发展则是一个关键点。铁路货运仓储是铁路物流的“基石”,必须引起足够的关注与重视。我国铁路货运发展迅速,而仓储行业的诸多问题则制约了现代物流业的整体发展。文中以此为线索,论述了铁路货运仓储的发展现状、存在的问题,并展望了未来的发展趋势。%The railway freight is the important part of modern logistics industry,and the development of warehousing is one of the key points.Railway freight railway logistics warehousing is the “cornerstone”,must be paid adequate attention and emphasis.China railway freight transportation is developing rapidly,but many problems and warehousing industry is restricts the overall development of modern logistics industry.In this paper,taking this as the clue,discusses the development status of railway freight transportation,warehousing exist,and the prospect of development trend in the future.

  12. MEASURING THE MARKET RISK OF FREIGHT RATES: A VALUE-AT-RISK APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    TIMOTHEOS ANGELIDIS; GEORGE SKIADOPOULOS

    2008-01-01

    The fluctuation of shipping freight rates (freight rate risk) is an important source of market risk for all participants in the freight markets including hedge funds, commodity and energy producers. We measure the freight rate risk by the Value-at-Risk (VaR) approach. A range of parametric and non-parametric VaR methods is applied to various popular freight markets for dry and wet cargoes. Backtesting is conducted in two stages by means of statistical tests and a subjective loss function that...

  13. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., railroads, waterways, pipelines, and airways. Freight moves throughout the United States on 985,000 miles of... accommodate the large that are vehicles authorized by the `restricted' or State. `low clearance' For routes... Network, as defined in 23 CFR part 658, without restrictions or clearance issues; availability of truck...

  14. Introducing competition in urban consolidation center freight allocation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoni, M.D.; Wiegmans, B.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Urban consolidation center (UCC) represents in many cities the most chosen solution by the local governments to reduce the negative impacts of city freight distribution. In order to achieve successful results, it is important to consider also the perspective of carriers with respect to the choice of

  15. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Alvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1 improvement of the city freight distribution, (2 implementation possibility, (3 short and medium term applicability and (4 impact on the citizens of Bilbao. Findings: The paper identifies some specific problems that must be faced during the last stage of the logistics chain, where products are usually delivered to final customers in the urban environment. Research limitations/implications: Not all good urban freight distribution practices can be applied universally to all types of towns. Therefore, it is necessary to design some practices specifically to each particular city according to the physical characteristics of the city, the companies’ motivation and the citizens’ habits. Practical implications: All the agents involved in the city freight distribution should be aware of the benefits and problems that their actions cause. Originality/value: This study was carried out from a wide perspective that included researchers, logistics operators and local authorities.

  16. Operations Research for Freight Train Routing and Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven; Gorman, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the service design activities that plan and implement the rail freight operating plan. Elements of strategic service design include the setting of train frequency, the routing of cars among trains, and the consolidation of cars, called blocking. At the operational level, tr...

  17. Slovenian Freight Forwarding After the Accession to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jakomin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The moment the Republic of Slovenia joins the EU all theservice offices or agencies related to cross-border operations, inparticular the freight fmwarders, will feel the consequences reflectingthese issues, or resulting therefrom:- In the field of legislation, no major direct consequences areexpected, but rather some indirect ones;- Bigger freight forwarders, better provided with capital andpresent globally will affect the operations arising from thechanged market position in the common European logisticalmarket;- As result of market changes, certain adverse financial effectswill occur in some forwarders. This will affect the social positionof employees as well;- The consequences in the macro-economic level will notonly reflect on the social area, but also on lower newlyadded value, and on some non-exploited part of the capital.The facts listed above show that the accession of Sloveniato the EU will bring about a series of adverse consequences inall freight forwarders in the first stage. The economic consequenceswill be mainly visible in the decrease of revenues offreight forwarders, whereas the social outcome will reflect in redundancies.These will lead to closing-down, liquidation orbankruptcy of minor freight forwarding agents.

  18. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails.

  19. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  20. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph.D.; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  1. Ankle Fractures and Modality of Hospital Transport at a Single Level 1 Trauma Center: Does Transport by Helicopter or Ground Ambulance Influence the Incidence of Complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah E; Ihejirika, Rivka C; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Lang, Maximilian F; Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Prablek, Marc A; Chern, Alexander Y; Thakore, Rachel V; Obremskey, William T; Joyce, David; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    In an era of concern over the rising cost of health care, cost-effectiveness of auxiliary services merits careful evaluation. We compared costs and benefits of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) with Ground Emergency Medical Service (GEMS) in patients with an isolated ankle fracture. A medical record review was conducted for patients with an isolated ankle fracture who had been transported to a level 1 trauma center by either HEMS or GEMS from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. We abstracted demographic data, fracture grade, complications, and transportation mode. Transportation costs were obtained by examining medical center financial records. A total of 303 patients was included in the analysis. Of 87 (28.71%) HEMS patients, 53 (60.92%) had sustained closed injuries and 34 (39.08%) had open injuries. Of the 216 (71.29%) GEMS patients, 156 (72.22%) had closed injuries and 60 (27.78%) had open injuries. No significant difference was seen between the groups regarding the percentage of patients with open fractures or the grade of the open fracture (p = .07). No significant difference in the rate of complications was found between the 2 groups (p = 18). The mean baseline cost to transport a patient via HEMS was $10,220 + a $108/mile surcharge, whereas the mean transport cost using GEMS was $976 per patient + $16/mile. Because the HEMS mode of emergency transport did not significantly improve patient outcomes, health systems should reconsider the use of HEMS for patients with isolated ankle fractures. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the incremental cost and trade-offs between energy efficiency and physical distribution effectiveness in intercity freight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.O.; Terziev, M.N.; Kneafsey, J.T.; Wilson, L.B.; Samuelson, R.D.; Chiang, Y.S.; Deephouse, C.V.

    1976-11-01

    This report describes a study of the effects of changes in national transportation policy on the traffic allocation and the energy consumption of various modes of intercity freight transportation. The study focuses on the linkages between freight transportation and industry structure. Starting from the viewpoint of the individual firm, the process of ordering and shipping supplies was analyzed in detail. Models were developed to predict the level of service associated with the transport alternatives available to a firm, and to predict the total logistics cost of each of these alternatives. These models make it possible to forecast the demand for various modal services at the disaggregate level. In order to predict total aggregate demand, a method was developed for sampling from the population of firms, and summing the demands. Using these models and methods, it is possible to make detailed forecasts of commodity flows under alternative policy options. The policy options selected for analysis include substantial rehabilitation of railroad yards and facilities, improving TOFC/COFC performance with shuttle trains, allowing unrestricted use of double trailers on the Interstate Highway System, increasing truck user charges, imposing waterway user charges, and an increase in fuel costs. The policies were investigated with a computerized model system which simulated freight flows between four pairs of major metropolitan area. Before the model could be applied, each policy had to be analyzed with regard to its effect on the key level of service determinants: waiting and travel time distributions, loss and damage, and tariff rates. The model system has been used to predict the impact of these level of service changes on the shipping patterns of a sample of individual firms. These results have been summed and expanded to produce aggregate forecasts of modal shares and energy consumption.

  3. Geared for change? CO2 emissions from South Africa’s road transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachi, YR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is considered to be a growing source of atmospheric emissions in African countries. In South Africa, competition in the business sector, reduction in rail usage, deregulation of freight transportation and a growing middle income class...

  4. Analysis of Freight Trip Generation Model for Food and Beverage in Belo Horizonte (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise Kelli de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the main challenges faced in urban logistics is the distribution of goods. In Brazil, mid to large cities have experienced consequences of unplanned urban sprawl and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. The relationship between urban planning and transport stands out the attractiveness of some urban activities with direct impacts on the movement of people and goods and other component elements of urban space. The segment of bars and restaurants falls within this context, therefore is a vital activity responsible for significant percentage of jobs and revenue in a city. Altogether, foods & beverages commercial activities move daily large volumes of goods to meet the need of customers. This paper presents the results of a freight trip generation model developed for pubs and restaurants in Belo Horizonte (Brazil. Once performed the model determined the number of trips generated per day per establishment. In order to expand the discrete result to a continuous one, the results were geographically interpolated to a continuous surface and extrapolated within the city limits. The data for the freight trip generation model were obtained by survey. For this, we designed a structured questionnaire to obtain information about goods, frequency, operational time, place of performance of the loading/unloading of goods, establishment size and the number of employees. Besides these information, we investigated the acceptance of alternative practices in the delivery of goods, such as off-peak delivery. To accomplish the proposed models, we applied a simple linear regression, correlating the following variables: (i Number of trips versus area of the establishment; (ii Number of trips versus number of employees; (iii Number of trips versus operation day of the establishment. With the results of the linear regression for travel generations, conducted the data interpolation based on the standard deviation of the results to define the sample

  5. Development, use and potential contribution of appropriate ICT-based service systems to address rural transport related accessibility constraints - Emerging lessons from case studies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural environments suffer a number of constraints including high transport cost, irregular or unpredictable transport services, transport of low passenger and freight volumes, and low logistics service demand and supply. Rural residents, especially...

  6. 78 FR 33841 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Transportation Intermediary (OTI) license as a Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF) pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101). Notice is also given...

  7. How SmartWay Advances Sustainable Transportation Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how the SmartWay program has achieved reductions in freight transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and how it will continue to do so with its Vision 2020 strategies.

  8. An Analysis of Transport, Dispersion, and Deposition from Two Above-Ground Nuclear Tests in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-14

    resulting distribution of radioactive material to the Second-order Closure Integrated PUFF ( SCIPUFF ) model to perform the transport and diffusion of the...Corp, MRC-R-243, Dec 1975 Sykes, R.I., "PC- SCIPUFF Version 0.2 Technical Documentation, Titan Corporation, DNA-TR-96-27, April 1997 Tripoli, G.J

  9. Should parents accompany pediatric interfacility ground ambulance transports? The parent's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, G A; Fleegler, E W

    2000-12-01

    Parental accompaniment can be a positive experience for the parent and the patient, as perceived by the parent. It can also be accomplished effectively without hindering the delivery of intratransport medical care by a nurse/nurse or nurse/physician transport team. This survey, along with the responses from other parents, led our team to adopt the position that a parent is welcome and encouraged to accompany the transport team if he or she wishes to. The team has recognized the importance of the family unit during the stressful period surrounding an acute medical issue and interfacility transport. The transport team reserves the option to ask that a parent not ride along if they suspect the parent might not function as a supportive team member (ie, the parent is belligerent, inebriated, or hostile). The parent normally rides in the passenger seat of the ambulance, and we encourage him or her to interact with the patient as much as possible. Occasionally parents ride in the back of the ambulance if the patient's situation allows for that option (ie, no anticipated need for potential interventions, number of team personnel, etc.).

  10. The Influence of Freight Trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadala Hassan Alfadala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by countries who are moving continually towards economic development and stability, Kuwait has moved to establishing freight trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport to meet the ever changing and increasing number of both passenger and cargoes going in and out of the country. As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC it is clearly seen that as most of its member countries drive towards a collective effort to connect together by means of railroad networks, Kuwait’s effort to move transportation of cargoes to and from the Kuwait International Airport by linking with the GCC’s project to create railroad networks, the proposed ―Cargo City‖ becomes a major part of the realization of the development of the KIA which shall help with the aim to widen trade within and across GCC countries.

  11. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  12. Location Analysis of Freight Distribution Terminal of Jakarta City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahry Nahry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently Jakarta has two freight terminals, namely Pulo Gebang and Tanah Merdeka. But, both terminals are just functioned for parking and have not been utilized properly yet, e.g. for consolidation. Goods consolidation, which is usually performed in distribution terminal, may reduce number of freight flow within the city. This paper is aimed to determine the best location of distribution terminal in Jakarta among those two terminals and two additional alternative sites, namely Lodan and Rawa Buaya. It is initialized by the identification of important factors that affect the location selection. It is carried out by Likert analysis through the questionnaires distributed to logistics firms. The best location is determined by applying Overlay Analysis using ArcGIS 9.2. Four grid maps are produced to represent the accessibility, cost, time, and environment factors as the important factors of location. The result shows that the ranking from the best is; Lodan, Tanah Merdeka, Pulo Gebang, and Rawa Buaya.

  13. A Novel Approach to Forecasting the Bulk Freight Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelis Tsioumas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast-paced and ever changing freight market compels maritime executives to use sound forecasting tools. This paper aims to enhance the forecasting accuracy of the Baltic Dry Index (BDI by means of developing a multivariate Vector Autoregressive model with exogenous variables (VARX. The proposed model incorporates the Chinese steel production, the dry bulk fleet development and a new composite indicator, the Dry Bulk Economic Climate Index (DBECI. The predictive power of this approach is evaluated against a univariate ARIMA framework, which serves as a benchmark model. The selection of explanatory variables and the model specification are validated using a series of pertinent tests. The results demonstrate that the VARX model outperforms the ARIMA approach, suggesting that the selected independent variables can substantially improve the accuracy of BDI forecasts. The present study is of interest to maritime practitioners, as it provides useful insights into the direction of the freight market and allows them to make informed decisions.

  14. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... into the issue. The monitoring practices are fairly similar in all four countries, with typical monitoring done manually when filling the tank and data kept on a computer. Tonne-kilometre data is rarely monitored, but some other performance measures may be used. Current level of implementation of various energy...

  15. PROBLEM OF THE DEFINITION THE «RELIABILITY» TERM. METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY THE RELIABILITY OF FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific paper is aimed at disclosing the existing problem of the «reliability» definition and provides a reasoned definition of the term. The study assumes the development of a complex that includes the methodology and appropriate terminology that will be true. Methodology. Currently there is reliability theory in the special case of the probabilistic and statistical theory, which is used to determine or predict the occurrence of object failures. Within the existing theories the term «reliability» is formulated, the parameters related to it are described. Findings. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of reliability and personal considerations of the authors, they formulated a definition of the term «reliability». The methodology and study of the object reliability on the example of a freight car was proposed. Originality. The authors proposed a new definition of the «reliability» term. Namely: reliability is an assessment of the ability of an object to maintain the original property within the established limits and temporary space, in the conditions of storage and transportation, as well as to perform the required functions in predetermined modes of operation with maintenance and repair facility. The reliability parameters include: reliability, durability, maintainability and safety that characterize the object. Also a methodology for developing and study the reliability of a freight car was developed, which comprises: 1 design, technological and operational reliability; 2 scientific experiment, including the modeling of the freight car in different conditions and operating modes; 3 the reliability theory is presented as combined or modified, covering the mathematical and physical foundations; 4 Bayesian statistics that describe the different states of a freight car with a breakdown of its basic components and with the appropriate probability for each component to describe the

  16. Freight tracking cost analysis to improve logistics management operations

    OpenAIRE

    De Coning, A.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-border freight industry suffers from inefficiencies that can be addressed by implementing technology based systems. Inefficiencies cause time delays at amongst others border posts and weigh stations that in turn increase turnaround times. Higher turnaround times affect the business bottom line as it reduces the turnover generated on capital assets and therefore decrease profit levels. Efficient logistics management will also ensure increased trade in Sub Saharan...

  17. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  18. Numerical modeling of ground water flow and contaminant transport in a saturated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Mohammad S.; Sadeghi, Masoomeh; Mahmoudi, Amir H.; Shahi, Mina; Gandaghi, Hadi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, numerical modeling and experimental testing of the distribution of pollutants along the water flow in a porous medium is discussed. Governing equations including overall continuity, momentum and species continuity equations are derived for porous medium. The governing equations have been solved numerical using the Finite Volume Method based on collocated grids. The SIMPLE algorithm has been adopted for the pressure _ velocity linked equations. In order to validate the numerical results, experimental data from laboratory apparatus are applied and there is a good agreement among numerical results and experimental test. Finally, the main affecting parameters on the distribution and transport of pollutants porous medium were investigated. Results indicate that, the domain of pollution rises with increasing dispersion coefficient and the dispersion phenomenon overcomes on pollutant transfer. Reduction of porosity has decreased the pollutant transfer and increased velocity has result in the increasing pollutant transport phenomenon but has reduced the domain of the pollution.

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection. The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts-an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  20. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.

    2002-11-05

    To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone

  1. CPR variability during ground ambulance transport of patients in cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Jason R; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Dommer, Paul B; Panchal, Ashish R; Venuti, Mark; Smith, Gary; Silver, Annemarie; Mullins, Margaret; Spaite, Daniel; Bobrow, Bentley J

    2013-05-01

    High-quality CPR is associated with improved outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The purpose of this investigation was to compare the quality of CPR provided at the prehospital scene, during ambulance transport, and during the early minutes in the emergency department (ED). A prospective observational review of consecutive adult patients with non-traumatic OHCA was conducted between September 2008 and February 2010. Patients with initiation of prehospital CPR were included as part of a statewide cardiac resuscitation quality improvement program. A monitor-defibrillator with accelerometer-based CPR measurement capability (E-series, ZOLL Medical) was utilized. CPR quality measures included variability in chest compression (CC) depth and rate, mean depth and rate, and the CC fraction. Variability of CC was defined as the mean of minute-to-minute standard deviation in CC depth or rate. CC fraction was defined as the percent of time that CPR was being performed when appropriate throughout resuscitation. Fifty-seven adult patients with OHCA had electronic CPR data recorded at the scene, in the ambulance, and upon arrival in the ED. Across time periods, there was increased variability in CC depth (scene: 0.20 in.; transport: 0.26 in.; ED: 0.31 in., P<0.01) and rate (scene: 18.2 CC min(-1); transport: 26.1 CC min(-1); ED: 26.3 CC min(-1), P<0.01). The mean CC depth, rate, and the CC fraction did not differ significantly between groups. There was increased CC variability from the prehospital scene to the ED though there was no difference in mean CC depth, rate, or in CC fraction. The clinical significance of CC variability remains to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  3. Mechanical versus manual chest compression CPR under ground ambulance transport conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julia; Fiechter, René; Gerstl, Peter; Url, Alfons; Wagner, Heinz; Lüscher, Thomas F; Eriksson, Urs; Wyss, Christophe A

    2013-03-01

    Novel mechanical chest compression devices offer the possibility to transport cardiac arrest patients with ongoing CPR and might shorten significantly the time delay to post-resuscitation care. We simulated an eight-minute cardiac resuscitation situation during ambulance transport using CPR training manikins. We compared teams consisting of two experienced resuscitators with the performance of a mechanical chest compression device (LUCAS). CPR-performance by two experienced resuscitators demonstrated ambivalent results. Whereas mean compression rate was within the recommended range (103/min, 95% CI: 93-113/min), mean compression depth was closely below the actually recommended compression depth of >5 cm (49.7 mm, 95% CI: 46.1-53.3mm). Nevertheless, only a mean of two thirds (67%) of all compressions were classified as manually correct (defined as sternal compression depth >5 cm). In contrast, the LUCAS device showed a constant and reliable CPR performance (99.96% correctly applied chest compressions correctly applied within the device programmed parameters, P = 0.0162) with almost no variance between the different sequences. The LUCAS CPR device represents a reliable alternative to manual CPR in a moving ambulance vehicle during emergency evacuation. Furthermore, it needs less human resources and is safer for the EMS personnel.

  4. Sub-seasonal pressure, geometry and sediment transport changes observed in subglacial channels from the analysis of seismic ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, F.; Tsai, V. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Walter, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    Water from ice melt and precipitation that flows to and pressurizes the base of glaciers contributes to glacier and ice sheet acceleration. Predicting acceleration and its impact on ice mass loss and sea-level rise under global climate warming therefore requires knowledge of subglacial channel evolution and water pressurization, which remains limited by a lack of observations. Here we show that ground motion caused by subglacial channel flow at Mendenhall Glacier (Alaska) can be used to recover simultaneously basal water pressure, channel geometry and sediment transport throughout the melt season. We provide observations of the interplay between these physical quantities and discuss the implications for glacier sliding and erosion. By constraining the physics of subglacial hydrology, our framework and its application to outlet glaciers of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets may lead to more reliable predictions of ice flow, sea level rise and subglacial erosion rates.

  5. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    - and inter-organizational barriers to the establishment of a competitive and effective combined transport system with rail freight operators as the intermodal integrator. In this paper we describes the ideas and methodology behind the project, as well as some preliminary results.......Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), developed...... to fulfill the requirements of potential customers and in interaction with customers, shippers, rail and road freight operators, rail infrastructure owners and other actors in the intermodal freight system. Conversely, successive versions of the COTRAP will be used as an instrument to identify intra...

  6. Transport in arrays of submicron Josephson junctions over a ground plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Teressa Rae [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) arrays of Al islands linked by submicron Al/AlxOy/Al tunnel junctions were fabricated on an insulating layer grown on a ground plane. The arrays were cooled to temperatures as low as 20 mK where the Josephson coupling energy EJ of each junction and the charging energy EC of each island were much greater than the thermal energy kBT. The capacitance Cg between each island and the ground plane was much greater than the junction capacitance C. Two classes of arrays were studied. In the first class, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was much larger than the resistance quantum for single electrons, RN>> RQe≡ h/e2 ~ 25.8 kΩ, and the islands were driven normal by an applied magnetic field such that EJ = 0 and the array was in the Coulomb blockade regime. The arrays were made on degenerately-doped Si, thermally oxidized to a thickness of approximately 100 nm. The current-voltage (I - V) characteristics of a 1D and a 2D array were measured and found to display a threshold voltage VT below which little current flows. In the second class of arrays, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was close to the resistance quantum for Cooper pairs, RN≈RQ≡h/4e2≈6.45kΩ, such that EJ/EC≈1. The arrays were made on GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas approximately 100 nm below the surface. One array displayed superconducting behavior at low temperature. Two arrays displayed insulating behavior at low temperature, and the size of the Coulomb gap increased with increasing Rg.

  7. Environmentally sustainable transport in the CEI countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, R. [Federal Ministry of Agriculture Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austrtia); Wiederkehr, P. [Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Moving people and freight in an environmentally sustainable manner that reduces environmental pollution and health hazards is a key challenge for transport and environment policies in Europe. Present mobility patterns of passenger and freight transport in Central and Eastern Europe do not correspond to the objectives of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a transport futures study for the CEI region as a whole using backcasting methodology with long-term sustainability criteria to be met by 2030. Achieving environmentally sustainable transport (EST) doesn't mean less transport and mobility than we have today, but it means primarily maintaining a balanced modal split that results in less environmental and health impacts than it would be under projected future trends. Rail, trams, busses and new forms of flexible inter-modal public transport mobility would have to take a large share and rail transport for passenger and freight as well as inland shipping would have to be nearly doubled by 2030 while road freight could still increase if it is based on alternative fuels reducing its impacts. Technological advancements for passenger cars and lorries, fuels and infrastructure will play an important part to achieve EST, but also ''smart'' mobility management (e.g. transport avoidance, increasing load factors and modal shift), innovative mobility services and freight logistics would be critical. The implementation of these policies and strategies will require coherent and comprehensive packages of instruments and measures, including: economic instruments, regulatory instruments, changes in infrastructure investment, mobility management, information and education programmes as well as better integration of land use, transport and environment policies. Realising EST will provide new opportunities for businesses to develop and invest in innovative solutions for passenger and freight transport. Overall, achieving EST would

  8. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  9. Air freight in the Stockholm region with focus on Eskilstuna Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell-Åke Allan Brorsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conditions for commencing air freight operations at the regional Eskilstuna Airport in Sweden, which require investments in airport infrastructure of at least SEK 140 –180 million. Design/ methodology: The qualitative data collection for the study was carried out through open-ended interviews with representatives of airport management, staff, representatives of residents, and actors and stakeholders in the field. In addition, much written material was collected from different authorities. Document analysis was used to systematically evaluate and review the collected documents. Content analysis was applied to organize collected data into categories. Based on the reports, decisions, environmental scanning and interviews, the data have been coded and categorized in tables via thematic analysis. Findings: The major findings of the study are that Eskilstuna Airport lacks cargo facilities and has limited apron space, and that there is strong competition from four other airports in the Stockholm region. The prospects for permanent air freight operations at Eskilstuna Airport are therefore not favourable in the current situation. However, if the development of Eskilstuna Logistics Park and the concept of inter modal highway-rail transportation are successful, they could serve as a major driving force for the development of air cargo. Furthermore, with sustainable development as a guiding principle, there is great potential to develop an airport with a high standard of environmental profile. Originality/ value: My findings are of great value to managers of airports and cargo airlines, as they highlight some of the competition aspects associated with engaging in air cargo at regional airports. The study fills a gap in existing research whose main focus is environmental issues concerning airports in general.

  10. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound management decisions in order to ensure a successful operation and development of the enterprise in the competitive environment. It has been found that the key business-indicators of the diagnosis system of transport activity as a component of the enterprise logistical system are: the coefficient of timeliness of freight transportation (delivery; coefficient of completeness of transportation; coefficient of freight safety conditions; coefficient of efficiency of freight transportation; coefficient of complexity of servicing freight owners; coefficient of satisfaction of freight owners’ demand, coefficient of readiness to operation of transport facilities per working day; coefficient of using vehicle kilometers travelled; coefficient of extensity of transport facility packing.

  11. Fate and transport of pesticides in the ground water systems of southwest Georgia, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.S.; Frick, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern agricultural practices in the United States have resulted in nearly unrivaled efficiency and productivity. Unfortunately, there is also the potential for release of these compounds to the environment and consequent adverse affects on wildlife and human populations. Since 1993, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated water quality in agricultural areas to address these concerns. The objective of this study is to evaluate trends in pesticide concentrations from 1993-2005 in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers of southwest Georgia using pesticide and pesticide degradate data collected for the NAWQA program. There were six compounds - five herbicides and one degradate - that were detected in more than 20% of samples: atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), metolachlor, alachlor, floumeturon, and tebuthiuron. Of the 128 wells sampled during the study, only eight wells had pesticide concentrations that either increased (7) or decreased (1) on a decadal time scale. Most of the significant trends were increasing concentrations of pesticides in older water; median pesticide concentrations did not differ between the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers from 1993 and 2005. Deethylatrazine, in the Upper Floridan aquifer, was the only compound that had a significant change (increase) in concentration during the study. The limited number of wells with increases in pesticide concentrations suggest that ground-water sources of these compounds are not increasing in concentration over the time scale represented in this study. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. A freight train monitoring system based on chain wireless Mesh network%基于链状无线Mesh网络的货运列车监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马乐; 赵锐; 姚金飞; 刘言

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of railway freight transportation, this paper put forward the freight train monitoring system based on wireless Mesh network. Taking chain of dual-mode wireless Mesh network as the transmission network of monitoring information, a multimedia information collection node with the Raspberry Pi platform and intelligent monitoring software was designed. This system realized the centralized and intelligent monitoring of the freight in transportation by staff in the locomotive. Experiments show that the system can effectively improve the safety and reliability of railway freight transportation.%在分析铁路货物运输特点的基础上,提出了基于无线 Mesh 网络的货运列车状态监控系统。以双模链状无线 Mesh 网络作为监控信息传输的通信网络,研究设计了基于 Raspberry Pi 平台的多媒体信息采集节点和智能的监控软件,实现了运输人员在货运机车中对在运物资的集中式、智能化监控。实验表明,该系统能够有效提高铁路货物运输的安全性和可靠性。

  13. A cointegration approach to forecasting freight rates in the dry bulk shipping sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a vector autoregressive model is developed for a sample of ocean dry bulk freight rates. Although the series of freight rates are themselves found to be non-stationary, thus precluding the use of many modelling methodologies, evidence provided by cointegration tests points

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF MARINE PORT SERVICE WORK DISTRIBUTION AT THE TERMINAL ON FREIGHT STATION WORK PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Muzykina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of rational distribution at the terminal of sorting work with the local cars on selecting them by the destinations of freight fronts of marine trade port is conditioned. The results of analysis of the basic operation indices of the terminal freight station and marshalling yard are presented.

  15. From freight partnerships to city logistics living labs - Giving meaning to the elusive concept of living labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Lindholm, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Browne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the growing importance of urban freight research given the increasing urban population trends. The complexity of urban freight systems means that it is essential for the public and private sectors to work together - one way to achieve this has been through freight partnerships. A

  16. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate Indices for U.S. Agricultural... received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and release container freight indices... Containerized Freight Index (SCFI, 2009), Container Trade Statistics Index (CTS Index, 2009), the...

  17. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  18. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  19. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  20. Possibilities of Using Transport Terminals in South Bohemian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čejka Jiří

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, when there is a need for transport services adapted to the customer requirements and create a workable operational system, there is increasing talk about transport terminals. Since the South Bohemian region is one of those where this issue will be increasingly dealt with, this paper suggests ways to use transport terminals as important support systems for freight and passenger transport.

  1. Transport of a nematicide in surface and ground waters in a farmed tropical catchment with volcanic substratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of water-pollution risks in agricultural regions requires studying pesticide transport processes in soil and water compartments at the catchment scale. In tropical regions, banana (Musa spp.) plantations are located in zones with abundant rainfalls and soils with high infiltration rates, which lead to washout and leaching of soil-applied pesticides, causing severe diffuse pollution of water resources. The aim of this paper is to determine how the nematicide cadusafos [S,S-di-sec-butyl O-ethyl phosphorodithioate], used in banana plantations, contaminates water and soils at the two scales of subcatchment and catchment. The study site was a small banana-growing catchment on the tropical volcanic island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean (FWI). The catchment is located in pedoclimatic conditions where rainfall is abundant (> 4000 mm/year), and soil permeable (saturated hydraulic conductivity of Andosol Ks > 30 mm/h). Two campaigns of nematicide application were conducted, one in 2003 over 40% of the catchment and one in 2006 over 12%. For 100 days after application, we monitored the surface water and groundwater flows and the cadusafos concentrations in the soil and in surface and ground waters in a 2400 m² subcatchment and a 17.8 ha catchment. The results show that at the subcatchment scale the high retention in the A horizon of the soil limited the transport of cadusafos by runoff, whereas the lower retention of the molecule in the B horizon favoured percolation towards the shallow groundwater. The contamination levels of surface water, as well as shallow and deep groundwaters, reflected the geological structure of the Féfé catchment: i.e. a shallow aquifer in the most recent volcanic deposits that is rapidly exposed to pollution and a deeper aquifer that is relatively protected from the pollution coming from the treated fields. Comparing the losses of cadusafos at the subcatchment and at the catchment scales revealed that the nematicide re-infiltrated in

  2. Caracterização do mercado de fretes rodoviários para produtos agrícolas Characterization of the highway freight market for agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gimenes Soares

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de frete rodoviário no Brasil não sofre nenhum tipo de controle governamental, significando que os preços são formados a partir da negociação direta entre a oferta e a procura pelo serviço. Os transportadores não estão, necessariamente, atualizados sobre todas as variáveis de seu custo para estarem aptos a negociar com os demandantes. Tais demandantes, por outro lado, podem desempenhar maior poder de negociação para obter descontos no valor do frete. Tendo em vista o aprimoramento da qualidade das informações sobre fretes, tanto para ofertantes quanto demandantes pelo serviço de transporte, foi realizado levantamento de valores para produtos agrícolas selecionados, assim como identificadas as principais características do escoamento rodoviário de cargas agrícolas. Dessa forma, ficou evidenciada a diferenciação do valor do frete de acordo com o tipo de produto e verificou-se que a estrutura do mercado de frete para granéis sólidos (açúcar, milho, soja e farelo de soja é bastante distinta, mais pulverizada e talvez menos profissional que a estrutura observada para os granéis líquidos estudados (suco de laranja e óleo de soja.The Brazilian highway freight market is subject to no sort of government control, meaning that the prices are formed through free negotiation between supply and demand of the transport service. Carriers have to be updated on every variable incorporated in costs to be fit for negotiating with demanders. These demanders, except under certain very specific circumstances, have performed higher negotiation power and exerted quite strong pressure to obtain freight discounts. Taking into consideration the accomplishment of the quality of freight information, for both supply and demand sides of the transportation service, data for selected agricultural commodities were collected, as well as the identification of the main characteristics of the road haulage. The difference in the freight values

  3. 国际货运代理的责任和责任风险的防范探讨%The Study of International Freight Forwarders Liability and Responsibility of Risk Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红梅; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    随着世界经济一体化,国际多式联运业务的蓬勃兴起,为国际货运代理开拓业务、发挥所长、增长利润提供了机会。但是机遇与挑战并存,利润与风险同在,现在的货运代理人的工作内涵已经发生了显著变化,呈现出多元化和双重职能的特点,这使得货运代理的责任也在发生变化,经营过程中不可避免的遇到一系列竞争和风险。文中从国际货运代理的责任出发,联系我国货运代理企业的服务现状,对货运代理企业的责任风险防范做了简单的论述。%With the world economic integration, international multimodal transport business is surging forward, providing the opportunity to the international freight forwarder for developing business, playing strong points and increasing profits. But both opportunities and challenges coexist, profit and risk are side by side, now the job content of freight agents has changed markedly, and presented the characteristics of diversification and dual functions, which makes the responsibility of the freight forwarders change, and a series of competitions and risks are inevitably encountered in the process of management. This article embarks from the responsibilities of international freight forwarders, combines with the service status of freight forwarding enterprises in our country, and simply discusses the responsibility risk prevention of the freight forwarding enterprise.

  4. Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport Revealed by Ground-based Lidar and Ozonesonde at a Midlatitude Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, M. J.; Burris, John; Wang, Lihua; Knupp, Kevin; Huang, Guanyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents ozone structures measured by a ground-based ozone lidar and ozonesonde at Huntsville, Alabama, on 27-29 April 2010 originating from a stratosphere-to-troposphere transport event associated with a cutoff cyclone and tropopause fold. In this case, the tropopause reached 6 km and the stratospheric intrusion resulted in a 2-km thick elevated ozone layer with values between 70 and 85 ppbv descending from the 306-K to 298-K isentropic surface at a rate of 5 km day1. The potential temperature was provided by a collocated microwave profiling radiometer. We examine the corresponding meteorological fields and potential vorticity (PV) structures derived from the analysis data from the North American Mesoscale model. The 2-PVU (PV unit) surface, defined as the dynamic tropopause, is able to capture the variations of the ozone tropopause estimated from the ozonesonde and lidar measurements. The estimated ozone/PV ratio, from the measured ozone and model derived PV, for the mixing layer between the troposphere and stratosphere is approximately 41 ppbv/PVU with an uncertainty of approximately 33%. Within two days, the estimated mass of ozone irreversibly transported from the stratospheric into the troposphere is between 0.07 Tg (0.9 10(exp33) molecules) and 0.11 Tg (1.3 10(exp33) molecules) with an estimated uncertainty of 59%. Tropospheric ozone exhibited enormous variability due to the complicated mixing processes. Low ozone and large variability were observed in the mid-troposphere after the stratospheric intrusion due to the westerly advection including the transition from a cyclonic system to an anticyclonic system. This study using high temporal and vertical-resolution measurements suggests that, in this case, stratospheric air quickly lost its stratospheric characteristics once it is irreversibly mixed down into the troposphere.

  5. Current Trends and Problems of Development of the Arctic Marine Freight Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Selin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the trends and evaluates the prospects of functioning of the Northern Sea Route. It shows that after the change of its management model its freight traffic has dropped 4-fold, and in the Eastern sector (outside the Vilkitsky Strait – 40-fold. In the recent years there has been a certain revival of transportation, including transit, which reached its maximum of 1.27 million tons in 2012. However, over the next two years they declined again; the drop was particularly significant in 2014 and amounted to a total of 240 thousand tons. The main problem is that this rather complex system is influenced by many factors, often contradictory and poorly predictable. Thus, the growing need for energy resources determines the overall need for developing the Arctic shelf. However, the possibility of climate cooling and the deterioration of ice situation can influence the possibility of transporting these resources. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis followed by the “war of sanctions” will cause a significant decline, especially in the medium term, the attractiveness of the European oil and gas market, which will cause the shift of strategic interests of Russian companies to the Asia-Pacific region. This necessitates the modernization of the Arctic transport and logistics system and introduction of new technical solutions. For instance, even nuclearpowered icebreakers series LA-60Ya that are currently under construction will not be able to escort linear tankers and gas carriers with a deadweight of more than 100 thousand tons along the eastern sector of the Northern Sea Route. It is necessary to create more powerful vessels of the classical type or to design new models. All these driving forces and constraints are not always predictable within the framework of standard economic and statistical approaches. In this regard, the study reflected in the article used expert approaches along with the methods of factor and economic analysis. The

  6. The essential guide to chartering and the dry freight market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents a complete picture of the modern chartering and dry freight market. The different types of ships are explained, what they carry and why. The supply and demand constituents of the market are analysed in detail. How the market is measured and the advantages of controlling freight are discussed and the elements of a voyage calculation are explained. The mechanics of the market, the dangers and pitfalls for the inexperienced, the importance of information and its analysis and the central role of the broker in its dissemination as well as negotiation and strategic advice are all examined in a clear and concise way. Charter parties, their detailed terms and conditions and their legal interpretation are explained from a practical point of view. Examples are given of some charter party forms for grain, coal, ore, fertilisers, salt, sugar, cement and timber. The subjects that owners and charterers argue about, why they are important and how they are dealt with in different charter party forms are analysed. The implication of new legislation, the nature of today's challenges and issues, including e-business and the changing role of the Baltic Exchange, are addressed. 56 figs., 4 apps.

  7. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC FLOW ON A CONVEYOR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tkachev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of control capability of the freight traffic volumes in coal mines, which use storage bunkers for averaging a flow from the mining sections, is carried out on the basis of imitation model of conveyor network with the use of predistribution of conveyor space, on the base of equipment SAUKL for the purpose of stabilizing the freight traffic volume and avoiding the losses during transportation.

  9. Numerical scheme for non-linear model of supercritical fluid extraction from polydisperse ground plant material: single transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Numerical algorithm is developed for modelling non-linear mass transfer process in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The ground raw material is considered as polydisperse, characterized by discrete number of effective particle fractions. Two continuous interacting counterparts separated by permeable membrane are distinguished in plant material build-up. The apoplast plays role of transport channels during extraction, and symplast contains extractable oil. The complete SFE model is non-linear as a result of non-linearity of oil dissolution kinetics. The computational scheme is based on the finite-volume approximation method and Thomas elimination procedure. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Special attention is paid to polydisperse substrates, when particle scale characteristics of all fractions interact with each other through pore phase concentration on the vessel scale. Stability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated in numerical tests. Special iterative procedure guarantees a monotonic decrease of oil content in individual particles of substrate. It is also shown that in the limit of the so-called shrinking core approach the number of mesh nodes on a particle scale should be increased.

  10. Evaluation of the matrix exponential for use in ground-water-flow and solute-transport simulations; theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to obtain analytic solutions to the groundwater flow and solute transport equations if space variables are discretized but time is left continuous. From these solutions, hydraulic head and concentration fields for any future time can be obtained without ' marching ' through intermediate time steps. This analytical approach involves matrix exponentiation and is referred to as the Matrix Exponential Time Advancement (META) method. Two algorithms are presented for the META method, one for symmetric and the other for non-symmetric exponent matrices. A numerical accuracy indicator, referred to as the matrix condition number, was defined and used to determine the maximum number of significant figures that may be lost in the META method computations. The relative computational and storage requirements of the META method with respect to the time marching method increase with the number of nodes in the discretized problem. The potential greater accuracy of the META method and the associated greater reliability through use of the matrix condition number have to be weighed against this increased relative computational and storage requirements of this approach as the number of nodes becomes large. For a particular number of nodes, the META method may be computationally more efficient than the time-marching method, depending on the size of time steps used in the latter. A numerical example illustrates application of the META method to a sample ground-water-flow problem. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  12. 77 FR 76483 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants The Commission gives notice that the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Transportation Intermediary (OTI) license as a Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF) pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101). Notice is also given...

  13. Dynamics of intermodal logistical systems on containerisation and road transportation in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Govender

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The underlying port operations in Durban, South Africa, epitomise intense global competitiveness in the intermodal logistics chain. The link between containerisation and theroad transport network can falter as a result of the dynamics of the logistics system. The main objective of the study was to establish the extent of the intermodal challenges of logistical systems on containerisation to which the role of intermodal sea–road freight transportation enhances the logistical competitiveness. It further examined the intermodal relationship on containerised freight between the challenges of containerisation processes and the effects on road freight transport mode. The impact of containerisation on intermodalism, the sea–road freight transport network and the technological attributes of security-based systems and logistical tracking protocols influence the systematic movement of containers on Durban’s public roads.

  14. The european Trans-Tools transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland

  15. Clash of titans in Express Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJian

    2003-01-01

    So-called integrators are a new breed in the international freight transportation industry. Express carriers used to take small packages and envelopes fastest from one customer to another. The transport of documents are giving way to electronic data transfer, but the key essence of the express business, moving goods from door to door fastest

  16. The european Trans-Tools transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland wate

  17. Analysis of TPL Development Opportunities of Railway Freight Yard in Guizhou%贵州铁路货场发展TPL的机会分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟

    2013-01-01

    Timing,reforming the current railway freight transportation in guizhou province,introduced a concept of third-party logistics(TPL)development of railway freight yard can help rail companies to build their core competitive power as soon as possible,according to the actual situation in guizhou province,this article has analyzed the Guizhou railway freight yard development of third-party logistics advantages according to the actual situation of Guizhou Province,summarized the current development opportunities of Guizhou railway logistics facing,combing the Guizhou railway logistics problems place,put forward the development of the third-party logistics.%当前贵州省铁路货运面临改革时机,引入第三方物流(TPL)概念发展铁路货场能够帮助铁路企业尽快构建自己核心竞争力,文中根据贵州省的实际情况分析了贵州铁路货场发展第三方物流的优势,总结了当前贵州铁路物流面临的发展机会,梳理了贵州铁路物流的问题所在,提出了发展第三方物流的可行性。

  18. Estimation Research on Freight Volume of New Inland Waterway%新建内河航道货运量预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 吴峰; 杨尊伟

    2016-01-01

    结合小清河复航工程实例,根据腹地经济发展、交通运输结构等特点,首先通过产销平衡法初步预测小清河货运量,再采用货源调查法进一步预测小清河分货种货运量,通过综合分析得到小清河水平年总货运量.采用这种定量计算与定性分析相结合的方法预测结果较为合理,成果对缺乏历史数据的新建内河航道货运量预测有一定的参考价值.%By analyzing the waterway re-navigation project of Xiaoqing River, the economy development and transportation system of the hinterland, the freight volume of Xiaoqing River is firstly estimated by using the coordination method of supply and marketing. Then the volume of each specified cargo is further estimated by using goods supply investigation. The mean annual freight volume of Xiaoqing River is finally obtained by comprehensive analysis. The combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation produces a reasonable estimated value. The research results serve as a certain reference for the estimation of freight volume of new inland waterways which lack historical data.

  19. Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Wong, Man Sing; Letu, Husi; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Sheng, Shijie; Teng, Jiyao; Xiao, Xin; Yuan, Limei

    2016-09-01

    By employing PM2.5 observation data, ground-based lidar measurements, MODIS and CALIPSO satellite images, meteorological data, and back trajectories analysis, we investigate a trans-boundary transport of aerosols during a large-area haze episode in China during 3-5 January 2015. The ground-based lidar observations indicated similar episodes of external aerosols passing through and mixing into three East China cities. A considerable amount of total AOD below 3 km (46% in average) was contributed by the external aerosol layers during passing over and importing. CALIPSO satellite observations of central and eastern China revealed a high altitude pollutant belt on January 3. Although the severest ground pollution was found in central and south-eastern Hebei, the high altitude pollution transport was greater in south-western Shandong, north-western Jiangsu, and north-western Anhui. These observations along with the analysis of air mass trajectories and wind fields indicates pollutants moving from Hebei, Henan and Hubei probably contributed to the haze pollution in Shandong and Jiangsu. This study reveals haze transports from North China Plain to East China could be a common phenomenon influenced by the winter monsoon in northern China. Hence, effective control of air pollution requires collaboration among different cities and provinces throughout China. The long-term measurements of aerosol vertical properties by ground-based lidar and CALIPSO are extremely valuable in quantifying the contributions of external factors and will be helpful in validating and improving various air quality models.

  20. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  1. First Destination Transportation and Packaging Initiative (FDTPI), Task Orders 0025 and 0033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    FDTPI) is a transformational logistics R&D program to reduce the acquisition cost of goods purchased by DLA by 1) First Destination Transportation...FDT) converting inbound freight for new procurement goods from Free On Board (FOB) Destination (supplier purchased and controlled transportation) to FOB...program will reduce the cost of goods purchased by converting inbound freight for new procurement goods from Free On Board (FOB) Destination

  2. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  3. 48 CFR 52.246-14 - Inspection of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation. 52.246-14 Section 52.246-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....246-14 Inspection of Transportation. As prescribed in 46.314, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts for freight transportation services (including local drayage) by rail,...

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs.

  5. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yong Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  6. Real time simulation of auctioning and re-scheduling processes in hybrid freight markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    In the freight logistics business, supply chains are under strong pressure to provide customized goods and services. Individualized product deliveries, modifications in product specification, late orders and volume changes need to be accommodated within strict delivery time frames. This uncertainty

  7. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  8. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verron, H.; Friedrich, A. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  9. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  10. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurab Bhowmick; Gunjan,

    2013-01-01

    EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds...

  11. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GREEN TRANSPORT IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT SARI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  13. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  14. Temperature adaptation of active sodium-potassium transport and of passive permeability in erythrocytes of ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Willis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Unidirectional active and passive fluxes of K-42 and Na-24 were measured in red blood cells of ground squirrels (hibernators) and guinea pigs (nonhibernators). As the temperature was lowered, ?active' (ouabain-sensitive) K influx and Na efflux were more considerably diminished in guinea pig cells than in those of ground squirrels. The fraction of total K influx which is ouabain-sensitive in red blood cells of ground squirrels was virtually constant at all temperatures, whereas it decreased abruptly in guinea pig cells as temperature was lowered.

  15. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), develope......- and inter-organizational barriers to the establishment of a competitive and effective combined transport system with rail freight operators as the intermodal integrator. In this paper we describes the ideas and methodology behind the project, as well as some preliminary results....

  16. SUTRA: A model for 2D or 3D saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Provost, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program that simulates fluid movement and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. This upgraded version of SUTRA adds the capability for three-dimensional simulation to the former code (Voss, 1984), which allowed only two-dimensional simulation. The code employs a two- or three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated: 1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated ground-water flow; and 2) either (a) transport of a solute in the ground water, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay; or (b) transport of thermal energy in the ground water and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above processes. A flow-direction-dependent dispersion process for anisotropic media is also provided by the code and is introduced in this report. As the primary calculated result, SUTRA provides fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA flow simulation may be employed for two-dimensional (2D) areal, cross sectional and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of saturated ground-water flow systems, and for cross sectional and 3D modeling of unsaturated zone flow. Solute-transport simulation using SUTRA may be employed to model natural or man-induced chemical-species transport including processes of solute sorption, production, and decay. For example, it may be applied to analyze ground-water contaminant transport problems and aquifer restoration designs. In addition, solute-transport simulation with SUTRA may be used for modeling of variable-density leachate movement, and for cross sectional modeling of saltwater intrusion in

  17. 公路货运大型化及经济性分析%Large-scale Road Freight and Economic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉

    2016-01-01

    公路运输业是国民经济中的一个重要物质生产部门,它能把社会生产、分配、交换和消费的各个环节有机联系起来。随着我国经济快速发展成熟,对运输系统高效运转要求日益增长,这不仅意味着交易过程需要更快速完成,同时也需要降低运输成本。但是我国公路运输市场的特点是多、小、散、弱,运输成本高,运输效益低下,还带来了大量的污染物排放,并且很多运输公司需要经常通过超载来完成运输任务,埋下交通安全隐患的同时也加重了公路设施的损坏。因此发展公路货运大型化是解决上述问题的重要途径,本文主要对公路货运大型化及经济性做重点分析,以此为公路货运大型化发展提供依据。%The road transport industry is an important material production sector in the national economy, which link all aspects of social production, distribution, exchange and consumption organically. With the rapid economic development in China, there are increasing demand for efficient operation of the transportation system, which means not only the need for more rapid completion of the transaction process, but also the need to reduce transport costs. But the characteristics of China's road transport market is large in number, small in scale, scattered, weak, high transport costs, low efficiency of transport, and also brought a lot of pollutants, and many transportation companies often need to be done by overloaded transport tasks, thus planting transportation security risks and also increasing the damage to the road infrastructure. Therefore, the development of large-scale road freight is an important way to solve the problems above. The paper focuses on large-scale road freight and economic analysis, in order to provide a basis for the development of large-scale road freight.

  18. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  19. Profile of the horizontal wind variance near the ground in near neutral flow - K-theory and the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, S.; Frangi, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the vicinity of the ground, and particularly with the profile of the horizontal wind variance. The study is based on experimental measurements performed with fast cup anemometers located near the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m) and sampled at 1 Hz. The experiment was carried over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain). The results of this study reveal that near the ground surface and under moderate wind, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, in direct relationship with the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. A theoretical development has allowed us to link this behaviour to the modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) transport through the eddy diffusivity. Thus, the study proposes a formulation of the similarity universal function of the horizontal wind variance. Besides, the formulation offers a new method for the determination of the friction velocity and the roughness length scale and can be used for the evaluation of the TKE transport rate.

  20. Model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Vehicles, ul. Narbutta Warszawa (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    The paper presents a model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons with emphasis on its longitudinal and lateral characteristics, which influence the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The functioning of the suspension in the horizontal plane is realised by a number of technical (pivoted) pendulums composing linkages. The main feature of the joints of linkages is internal rolling/sliding in the presence of dry friction. The dissipation of energy by dry friction in the joints is the only source of damping, which influences the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. After detailed modelling of the technical pendulum, phenomenological models of the suspension are built, which reproduce the characteristics of the suspension using simple elements. A three-parameter model with one dry-friction slider and two linear springs reproduces the lateral characteristic of the suspension. A nine-parameter model with four dry-friction sliders and five springs reproduces the longitudinal characteristic. The models, using a method of non-smooth mechanics, may be directly implemented to vehicle/track dynamic simulations. (orig.)

  1. Volatility Spillovers in Capesize Forward Freight Agreement Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate spillovers in the Capesize forward freight agreements (FFAs markets before and after the global financial crisis. The paper chooses four Capesize voyage routes FFAs (C3, C4, C5, and C7, two time-charter routes FFAs (BCIT/C average, BPI T/C average, and spot rates as research subjects, covering the periods 3 January 2006 to 24 December 2015. This paper applies Volatility Spillover Multivariate Stochastic Volatility (VS-MSV model to analyze volatility spillover effects and estimates the parameters via software of Bayesian inference using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS, the deviance information criterion (DIC used for goodness-of-fit model. The results suggest that there are volatility spillover effects in certain Capesize FFAs routes, and the effects from spot rates to FFAs take place before crisis, yet they are bilateral after crisis. With the development of shipping markets, the correlations between FFAs and spot rate are enhanced, and it seems that the effects depend on market information and traders’ behavior. So practitioners could make decisions according to the spillovers.

  2. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  3. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  4. The problem of monopoly in rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issues of monopolism in the railway transport are under consideration. It was determined that the railway complex has all the hallmarks of a natural monopoly, a monopoly in the field of freight transportation over long distances. Functioning the railway transport in the form of state monopoly gives rise to a number of problems, which should be solved using the methods of state regulation.

  5. 77 FR 56643 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Doc No: 2012-22498] FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants... Transportation Intermediary (OTI) license as a Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight... given of the filing of applications to amend an existing OTI license or the Qualifying Individual...

  6. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), developed...

  7. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  8. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  10. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    A borehole testing apparatus has been designed to isolate discrete intervals of a bedrock borehole and conduct hydraulic tests or collect water samples for geochemical analyses. This borehole testing apparatus, referred to as the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3), includes two borehole packers, which when inflated can form a pressure-tight seal against smooth borehole walls; a pump apparatus to withdraw water from between the two packers; a fluid-injection apparatus to inject water between the two packers; pressure transducers to monitor fluid pressure between the two packers, as well as above and below the packers; flowmeters to monitor rates of fluid withdrawal or fluid injection; and data-acquisition equipment to record and store digital records from the pressure transducers and flowmeters. The generic design of this apparatus was originally discussed in United States Patent Number 6,761,062 (Shapiro, 2004). The prototype of the apparatus discussed in this report is designed for boreholes that are approximately 6 inches in diameter and can be used to depths of approximately 300 feet below land surface. The apparatus is designed to fit in five hard plastic boxes that can be shipped by overnight freight car-riers. The equipment can be assembled rapidly once it is removed from the shipping boxes, and the length of the test interval (the distance between the two packers) can be adjusted to account for different borehole conditions without reconfiguring the downhole components. The downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 can be lowered in a borehole using steel pipe or a cable; a truck mounted winch or a winch and tripod can be used for this purpose. The equipment used to raise and lower the downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 must be supplied on site, along with electrical power, a compressor or cylinders of compressed gas to inflate the packers and operate downhole valves, and the proper length of tubing to connect the

  12. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  13. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  14. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  15. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  16. Dust aerosol characterization and transport features based on combined ground-based, satellite and model-simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study aerosol characteristics over an urban station in Western India, during a dust event that occurred between 19 and 26 March 2012, with the help of ground-based and satellite measurements and model simulation data. The aerosol parameters are found to change significantly during dust events and they suggest dominance of coarse mode aerosols. The fine mode fraction, size distribution and single scattering albedo reveal that dust (natural) aerosols dominate the anthropogenic aerosols over the study region. Ground-based measurements show drastic reduction in visibility on the dust-laden day (22 March 2012). Additionally, HYSPLIT model and satellite daily data have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of dust storm events. Most of the dust aerosols, during the study period, travel from west-to-east pathway from source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO and synoptic meteorological parameters from ECMWF re-analysis data reveal a layer of thick dust extending from surface to an altitude of about 4 km, and decrease in temperature and increase in specific humidity, respectively. The aerosol radiative forcing calculations indicate more cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere during dust event. The results of satellite observations are found to have good consistency with ground-based air quality measurements. Synthesis of satellite data integrated with ground-based observations, supplemented by model analysis, is found to be a promising technique for improved understanding of dust storm phenomenon and its impact on regional climate.

  17. Sensitivity Study of Cross-Atlantic Dust Transport to Dust Emissions, Chemical Aging and Removal Processes and Comparison with Ground and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Metzger, Swen; Klingmüller, Klaus; Steil, Benedikt; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    -range transport. The comparison of the EMAC results with ground-based observations (AERONET, CASTNET, EMEP), as well as various satellite data (MODIS, MISR and CALIPSO) shows that uncertainties associated with the calculation of the dust transport into the Caribbean reduces by considering the dust aging processes.

  18. Transportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    friction ) draft gear and remaining buffer cars (if any) equipped with either standard draft gear or cushioned draft gear, with the draft gear...to flight testing. (b) Once rigged, attach the sling set apex to the cargo hook of a mobile or overhead crane and hoist the item from the ground

  19. Employment and turnover in the transport and logistics sector in the STRING region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serin, Göran Folke; Holzweber, Markus

    development’. The purpose of the first re- port was to analyse the conditions for European transport and logistics in the STRING region. The purpose of this second report is to analyse the strength and competencies within the freight transport and logistics sector in the STRING region. This means basic...... conditions when analysing the possibilities of establishing a ‘Green Transport Corridor’. The analysis will take its point of departure in analysis of employment, turnover, firm structure and location within the freight transport and logistics sector in the STRING region....

  20. Co-integration Analysis of the Relationship between Logistics Transportation and Economic Growth of Agriculture in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis selects freight volume and passenger capacity from 1978 to 2008 in Zhejiang Province and the total output value of the primary industry as the object of research, uses quantitative method of co-integration analysis to analyze the freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of the primary industry in Zhejiang Province. After the stationary test of the time sequence, I conduct the regression analysis of the relationship between freight volume and the total output value of agriculture, and the relationship between passenger capacity and the total output value of agriculture. In addition, I conduct Granger causality test of the relationship between freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of agriculture. The results show that the transportation of Zhejiang Province has promoted the development of agricultural economy prominently, and the development of agricultural economy plays indistinctive role in promoting the transportation volume in Zhejiang Province.

  1. Inference of Fractured Rock Transport Properties by Joint Inversion of Push-Pull and Single-Hole Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakas, A.; Linde, N.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Flow and transport characterization of fractured rock formations is very challenging and important for a multitude of applications that include groundwater extraction, nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy production. One popular hydrogeological method to study fractured rock is a push-pull test, in which injection and retrieval of a tracer is made at the same depth interval in a borehole. In theory, push-pull tests are not sensitive to changes in the heterogeneity of the tracer flow path since the retrieval at the injection location minimizes advective effects and makes the test more sensitive to time-dependent transport processes. This assumption is limiting in the presence of a natural hydraulic gradient or if non-neutrally buoyant tracers are used, but these limitations can be reduced by monitoring push-pull tests with ground penetrating radar (GPR). We present a methodology for combined modeling and inversion of a series of push-pull tests that we monitored with the single hole ground penetrating radar (GPR) method. For the GPR modeling we use a newly developed approach to simulate the GPR response in fractured rock. We coupled the GPR model to a flow-and-transport simulator that we use to define the electrical properties of the fracture filling. The combined model can cope with heterogeneous fractures of any orientation, aperture and size and allows for the effect of density driven flow (that is strong during the saline tracer tests). We use the combined simulator to create synthetic datasets for both the time-series of the GPR traces at different locations and the tracer breakthrough curves. Since the combined problem is highly non-linear and the inverse solution is ill-posed, we use stochastic inversion techniques to obtain probabilistic estimates of the parameters of interest (fracture length, orientation and aperture distribution) and assess the use of different measures to compare the simulated and experimental data.

  2. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  3. The new devices of gas-turbine engines of ground transport on the basis cascade pressure exchanger of Krajniuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander KRAJNIUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main trends of perfection of gas-turbine engines (GTE of transport plants by application of principles of the cascade pressure exchange (CPE for air compression in the working cycle of gas-turbine plant have been analyzed. The principle of action and performances of work of heat compressor CPE realizing compression of working body on the whole at the expense straight convert inputting heat in disposing work of torrent with insignificant distraction mechanics work from shaft selection of power has been described. The results of computational investigation of four variants of the GTE working process organization on the basis of the two-staged compression assembly with intermediate cooling and heating of air-gas medium have been adduced. Application of units CPE in the capacity of compressing stage GTE opens the prospect of adaptations GTE performance by conditions of work in the capacity of forcing units of overland transport.

  4. Calculated disturbances for evaluation of dynamical properties of freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashchenko

    2013-08-01

    defining the standardized factors of the dynamical properties of empty and loaded open cars. Comparison of the calculated factors and experimental data demonstrated its assurance. Originality. The three models of the calculated disturbances that can be used for calculating estimation of the maximal values of the standardized dynamical factors of freight vehicles are proposed. Practical value. The research results ensure an acceptable predicted evaluation of the dynamical properties factors for the designed or refitted vehicles of railway rolling stock, refinement of the values of the certain system parameters at the stage of prototypes, reduction of the expenses for performance trials, etc.

  5. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  6. Analysis of transport and ground deposition of the TCDD emitted on 10 July 1976 from the ICMESA factory (Seveso, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, A.; Tebaldi, G.; Gualdi, R.

    The areas affected by the contamination of TCDD emitted by the ICMESA factory (Meda-Seveso, Italy) have been identified through soil samples. To determine the course of the paniculate toxic cloud, we have analysed the wind field considering the data obtained by the six meteorological stations placed in the vicinity of the factory. After determining the theoretical path of the release, we have studied the values of the ground concentration of TCDD and we have looked for a deposition equation. We thus demonstrated out that the axial deposition YCA( μgm-2) decreases exponentially accordingly to two different regression lines: YCA = 2900 exp(-2.3 x) forx TCDD deposition should tend to the value of 0.3 μg m -2: at a distance of 10 km from ICMESA and there later sampling showed a maximum value of 0.2μg m -2.

  7. 20世纪80年代中期以来长三角地区货运量动态研究%STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FREIGHT VOLUME IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA SINCE THE MID-1980S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 曹有挥; 梁双波; 肖琛

    2011-01-01

    Taking 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta as the object of study,this paper analyzes the freight volume dynamics and influencing mechanism since the mid-1980s from the aspects of quantitative growth,evolution in spatial pattern,spatial competition and pattern change of container cargo flow.The results show that,both the freight volume,freight turnover and the transportation range in the Yangtze River Delta have increased by a large margin and the regional spatial structure of freight volume has a complicated change with the rapid economic growth during the past 20 years.The centralization pattern is obvious in these years,Shanghai,Nanjing,Hangzhou,Ningbo is prominent in freight volume,but the distribution of freight volume tend to equilibrium as a whole,meanwhile,the freight and production place appeared some isolated situation.The container cargo flow in the Yangtze River Delta is highly competitive.Shanghai initially established the position as the central hub port and Ningbo port has the obvious advantages of spatial agglomeration,but the general spatial agglomeration function of container port system is not prominent.The driving mechanism of freight dynamics is mainly influenced by economic globalization,global supply chain and manufacturing paradigm shift from the macroscopic level,while from the middle and microcosmic level,it was mainly affected by regional economic systems and integrated transport costs,regional segmentation and traffic management system,etc.%以长三角地区16市为研究对象,从数量增长、空间格局变动及集装箱运输的空间竞争与格局演变等方面对长三角地区20世纪80年代中期以来货运量动态变化及其影响机制进行了分析。结果表明:随着经济的快速增长,长三角地区货运量、货运周转量及平均运距均大幅增长,货运量地域空间结构变动复杂,总体上极化特征突出,在时间演化上趋于区域均衡化,但同时货运量与生产地出现了一定

  8. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  9. Announcement by the Internal Transport Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets, freight containers and lids that are no longer in use to contact the Internal Transport Service of the GS department (George Truelove), which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. Please also contact Mr. Truelove if you receive an order that is not meant for you. Internal Transport Service

  10. Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrology of the north-central Everglades was altered substantially in the past century by canal dredging, land subsidence, ground-water pumping, and levee construction. Vast areas of seasonal and perennial wetlands were converted to uses for agriculture, light industry, and suburban development. As the catchment area for the Everglades decreased, so did the sources of water from local precipitation and runoff from surrounding uplands. Partly in response to those alterations, water-resources managers compartmentalized the remaining wetlands in the north-central Everglades into large retention basins, called Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). In spite of efforts to improve how water resources are managed, the result has been frequent periods of excessive drying out or flooding of the WCAs because the managed system does not have the same water-storage capacity as the pre-drainage Everglades. Linked to the hydrological modifications are ecological changes including large-scale invasions of cattail, loss of tree islands, and diminishing bird populations in the Everglades. Complex interactions among numerous physical, chemical, and biological factors are responsible for the long-term degradation of the ecological character of the Everglades.Over the past 15 years, a new set of smaller wetland basins, called Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been designed and constructed by water-resources engineers on the former wetlands adjacent to WCAs. The purpose of STAs is to remove excess nutrients from agricultural drainage water prior to its input to WCAs. STAs tend to be about one-tenth the size of a WCA, and they are located on former wetlands on the northwestern side of WCAs on sites that were managed as farmland for much of the twentieth century in an area referred to as the Everglades Agricultural Area, or EAA. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

  11. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Niels; Jansen, Jan; Pieters, Reinder; Weijers, Stef; Woodburn, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in Logisti

  12. Modelling of Freight Trains Classification Using Queueing System Subject to Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Dorda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model and a simulation model of the freight trains classification process. We model the process as a queueing system with a server which is represented by a hump at a marshalling yard. We distinguish two types of shunting over the hump; primary shunting represents the classification of inbound freight trains over the hump (it is the primary function of marshalling yards, and secondary shunting is, for example, represented by the classification of trains of wagons entering the yard via industrial sidings. Inbound freight trains are considered to be customers in the system, and all needs of secondary shunting are failures of the hump because performing secondary shunting occupies the hump, and therefore inbound freight trains cannot be sorted. All random variables of the model are considered to be exponentially distributed with the exception of customer service times which are Erlang distributed. The mathematical model was created using method of stages and can be solved numerically employing a suitable software tool. The simulation model was created using coloured Petri nets. Both models are tested in conditions of a marshalling yard.

  13. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  14. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  15. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  16. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  17. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  18. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  19. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  20. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  1. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... of the Army, DoD. ] SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is... each year. This will affect domestic motor TSPs only (common, contract, logistics, freight forwarders... Deployment and Distribution Command, ATTN: AMSSD-SBD-QA, 1 Soldier Way, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5006. Request for...

  2. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... registration system, discloses the cumulative information to be collected in the URS, and provides a... January 13, 2014, to solicit ideas and information concerning sections 32101 and 32916 of the Moving Ahead... authority as motor carriers (property, passenger, and household goods (HHG)), freight forwarders and brokers...

  3. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Huyen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  4. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Bhowmick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds.In this study, the purpose of the carriage is to be self-propelled using highly efficient traction motors powering each carriage made of high strength Aluminum having individual and independent wheel set. Also, the wagon will harness the waste braking energy using regenerative braking technique to power the traction motors partially. This study addresses the problem of severe line congestion, unwanted holding of freight trains to make passageway for passenger trains, light weight wagons, harnessing the wastage braking energy which are generally removed as heat. Therefore, study of the methodologies suggested has to be done in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods both in terms of technology and financially. To achieve this detailed analysis is carried out to understand the modification of normal freight wagon to self-propelled EMU type wagon.

  5. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  7. The Dynamics of a Railway Freight Wagon Wheelset with dry friction Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Asmund, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a simple model of a wheelset that supports one end of a railway freight wagon by springs with linear characteristics and dry friction dampers. The wagon runs on an ideal, straight and level track with constant speed. The lateral dynamics in dependence on the speed...

  8. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  9. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  10. Opportunities for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Multi-Modal Intra-City Freight Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2017-07-06

    This poster focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's analysis of opportunities for freight movement energy savings via optimization and integration of existing/emerging intra-city goods delivery modes as well as an assessment of the efficacy and energy consumption impact of new technologies.

  11. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Jansen; Reinder Pieters; Allan Woodburn; Niels Meijer; Stef Weijers

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in

  12. SUSTAINABLE INTERMODAL FREIGHT BY ROUTE CHOICE WITH PRACTICALITY CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo, Marie; Anciaux, Didier; Roy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The transfer of goods and raw materials from one point to another in a supply chain is by various transportation modes namely road, air, sea or inland water, railway... These transportation modes generate a variety of potentially harmful environmental impacts. Indeed, the growth of multimodal infrastructures and intermodal services contributes to intensify the environmental impacts. The levels and types of pollution due to transport mainly depend on the combination of ...

  13. On the influence of freight trains on humans: a laboratory investigation of the impact of nocturnal low frequency vibration and noise on sleep and heart rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing vibration amplitude. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The impacts of various amplitudes of horizontal vibrations on sleep disturbance and heart rate were investigated in a laboratory study. Cardiac accelerations were assessed using a combination of polysomnography and ECG recordings. Sleep was assessed subjectively using questionnaires. Twelve young, healthy subjects slept for six nights in the sleep laboratory, with one habituation night, one control night and four nights with a variation of vibration exposures whilst maintaining the same noise exposure. With increasing vibration amplitude, we found a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of heart rate as well as a reduction in sleep quality and increase in sleep disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that nocturnal vibration has a negative impact on sleep and that the impact increases with greater vibration amplitude. Sleep disturbance has short- and long-term health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to define levels that protect residents against sleep disruptive vibrations that may arise from night time railway freight traffic.

  14. Economic and mathematical justification of train traffic volume distribution on the direction of rail transportation with parallel runnings Znamenka – Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Logvinova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the economic grounded sizes of motion of freight trains between the areas of railway direction with parallel runnings. A research task is distribution in the operative terms of train work at admission of freight trains between the areas of railway direction with parallel runnings. Methodology. Research is executed with the use of classic methods and methods of the linear programming. Findings. The rational train traffic volume distribution on a railway infrastructure with parallel runnings is presently carried out by an expert method on the basis of information about the before executed volumes of transportations without application of feasibility study. For the task solution of train traffic volume distribution between parallel runnings of railway direction a linear model and methods of the linear programming are used in operative terms. At a design all train traffic volume on a direction part on undistributed train traffic volume – which remaines unchanging for all variants of operative management and distributed – which it is possible to redistribute in some limits between parallel runnings of railway direction. Originality. From the scientific point of view the work is interesting and important by the methods of the linear programming, which allow conducting train traffic volume distribution between parallel runnings in operative terms. Practical value. The practical value of this research is in applying of the described economic and mathematical modeling methods of train traffic volume distribution between parallel runnings on direction Znamenka - Odessa. 10 pairs transmission of freight trains from basic direction Pomoshnaya – Kolosovka – Odessa on parallel direction Pomoshnaya - Kotovsk – Separate is Odessa can be included with the optimum variant.

  15. A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Tushar

    Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ˚N, 83.24˚E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ˚N, 79.18 ˚E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

  16. On Development of Small and Micro Companies of Logistics and Freight in Wuhan%武汉市小微物流货运公司发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文杰

    2015-01-01

    小微物流货运公司的经营业态以货代、省内专线零担运输或快递业务为主,占公路运输市场至少90%以上的份额,是一国和地区经济发展的最根本支撑。本文研究了国内学者关于小微物流公司的观点,客观分析了武汉市小微物流货运公司运行的现状,结合SWOT分析法分析了我市小微物流货运公司发展的环境对我市小微物流货运公司的发展提出了建设性建议。%Small and micro companies in Wuhan mainly operate such services as freight forwarding, special line retail solution to provincial freight and express delivery. They become the basic pillar of the regional economic devel-opment for their 90%of market share in highway transportation. After reviewing the study of small and micro compa-nies of logistics and freight, the paper analyzes the operating situation of these companies in Wuhan, and their devel-opment environment with SWOT method. At the end, it offers some recommendations for the development of these companies.

  17. Analysis on the International Freight Forwarder Logistics Industry in Suzhou Based on SWOT-PEST Matrix%基于SWOT-PEST矩阵的苏州国际货代物流业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董越

    2014-01-01

    苏州经济是典型的外向型经济模式,从2000之后,苏州的外贸依存度就超过了100%,GDP的发展很大程度上依赖于对外贸易的发展,因此,作为提供国际货物运输服务的国际货代物流业的发展状况也直接影响着苏州整体经济的发展状况。文章运用SWOT—PEST矩阵对苏州的国际货代物流业进行了分析,并提出了相应的发展策略。%Suzhou economy is a typical export-oriented economic model. Science 2000, the foreign trade dependence degree of Suzhou is over 100%, the development of GDP largely depends on the development of foreign trade. So, as the provider of international freight forwarder transportation services, the development situation of international freight forwarder logistics industry directly impacts the development of the whole economy in Suzhou. This paper analyzes the international freight forwarder logistics industry in Suzhou by using SWOT-PEST matrix and puts forward the related development strategy.

  18. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  19. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  20. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.