WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground force combat

  1. Trained and Ready Combat Forces: The Role of Training Devices in Sustaining Combat Force Proficiency During Deployments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, James

    1997-01-01

    ... (MOOTW). The Army's ground combat forces, even while engaged in MOOTW activities, must maintain proficiency to wage war in the event that peacetime engagement, deterrence and conflict prevention fail...

  2. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  3. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield.

  4. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for Fort Irwin, Naval Air Station, North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Louis District, conducted an investigation of all archaeological materials and associated records in the care of NAS North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Fort Irwin, and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms...

  5. Basic Combat Unit of the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    public sector .6 There are three main reasons why: 1. After Slovenia joined NATO, political support for the armed forces began to decline. Image...can put three $20 bills together, but if we have an $18 or $20 fight, we have a unit that’s capable of a better integration (with other forces) and... three different $20 bills . It has to be noted, that the U.S. Army did significantly reduce the number of types of combat brigades from seventeen to

  6. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Liedtke, Christian; Droog, Ed

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  7. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    coordinate, and control joint and multinational aircraft during CAS situations in combat and training. The current system which the CAS mission falls...current system , experiences from Vietnam, Operation Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq help to identify future challenges to the operating environment ...multinational partners. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Ground Integration, Theater Air Ground System , Theater Air Control System , Army Air Ground System , Joint

  8. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Luhai Wong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...distance of 100m in the model , which is reasonable due to the constrained nature of an urban environment. This thesis also uses the key parameters...ENGINEERING APPROACH TO GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS by Luhai Wong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Christopher A

  9. Object-Oriented Modular Architecture for Ground Combat Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luqi; Berzins, V; Shing, M; Saluto, M; Williams, J

    2000-01-01

    .... It describes the effective use of computer-aided prototyping techniques for re-engineering the legacy software to develop an object-oriented modular architecture for the Janus combat simulation system. Janus...

  10. Project Guardian: Optimizing Electronic Warfare Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parks, Jack G; Jackson, William; Revello, James; Soltesz, James

    1995-01-01

    .... The study, Project Guardian, represents a new process for determining the optimum set of sensors and countermeasures for a specific vehicle class under the constraints of threat projection, combat...

  11. Stakeholder Analysis of Integrating Women Into Ground Combat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    number 21 was titled, “ Nike Store, Men’s Clearance Shoes, Clothing and Gear.” If a link to an article or media site did not work, then that data...Brown, K. (2007). Co-ed combat: The new evidence that women shouldn’t fight the nation’s wars. New York: Penguin Group (USA), Inc . Burrelli, David...L. (2013). Deadly consequences: How cowards are pushing women into combat. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc . 110 Maginnis, R. L. (n.d

  12. The Way of the Gun: Applying Lessons of Ground Combat to Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    i AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE WAY OF THE GUN : APPLYING LESSONS OF GROUND COMBAT...teaching officers, for example, that the guns go quiet in combat inoculates them from suspecting a bad lot of ammunition or firearm malfunction when...their guns go “pop” instead of “bang.”41 This 17 first piece of the puzzle is called Survival Stress Management, and it is the most basic level

  13. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  14. Evaluation of Combat Service Support Logistics Concepts for Supplying a USMC Regimental Task Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenhardt, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... This thesis evaluates existing and proposed concepts on how to best use the CSSE resources of a Force Service Support Group to transport supplies to Regimental Combat Teams over constrained networks...

  15. The Warfighting Capacity of Air Combat Command's Numbered Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanser, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ...) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), General Richard E. Hawley, the ACC Commander, asked if RAND could offer an analysis of the number of NAFs that were needed by ACC to meet warfighting requirements...

  16. Logistics Operations in Combat Operations Against an Insurgent Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatcher, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... The road networks are generally not secure and put soldiers at risk. How do we distribute supplies and reduce the risk or avoid the enemy's threat to our combat logistics patrols in an insurgent environment...

  17. Ground Combat Training Squadron Complex Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Squadron E nvironm ental A ssessm ent Page 1-6 Eglin A ir Force Base, FL Final Figure 1-2. R esources N ot C arried Forw ard for D etailed A...Base, FL Final Figure 3-1. W ater R esources w ithin or near the Proposed A ction or A lternative L ocations Legend c::J Project Sites 1 00...bat T raining Squadron E nvironm ental A ssessm ent Page 3-14 Eglin A ir Force Base, FL Final Figure 3-3. B iological R esources w ithin or

  18. Air Ground Integration and the Brigade Combat Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Theater Air Control System TADIL-J Tactical Digital Information Link-J TAGS Theater Air Ground System TAIS Tactical Air Integration System TBMCS Theater...during planning and execution. This system interacts with the Theater Battle Management Core System ( TBMCS ) used by the JAOC to build and disseminate...control nodes within the AAGS, in conjunction with the interoperability with the TBMCS and Army mission command systems facilitates information flow during

  19. Optimal Career Progression of Ground Combat Arms Officers in the Marine Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Reamy, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine career progression for ground combat arms officers in the Marine Corps Reserve, and to identify gaps between current and optimal career progression. Recent policy changes provide the catalyst for this thesis. On 4 December 2006, the Marine Corps announced the implementation of the Officer Candidate Course-Reserve. At the time, active component manpower practices and historically high retention rates resulted in reduced numbers of officers leaving activ...

  20. Command and Control of Private Security Contractors: Are They a Viable Force Option for the Combatant Commander?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherard, Scott H

    2008-01-01

    If a Combatant Commander (CCDR) or Joint Force Commander (JFC) were to take command of the approximately 25,000 security contractors in Iraq, a force of such size and capability would prove to be a valuable operational asset...

  1. Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Title of thesis: Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic. Aim of thesis: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of termination, the risk of injury and severity of selected techniques of fighting on the ground in order to create a theoretical model for the incorporation of new techniques into close combat training in the Army of the Czech Republic. Methods: This thesis is processed by multivariate preferences. ...

  2. Comparison of a Distributed Operations Force to a Traditional Force in Urban Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babilot, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ...). The employment of a DO is compared to employment of a traditional Marine infantry platoon in an urban combat scenario based upon data obtained from Operation al-Fajr, conducted in Fallujah, Iraq, in November 2004...

  3. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    circularly pierced with ragged edges, exposing a white globe in base market with light gray land areas and dark gray lines of latitude and longitude...34 SQUADRONS 459 EMBLEM. Over and through an Jun 1943 (operated from Guadalcanal, ultramarine blue disc. a white unicorn , 25 Aug-14 Oct 1943; 24 Nov-31... unicorn in flight, horn Air Force yellow, shaded golden brown; outlines and details black throughout. LINEAGE. Constituted 817 th Bombard- Motto: On

  4. Strategic Implications of U.S. Fighter Force Reductions: Air-to-Air Combat Modeling Using Lanchester Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF US FIGHTER FORCE REDUCTIONS: AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT MODELING USING LANCHESTER ...TO-AIR COMBAT MODELING USING LANCHESTER EQUATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...MODELING USING LANCHESTER EQUATIONS Ronald E. Gilbert, BS, MBA Major, USAF Approved

  5. Air Force Intelligence Role in Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (Maxwell Paper, Number 39)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Zielinski , National Counterproliferation Center chief of staff, interview by the author, 3 February 2006. 42...Col Joe Pridotkas, NASIC/CC, interview by the author, 28 Febru- ary 2006. 29 78. Report to the President, 6. 79. Sandi Zielinski , National...Force C-CBRNE Master Plan, 30 June 2004, 5. 84. Dave Coffey, Air Combat Command IS/FPI, interview by the author, 2 February 2006. 85. Col

  6. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    responsibility is to defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve...defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve a variety...catastrophic kill. A number of foreign tracked IFVs mount either hard kill 13 or soft kill 14 APS and the Army is presently examining both non

  7. Staging Options for the Air Force’s Electronic Combat Test Capability: a Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    strategic in nature and completely different than daily operating decisions (20:6). Horngren , in his book Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis...AFIT/GCA/LSY/90S-3 DTTC S E-191 J) C, STAGING OPTIONS FOR THE AIR FORCE’S ELECTRONIC COMBAT TEST CAPABILITY: A COST ANALYSIS THESIS Joseph J. Landino...Alternative Costs ......... 56 v AFIT/GCA/LSY/90S-3 Abstract This study’s purpose was to identify the lowest cost aircraft staging base( s ) for the Air

  8. Three-Axis Ground Reaction Force Distribution during Straight Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masataka; Nakai, Akihito; Shimoyama, Isao

    2017-10-24

    We measured the three-axis ground reaction force (GRF) distribution during straight walking. Small three-axis force sensors composed of rubber and sensor chips were fabricated and calibrated. After sensor calibration, 16 force sensors were attached to the left shoe. The three-axis force distribution during straight walking was measured, and the local features of the three-axis force under the sole of the shoe were analyzed. The heel area played a role in receiving the braking force, the base area of the fourth and fifth toes applied little vertical or shear force, the base area of the second and third toes generated a portion of the propulsive force and received a large vertical force, and the base area of the big toe helped move the body's center of mass to the other foot. The results demonstrate that measuring the three-axis GRF distribution is useful for a detailed analysis of bipedal locomotion.

  9. Unmanned Ground Vehicles for Integrated Force Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    employed. 2 Force Protection 18 MAR 02 Security Posts Squad Laptop Fire Tm Ldr Wearable Computers OP/LP Def Fight Psn SRT Sensors USA, USMC, Allied...visual systems. Attaching sensors and response devices on a monorail proved to be much more technically challenging than expected. Film producers and...facilitate experimentation with weapon aiming and firing techniques from the MRHA. grated Marsupial Delivery System was developed to transport smaller

  10. Grounding the RPA Force: Why Machine Needs Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GROUNDING THE RPA FORCE: WHY MACHINE NEEDS MAN by Charles M. Washuk, Major, USAF (MBA...6 CHALLENGES OF MANNED FLIGHT...tactics will still require the presence of an operator, or “ man .” This paper focuses on the need for the Air Force to address the 18X career field and

  11. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  12. Dynamically adjustable foot-ground contact model to estimate ground reaction force during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yihwan; Jung, Moonki; Ryu, Jiseon; Yoon, Sukhoon; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Koo, Seungbum

    2016-03-01

    Human dynamic models have been used to estimate joint kinetics during various activities. Kinetics estimation is in demand in sports and clinical applications where data on external forces, such as the ground reaction force (GRF), are not available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the GRF during gait by utilizing distance- and velocity-dependent force models between the foot and ground in an inverse-dynamics-based optimization. Ten males were tested as they walked at four different speeds on a force plate-embedded treadmill system. The full-GRF model whose foot-ground reaction elements were dynamically adjusted according to vertical displacement and anterior-posterior speed between the foot and ground was implemented in a full-body skeletal model. The model estimated the vertical and shear forces of the GRF from body kinematics. The shear-GRF model with dynamically adjustable shear reaction elements according to the input vertical force was also implemented in the foot of a full-body skeletal model. Shear forces of the GRF were estimated from body kinematics, vertical GRF, and center of pressure. The estimated full GRF had the lowest root mean square (RMS) errors at the slow walking speed (1.0m/s) with 4.2, 1.3, and 5.7% BW for anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical forces, respectively. The estimated shear forces were not significantly different between the full-GRF and shear-GRF models, but the RMS errors of the estimated knee joint kinetics were significantly lower for the shear-GRF model. Providing COP and vertical GRF with sensors, such as an insole-type pressure mat, can help estimate shear forces of the GRF and increase accuracy for estimation of joint kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  14. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  15. Ground reaction forces of Olympic and World Championship race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Race walking is an Olympic event where no visible loss of contact should occur and the knee must be straightened until midstance. The purpose of this study was to analyse ground reaction forces of world-class race walkers and associate them with key spatiotemporal variables. Nineteen athletes race walked along an indoor track and made contact with two force plates (1000 Hz) while being filmed using high-speed videography (100 Hz). Race walking speed was correlated with flight time (r = .46, p = .049) and flight distance (r = .69, p = .001). The knee's movement from hyperextension to flexion during late stance meant the vertical push-off force that followed midstance was smaller than the earlier loading peak (p push-off forces (r = .60, p = .011). Lower fluctuations in speed during stance were associated with higher stride frequencies (r = .69, p = .001), and highlighted the importance of avoiding too much braking in early stance. The flattened trajectory and consequential decrease in vertical propulsion might help the race walker avoid visible loss of contact (although non-visible flight times were useful in increasing stride length), while a narrow stride width was important in reducing peak forces in all three directions and could improve movement efficiency.

  16. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  17. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  18. Vertical ground reaction force analysis during gait with unstable shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Footwear is no longer just an accessory but also a protection for the musculoskeletal system, and its most important characteristic is comfort.Objectives This study aims to identify and to analyze the vertical ground reaction force in barefoot women and women with unstable shoes.Methodology Five women aged 25 ± 4 years old and mass of 50 ± 7 kg participated in this study. An AMTI force plate was used for data acquisition. The 10 trials for each situation were considered valid where the subject approached the platform with the right foot and at the speed of 4 km/h ± 5%. The instable shoe of this study is used in the practice of physical activity.Results The results showed that the first peak force was higher for the footwear situation, about 5% and significant differences between the barefoot and footwear situation. This significant difference was in the first and second peaks force and in the time of the second peak.Conclusion The values showed that the footwear absorbs approximately 45% of the impact during gait.

  19. Ground Reaction Forces During Reduced Gravity Running in Parabolic Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter; Rice, Andrea; Glauberman, Molly; Sudduth, Amanda; Cherones, Arien; Davis, Shane; Lewis, Michael; Hanson, Andrea; Wilt, Grier

    2017-08-01

    Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions. On average, stride length increased as gravity decreased. The first and second peaks of the GRFs decreased by 0.156 and 0.196 bodyweights, respectively, per 1/10 g change in ambient gravity. Based on comparisons with previously measured GRF during loaded treadmill running on the International Space Station, we conclude that unloaded treadmill running under lunar and Martian conditions during exploration missions is not likely to be an osteo-protective exercise.Cavanagh P, Rice A, Glauberman M, Sudduth A, Cherones A, Davis S, Lewis M, Hanson A, Wilt G. Ground reaction forces during reduced gravity running in parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):730-736.

  20. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Buist, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Background: One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground

  1. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  2. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  3. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

  4. Set Up for Failure: The Use of US Security Force Assistance to Prepare Foreign Security Forces for Traditional Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-17

    troops. 69 Ibid., 129. 29 to resist. This is a tension with respect to traditional combat operations; where urgency is high, the preservation...or peace prior to December 1941.”83 MacArthur was known to have a sense of his own infallibility, was confident that he could solve any problem...mind, that end-state changed, and neither army was afforded the time to reach that new end-state. The notion of urgency potentially requiring the

  5. Vertical ground reaction forces in patients after calcaneal trauma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, S; Verbruggen, J; Willems, P; Meijer, K; Poeze, M

    2017-10-01

    Vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) are altered in patients after foot trauma. It is not known if this correlates with ankle kinematics. The aim of this study was to analyze VGRFs in patients after calcaneal trauma and correlate them to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), radiographic findings and kinematic analysis, using a multi-segment foot model. In addition, we determined the predictive value of VGRFs to identify patients with altered foot kinematics. Thirteen patients (13 feet) with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, were included an average of two years after trauma surgery. PROMs, radiographic findings on postoperative computed tomography scans, gait analysis using the Oxford foot model and VGRFs were analysed during gait. Results were compared with those of 11 healthy subjects (20 feet). Speed was equal in both groups, with healthy subjects walking at self-selected slow speed (0.94±0.18m/s) and patients after surgery walking at self-selected normal speed (0.94±0.29m/s). ROC curves were used to determine the predictive value. Patients after calcaneal surgery showed a lower minimum force during midstance (p=0.004) and a lower maximum force during toe-off (p=0.011). This parameter correlated significantly with the range of motion in the sagittal plane during the push-off phase (r 0.523, p=0.002), as well as with PROMs and with postoperative residual step-off (r 0.423, p=0.016). Combining these two parameters yielded a cut-off value of 193% (ppush-off correlated significantly with PROMs, range of motion in the sagittal plane during push-off and radiographic postoperative residual step-off in the posterior facet of the calcaneal bone. VGRFs are a valuable screening tool for identifying patients with altered gait patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes in Combat: Effect of Military Deployment on Diabetes Mellitus in Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 16 MAR 201 7 1. Your paper, entitled Diabetes in Combat: Effect of Military Deployment...your presentation was given. At that time, we will need the date (month, day and year) along with the location of your presentation. It is...important to update this information so that we can provide quality support for you, your department, and the Medical Center commander. This information is

  7. Experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment in the Canadian forces combat arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu; Febbraro, Angela R

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies examining sexual harassment in the military indicate a decrease in reports of harassment, which may be attributed to several factors, including zero-tolerance policies or anti-harassment programs. However, the decrease may also be attributed to fears of losing one's job or of being derogated by colleagues if harassment is reported. This qualitative study of women employed in the Canadian combat arms examined spontaneously shared perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment. Six of the 26 women interviewed shared their experiences or perceptions of harassment, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting. Implications for gender integration in military organizations are discussed.

  8. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  9. Rushing to Failure Impacts of a Gender-Neutral Military on Combat Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    muscular strength and aerobic capacity place women at a distinct disadvantage when performing tasks required for direct ground combat specialties...order to preserve readiness, grow the talented pool of women, and ensure combat effectiveness of the military force. Proponents that advocate for

  10. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T

    2015-12-01

    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  12. An introductory handbook for state task forces to combat drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982 Governor Robb created a task force to identify and assess efforts under way in Virginia to address the problem of drunken driving and to make recommendations. This booklet was prepared to assist the task force in its deliberations.

  13. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics ...20 Table 2. Summary of M6 Linebacker, Pantsir S1 and Stormer Characteristics ............22 Table 3. Mapping of Operational Activities...MAD Systems Examples of tracked oblique-launched MAD systems include the M6 Linebacker (converted back to BFV M2A2 ODS since 2005), Stormer , and...Summa1y ofM6 Linebacker, Pantsir S1 and St01mer Characteristics M6 Linebacker Pantsir Sl Stormer Missile StingerRMP 9M335 Starstreak Ran2e (km) 8

  14. Relevance of Army National Guard Infantry Units in the Force Structure and Their Role in Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...% of a total force of 346,848 assigned. Such large numbers are staggering considering that National Guard infantry units are not being utilized according to their organization training and equipment...

  15. Combat Pair: The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambeth, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the exceptional cross-service harmony that the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have steadily developed in their conduct of integrated strike operations since the first Persian Gulf War in 1991...

  16. Supporting Air and Space Expeditionary Forces: Expanded Operational Architecture for Combat Support Execution Planning and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Patrick; Evers, Ken; Kinlin, Donna; Tripp, Robert S

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. military has supported continuous deployments of forces around the world, often on very short notice and for prolonged duration, to meet the needs of a wide range of peacekeeping and humanitarian...

  17. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: Assessment and comparison with walking dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbee, R.J.; Maas, H.; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and

  18. Missing in Action: Where Are the Air Force’s Geographic Combatant Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    would usher in a more Kantian world order.19 In 1993, Charles Kegley implied that the fall of the iron curtain was a “potent catalyst” pushing the...the values point to unchanging characteristics of the profession of arms.7 The values also help Air Force leadership determine the ethical climate...follow ethical practices in the acquisitions field. During the same period, Air Force General Gregory Martin was nominated to become the first non

  19. Oil alarm. Equipment and techniques for fire brigades for combatting spills of ground water pollutants. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattner, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The little red book discusses liquid and liquefying substances that present a groundwater hazard, their occurrence, the hazards of spills, and the equipment and techniques required for combatting them. (orig.) [de

  20. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Methods: Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force w...

  1. Environmental Assessment: Combat Information Transport System Upgrade Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-21

    impacted by general construction hazards. Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects ...or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and unstable ground. Bi?logical hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease...Region Interagency Archeological Services Branch, San Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6

  2. Forced vibration tests of a model foundation on rock ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisaki, N.; Siota, M.; Yamada, M.; Ikeda, A.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kitazawa, K.; Kuwabara, Y.; Ogiwara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The response of very stiff structures, such as nuclear reactor buildings, to earthquake ground motion is significantly affected by radiation damping due to the soil-structure interaction. The radiation damping can be computed by vibration admittance theory or dynamical ground compliance theory. In order to apply the values derived from these theories to the practical problems, comparative studies between theoretical results and experimental results concerning the soil-structure interaction, especially if the ground is rock, are urgently needed. However, experimental results for rock are less easily obtained than theoretical ones. The purpose of this paper is to describe the harmonic excitation tests of a model foundation on rock and to describe the results of comparative studies. (orig./HP)

  3. A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not...MHS) is required to provide medical operational forces for military and contingency operations while also providing services that maintain a healthy...provide timely support of joint forcible entry or other contingencies requiring rapid response. Further, the complexity and cost of the beneficiary

  4. The solar forcing on the ground 7 Be concentration variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, S.; Borsan, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    7 Be, natural radionuclide, is produced by the interaction of cosmic radiation with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 7 Be production in atmosphere depends on the intensity of cosmic radiation which is influenced by the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetosphere shape depends on solar activity. This paper presents the influence of sunspots number (11 years period) on the ground 7 Be concentration variability. (authors)

  5. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  6. Project AIR FORCE Modeling Capabilities for Support of Combat Operations in Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    within the Air Force and OSD.7 First, we thank Generals Herbert Carlisle, PACAF/CC, and Janet Wolfenbarger, AFMC/CC, for sponsoring this work. Gen...A5X, Brig Gen (s) John Cherrey, AF/A5XS, Col Jordan Thomas, AFA5XS, Lt Col Nathan Mead , AF/A5XS, Col Rich Gannon, AF/A9F, Ray Miller, AF/A9FC...linear programming (LP), which was developed in the 1940s by George Danzig to solve problems relevant to military logistics. Setting up MIP is

  7. Women in combat: The status and roles assigned female personnel in the permanent defence forces.

    OpenAIRE

    Clonan, Thomas Martin

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the PhD study is to examine critically the integration of female personnel within the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF). Their integration is examined in light of the deployment of women in the international military, and in light of a liberal-feminist examination of the workplace in terms of its equality of opportunity agenda. It is argued that the sex-role stereotyping used to recruit young men in to the military in the past along with socio-biological theories of women’s and me...

  8. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. Combat Chronology 1941-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    B-17’s and B-24’s bomb M/Ys at Troyes , Reims, Sarreguemines, Metz, Liege, and Brussels. 5/1/44 Ninth AF The last of the 11 bomb gps (8 medium and 3...weather and photo rcn over Shimushu and bomb Matsuwa area. 5/25/44 Eighth AF 859 B-17’s and B-24’s operating in 4 forces bomb M/Ys at Mulhouse, Troyes ...Dessau, Oschersleben, Halberstadt, Rotenburg, Zwischenahn, Oldenburg, Diepholz, and Handorf; M/Ys at Brussels, Troyes , and Reims; V-weapon sites at Watten

  9. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluitenberg Bas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1 and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%. Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%. The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89, but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an

  10. The Enemy Below: Preparing Ground Forces for Subterranean Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    States of America (CSA). Under the command of Lieutenant General (LTG) Ulysses S. Grant, Major General (MG) George Meade’s forces waged a nearly...Additionally, in his statement he noted that General Meade and Grant’s chief engineer regarded the effort as nonsense; that a mine that length had...tomorrow, but we shall certainly change the geography.” Sir Herbert Plumer, 2nd Army Commander44 1. Introduction The Western Front was caught in a

  11. Ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force and estimation of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    INTRODUCTION Traditionally, human body movement analysis is done in so-called ‘gait laboratories’. In these laboratories, body movement is measured by a camera system using optical markers, the ground reaction force by a force plate fixed in the floor, and the muscle activity by EMG. From the body

  12. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  13. Effects of Combat Deployment on Anthropometrics and Physiological Status of U.S. Army Special Operations Forces Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Taylor, Jonathan C; Means, Gary E; Williams, Kelly W; Murphy, Nancy E; Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McClung, James P

    2017-03-01

    U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers. Effects of modern combat deployment on longitudinal changes in anthropometrics and physiological status of elite U.S. Army SOF soldiers (n = 50) were assessed. Changes in measures of body composition, grip strength, physiological status, and health behaviors from baseline to postdeployment were determined with paired t test and McNemar's statistic. Baseline measures were obtained between 4 and 8 weeks before deployment. Deployment length was a uniform duration of time between 3 and 6 months (all soldiers completed the same length of deployment). Post hoc analyses determined change in body mass within quartiles of baseline body mass with paired t test and associations between change in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and change in body mass with correlation coefficient. The study was approved by the Human Use Review Committee at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. In response to deployment, increases in lean mass (77.1 ± 7.6 to 77.8 ± 7.5 kg), maximum grip strength (57.9 ± 7.2 to 61.6 ± 8.8 kg), and conduct of aerobic (156 ± 106 to 250 ± 182 minutes/week) and strength training (190 ± 101 to 336 ± 251 minutes/week) exercise were observed (p < 0.05). Increases in serum SHBG (35.42 ± 10.68 to 38.77 ± 12.26 nmol/L) and decreases in serum cortisol (443.2 ± 79.3 to 381.9 ± 111.6 nmol/L) were also observed (p < 0.05). Body mass changes were dependent on baseline body mass. Soldiers in the lowest quartile of baseline body

  14. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: assessment and comparison with walking dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J; Maas, H; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and compared with ground reaction forces of 24 healthy dogs. Force-time waveforms in cats generated by force plate analysis were consistent, as reflected by intra-class correlation coefficients for peak vertical force, peak propulsive force and peak braking force (0.94-0.95, 0.85-0.89 and 0.89-0.90, respectively). Compared with dogs, cats had a higher peak vertical force during the propulsion phase (cat, 3.89 ± 0.19 N/kg; dog, 3.03 ± 0.16 N/kg), and a higher hindlimb propulsive force (cat, -1.08 ± 0.13 N/kg; dog, (-0.87 ± 0.13 N/kg) and hindlimb impulse (cat, -0.18 ± 0.03 N/kg; dog, -0.14 ± 0.02 N/kg). Force plate analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of locomotion in cats, because it can be applied in the clinical setting and provides a non-invasive and objective measurement of locomotion characteristics with high repeatability in cats, as well as information about kinetic characteristics. Differences in force-time waveforms between cats and dogs can be explained by the more crouched position of cats during stance and their more compliant gait compared with dogs. Feline waveforms of the medio-lateral ground reaction forces also differ between cats and dogs and this can be explained by differences in paw supination-pronation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of cricket fast bowlers' front leg technique on peak ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Peter; King, Mark; Ranson, Craig

    2013-01-01

    High ground reaction forces during the front foot contact phase of the bowling action are believed to be a major contributor to the high prevalence of lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers. This study aimed to investigate the influence of front leg technique on peak ground reaction forces during the delivery stride. Three-dimensional kinematic data and ground reaction forces during the front foot contact phase were captured for 20 elite male fast bowlers. Eight kinematic parameters were determined for each performance, describing run-up speed and front leg technique, in addition to peak force and time to peak force in the vertical and horizontal directions. There were substantial variations between bowlers in both peak forces (vertical 6.7 ± 1.4 body weights; horizontal (braking) 4.5 ± 0.8 body weights) and times to peak force (vertical 0.03 ± 0.01 s; horizontal 0.03 ± 0.01 s). These differences were found to be linked to the orientation of the front leg at the instant of front foot contact. In particular, a larger plant angle and a heel strike technique were associated with lower peak forces and longer times to peak force during the front foot contact phase, which may help reduce the likelihood of lower back injuries.

  16. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  17. Ground Reaction Forces Generated During Rhythmical Squats as a Dynamic Loads of the Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantak, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic forces generated by moving persons can lead to excessive vibration of the long span, slender and lightweight structure such as floors, stairs, stadium stands and footbridges. These dynamic forces are generated during walking, running, jumping and rhythmical body swaying in vertical or horizontal direction etc. In the paper the mathematical models of the Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs) generated during squats have been presented. Elaborated models was compared to the GRFs measured during laboratory tests carried out by author in wide range of frequency using force platform. Moreover, the GRFs models were evaluated during dynamic numerical analyses and dynamic field tests of the exemplary structure (steel footbridge).

  18. BILATERAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND JOINT MOMENTS FOR LATERAL SIDESTEPPING AND CROSSOVER STEPPING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Sellers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS and crossover stepping (XS movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work

  19. Use of a tibial accelerometer to measure ground reaction force in running: A reliability and validity comparison with force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Damian P; Witchalls, Jeremy; Philips, Elissa J; Knight, Emma; Drew, Michael K; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia. Calculated vertical ground reaction force data from the ViPerform was matched to the same stride on the force plate. Bland-Altman (BA) plot of comparative measure of agreement was used to assess the relationship between the calculated load from the accelerometer and the force plates. Reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. BA plot indicates minimal agreement between the measures derived from the force plate and ViPerform, with variation at an individual participant plot level. Reliability was excellent (ICC=0.877; 95% CI=0.825-0.917) in calculating the same vertical GRF in a repeated trial. Standard error of measure (SEM) equalled 99.83 units (95% CI=82.10-119.09), which, in turn, gave a minimum detectable change (MDC) value of 276.72 units (95% CI=227.32-330.07). The ViPerform does not calculate absolute values of vertical GRF similar to those measured by a force plate. It does provide a valid and reliable calculation of an athlete's lower limb load at constant velocity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bilateral ground reaction forces and joint moments for lateral sidestepping and crossover stepping tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Gregor; Sellers, William I.; Mansfield, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS) and crossover stepping (XS) movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work. Key pointsGround reaction forces and joint moments during lateral stepping are smaller in magnitude than those experienced during moderate running.Force exposure in SS and XS gaits in normal play does not appear to contribute to the development of

  1. Effects of load on ground reaction force and lower limb kinematics during concentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Arambatzi, Fotini; Papadopoulos, Christos

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external load on vertical ground reaction force, and linear and angular kinematics, during squats. Eight males aged 22.1 +/- 0.8 years performed maximal concentric squats using loads ranging from 7 to 70% of one-repetition maximum on a force plate while linear barbell velocity and the angular kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle were recorded. Maximum, average and angle-specific values were recorded. The ground reaction force ranged from 1.67 +/- 0.20 to 3.21 +/- 0.29 times body weight and increased significantly as external load increased (P squat exercises is not achieved at the same position of the lower body as external load is increased. In contrast, joint velocity coordination does not change as load is increased. The force-velocity relationship was linear and independent from the set of data used for its determination.

  2. Differences in pediatric vertical ground reaction force between planovalgus and neutrally aligned feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Jolanta; Szymul, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ground reaction forces (GRF) reflect the force history of human body contact with the ground. The purpose of this study was to explore human gait abnormalities due to planovalgus by comparing vertical GRF data between individuals with planovalgus and those with neutrally aligned feet. Second we estimated associations between various measurements and vertical GRF parameters in a pediatric population. Boys and girls between the ages of 4 and 18 years (72 planovalgus feet and 74 neutrally aligned feet) took part in this study. Ground reaction forces were recorded by two Kistler platforms and normalized to body weight. Comparison of vertical GRF between planovalgus and neutrally aligned feet suggests that the first and the second peaks of vertical force (Fz1, Fz2) are most affected by planovalgus. The results also indicate that neutrally aligned feet display a different ground reaction force pattern than planovalgus, and that differences between boys and girls may be observed. The shape of the vertical GRF curve can help in clinical interpretation of abnormal gait.

  3. Sit-to-stand ground reaction force characteristics in blind and sighted female children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji Aylar, Mozhgan; Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Salari Esker, Fatemeh

    2018-03-05

    The association between visual sensory and sit-to-stand ground reaction force characteristics is not clear. Impulse is the amount of force applied over a period of time. Also, free moment represents the vertical moment applied in the center of pressure (COP). How the ground reaction force components, vertical loading rate, impulses and free moment respond to long and short term restricted visual information? Fifteen female children with congenital blindness and 45 healthy girls with no visual impairments participated in this study. The girls with congenital blindness were placed in one group and the 45 girls with no visual impairments were randomly divided into three groups of 15; eyes open, permanently eyes closed, and temporary eyes closed. The participants in the permanently eyes closed group closed their eyes for 20 min before the test, whereas temporary eyes closed group did tests with their eyes closed throughout, and those in the eyes open group kept their eyes open. Congenital blindness was associated with increased vertical loading rate, range of motion of knee and hip in the medio-lateral plane. Also, medio-lateral and vertical ground reaction force impulses. Similar peak negative and positive free moments were observed in three groups. In conclusion, the results reveal that sit-to-stand ground reaction force components in blind children may have clinical importance for improvement of balance control of these individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ground reaction force comparison of controlled resistance methods to isoinertial loading of the squat exercise - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C; Reynolds, Michael C; Schilling, Brian K

    2010-01-01

    The ground reaction force during the concentric (raising) portion of the squat exercise was compared to that of isoinertial loading (free weights) for three pneumatically controlled resistance methods: constant resistance, cam force profile, and proportional force control based on velocity. Constant force control showed lower ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading throughout the range of motion (ROM). The cam force profile exhibited slightly greater ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading at 10 and 40% ROM with fifty-percent greater loading at 70% ROM. The proportional force control consistently elicited greater ground reaction force than isoinertial loading, which progressively ranged from twenty to forty percent increase over isoinertial loading except for being approximately equal at 85% ROM. Based on these preliminary results, the proportional control shows the most promise for providing loading that is comparable in magnitude to isoinertial loading. This technology could optimize resistance exercise for sport-specific training or as a countermeasure to atrophy during spaceflight.

  5. Ground reaction forces, kinematics, and muscle activations during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary

    2011-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine quantitatively ground reaction forces, kinematics, and muscle activations during the windmill softball pitch, and to determine relationships between knee valgus and muscle activations, ball velocity and muscle activation as well as ball velocity and ground reaction forces. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship between degree of knee valgus and muscle activation, a direct relationship between ground reaction forces and ball velocity, and non-stride leg muscle activations and ball velocity. Ten female windmill softball pitchers (age 17.6 ± 3.47 years, stature 1.67 ± 0.07 m, weight 67.4 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Dependent variables were ball velocity, surface electromyographic (sEMG), kinematic, and kinetic data while the participant was the independent variable. Stride foot contact reported peak vertical forces of 179% body weight. There were positive relationships between ball velocity and ground reaction force (r = 0.758, n = 10, P = 0.029) as well as ball velocity and non-stride leg gluteus maximus (r = 0.851, n = 10, P = 0.007) and medius (r = 0.760, n = 10, P = 0.029) muscle activity, while there was no notable relationship between knee valgus and muscle activation. As the windmill softball pitcher increased ball velocity, her vertical ground reaction forces also increased. Proper conditioning of the lumbopelvic-hip complex, including the gluteals, is essential for injury prevention. From the data presented, it is evident that bilateral strength and conditioning of the gluteal muscle group is salient in the windmill softball pitch as an attempt to decrease incidence of injury.

  6. In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

  7. Acquisition and deconvolution of seismic signals by different methods to perform direct ground-force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Schleifer, Andrea; Zgauc, Franco; Meneghini, Fabio; Petronio, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a novel borehole-seismic experiment in which we used different types of onshore-transient-impulsive and non-impulsive-surface sources together with direct ground-force recordings. The ground-force signals were obtained by baseplate load cells located beneath the sources, and by buried soil-stress sensors installed in the very shallow-subsurface together with accelerometers. The aim was to characterize the source's emission by its complex impedance, function of the near-field vibrations and soil stress components, and above all to obtain appropriate deconvolution operators to remove the signature of the sources in the far-field seismic signals. The data analysis shows the differences in the reference measurements utilized to deconvolve the source signature. As downgoing waves, we process the signals of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) recorded in the far-field approximation by an array of permanent geophones cemented at shallow-medium depth outside the casing of an instrumented well. We obtain a significant improvement in the waveform of the radiated seismic-vibrator signals deconvolved by ground force, similar to that of the seismograms generated by the impulsive sources, and demonstrates that the results obtained by different sources present low values in their repeatability norm. The comparison evidences the potentiality of the direct ground-force measurement approach to effectively remove the far-field source signature in VSP onshore data, and to increase the performance of permanent acquisition installations for time-lapse application purposes.

  8. Do ground reaction forces during unilateral and bilateral movements exhibit compensation strategies following ACL reconstruction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Schubert, Markus; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Gokeler, Alli; Freiwald, Juergen

    The aims of the study were (1) to evaluate the leg asymmetry assessed with ground reaction forces (GRFs) during unilateral and bilateral movements of different knee loads in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed patients and (2) to investigate differences in leg asymmetry depending on the

  9. Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The biomechanics of distance running has not been studied before in older-aged runners but may be different than in younger-aged runners because of musculoskeletal degeneration at older age. This study aimed at determining whether the stance phase kinematics and ground reaction forces in

  10. Estimation of ground reaction forces and moments during gait using only inertial motion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatsidis, Angelos; Bellusci, Giovanni; Schepers, H. Martin; de Zee, Mark; Andersen, Michael S.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot

  11. Effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kang, Yang Hun; Kim, Je Ho; Uhm, Yo Han; Lee, Yong Seon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 young adult males, who were divided into a Nordic walking group of 15 subjects and a walking group of 15 subjects. [Methods] To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters and ground reaction force during walking in the two groups, the six-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system was used. The subjects were asked to walk 12 meters using the more comfortable walking method for them between Nordic walking and walking. After they walked 12 meters more than 10 times, their most natural walking patterns were chosen three times and analyzed. To determine the pole for Nordic walking, each subject's height was multiplied by 0.68. We then measured the spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Results] Compared with the walking group, the Nordic walking group showed an increase in cadence, stride length, and step length, and a decrease in stride time, step time, and vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that Nordic walking increases the stride and can be considered as helping patients with diseases affecting their gait. This demonstrates that Nordic walking is more effective in improving functional capabilities by promoting effective energy use and reducing the lower limb load, because the weight of the upper and lower limbs is dispersed during Nordic walking.

  12. The effects of dorso-lumbar motion restriction on the ground reaction force components during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Joseph J; Traum, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The effects of restricting dorso-lumbar spine mobility on ground reaction forces in runners was measured and assessed. A semi-rigid cast was used to restrict spinal motion during running. Subjects ran across a force platform at 3.6 m/s, planting the right foot on the platform. Data was collected from ten running trials with the cast and ten without the cast and analysed. Casted running showed that the initial vertical heel strike maximum was increased (p running (p running results in measurable and repeatable alterations in ground reaction force components. Alterations in load transfer due to decreased spinal motion may be a factor contributing to selected injuries in runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B. Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy young adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities.

  14. Bilateral contact ground reaction forces and contact times during plyometric drop jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick B; Stock, Christopher G; Scurr, Joanna C

    2010-10-01

    Drop jumping (DJ) is used in training programs aimed to improve lower extremity explosive power. When performing double-leg drop jumps, it is important to provide an equal stimulus to both legs to ensure balanced development of the lower legs. The aim of this study was to bilaterally analyze the ground reactions forces and temporal components of drop jumping from 3 heights. Ten recreationally active male subjects completed 3 bounce-drop jumps from 3 starting heights (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 m). Two linked force platforms were used to record left- and right-leg peak vertical force, time to peak force, average force, ground contact time, impulse and time differential. Between-height and between-leg comparisons for each variable were made using a multivariate analysis of variance with post hoc Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05). Results indicated that force and time variables increased as drop jump height increased (p < 0.0001). Post hoc analyses showed that at 0.2- and 0.4-m bilateral differences were present in the time to peak force, average force, and impulse. No bilateral differences for any variables were shown at 0.6-m starting height. The contact time for all jumps was <0.26 seconds. At 0.2 m, only 63% of the subjects had a starting time differential of <0.01 seconds, rising to 96.3% at 0.6 m. The results indicated that 0.6 m is the suggested drop jump height to ensure that no bilateral differences in vertical forces and temporal components occur; however, shorter contact times were found at the lower heights.

  15. A COMPARISON OF GOLF SHOE DESIGNS HIGHLIGHTS GREATER GROUND REACTION FORCES WITH SHORTER IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used

  16. Loading Configurations and Ground Reaction Forces During Treadmill Running in Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Blazine, Kristi; Bentley, Jason; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Studies have shown losses in bone mineral density of 1-2% per month in critical weight bearing areas such as the proximal femur during long-term space flight (Grigoriev, 1998). The astronauts currently onboard the International Space Station (ISS) use a treadmill as an exercise countermeasure to bone loss that occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to weightlessness. A crewmember exercising on the treadmill is attached by a harness and loading device. Ground reaction forces are obtained through the loading device that pulls the crewn1ember towards the treadmill surface during locomotion. McCrory et al. (2002) found that the magnitude of the peak ground reaction force (pGRF) during horizontal suspension running, or simulated weightlessness, was directly related to the load applied to the subject. It is thought that strain magnitude and strain rate affects osteogenesis, and is a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the ground reaction force. While it is not known if a minimum stimulus exists for osteogenesis, it has been hypothesized that in order to replicate the bone formation occurring in normal gravity (1 G), the exercise in weightlessness should mimic the forces that occur on earth. Specifically, the pGRF obtained in weightlessness should be comparable to that achieved in 1 G.

  17. Effects of Different Lifting Cadences on Ground Reaction Forces during the Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jason R.; Amonette, William E.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of different cadences on the ground reaction force (GRF(sub R)) during the squat exercise. It is known that squats performed with greater acceleration will produce greater inertial forces; however, it is not well understood how different squat cadences affect GRF(sub R). It was hypothesized that faster squat cadences will result in greater peak GRF(sub R). METHODS: Six male subjects (30.8+/-4.4 y, 179.5+/-8.9 cm, 88.8+/-13.3 kg) with previous squat experience performed three sets of three squats using three different cadences (FC = 1 sec descent/1 sec ascent; MC = 3 sec descent/1 sec ascent; SC = 4 sec descent/2 sec ascent) with barbell mass equal to body mass. Ground reaction force was used to calculate inertial force trajectories of the body plus barbell (FI(sub system)). Forces were normalized to body mass. RESULTS: Peak GRF(sub R) and peak FI(sub system) were significantly higher in FC squats compared to MC (p=0.0002) and SC (p=0.0002). Range of GRF(sub R) and FI(sub system) were also significantly higher in FC compared to MC (psquat cadences result in significantly greater peak GRF(sub R) due to the inertia of the system. GRF(sub R) was more dependent upon decent cadence than on ascent cadence. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrates that faster squat cadences produce greater ground reaction forces. Therefore, the use of faster squat cadences might enhance strength and power adaptations to long-term resistance exercise training. Key Words: velocity, weight training, resistive exercise

  18. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: gaits and ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Catherine L; Penberthy, Skylar; Robbins, Charles T; Nelson, O Lynne; McGowan, Craig P

    2015-10-01

    Locomotion of plantigrade generalists has been relatively little studied compared with more specialised postures even though plantigrady is ancestral among quadrupeds. Bears (Ursidae) are a representative family for plantigrade carnivorans, they have the majority of the morphological characteristics identified for plantigrade species, and they have the full range of generalist behaviours. This study compared the locomotion of adult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Linnaeus 1758), including stride parameters, gaits and analysis of three-dimensional ground reaction forces, with that of previously studied quadrupeds. At slow to moderate speeds, grizzly bears use walks, running walks and canters. Vertical ground reaction forces demonstrated the typical M-shaped curve for walks; however, this was significantly more pronounced in the hindlimb. The rate of force development was also significantly higher for the hindlimbs than for the forelimbs at all speeds. Mediolateral forces were significantly higher than would be expected for a large erect mammal, almost to the extent of a sprawling crocodilian. There may be morphological or energetic explanations for the use of the running walk rather than the trot. The high medial forces (produced from a lateral push by the animal) could be caused by frontal plane movement of the carpus and elbow by bears. Overall, while grizzly bears share some similarities with large cursorial species, their locomotor kinetics have unique characteristics. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these characters are a feature of all bears or plantigrade species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Sagittal Knee Kinematics During Running Using Three Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Wouda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics in any environment. However, kinetic information could not be provided with such technology. Furthermore, numerous body-worn sensors are required for a full-body motion analysis. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of a method to estimate sagittal knee joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces during running using an ambulatory minimal body-worn sensor setup. Two concatenated artificial neural networks were trained (using data from eight healthy subjects to estimate the kinematics and kinetics of the runners. The first artificial neural network maps the information (orientation and acceleration of three inertial sensors (placed at the lower legs and pelvis to lower-body joint angles. The estimated joint angles in combination with measured vertical accelerations are input to a second artificial neural network that estimates vertical ground reaction forces. To validate our approach, estimated joint angles were compared to both inertial and optical references, while kinetic output was compared to measured vertical ground reaction forces from an instrumented treadmill. Performance was evaluated using two scenarios: training and evaluating on a single subject and training on multiple subjects and evaluating on a different subject. The estimated kinematics and kinetics of most subjects show excellent agreement (ρ>0.99 with the reference, for single subject training. Knee flexion/extension angles are estimated with a mean RMSE <5°. Ground reaction forces are estimated with a mean RMSE < 0.27 BW. Additionaly, peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate and maximal knee flexion during stance were compared, however, no significant

  20. A COMPARISON OF GROUND REACTION FORCES DETERMINED BY PORTABLE FORCE-PLATE AND PRESSURE-INSOLE SYSTEMS IN ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakazato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI systems and portable force plate (FP systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1 to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2 to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier's level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique "Carving in Short Radii" as High Dynamic Skiing mode and "Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii" as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 ° and the flat (15 ° slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01. Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01 in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001. We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing, but also is affected by the skier's level, the skiing mode performed and pitch.

  1. The solar forcing on the 7Be-air concentration variability at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the correlation between the temporal and spatial variability of 7 Be-air concentration at ground level and the amount of precipitation. There were used the measured data from 26 stations distributed on North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. The variability study was made using EOF and principal components analysis. The presented results show that the variability of 7 Be air concentration at ground level is simultaneously influenced by the solar cycle and some atmospheric processes like precipitation, turbulent transport, advection, etc. The solar forcing on the 7 Be variability at ground level was outlined for time-scales longer than 1 year and can be considered a global phenomenon. The atmospheric processes influence the 7 Be variability for scale shorter than one year and can be considered a local phenomenon. (author)

  2. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  3. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  4. Influences of Athletic Footwear on Ground Reaction Forces During A Sidestep Cutting Maneuver on Artificial Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob R. Gdovin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recreational athletes can select their desired footwear based on personal preferences of shoe properties such as comfort and weight. Commonly worn running shoes and cleated footwear with similar stud geometry and distribution are worn when performing sport-specific tasks such as a side-step cutting maneuver (SCM in soccer and American football (hereafter, referred to as football. The effects of such footwear on injury mechanics have been documented with less being known regarding their effect on performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences including peak ground reaction forces (pGRF, time-to-peak ground reaction forces (tpGRF and the rate of force development (RFD between football cleats (FB, soccer cleats (SOC, and traditional running sneakers (RUN during the braking and propulsive phases of a SCM. Methodology: Eleven recreationally active males who participated in football and/or soccer-related activities at the time of testing completed the study. A 1 x 3 [1 Condition (SCM x 3 Footwear (RUN, FB, SOC] repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to analyze the aforementioned variables. Results: There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between footwear conditions when comparing pGRF, tpGRF, or RFD in either the braking or propulsive phases. Conclusion: The results suggest that the studded and non-studded footwear allowed athletes to generate similar forces over a given time frame when performing a SCM.

  5. Ground reaction forces and knee kinetics during single and repeated badminton lunges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing Kai; Ding, Rui; Qu, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Repeated movement (RM) lunge that frequently executed in badminton might be used for footwear evaluation. This study examined the influence of single movement (SM) and RM lunges on the ground reaction forces (GRFs) and knee kinetics during the braking phase of a badminton lunge step. Thirteen male university badminton players performed left-forward lunges in both SM and RM sessions. Force platform and motion capturing system were used to measure GRFs and knee kinetics variables. Paired t-test was performed to determine any significant differences between SM and RM lunges regarding mean and coefficient of variation (CV) in each variable. The kinetics results indicated that compared to SM lunges, the RM lunges had shorter contact time and generated smaller maximum loading rate of impact force, peak knee anterior-posterior force, and peak knee sagittal moment but generated larger peak horizontal resultant forces (Ps < 0.05). Additionally, the RM lunges had lower CV for peak knee medial-lateral and vertical forces (Ps < 0.05). These results suggested that the RM testing protocols had a distinct loading response and adaptation pattern during lunge and that the RM protocol showed higher within-trial reliability, which may be beneficial for the knee joint loading evaluation under different interventions.

  6. Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2003-07-01

    The biomechanics of distance running has not been studied before in older-aged runners but may be different than in younger-aged runners because of musculoskeletal degeneration at older age. This study aimed at determining whether the stance phase kinematics and ground reaction forces in running are different between younger- and older-aged men. Lower-extremity kinematics using three-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction forces (GRF) using a force plate were assessed in 16 older-aged (55-65 yr) and 13 younger-aged (20-35 yr) well-trained male distance runners running at a self-selected (SRS) and a controlled (CRS) speed of 3.3 m.s-1. The older subjects ran at significantly lower self-selected speeds than the younger subjects (mean 3.34 vs 3.77 m.s-1). In both speed conditions, the older runners exhibited significantly more knee flexion at heel strike and significantly less knee flexion and extension range of motion. No age group differences were present in subtalar joint motion. Impact peak force (1.91 vs 1.70 BW) and maximal initial loading rate (107.5 vs 85.5 BW.s-1) were significantly higher in the older runners at the CRS. Maximal peak vertical and anteroposterior forces and impulses were significantly lower in the older runners at the SRS. The biomechanics of running is different between older- and younger-aged runners on several relevant parameters. The larger impact peak force and initial loading rate indicate a loss of shock-absorbing capacity in the older runners. This may increase their susceptibility to lower-extremity overuse injuries. Moreover, it emphasizes the focus on optimizing cushioning properties in the design and prescription of running shoes and suggests that older-aged runners should be cautious with running under conditions of high impact.

  7. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  8. A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments

  9. Ground reaction forces in shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Ruschel, Caroline; dos Santos, Daniela Pacheco; Roesler, Helio

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the effect of depth of immersion, running speed and gender on ground reaction forces during water running. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty adults (ten male and ten female) participated by running at two levels of immersion (hip and chest) and two speed conditions (slow and fast). Data were collected using an underwater force platform. The following variables were analyzed: vertical force peak (Fy), loading rate (LR) and anterior force peak (Fx anterior). Three-factor mixed ANOVA was used to analyze data. Significant effects of immersion level, speed and gender on Fy were observed, without interaction between factors. Fy was greater when females ran fast at the hip level. There was a significant increase in LR with a reduction in the level of immersion regardless of the speed and gender. No effect of speed or gender on LR was observed. Regarding Fx anterior, significant interaction between speed and immersion level was found: in the slow condition, participants presented greater values at chest immersion, whereas, during the fast running condition, greater values were observed at hip level. The effect of gender was only significant during fast water running, with Fx anterior being greater in the men group. Increasing speed raised Fx anterior significantly irrespective of the level of immersion and gender. The magnitude of ground reaction forces during shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender and, for this reason, these factors should be taken into account during exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  11. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  12. Relationships Between Countermovement Jump Ground Reaction Forces and Jump Height, Reactive Strength Index, and Jump Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Leland A; Harry, John R; Mercer, John A

    2018-01-01

    Barker, LA, Harry, JR, and Mercer, JA. Relationships between countermovement jump ground reaction forces and jump height, reactive strength index, and jump time. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 248-254, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ground reaction force (GRF) variables to jump height, jump time, and the reactive strength index (RSI). Twenty-six, Division-I, male, soccer players performed 3 maximum effort countermovement jumps (CMJs) on a dual-force platform system that measured 3-dimensional kinetic data. The trial producing peak jump height was used for analysis. Vertical GRF (Fz) variables were divided into unloading, eccentric, amortization, and concentric phases and correlated with jump height, RSI (RSI = jump height/jump time), and jump time (from start to takeoff). Significant correlations were observed between jump height and RSI, concentric kinetic energy, peak power, concentric work, and concentric displacement. Significant correlations were observed between RSI and jump time, peak power, unload Fz, eccentric work, eccentric rate of force development (RFD), amortization Fz, amortization time, second Fz peak, average concentric Fz, and concentric displacement. Significant correlations were observed between jump time and unload Fz, eccentric work, eccentric RFD, amortization Fz, amortization time, average concentric Fz, and concentric work. In conclusion, jump height correlated with variables derived from the concentric phase only (work, power, and displacement), whereas Fz variables from the unloading, eccentric, amortization, and concentric phases correlated highly with RSI and jump time. These observations demonstrate the importance of countermovement Fz characteristics for time-sensitive CMJ performance measures. Researchers and practitioners should include RSI and jump time with jump height to improve their assessment of jump performance.

  13. Effect of gender, cadence, and water immersion on ground reaction forces during stationary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Ruschel, Caroline; Hubert, Marcel; Ridehalgh, Colette; Roesler, Helio

    2012-05-01

    Controlled laboratory study. To analyze the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force during stationary running performed in water and on dry land, focusing on the effect of gender, level of immersion, and cadence. Stationary running, as a fundamental component of aquatic rehabilitation and training protocols, is little explored in the literature with regard to biomechanical variables, which makes it difficult to determine and control the mechanical load acting on the individuals. Twenty-two subjects performed 1 minute of stationary running on land, immersed to the hip, and immersed to the chest at 3 different cadences: 90 steps per minute, 110 steps per minute, and 130 steps per minute. Force data were acquired with a force plate, and the variables were vertical peak (Fy), loading rate (LR), anterior peak (Fx anterior), and posterior peak (Fx posterior). Data were normalized to subjects' body weight (BW) and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fy ranged from 0.98 to 2.11 BW, LR ranged from 5.38 to 11.52 BW/s, Fx anterior ranged from 0.07 to 0.14 BW, and Fx posterior ranged from 0.06 to 0.09 BW. The gender factor had no effect on the variables analyzed. A significant interaction between level of immersion and cadence was observed for Fy, Fx anterior, and Fx posterior. On dry land, Fy increased with increasing cadence, whereas in water this effect was seen only between 90 steps per minute and the 2 higher cadences. The higher the level of immersion, the lower the magnitude of Fy. LR was reduced under both water conditions and increased with increasing cadence, regardless of the level of immersion. Ground reaction forces during stationary running are similar between genders. Fy and LR are lower in water, though the values are increased at higher cadences.

  14. Ground reaction forces produced by two different hockey skating arm swing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward-Ellis, Julie; Alexander, Marion J L; Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Leiter, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    The arm swing in hockey skating can have a positive effect on the forces produced by each skate, and the resulting velocity from each push off. The main purpose of this study was to measure the differences in ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced from an anteroposterior versus a mediolateral style hockey skating arm swing. Twenty-four elite-level female hockey players performed each technique while standing on a ground-mounted force platform, and all trials were filmed using two video cameras. Force data was assessed for peak scaled GRFs in the frontal and sagittal planes, and resultant GRF magnitude and direction. Upper limb kinematics were assessed from the video using Dartfish video analysis software, confirming that the subjects successfully performed two distinct arm swing techniques. The mediolateral arm swing used a mean of 18.38° of glenohumeral flexion/extension and 183.68° of glenohumeral abduction/adduction while the anteroposterior technique used 214.17° and 28.97° respectively. The results of this study confirmed that the mediolateral arm swing produced 37% greater frontal plane and 33% less sagittal plane GRFs than the anteroposterior arm swing. The magnitudes of the resultant GRFs were not significantly different between the two techniques; however, the mediolateral technique produced a resultant GRF with a significantly larger angle from the direction of travel (44.44°) as compared to the anteroposterior technique (31.60°). The results of this study suggest that the direction of GRFs produced by the mediolateral arm swing more closely mimic the direction of lower limb propulsion during the skating stride.

  15. Ankle brace attenuates the medial-lateral ground reaction force during basketball rebound jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The jump landing is the leading cause for ankle injuries in basketball. It has been shown that the use of ankle brace is effective to prevent these injuries by increasing the mechanical stability of the ankle at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. Objective: To investigate the effects of ankle brace on the ground reaction force (GRF during the simulation of a basketball rebound jump. Method: Eleven young male basketball players randomly carried out a simulated basketball rebound jump under two conditions, with and without ankle brace (lace-up. Dynamic parameters of vertical GRF (take-off and landing vertical peaks, time to take-off and landing vertical peaks, take-off impulse peak, impulse at 50 milliseconds of landing, and jump height and medial-lateral (take-off and landing medial-lateral peaks, and time to reach medial-lateral peaks at take-off and landing were recorded by force platform during rebound jumps in each tested condition. The comparisons between the tested conditions were performed by paired t test (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of ankle brace during basketball rebound jumps attenuates the magnitude of medial-lateral GRF on the landing phase, without changing the vertical GRF. This finding indicates that the use of brace increases the medial-lateral mechanical protection by decreasing the shear force exerted on the athlete’s body without change the application of propulsive forces in the take-off and the impact absorption quality in the landing during the basketball rebound jump.

  16. A Women-Only Comparison of the U.S. Air Force Fitness Test and the Marine Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Air Force established the Fitness Assessment Cell to conduct fitness assessments for all Air Force members and to encourage standardization in...objective. “The MCFT was specifically designed to evaluate strength, stamina , agility and coordination as well as overall anaerobic capacity” (Department...1308.1, “Service members must possess stamina and strength to perform, successfully, any mission,” and that “…each service develops a quality 78

  17. Multi-segment foot kinematics and ground reaction forces during gait of individuals with plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ryan; Rodrigues, Pedro A; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-08-22

    Clinically, plantar fasciitis (PF) is believed to be a result and/or prolonged by overpronation and excessive loading, but there is little biomechanical data to support this assertion. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between healthy individuals and those with PF in (1) rearfoot motion, (2) medial forefoot motion, (3) first metatarsal phalangeal joint (FMPJ) motion, and (4) ground reaction forces (GRF). We recruited healthy (n=22) and chronic PF individuals (n=22, symptomatic over three months) of similar age, height, weight, and foot shape (p>0.05). Retro-reflective skin markers were fixed according to a multi-segment foot and shank model. Ground reaction forces and three dimensional kinematics of the shank, rearfoot, medial forefoot, and hallux segment were captured as individuals walked at 1.35 ms(-1). Despite similarities in foot anthropometrics, when compared to healthy individuals, individuals with PF exhibited significantly (pfoot kinematics and kinetics. Consistent with the theoretical injury mechanisms of PF, we found these individuals to have greater total rearfoot eversion and peak FMPJ dorsiflexion, which may put undue loads on the plantar fascia. Meanwhile, increased medial forefoot plantar flexion at initial contact and decreased propulsive GRF are suggestive of compensatory responses, perhaps to manage pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-03-01

    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003-2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May-September period (71%), with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC). In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  19. "Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach. Diverging concepts and understandings of Grounded Theory have arisen from these attempts which have led to a split between its founders. Much of the explication and reworking of Grounded Theory surrounds the relation between data and theory and the role of previous theoretical assumptions. The book which initially established the popularity of GLASER's and STRAUSS' methodological ideas, "The Discovery of Grounded Theory", contains two conflicting understandings of the relation between data and theory—the concept of "emergence" on the one hand and the concept of "theoretical sensitivity" on the other hand. Much of the later developments of Grounded Theory can be seen as attempts to reconcile these prima facie diverging concepts. Thereby GLASER recommends to draw on a variety of "coding families" while STRAUSS proposes the use of a general theory of action to build an axis for an emerging theory. This paper first summarises the most important developments within "Grounded Theory" concerning the understanding of the relation between empirical data and theoretical statements. Thereby special emphasis will be laid on differences between GLASER's and STRAUSS' concepts and on GLASER's current critique that the concepts of "coding paradigm" and "axial coding" described by STRAUSS and Juliet CORBIN lead to the "forcing" of data. It will be argued that GLASER's critique points out some existing weaknesses of STRAUSS' concepts but vastly exaggerates the risks of the STRAUSSian approach. A main argument of this paper is that basic problems of empirically grounded theory construction can be treated much more effectively if one draws on certain results of contemporary philosophical and epistemological discussions and on widely

  20. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  1. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Initial Defensive Operations Capability (IDOC) at Vandenberg Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-28

    Zielinski , EDAW, Inc., concerning utilities supply and demand for Vandenberg Air Force Base, 1 August. Rush, P., 2002. Personal communication between...Pernell W. Rush, Technical Sergeant, Water Utilities/Water Treatment NCO, USAF 30th CES/CEOIU, Vandenberg Air Force Base, and James E. Zielinski ... Dave Savinsky, Environmental Consultant, 30 CES/CEVC, Vandenberg Air Force Base, on the Preliminary Draft Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD

  2. Effects of slip-induced changes in ankle movement on muscle activity and ground reaction forces during running acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Shahin; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    Ground contact in running is always linked to a minimum amount of slipping, e.g., during the early contact phase when horizontal forces are high compared to vertical forces. Studies have shown altered muscular activation when expecting slips [2-4]. It is not known what the mechanical effect of su...... of such slip episodes are on joint loading or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of changes in ankle movement on ankle joint loading, muscle activity, and ground reaction forces during linear acceleration....

  3. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  4. Factors that influence ground reaction force profiles during counter movement jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Alexander N; Sayers, Mark G; Lovell, Dale I

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how hip, knee and ankle kinetics and kinematics influence effective impulse production during countermovement jumps. Eighteen semi-professional soccer players (22.8±2.2 years) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants completed three maximal countermovement jumps on two force platforms (1000 Hz) that were linked to a nine camera infrared motion capture system (500 Hz). Kinetic and kinematic data revealed jumpers who fail to achieve uniform ground reaction force curves that result in optimal impulse production during their jump always display hip adduction and or hip internal rotation during the concentric phase of the countermovement jump. The variation of hip adduction and or internal rotation likely represents failed joint transition during the concentric phase of the countermovement jump and appears to account for a non-uniform force trace seen in these jumpers. The findings suggest rehabilitation and conditioning exercises for injury prevention and performance may benefit from targeting frontal and transverse plane movement.

  5. Alterations to the orientation of the ground reaction force vector affect sprint acceleration performance in team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Neil E; North, Jamie S; Razavet, Jane L

    2017-09-01

    A more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector is related to higher levels of sprint acceleration performance across a range of athletes. However, the effects of acute experimental alterations to the force vector orientation within athletes are unknown. Fifteen male team sports athletes completed maximal effort 10-m accelerations in three conditions following different verbal instructions intended to manipulate the force vector orientation. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected from the step nearest 5-m and stance leg kinematics at touchdown were also analysed to understand specific kinematic features of touchdown technique which may influence the consequent force vector orientation. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare findings between conditions. There was a likely more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector and a likely lower peak vertical force in the control condition compared with the experimental conditions. 10-m sprint time was very likely quickest in the control condition which confirmed the importance of force vector orientation for acceleration performance on a within-athlete basis. The stance leg kinematics revealed that a more horizontally oriented force vector during stance was preceded at touchdown by a likely more dorsiflexed ankle, a likely more flexed knee, and a possibly or likely greater hip extension velocity.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Campus at Kirtland Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    beginning of 2005 within the ROI was 5.2 percent (New Mexico Department of Labor 2005). 3.3.2.3 Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland AFB had...International Sunport, New Mexico. Accessed 5/2005 from http://www. wrcc.dri.edu/ CLIMA TEDA T A.html. AETC P J/CRO Campus at Kirtland AFB Preliminary

  7. Ground reaction forces and bone parameters in females with tibial stress fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim; Crossley, Kay; Jayarajan, Jyotsna; Walton, Elizabeth; Warden, Stuart; Kiss, Z Stephen; Wrigley, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common overuse running injury that results from the interplay of repetitive mechanical loading and bone strength. This research project aimed to determine whether female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (TSF) differ in ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during running, regional bone density, and tibial bone geometry from those who have never sustained a stress fracture (NSF). Thirty-six female running athletes (13 TSF; 23 NSF) ranging in age from 18 to 44 yr were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The groups were well matched for demographic, training, and menstrual parameters. A force platform measured selected GRF parameters (peak and time to peak for vertical impact and active forces, and horizontal braking and propulsive forces) during overground running at 4.0 m.s.(-1). Lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibial bone mineral density were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Tibial bone geometry (cross-sectional dimensions and areas, and second moments of area) was calculated from a computerized tomography scan at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometric parameters (P > 0.05). Both TSF and NSF subjects had bone density levels that were average or above average compared with a young adult reference range. Factor analysis followed by discriminant function analysis did not find any combinations of variables that differentiated between TSF and NSF groups. These findings do not support a role for GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometry in the development of tibial stress fractures, suggesting that other risk factors were more important in this cohort of female runners.

  8. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Tien Van; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  9. Environmental Assessment: Recapitalization of the 49th WG Combat Capabilities and Capacities, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    anti-aircraft artillery, or another aircraft. A bundle of chaff consists of approximately 5 to 5.6 million fibers (each thinner than a human hair...is governed by detailed operating procedures to ensure safety. Chaff, which is ejected from an aircraft to reflect radar signals, is small fibers of...calcium carbonate rich soils; and erosional debris surrounding bedrock outcrops of limestone, sandstone, shale, gypsum, and basalt (Air Force 1998

  10. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  11. Using ground reaction force to predict knee kinetic asymmetry following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, B; Butler, R J; Garrett, W E; Queen, R M

    2014-12-01

    Asymmetries in sagittal plane knee kinetics have been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury. Clinical tools are needed to identify the asymmetries. This study examined the relationships between knee kinetic asymmetries and ground reaction force (GRF) asymmetries during athletic tasks in adolescent patients following ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Kinematic and GRF data were collected during a stop-jump task and a side-cutting task for 23 patients. Asymmetry indices between the surgical and non-surgical limbs were calculated for GRF and knee kinetic variables. For the stop-jump task, knee kinetics asymmetry indices were correlated with all GRF asymmetry indices (P kinetic asymmetry indices were correlated with the peak propulsion vertical GRF and vertical GRF impulse asymmetry indices (P kinetic asymmetries and therefore may assist in optimizing rehabilitation outcomes and minimizing re-injury rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ground reaction forces and frictional demands during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2002-04-01

    Stair descent is an inherently risky and demanding task that older adults often encounter in everyday life. It is believed that slip between the foot or shoe sole and the stair surface may play a role in stair related falls, however, there are no reports on slip resistance requirements for stair descent. The aim of this study was to determine the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) necessary for safe stair descent in 12 young and 12 older adults, under varied illuminance conditions. The RCOF during stair descent was found to be comparable in magnitude and time to that for overground walking, and thus, with adequate footwear and dry stair surfaces, friction does not appear to be a major determinant of stair safety. Illuminance level had little effect on the dependent variables quantified in this study. However, the older participants demonstrated safer strategies than the young during stair descent, as reflected by differences in the ground reaction forces and lower RCOF.

  13. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to exercise for 5 min at treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  14. A rolling constraint reproduces ground reaction forces and moments in dynamic simulations of walking, running, and crouch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Steele, Katherine M; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-21

    Recent advances in computational technology have dramatically increased the use of muscle-driven simulation to study accelerations produced by muscles during gait. Accelerations computed from muscle-driven simulations are sensitive to the model used to represent contact between the foot and ground. A foot-ground contact model must be able to calculate ground reaction forces and moments that are consistent with experimentally measured ground reaction forces and moments. We show here that a rolling constraint can model foot-ground contact and reproduce measured ground reaction forces and moments in an induced acceleration analysis of muscle-driven simulations of walking, running, and crouch gait. We also illustrate that a point constraint and a weld constraint used to model foot-ground contact in previous studies produce inaccurate reaction moments and lead to contradictory interpretations of muscle function. To enable others to use and test these different constraint types (i.e., rolling, point, and weld constraints) we have included them as part of an induced acceleration analysis in OpenSim, a freely-available biomechanics simulation package. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ground Reaction Force and Cadence during Stationary Running Sprint in Water and on Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, H de Brito; Ruschel, C; Haupenthal, A; Hubert, M; Roesler, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing the cadence (Cadmax) and the peak vertical ground reaction force (Fymax) during stationary running sprint on dry land and at hip and chest level of water immersion. We hypothesized that both Fymax and Cadmax depend on the level of immersion and that differences in Cadmax between immersions do not affect Fymax during stationary sprint. 32 subjects performed the exercise at maximum cadence at each immersion level and data were collected with force plates. The results show that Cadmax and Fymax decrease 17 and 58% from dry land to chest immersion respectively, with no effect of cadence on Fymax. While previous studies have shown similar neuromuscular responses between aquatic and on land stationary sprint, our results emphasize the differences in Fymax between environments and levels of immersion. Additionally, the characteristics of this exercise permit maximum movement speed in water to be close to the maximum speed on dry land. The valuable combination of reduced risk of orthopedic trauma with similar neuromuscular responses is provided by the stationary sprint exercise in water. The results of this study support the rationale behind the prescription of stationary sprinting in sports training sessions as well as rehabilitation programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Functional data analysis on ground reaction force of military load carriage increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wan Rozita Wan; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of ground reaction force on military load carriage is done through functional data analysis (FDA) statistical technique. The main objective of the research is to investigate the effect of 10% load increment and to find the maximum suitable load for the Malaysian military. Ten military soldiers age 31 ± 6.2 years, weigh 71.6 ± 10.4 kg and height of 166.3 ± 5.9 cm carrying different military load range from 0% body weight (BW) up to 40% BW participated in an experiment to gather the GRF and kinematic data using Vicon Motion Analysis System, Kirstler force plates and thirty nine body markers. The analysis is conducted in sagittal, medial lateral and anterior posterior planes. The results show that 10% BW load increment has an effect when heel strike and toe-off for all the three planes analyzed with P-value less than 0.001 at 0.05 significant levels. FDA proves to be one of the best statistical techniques in analyzing the functional data. It has the ability to handle filtering, smoothing and curve aligning according to curve features and points of interest.

  17. Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger

    2008-08-01

    The biomechanical and metabolic demands of human running are distinctly affected by velocity and body weight. As runners increase velocity, ground reaction forces (GRF) increase, which may increase the risk of an overuse injury, and more metabolic power is required to produce greater rates of muscular force generation. Running with weight support attenuates GRFs, but demands less metabolic power than normal weight running. We used a recently developed device (G-trainer) that uses positive air pressure around the lower body to support body weight during treadmill running. Our scientific goal was to quantify the separate and combined effects of running velocity and weight support on GRFs and metabolic power. After obtaining this basic data set, we identified velocity and weight support combinations that resulted in different peak GRFs, yet demanded the same metabolic power. Ideal combinations of velocity and weight could potentially reduce biomechanical risks by attenuating peak GRFs while maintaining aerobic and neuromuscular benefits. Indeed, we found many combinations that decreased peak vertical GRFs yet demanded the same metabolic power as running slower at normal weight. This approach of manipulating velocity and weight during running may prove effective as a training and/or rehabilitation strategy.

  18. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.

  19. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  20. Ground reaction forces and knee mechanics in the weight acceptance phase of a dance leap take-off and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Popovich, John M

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic constraints allow dancers fewer technique modifications than other athletes to negotiate the demands of leaping. We examined vertical ground reaction force and knee mechanics during a saut de chat performed by healthy dancers. It was hypothesized that vertical ground reaction force during landing would exceed that of take-off, resulting in greater knee extensor moments and greater knee angular stiffness. Twelve dancers (six males, six females; age 18.9 ± 1.2 years, mass 59.2 ± 9.5 kg, height 1.68 ± 0.08 m, dance training 8.9 ± 5.1 years) with no history of low back pain or lower extremity pathology participated in the study. Saut de chat data were captured using an eight-camera Vicon system and AMTI force platforms. Peak ground reaction force was 26% greater during the landing phase, but did not result in increased peak knee extensor moments. Taking into account the 67% greater knee angular displacement during landing, this resulted in less knee angular stiffness during landing. In conclusion, landing was accomplished with less knee angular stiffness despite the greater peak ground reaction force. A link between decreased joint angular stiffness and increased soft tissue injury risk has been proposed elsewhere; therefore, landing from a saut de chat may be more injurious to the knee soft tissue than take-off.

  1. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    Full Text Available Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge.Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS, Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS, and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS. Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group x 3 (Shoe ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables.Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P < 0.05. Group effect revealed that elite players exhibited larger footstrike angle, faster approaching speed, lower peak horizontal force and horizontal loading rates but higher vertical loading rates and larger peak knee flexion and extension moments (P < 0.05. Analysis of Interactions of Group x Shoe for maximum and mean vertical loading rates (P < 0.05 indicated that elite players exhibited lower left maximum and mean vertical loading rates in RHS compared to FHS (P < 0.01, while the intermediate group did not show any Shoe effect on vertical loading rates.These findings indicate that shoe heel curvature would play some role in altering ground reaction force impact during badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  2. Ground-water data, 1969-77, Vandenberg Air Force Base area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The water supply for Vandenberg Air Force Base is obtained from wells in the Lompoc Plain, San Antonio Valley, and Lompoc Terrace groundwater basins. Metered pumpage during the period 1969-77 from the Lompoc Plain decreased from a high of 3,670 acre-feet in 1969 to a low of 2,441 acre-feet in 1977, while pumpage from the San Antonio Valley increased from a low of 1 ,020 acre-feet in 1969 to a high of 1,829 acre-feet in 1977. Pumpage from the Lompoc Terrace has remained relatively constant and was 187 acre-feet in 1977. In the Barka Slough area of the San Antonio Valley, water levels in four shallow wells declined during 1976 and 1977. Water levels in observation wells in the two aquifers of the Lompoc Terrace ground-water basin fluctuated during the period, but show no long term trends. Chemical analyses or field determinations of temperature and specific conductance were made of 219 water samples collected from 53 wells. In the Lompoc Plain the dissolved-solids concentration in all water samples was more than 625 milligrams per liter, and in most was more than 1,000 milligrams per liter. The manganese concentration in analyzed samples equaled or exceeded the recommended limit of 50 micrograms per liter for public water supplies. Dissolved-solids concentrations increased with time in water samples from two wells east of the Air Force Base in San Antonio Valley. In the base well-field area, concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 290 to 566 milligrams per liter. Eight analyses show manganese at or above the recommended limit of 50 milligrams per liter. In the Lompoc Terrace area dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 470 to 824 milligrams per liter. Five new supply wells, nine observation wells, and two exploratory/observation wells were drilled on the base during the period 1972-77. (USGS)

  3. Ground reaction force estimates from ActiGraph GT3X+ hip accelerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Neugebauer

    Full Text Available Simple methods to quantify ground reaction forces (GRFs outside a laboratory setting are needed to understand daily loading sustained by the body. Here, we present methods to estimate peak vertical GRF (pGRFvert and peak braking GRF (pGRFbrake in adults using raw hip activity monitor (AM acceleration data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistically based model to estimate pGRFvert and pGRFbrake during walking and running from ActiGraph GT3X+ AM acceleration data. 19 males and 20 females (age 21.2 ± 1.3 years, height 1.73 ± 0.12 m, mass 67.6 ± 11.5 kg wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ AM over their right hip. Six walking and six running trials (0.95-2.19 and 2.20-4.10 m/s, respectively were completed. Average of the peak vertical and anterior/posterior AM acceleration (ACCvert and ACCbrake, respectively and pGRFvert and pGRFbrake during the stance phase of gait were determined. Thirty randomly selected subjects served as the training dataset to develop generalized equations to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake. Using a holdout approach, the remaining 9 subjects were used to test the accuracy of the models. Generalized equations to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake included ACCvert and ACCbrake, respectively, mass, type of locomotion (walk or run, and type of locomotion acceleration interaction. The average absolute percent differences between actual and predicted pGRFvert and pGRFbrake were 8.3% and 17.8%, respectively, when the models were applied to the test dataset. Repeated measures generalized regression equations were developed to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake from ActiGraph GT3X+ AM acceleration for young adults walking and running. These equations provide a means to estimate GRFs without a force plate.

  4. Estimation of Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait Using Only Inertial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Karatsidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC. From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments. Then, we solve the indeterminacy problem during double stance using a distribution algorithm based on a smooth transition assumption. The agreement between the IMC-predicted and reference GRF&M was categorized over normal walking speed as excellent for the vertical (ρ = 0.992, rRMSE = 5.3%, anterior (ρ = 0.965, rRMSE = 9.4% and sagittal (ρ = 0.933, rRMSE = 12.4% GRF&M components and as strong for the lateral (ρ = 0.862, rRMSE = 13.1%, frontal (ρ = 0.710, rRMSE = 29.6%, and transverse GRF&M (ρ = 0.826, rRMSE = 18.2%. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of the cut-off frequency used in the filtering of the input kinematics, as well as the threshold velocities for the gait event detection algorithm. This study was the first to use only inertial motion capture to estimate 3D GRF&M during gait, providing comparable accuracy with optical motion capture prediction. This approach enables applications that require estimation of the kinetics during walking outside the gait laboratory.

  5. Squat Ground Reaction Force on a Horizontal Squat Device, Free Weights, and Smith Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Caldwell, Erin; DeWitt, John K.; Peters, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is an analog to spaceflight and advancement of exercise countermeasures is dependent on the development of exercise equipment that closely mimic actual upright exercise. The Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) was developed to allow a supine exerciser to perform squats that mimic upright squat exercise. PURPOSE: To compare vertical ground reaction force (GRFv) on the HSD with Free Weight (FW) or Smith Machine (SM) during squat exercise. METHODS: Subjects (3F, 3M) performed sets of squat exercise with increasing loads up to 1-repetition (rep) maximum. GRF data were collected and compared with previous GRF data for squat exercise performed with FW & SM. Loads on the HSD were adjusted to magnitudes comparable with FW & SM by subtracting the subject s body weight (BW). Peak GRFv for 45-, 55-, 64-, & 73-kg loads above BW were calculated. Percent (%) difference between HSD and the two upright conditions were computed. Effect size was calculated for the 45-kg load. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg on the HSD; however, 1 subject completed all loads. Anecdotal evidence suggested that most subjects shoulders or back failed before their legs. The mean % difference are shown. In the 45-kg condition, effect sizes were 0.37 & 0.83 (p>0.05) for HSD vs. FW and HSD vs. SM, respectively, indicating no differences between exercise modes. CONCLUSION: When BW was added to the target load, results indicated that vertical forces were similar to those in FW and SM exercise. The exercise prescription for the HSD should include a total external resistance equivalent to goal load plus subject BW. The HSD may be used as an analog to upright exercise in bed rest studies, but because most subjects were unable to lift >45 kg, it may be necessary to prescribe higher reps and lower loads to better target the leg musculature

  6. Ground reaction force and 3D biomechanical characteristics of walking in short-leg walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songning; Clowers, Kurt G; Powell, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Short-leg walking boots offer several advantages over traditional casts. However, their effects on ground reaction forces (GRF) and three-dimensional (3D) biomechanics are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to examine 3D lower extremity kinematics and joint dynamics during walking in two different short-leg walking boots. Eleven (five females and six males) healthy subjects performed five level walking trials in each of three conditions: two testing boot conditions, Gait Walker (DeRoyal Industries, Inc.) and Equalizer (Royce Medical Co.), and one pair of laboratory shoes (Noveto, Adidas). A force platform and a 6-camera Vicon motion analysis system were used to collect GRFs and 3D kinematic data during the testing session. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate selected kinematic, GRF, and joint kinetic variables (p<0.05). The results revealed that both short-leg walking boots were effective in minimizing ankle eversion and hip adduction. Neither walker increased the bimodal vertical GRF peaks typically observed in normal walking. However, they did impose a small initial peak (<1BW) earlier in the stance phase. The Gait Walker also exhibited a slightly increased vertical GRF during midstance. These characteristics may be related to the sole materials/design, the restriction of ankle movements, and/or the elevated heel heights of the tested walkers. Both walkers appeared to increase the demand on the knee extensors while they decreased the demand of the knee and hip abductors based on the joint kinetic results.

  7. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing-Kai; Ryue, Jaejin; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Ryu, Jiseon

    2017-01-01

    Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge. Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS), Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS), and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS). Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Shoe) ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables. Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  8. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  9. Ground measurements of fuel and fuel consumption from experimental and operational prescribed fires at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Andrew T. Hudak

    2014-01-01

    Ground-level measurements of fuel loading, fuel consumption, and fuel moisture content were collected on nine research burns conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida in November, 2012. A grass or grass-shrub fuelbed dominated eight of the research blocks; the ninth was a managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustrus) forest. Fuel loading ranged from 1.7 Mg ha-1 on a...

  10. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces of intra-individual fastest sprinting in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Ryu; Mizutani, Mirai; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach. There were possibly-most likely higher running speed and step frequency (2nd to 22nd steps) and shorter support time (all steps) in the fastest trial than in the slowest trial. Moreover, for the fastest trial there were likely-very likely greater mean propulsive force during the initial four steps and possibly-very likely larger mean net anterior-posterior force until the 17th step. The current results demonstrate that better sprinting performance within a single session is probably achieved by 1) a high step frequency (except the initial step) with short support time at all steps, 2) exerting a greater mean propulsive force during initial acceleration, and 3) producing a greater mean net anterior-posterior force during initial and middle acceleration.

  11. Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Two-Leg Landing: A Systematic Review and Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH, (2 to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3 to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH. Methods. A computerized bibliographical search was conducted to extract PvGRF data on a single foot when participants landed with both feet from various DHs. An innovative mathematical model was constructed to analyze effects of gender, landing type, shoes, ankle stabilizers, surface stiffness and sample frequency on PvGRF based on the pooled data. Results. Pooled PvGRF and DH data of 26 articles showed that the square root function fits their relationship well. An experimental validation was also done on the regression equation for the medicum frequency. The PvGRF was not significantly affected by surface stiffness, but was significantly higher in men than women, the platform than suspended landing, the barefoot than shod condition, and ankle stabilizer than control condition, and higher than lower frequencies. Conclusions. The PvGRF and root DH showed a linear relationship. The mathematical modeling method with systematic review is helpful to analyze the influence factors during landing movement without considering DH.

  12. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  13. Ground reaction force analysed with correlation coefficient matrix in group of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbik, Ewa; Krawczyk, Maciej; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of death in contemporary society and causes many disorders. Clinical scales, ground reaction force (GRF) and objective gait analysis are used for assessment of patient's rehabilitation progress during treatment. The goal of this paper is to assess whether signal correlation coefficient matrix applied to GRF can be used for evaluation of the status of post-stroke patients. A group of patients underwent clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis simultaneously three times. The difference between components of patient's GRF (vertical, fore/aft, med/lat) and normal ones (reference GRF of healthy subjects) was calculated as correlation coefficient. Patients were divided into two groups ("worse" and "better") based on the clinical functional scale tests done at the beginning of rehabilitation process. The results obtained by these two groups were compared using statistical analysis. An increase of median value of correlation coefficient is observed in all components of GRF, but only in non-paretic leg. Analysis of GRF signal can be helpful in assessment of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. Improvement in stroke patients was observed in non-paretic leg of the "worse" group. GRF analysis should not be the only tool for objective validation of patient's improvement, but could be used as additional source of information.

  14. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D

    2007-01-01

    .... In this study, basic combat skills training was evaluated using a number of training factors that potentially affect trainees' perception of training transfer, or their ability to apply the skills...

  15. Adaptive locomotor training on an end-effector gait robot: evaluation of the ground reaction forces in different training conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomelleri, Christopher; Waldner, Andreas; Werner, Cordula; Hesse, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of robotic gait rehabilitation is the restoration of independent gait. To achieve this goal different and specific patterns have to be practiced intensively in order to stimulate the learning process of the central nervous system. The gait robot G-EO Systems was designed to allow the repetitive practice of floor walking, stair climbing and stair descending. A novel control strategy allows training in adaptive mode. The force interactions between the foot and the ground were analyzed on 8 healthy volunteers in three different conditions: real floor walking on a treadmill, floor walking on the gait robot in passive mode, floor walking on the gait robot in adaptive mode. The ground reaction forces were measured by a Computer Dyno Graphy (CDG) analysis system. The results show different intensities of the ground reaction force across all of the three conditions. The intensities of force interactions during the adaptive training mode are comparable to the real walking on the treadmill. Slight deviations still occur in regard to the timing pattern of the forces. The adaptive control strategy comes closer to the physiological swing phase than the passive mode and seems to be a promising option for the treatment of gait disorders. Clinical trials will validate the efficacy of this new option in locomotor therapy on the patients. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Self-Tuning Threshold Method for Real-Time Gait Phase Detection Based on Ground Contact Forces Using FSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for detecting the gait phase of human walking on level ground. The previous threshold method (TM sets a threshold to divide the ground contact forces (GCFs into on-ground and off-ground states. However, the previous methods for gait phase detection demonstrate no adaptability to different people and different walking speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a self-tuning triple threshold algorithm (STTTA that calculates adjustable thresholds to adapt to human walking. Two force sensitive resistors (FSRs were placed on the ball and heel to measure GCFs. Three thresholds (i.e., high-threshold, middle-threshold andlow-threshold were used to search out the maximum and minimum GCFs for the self-adjustments of thresholds. The high-threshold was the main threshold used to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. Then, the gait phases were obtained through the gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA, which provides the rules that determine calculations for STTTA. Finally, the STTTA reliability is determined by comparing the results between STTTA and Mariani method referenced as the timing analysis module (TAM and Lopez–Meyer methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used to detect gait phases in real time and obtain high reliability when compared with the previous methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method exhibits strong adaptability to different wearers walking at different walking speeds.

  17. MEMS two-axis force plate array used to measure the ground reaction forces during the running motion of an ant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Thanh-Vinh, Nguyen; Jung, Uijin G; Shimoyama, Isao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A terrestrial insect can perform agile running maneuvers. However, the balance of ground reaction forces (GRFs) between each leg in an insect have remained poorly characterized. In this report, we present a micro force plate array for the simultaneous measurement of the anterior and vertical components of GRFs of multiple legs during the running motion of an ant. The proposed force plate, which consists of a 2000 µm × 980 µm × 20 µm plate base as the contact surface of an ant's leg, and the supported beams with piezoresistors on the sidewall and surface are sufficiently compact to be adjacently arrayed along the anterior direction. Eight plates arrayed in parallel were fabricated on the same silicon-on-insulator substrate to narrow the gap between each plate to 20 µm. We compartmented the plate surface into 32 blocks and evaluated the sensitivities to two-axis forces in each block so that the exerted forces could be detected wherever a leg came into contact. The force resolutions in both directions were under 1 µN within ±20 µN. Using the fabricated force plate array, we achieved a simultaneous measurement of the GRFs of three legs on one side while an ant was running. (paper)

  18. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  19. Effects of knee extension constraint training on knee flexion angle and peak impact ground-reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Will; Yao, Wanxiang; Spang, Jeffrey T; Creighton, R Alexander; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2014-04-01

    Low compliance with training programs is likely to be one of the major reasons for inconsistency of the data regarding the effectiveness of current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. Training methods that reduce training time and cost could favorably influence the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs. A newly designed knee extension constraint training device may serve this purpose. (1) Knee extension constraint training for 4 weeks would significantly increase the knee flexion angle at the time of peak impact posterior ground-reaction force and decrease peak impact ground-reaction forces during landing of a stop-jump task and a side-cutting task, and (2) the training effects would be retained 4 weeks after completion of the training program. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four recreational athletes were randomly assigned to group A or B. Participants in group A played sports without wearing a knee extension constraint device for 4 weeks and then played sports while wearing the device for 4 weeks, while participants in group B underwent a reversed protocol. Both groups were tested at the beginning of week 1 and at the ends of weeks 4 and 8 without wearing the device. Knee joint angles were obtained from 3-dimensional videographic data, while ground-reaction forces were measured simultaneously using force plates. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the training effects and the retention of training effects. Participants in group A significantly increased knee flexion angles and decreased ground-reaction forces at the end of week 8 (P ≤ .012). Participants in group B significantly increased knee flexion angles and decreased ground-reaction forces at the ends of weeks 4 and 8 (P ≤ .007). However, participants in group B decreased knee flexion angles and increased ground-reaction forces at the end of week 8 in comparison with the end of week 4 (P ≤ .009). Knee extension constraint training for 4 weeks

  20. Impact Force Applied on the Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Canister that Accidentally Drops and Collides onto the Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical methodology was theoretically studied to obtain the impact force caused by the collision between rigid bodies. This theoretical methodology was applied to compute the impact force applied on the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally drops and collides onto the ground. From this study, the impact force required to ensure a structurally safe canister design was theoretically formulated. The main content of the theoretical study concerns the rigid body kinematics and equation of motion during collision between two rigid bodies. On the basis of this study, a general impact theory to compute the impact force caused by the collision between two bodies was developed. This general impact theory was applied to theoretically formulate the approximate mathematical solution of the impact force that affects the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally falls to the ground. Simultaneously, a numerical analysis was performed using the computer code to compute the numerical solution of the impact force, and the numerical result was compared with the approximate mathematical solution

  1. Effect of fatigue and gender on kinematics and ground reaction forces variables in recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuelo-Ruiz, Bruno; Durá-Gil, Juan V; Palomares, Nicolás; Medina, Enrique; Llana-Belloch, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners. Fifty-seven participants (28 males and 29 females) had kinematic and GRF variables measured while running at speed of 3.3 m s -1 before and after a fatigue test protocol. The fatigue protocol included (1) a running Course-Navette test, (2) running up and down a flight of stairs for 5 min, and (3) performance of alternating jumps on a step (five sets of 1 minute each with 30 resting seconds between the sets). Fatigue decreased dorsiflexion (14.24 ± 4.98° in pre-fatigue and 12.65 ± 6.21° in fatigue condition, p  < 0.05) at foot strike phase in females, and plantar flexion (-19.23 ± 4.12° in pre-fatigue and -18.26 ± 5.31° in fatigue condition, p  < 0.05) at toe-off phase in males. These changes led to a decreased loading rate (88.14 ± 25.82 BW/s in pre-fatigue and 83.97 ± 18.83 BW/s in fatigue condition, p  < 0.05) and the impact peak in females (1.95 ± 0.31 BW in pre-fatigue and 1.90 ± 0.31 BW in fatigue condition, p  < 0.05), and higher peak propulsive forces in males (-0.26 ± 0.04 BW in pre-fatigue and -0.27 ± 0.05 BW in fatigue condition, p  < 0.05) in the fatigue condition. It seems that better responses to impact under a fatigue condition are observed among women. Further studies should confirm whether these changes represent a strategy to optimize shock attenuation, prevent running injuries and improve running economy.

  2. Effect of fatigue and gender on kinematics and ground reaction forces variables in recreational runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bazuelo-Ruiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF parameters in recreational runners. Fifty-seven participants (28 males and 29 females had kinematic and GRF variables measured while running at speed of 3.3 m s−1 before and after a fatigue test protocol. The fatigue protocol included (1 a running Course-Navette test, (2 running up and down a flight of stairs for 5 min, and (3 performance of alternating jumps on a step (five sets of 1 minute each with 30 resting seconds between the sets. Fatigue decreased dorsiflexion (14.24 ± 4.98° in pre-fatigue and 12.65 ± 6.21° in fatigue condition, p < 0.05 at foot strike phase in females, and plantar flexion (−19.23 ± 4.12° in pre-fatigue and −18.26 ± 5.31° in fatigue condition, p < 0.05 at toe-off phase in males. These changes led to a decreased loading rate (88.14 ± 25.82 BW/s in pre-fatigue and 83.97 ± 18.83 BW/s in fatigue condition, p < 0.05 and the impact peak in females (1.95 ± 0.31 BW in pre-fatigue and 1.90 ± 0.31 BW in fatigue condition, p < 0.05, and higher peak propulsive forces in males (−0.26 ± 0.04 BW in pre-fatigue and −0.27 ± 0.05 BW in fatigue condition, p < 0.05 in the fatigue condition. It seems that better responses to impact under a fatigue condition are observed among women. Further studies should confirm whether these changes represent a strategy to optimize shock attenuation, prevent running injuries and improve running economy.

  3. Functional knee brace use effect on peak vertical ground reaction forces during drop jump landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Niven, Brian; Woollard, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the landing strategies used by non-injured athletes while wearing functional knee braces (FKB, BR condition) during a drop jump task compared with non-injured, non-braced (NBR condition) subjects and also to ascertain whether accommodation to a FKB was possible by non-injured BR subjects. Twenty-three healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age, 19.4 ± 3.0 years) were tested. Each subject was provided with a custom-fitted FKB. Five NBR testing sessions were performed over 3 days followed by five BR testing sessions also over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 h of testing per condition. Each subject performed eight trials of the drop jump task during each testing session per condition. Single-leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (PVGRF) and the time to PVGRF were recorded for each NBR and BR trail. The BR group mean PVGRF at landing was significantly lower (1,628 ± 405 N, 2.1 ± 0.5 BW versus 1,715 ± 403 N, 2.2 ± 0.5 BW, F (1,22) = 6.83, P = 0.01) compared with NBR subjects, respectively. The group mean time to PVGRF was not statistically longer during the BR condition (F (1,22) = 0.967, P = 0.3). Further, an accommodation trend was noted as percent performance difference decreased with continued FKB use. The significantly lower group mean PVGRF while using a FKB could keep traumatic forces from reaching the ACL until the active neuromuscular restraints are activated to provide protection to the knee joint ligaments. Also, accommodation to FKB is possible after approximately 14.0 h of brace use. The results of this paper will assist clinicians in providing information to their patients regarding a FKB ability to offer protection to an ACL-deficient knee or to address concerns about early muscle fatigue, energy expenditure, heart rate, and decrease in performance level. Prospective study, Level I.

  4. Barriers to Implementing a Single Joint Combat Camouflage Uniform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses; examines the requirements and role of each of the...SUBJECT TERMS ground combat uniform, combat camouflage uniform history , combat camouflage uniform pattern, camouflage pattern testing 15. NUMBER...methodology applies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses

  5. Bone strength estimates relative to vertical ground reaction force discriminates women runners with stress fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Kristin L; McDermott, William; Hughes, Julie M; Baxter, Stephanie A; Stovitz, Steven D; Petit, Moira A

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm 3 ), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm 2 ), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm 4 ) at the distal tibia. ToA, CtA, cortical vBMD, and estimated strength (section modulus; Zp, mm 3 and strength strain index; SSIp, mm 3 ) were measured at six cortical sites along the tibia. Mean active peak vertical (pkZ) ground reaction forces (GRFs), assessed from a fatigue run on an instrumented treadmill, were used in conjunction with pQCT measurements to estimate bone strength relative to load (mm 2 /N∗kg -1 ) at all cortical sites. SSIp and Zp were 9-11% lower in the SFX group at mid-shaft of the tibia, while ToA and vBMD did not differ between groups at any measurement site. The SFX group had 11-17% lower bone strength relative to mean pkZ GRFs (phistory of stress fracture. Bone strength relative to load is also lower in this same region suggesting that strength deficits in the middle 1/3 of the tibia and altered gait biomechanics may predispose an individual to stress fracture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Comparison of Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Forward and Backward Walking among Professional Male Karatekas with Genu Varum and Normal Knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, genu varum can be considered as an effective factor on vertical ground reaction force (as predictor factor of musculoskeletal injuries among the Karate professionals, and backward walking can cause a change in vertical ground reaction force more than forward walking does.

  7. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  8. The Comparison of Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Forward and Backward Walking among Professional Male Karatekas with Genu Varum and Normal Knees

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Sadeghi; Siavash Shirvanipour; Raghad Mimar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare vertical ground reaction force during forward and backward walking among the male professional Karatekas with genu varum and normal knee. Methods: 20 professional male Karates (in genu varum and normal groups) participated in this semi-experimental study. The vertical ground reaction force was measured using force plate system during forward and backward walking utilizing 250 Hz frequency. Mixed ANOVA test was run to analyze the obtained ...

  9. Effects of fatigue on bilateral ground reaction force asymmetries during the squat exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Stephanie J; Patrick, Ryan J; Reiser, Raoul F

    2011-11-01

    Physical performance and injury risk have been related to functional asymmetries of the lower extremity. The effect of fatigue on asymmetries is not well understood. The goal of this investigation was to examine asymmetries during fatiguing repetitions and sets of the free-weight barbell back squat exercise. Seventeen healthy recreationally trained men and women (age = 22.3 ± 2.5 years; body mass = 73.4 ± 13.8 kg; squat 8 repetition maximum [8RM] = 113 ± 35% body mass [mean ± SD]) performed 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 90% 8RM while recording bilateral vertical ground reaction force (GRFv). The GRFv asymmetry during the first 2 (R1 and R2) and the last 2 (R7 and R8) repetitions of each set was calculated by subtracting the % load on the right foot from that of the left foot. Most subjects placed more load on their left foot (also their preferred non-kicking foot). Average absolute asymmetry level across all sets was 4.3 ± 2.5 and 3.6 ± 2.3% for R1 and R2 and R7 and R8, respectively. There were no effects of fatigue on GRFv asymmetries in whole-group analysis (n = 17). However, when initially highly symmetric subjects (±1.7% Left-Right) were removed, average absolute GRFv asymmetry dropped from the beginning to the end of a set (n = 12, p = 0.044) as did peak instantaneous GRFv asymmetry when exploring general shifts toward the left or right leg (n = 12, p = 0.042). The GRFv asymmetries were highly repeatable for 8 subjects that repeated the protocol (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.733, p ≤ 0.056). These results suggest that functional asymmetries, though low, are present in healthy people during the squat exercise and remain consistent. Asymmetries do not increase with fatigue, potentially even decreasing, suggesting that healthy subjects load limbs similarly as fatigue increases, exposing each to similar training stimuli.

  10. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu, Tienan Feng, Lejun Wang, Chenghua Jiang, Ming Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2 and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2 during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1 the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2 the subject number and trial number were known; 3 the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4 the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5 the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6 the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject’s body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05 and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71 and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65 with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane.

  11. Force-balance and differential equation for the ground-state electron density in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amovilli, C.; March, N.H.; Gal, T.; Nagy, A.

    2000-01-01

    Holas and March (1995) established a force-balance equation from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. Here, the authors propose this as a basis for the construction of a (usually approximate) differential equation for the ground-state electron density. By way of example they present the simple case of two-electron systems with different external potentials but with weak electron-electron Coulomb repulsion λe 2 /r 12 . In this case first-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory of the ground-state wave function is known to lead to a compact expression for the first-order density matrix γ(r,rprime) in terms of its diagonal density ρ(r) and the density corresponding to λ = 0. This result allows the force-balance equation to be written as a third-order linear, differential homogeneous equation for the ground-state electron density ρ(r). The example of the two-electron Hookean atom is treated: For this case one can also transcend the first-order RS perturbation theory and get exact results for discrete choices of force constants (external potential)

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  13. Gender difference in older adult's utilization of gravitational and ground reaction force in regulation of angular momentum during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Kunal; Kim, Jemin; Casebolt, Jeffrey; Lee, Sangwoo; Han, Ki-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    Angular momentum of the body is a highly controlled quantity signifying stability, therefore, it is essential to understand its regulation during stair descent. The purpose of this study was to investigate how older adults use gravity and ground reaction force to regulate the angular momentum of the body during stair descent. A total of 28 participants (12 male and 16 female; 68.5 years and 69.0 years of mean age respectively) performed stair descent from a level walk in a step-over-step manner at a self-selected speed over a custom made three-step staircase with embedded force plates. Kinematic and force data were used to calculate angular momentum, gravitational moment, and ground reaction force moment about the stance foot center of pressure. Women show a significantly greater change in normalized angular momentum (0.92Nms/Kgm; p=.004) as compared to men (0.45Nms/Kgm). Women produce higher normalized GRF (p=.031) during the double support phase. The angular momentum changes show largest backward regulation for Step 0 and forward regulation for Step 2. This greater difference in overall change in the angular momentum in women may explain their increased risk of fall over the stairs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chest Seal Placement for Penetrating Chest Wounds by Prehospital Ground Forces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Naylor, Jason F; Simon, Erica M; Fisher, Andrew D; Cunningham, Cord W; Morissette, Daniel M; Fernandez, Jessie Renee D; Ryan, Kathy L

    Thoracic trauma represents 5% of all battlefield injuries. Communicating pneumothoraces resulting in tension physiology remain an important etiology of prehospital mortality. In addressing penetrating chest trauma, current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines advocate the immediate placement of a vented chest seal device. Although the Committee on TCCC (CoTCCC) has approved numerous chest seal devices for battlefield use, few data exist regarding their use in a combat zone setting. To evaluate adherence to TCCC guidelines for chest seal placement among personnel deployed to Afghanistan. We obtained data from the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). Joint Trauma System personnel linked patients to the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, when available, for outcome data upon reaching a fixed facility. In the PHTR, we identified 62 patients with documented gunshot wound (GSW) or puncture wound trauma to the chest. The majority (74.2%; n = 46) of these were due to GSW, with the remainder either explosive-based puncture wounds (22.6%; n = 14) or a combination of GSW and explosive (3.2%; n = 2). Of the 62 casualties with documented GSW or puncture wounds, 46 (74.2%) underwent chest seal placement. Higher proportions of patients with medical officers in their chain of care underwent chest seal placement than those that did not (63.0% versus 37.0%). The majority of chest seals placed were not vented. Of patients with a GSW or puncture wound to the chest, 74.2% underwent chest seal placement. Most of the chest seals placed were not vented in accordance with guidelines, despite the guideline update midway through the study period. These data suggest the need to improve predeployment training on TCCC guidelines and matching of the Army logistical supply chain to the devices recommended by the CoTCCC. 2017.

  15. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  17. Finding the Middle Ground: The U.S. Air Force, Space Weaponization, and Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruhm, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... US development of an Expeditionary Space Force (ESF) would be one element of a comprehensive strategy that would include changes to US space architecture and cooperative measures with other countries...

  18. On the relationship between lower extremity muscles activation and peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces during single leg drop landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaki, M; Mi'mar, R; Mahaki, B

    2015-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury continues to be an important medical issue for athletes participating in sports. Vertical and posterior ground reaction forces have received considerable attention for their potential influence on ACL injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between electromyographic activity of lower extremity muscles and the peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces during single leg drop landing. Thirteen physical education male students participated in this correlation study. Electromyographic activities of gluteus medius, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, soleus as well as anterior tibialis muscles along with ground reaction forces were measured. Participants performed single-leg landing from a 0.3 m height on to a force platform. Landing was divided into two phases: 100 ms preceding ground contact and 100 ms proceeding ground contact. Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relationships between these muscles activity and peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces. The results of the study indicated that the activity of soleus and tibialis anterior in pre-landing phase were positively correlated with peak vertical ground reaction force ([P≤0.04], [P≤0.008], respectively). However, no significant correlation was found between the activities of other muscles in pre-landing phase and peak vertical as well as peak posterior ground reaction forces. Also, no significant correlation was found between the activities of muscles in post-landing phase and peak vertical as well as peak posterior ground reaction forces. Soleus loading shifts the proximal tibia posterior at the knee joint and tibialis anterior prevent hyperporonation of the ankle, a mechanisms of ACL injury. Hence, neuromuscular training promoting preparatory muscle activity in these muscles may reduce the incidence of ACL injuries.

  19. The United States Army Concept Capability Plan for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction for the Futer Modular Force 2015-2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-25

    development and pest control, also have deleterious dual use potential. By replicating themselves after introduction into a target population, a small...N national NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NEBC network-enabled battle command NMSCWMD National Military Strategy for Combating...within the continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa

  20. A Full Cost Analysis of the Replacement of Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay's Marine Ground Defense Force by the Fleet Antiterrorism Security Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ordona, Placido

    2000-01-01

    ... of these diminishing resources. One such initiative is the restructuring of the Marine security presence at Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through the replacement of the 350 man Marine Ground Defense Force with a smaller...

  1. Self-Described Differences Between Legs in Ballet Dancers: Do They Relate to Postural Stability and Ground Reaction Force Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Laura; Docherty, Carrie

    2012-12-01

    Ballet technique classes are designed to train dancers symmetrically, but they may actually create a lateral bias. It is unknown whether dancers in general are functionally asymmetrical, or how an individual dancer's perceived imbalance between legs might manifest itself. The purpose of this study was to examine ballet dancers' lateral preference by analyzing their postural stability and ground reaction forces in fifth position when landing from dance-specific jumps. Thirty university ballet majors volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects wore their own ballet technique shoes and performed fundamental ballet jumps out of fifth position on a force plate. The force plate recorded center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction force (GRF) data. Each subject completed a laterality questionnaire that determined his or her preferred landing leg for ballet jumps, self-identified stronger leg, and self-identified leg with better balance. All statistical comparisons were made between the leg indicated on the laterality questionnaire and the other leg (i.e., if the dancer's response to a question was "left," the comparison was made with the left leg as the "preferred" leg and the right leg as the "non-preferred leg"). No significant differences were identified between the limbs in any of the analyses conducted (all statistical comparisons produced p values > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that a dancer's preferential use of one limb over the other has no bearing on GRFs or balance ability after landing jumps in ballet. Similarly, dancers' opinions of their leg characteristics (such as one leg being stronger than the other) seem not to correlate with the dancers' actual ability to absorb GRFs or to balance when landing from ballet jumps.

  2. Estimation of vertical ground reaction forces and sagittal knee kinematics during running using three inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Frank J.; Giuberti, Matteo; Bellusci, Giovanni; Maartens, Erik; Reenalda, Jasper; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics

  3. Prediction of ground reaction forces and moments during various activities of daily living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluit, René; Andersen, M.S.; Kolk, S.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Inverse dynamics based simulations on musculoskeletal models is a commonly used method for the analysis of human movement. Due to inaccuracies in the kinematic and force plate data, and a mismatch between the model and the subject, the equations of motion are violated when solving the inverse

  4. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuzhu; Storm, Fabio; Zhao, Yifan; Billings, Stephen A; Pavic, Aleksandar; Mazzà, Claudia; Guo, Ling-Zhong

    2017-09-22

    Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF) during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF) from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR) is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0%) using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra). Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications.

  5. Motion Control of Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles considering Tire Force Saturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle stability control approach for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA electric vehicles is presented. The proposed control method consists of a higher-level controller and a lower-level controller. An adaptive control-based higher-level controller is designed to yield the vehicle virtual control efforts to track the desired vehicle motions due to the possible modeling inaccuracies and parametric uncertainties. The lower-level controller considering tire force saturation is given to allocate the required control efforts to the four in-wheel motors for providing the desired tire forces. An analytic method is given to distribute the high-level control efforts, without using the numerical-optimization-based control allocation algorithms. Simulations based on a high-fidelity, CarSim, and full-vehicle model show the effectiveness of the control approach.

  6. Effect of foot orthoses on magnitude and timing of rearfoot and tibial motions, ground reaction force and knee moment during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mansour; Begon, Mickaël; Hinse, Sébastien; Sadeghi, Heydar; Popov, Peter; Allard, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Changes in magnitude and timing of rearfoot eversion and tibial internal rotation by foot orthoses and their contributions to vertical ground reaction force and knee joint moments are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to test if orthoses modify the magnitude and time to peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, active ground reaction force and knee adduction moment and determine if rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation magnitudes are correlated to peak active ground reaction force and knee adduction moment during the first 60% stance phase of running. Eleven healthy men ran at 170 steps per minute in shod and with foot orthoses conditions. Video and force-plate data were collected simultaneously to calculate foot joint angular displacement, ground reaction forces and knee adduction moments. Results showed that wearing semi-rigid foot orthoses significantly reduced rearfoot eversion 40% (4.1 degrees ; p=0.001) and peak active ground reaction force 6% (0.96N/kg; p=0.008). No significant time differences occurred among the peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation and peak active ground reaction force in both conditions. A positive and significant correlation was observed between peak knee adduction moment and the magnitude of rearfoot eversion during shod (r=0.59; p=0.04) and shod/orthoses running (r=0.65; p=0.02). In conclusion, foot orthoses could reduce rearfoot eversion so that this can be associated with a reduction of knee adduction moment during the first 60% stance phase of running. Finding implies that modifying rearfoot and tibial motions during running could not be related to a reduction of the ground reaction force.

  7. Measuring fN force variations in the presence of constant nN forces: a torsion pendulum ground test of the LISA Pathfinder free-fall mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, G.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Dolesi, R.; Ferroni, V.; Gibert, F.; Giusteri, R.; Hueller, M.; Liu, L.; Pivato, P.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2018-02-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a differential accelerometer with the main goal being to demonstrate the near perfect free-fall of reference test masses, as is needed for an orbiting gravitational wave observatory, with a target sensitivity of 30 fm s‑2 Hz-1/2 at 1 mHz. Any lasting background differential acceleration between the two test masses must be actively compensated, and noise associated with the applied actuation force can be a dominant source of noise. To remove this actuation, and the associated force noise, a ‘free-fall’ actuation control scheme has been designed; actuation is limited to brief impulses, with both test masses in free-fall in the time between the impulses, allowing measurement of the remaining acceleration noise sources. In this work, we present an on-ground torsion pendulum testing campaign of this technique and associated data analysis algorithms at a level nearing the sub-femto-g/\\sqrtHz performance required for LISA Pathfinder.

  8. Coupling Satellite and Ground-Based Instruments to Map Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Robert J.; Anderson, Theodore L.; Hostetler, Chris (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols is a significant but highly uncertain factor in global climate change. Only satellites can offer the global coverage essential to reducing this uncertainty; however, satellite measurements must be coupled with correlative, in situ measurements both to constrain the aerosol optical properties required in satellite retrieval algorithms and to provide chemical identification of aerosol sources. This grant funded the first two years of a three-year project which seeks to develop methodologies for combining spaceborne lidar with in-situ aerosol data sets to improve estimates of direct aerosol climate forcing. Progress under this two-year grant consisted in the development and deployment of a new in-situ capability for measuring aerosol 180' backscatter and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio. This new measurement capacity allows definitive lidar/in-situ comparisons and improves our ability to interpret lidar data in terms of climatically relevant quantities such as the extinction coefficient and optical depth. Measurements were made along the coast of Washington State, in Central Illinois, over the Indian Ocean, and in the Central Pacific. Thus, this research, combined with previous measurements by others, is rapidly building toward a global data set of extinction-to-backscatter ratio for key aerosol types. Such information will be critical to interpreting lidar data from the upcoming PICASSO-CENA, or P-C, satellite mission. Another aspect of this project is to investigate innovative ways to couple the lidar-satellite signal with targeted in-situ measurements toward a direct determination of aerosol forcing. This aspect is progressing in collaboration with NASA Langley's P-C lidar simulator and radiative transfer modeling by the University of Lille, France.

  9. The role of military footwear and workload on ground reaction forces during a simulated lateral ankle sprain mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; DeBusk, Hunter; Hill, Christopher; Knight, Adam; Chander, Harish

    2018-03-01

    Ankle sprains are a common orthopedic injury in military populations, which may be attributed to occupational demands and footwear. Minimalist military boots have become popular, but their influence on ground reaction force (GRF) attenuation capabilities during an ankle inversion perturbation are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine potential differences in GRFs during an ankle inversion perturbation in a standard issue (STN) and minimalist military boot (MIN) before and after a simulated military workload. Twenty-one healthy adult males completed an ankle inversion perturbation protocol in each footwear condition before and after an incremental treadmill exercise protocol to volitional exhaustion while wearing a 16kg rucksack. The ankle inversion perturbation protocol consisted of stepping down from a 27cm box onto a force platform with a fulcrum (FUL), which created 25° of inversion upon landing, or flat (FLT) outer sole attached to the plantar aspect of the participants' footwear in random order. Peak vertical, anterior/posterior, and medial/lateral components of the GRF during FUL and FLT conditions were assessed, normalized to multiples of body weight in each footwear. Dependent variables were then analyzed using separate 2 (footwear)×2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA (pfootwear demonstrated significantly greater vertical GRF and significantly less medial GRF during the FUL condition. These results indicate that various mechanical and design characteristics of military footwear may influence GRF attenuation capabilities and ankle joint loading when the foot/ankle complex is forced into inversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  11. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. Methods 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31 cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Findings Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P > 0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P = 0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P 0.12). Interpretation The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. PMID:23899938

  12. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-08-01

    Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P>0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P=0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P0.12). The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. © 2013.

  13. Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rafajlović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

  14. A simplified analog for a rotorcraft-in-ground-effect flow using a forced impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Jayson; Kiger, Ken

    2010-11-01

    The phenomenon of rotorcraft brown-out is defined as the intense suspension and re-ingestion of sand during the take-off and landing of a rotor-lifted aircraft. To mitigate the problem of rotorcraft brown-out, the non-equilibrium sediment suspension process that occurs within a typical rotorcraft wake must be understood. We attempt to understand the most basic aspects of this complex flow through the use of an axisymmetric forced impinging jet. While this flow neglects the swirl component associated with a rotorcraft, it does reproduce the typical coherent vortex structures, and permits their repeatable generation within an axisymmetric mean stagnation flow. The goal of the current work is to determine the forcing conditions that produce isolated, but intense and repeatable structures that can be followed through their interaction with the wall boundary. Stereo PIV imaging is applied to detail the breakdown of a vortex ring in the wall jet zone. The secondary vortex generation and decay are observed experimentally with 3-D vector fields, and their results are interpreted with respect to their significance in the context of sediment mobilization.

  15. A comparison of ground reaction force components according to the foothold heights in 16-t truck during downward step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver's seat orderly using hand rail. Sampling rate of force components of 3 axis (medial-lateral [ML] GRF, anterior-posterior [AP] GRF, peak vertical force [PVF]), variables (COPx, COPy, COP area) of center of pressure (COP), loading rate, and stability index (ML, AP, vertical, and dynamic postural stability index [DPSI]) processed from GRF system was cut off at 1,000 Hz. and variables was processed with repeated one-way analysis of variance. AP GRF, PVF and loading rate showed higher value in case of not used hand rail than that used hand rail in all 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of foothold step. DPSI showed more lowered stability in order of 2nd, 3rd step than 1st foothold step used with hand rail, of which showed lowest stability from driver's seat. COPx, COPy, and COP area showed higher value in case of 2nd and 3rd than that of 1st of foothold step, and showed lowest stability from driver's seat. It is more desirable for cargo truck driver to utilize an available hand rail in order of 3rd, 2nd, and 1st of foothold step than downward stepping directly, thus by which may results in decrease of falling injuries and minimization of impulsive force transferring to muscular-skeletal system.

  16. Defense Acquisitions: 2009 Review of Future Combat System Is Critical to Program's Direction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    The Future Combat System (FCS) program which comprises 14 integrated weapon systems and an advanced information network is the centerpiece of the Army's effort to transition to a lighter, more agile, and more capable combat force...

  17. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Eric; Halliday, John M; Robbins, Marc L; Girardini, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    ..., with an emphasis on the period from the start of ground combat to the fall of Baghdad. The findings should be of interest throughout the Army as well as the broader Department of Defense supply chain, deployment planning, and force development communities...

  18. Changes in ground reaction force during a rebound-jump task after hip strength training for single-sided ankle dorsiflexion restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hitoshi; Someya, Fujiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral ankle sprains are common injuries suffered while playing sports, and abnormal forward- and inward-directed ground reaction force occurs during a jumping task. However, the influence of hip muscle strength training on jumping performance after ankle injuries has not been fully examined. This study thus examined changes in ground reaction force during a rebound-jump task after training to strengthen hip muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Ten of 30 female high school basketball players were assigned as subjects who showed a difference of 7 or more degrees in dorsiflexion ranges between the bilateral ankles. The subjects underwent 12 weeks of training to strengthen hip abductors and external rotators. Comparisons between before and after training were made regarding ground reaction force components, hip and knee joint angles, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction in leg muscles, and muscle strength of hip muscles during the rebound-jump task. [Results] After training, the subjects showed increased strength of external rotator muscles, increased percentage of maximum voluntary contraction in the gluteus medius muscle, decreased inward ground reaction force, and increased flexion angles of the hip and knee joints. [Conclusion] This study suggests that training to strengthen hip muscles may ameliorate the inward ground reaction force in athletes with ankle dorsiflexion restriction.

  19. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhu Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0% using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra. Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications.

  20. Estimation of Tri-Axial Walking Ground Reaction Forces of Left and Right Foot from Total Forces in Real-Life Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications including disease monitoring, rehabilitation, and professional sports. Wearable inertial measurement units are successfully used to measure body kinematics in real-life environments and to estimate total walking ground reaction forces GRF(t using equations of motion. However, for inverse dynamics and clinical gait analysis, the GRF(t of each foot is required separately. Using an experimental dataset of 1243 tri-axial separate-foot GRF(t time histories measured by the authors across eight years, this study proposes the ‘Twin Polynomial Method’ (TPM to estimate the tri-axial left and right foot GRF(t signals from the total GRF(t signals. For each gait cycle, TPM fits polynomials of degree five, eight, and nine to the known single-support part of the left and right foot vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral GRF(t signals, respectively, to extrapolate the unknown double-support parts of the corresponding GRF(t signals. Validation of the proposed method both with force plate measurements (gold standard in the laboratory, and in real-life environment showed a peak-to-peak normalized root mean square error of less than 2.5%, 6.5% and 7.5% for the estimated GRF(t signals in the vertical, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions, respectively. These values show considerable improvement compared with the currently available GRF(t decomposition methods in the literature.

  1. Ground reaction force comparison of bilateral symmetry with pneumatic resistance squat device and free weights - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C; Schilling, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    The unloading of spaceflight leads to bone and muscle atrophy, and a pneumatic resistance squat exercise countermeasure has the potential to provide optimized controllable resistance in a lightweight and compact configuration. However each end of the barbell in the proposed device is connected to a separate resistance cylinder which could lead to bilaterally asymmetric loading. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to compare the unilateral ground reaction forces (GRF) of the new squat device compared to free weights. Four previously trained men (mean +/- SD; age = 20+/-2 years, body mass = 99+/-18 kg) performed three sets of three repetitions of maximal exertion squat exercises with pneumatically controlled constant resistance and free weights each with a resistance level set to half of the body weight of each subject. Unilateral GRF data for each lifting modality at the negative to positive transition of the squat exercise was measured with a force plate under each foot. The pneumatic resistance GRF (N; mean +/- SD) was 749+/-114 on the left leg and 786+/-123 on the right leg and the free weight GRF was 786+/-114 left and 861+/-111 right resulting in a 5% difference between left and right GRF with pneumatics and 9% difference with free weights. The correlation coefficient between left and right GRF was 0.92 with pneumatics and 0.80 with free weights. Because the pneumatic device elicited more bilaterally symmetric GRF than traditional free weights, the separate resistance cylinders are an acceptable design configuration.

  2. Vertical ground reaction force in stationary running in water and on land: A study with a wide range of cadences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Ruschel, Caroline; Dell'Antonio, Elisa; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Roesler, Helio

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fy max ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fy max. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density. The effect of cadence was shown to depend on the environment: while Fy max increases linearly with increasing cadence on land; in water, Fy max reaches a plateau at both hip and chest immersions. All factors analyzed, cadence, immersion level and body density affected Fy max significantly, with immersion (aquatic × land environment) showing the greatest effect. In water, different cadences may lead to bigger changes in Fy max than the changes obtained by moving subjects from hip to chest immersion. A regression model able to predict 69% of Fy max variability in water was proposed and validated. Cadence, Immersion and body density affect Fy max in a significant and non-independent way. Besides a model of potential use in the prescription of stationary running in water, our analysis provides insights into the different responses of GRF to changes in exercise parameters between land and aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of heel height on vertical ground reaction force during landing tasks in recreationally active and athletic collegiate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Kelly M; Carcia, Christopher R

    2013-02-01

    To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Forward hop task- Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (psneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver.

  4. A Study of The Direct Aerosol Forcing At Ground Level For A Pollution Event During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Dubuisson, P.; Putaud, J. P.; van Dingenen, R.; Despiau, S.

    Radiative forcing by aerosol particles is one of the largest source of uncertainties in predicting climate change (IPCC, 2001). Indeed, quantitative estimates of this effect are still uncertain due to little knowledge of these atmospheric particles. Atmospheric particles influence the Earth's radiation balance both directly and indirectly. The indi- rect effect denotes the effect of aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei, possibly modifying cloud albedo and cloud lifetime. The direct effect is due to scattering and absorption of radiation and each of these processes depends mainly on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosol particles. During the ESCOMPTE campaign, which took place in coastal Mediterranean area during the summer 2001, we estimated these aerosol micro-physical properties during a pollution event at two different sites. The first is an urban site (the city of Marseille), and the second is a rural area located fifty kilometers inland. The aerosol size distribution was measured with an SMPS for the particles with radii 1 µm. The chemi- cal composition (including different ionic compounds , dust, elemental and organic carbon) was deduced from chromatography analysis. The aerosol optical properties calculated from measured aerosol physical and chemical properties at ground level (from Mie theory) are used as input to a shortwave radiative transfer model. Then, this model is used to calculate the diurnally averaged direct aerosol forcing at surface and to compare this values with those measured from the ARAT aircraft and surface pyranometer during the campaign.

  5. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  6. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Lanchester equations, Weapon Effectiveness Index (WEI), Weighted Unit Value (WUV), Armored Division Equivalents (ADE), and Unit Frontages. The research...6 Lanchester Equations... Lanchester Equations ............................................................................................... 53 Appendix C: Relative Combat Power

  7. Aviators and Air Combat: A Study of the U.S. Eighth Air Force and R.A.F. Bomber Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    moved to the top of the popular music charts in 1942. See Bruce D. Callander, "They Wanted Wings," Air Force Magazine (January 1991) p. 82. 19 Even in the...infantry of the Somme in 1916. According to some accounts, airmen faced German flak, searchlights, and "Schrdge Musik " in the same way their fathers had

  8. Tanks Within The Marine Air Ground Task Force: A N/A Versatile Combat Multiplier Throughout the Full Spectrum of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    Estes, Marines Under Armor : The Marine Corps and the Armored Fighting Vehicle, 1916- 2000. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD, 2000. Prior to WWIT...Marines Under Armor : The Marine Corps and the Armored Fighting Vehicle, 1916-2000. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MA: 2000 Gilbert, Oscar E

  9. NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE CYCLES NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE STABILITY OF SELECTED GROUND REACTION FORCE VARIABLES DURING CONTINUOUS JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmes M.W. Brownjohn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of inherent variability in all human cyclical movements, such as walking, running and jumping, data collected across a single cycle might be atypical and potentially unable to represent an individual's generalized performance. The study described here was designed to determine the number of successive cycles due to continuous, repetitive countermovement jumping which a test subject should perform in a single experimental session to achieve stability of the mean of the corresponding continuously measured ground reaction force (GRF variables. Seven vertical GRF variables (period of jumping cycle, duration of contact phase, peak force amplitude and its timing, average rate of force development, average rate of force relaxation and impulse were extracted on the cycle-by-cycle basis from vertical jumping force time histories generated by twelve participants who were jumping in response to regular electronic metronome beats in the range 2-2.8 Hz. Stability of the selected GRF variables across successive jumping cycles was examined for three jumping rates (2, 2.4 and 2.8 Hz using two statistical methods: intra-class correlation (ICC analysis and segmental averaging technique (SAT. Results of the ICC analysis indicated that an average of four successive cycles (mean 4.5 ± 2.7 for 2 Hz; 3.9 ± 2.6 for 2.4 Hz; 3.3 ± 2.7 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve maximum ICC values. Except for jumping period, maximum ICC values took values from 0.592 to 0.991 and all were significantly (p < 0.05 different from zero. Results of the SAT revealed that an average of ten successive cycles (mean 10.5 ± 3.5 for 2 Hz; 9.2 ± 3.8 for 2.4 Hz; 9.0 ± 3.9 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve stability of the selected parameters using criteria previously reported in the literature. Using 10 reference trials, the SAT required standard deviation criterion values of 0.49, 0.41 and 0.55 for 2 Hz, 2.4 Hz and 2.8 Hz jumping rates, respectively, in order to approximate

  10. Do runners who suffer injuries have higher vertical ground reaction forces than those who remain injury-free? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp, Henk; Vrielink, Jelte W.; Bredeweg, Steef W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters have been implicated as a cause of several running-related injuries. However, no systematic review has examined this relationship. Aim We systematically reviewed evidence for a relation between VGRF parameters and specific running-related

  11. THE DECENNIAL OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ONLY GROUND BASED MISSILE WARNING CLASSIC ASSOCIATE UNIT: BENEFITS, DRAWBACKS, AND CHALLENGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Proposal Adviser: Dr. Patricia Lessane Project Advisor: Dr. Gregory F. Intoccia Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama... SBIRS ), and Ground Based Missile Warning Radars (GBMWR). 7 In unison, these assets monitor ballistic missile launches and help prevent surprise

  12. The vertical ground reaction force and the pressure distribution on the claws of dairy cows while walking on a flat substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The pressure distribution under the bovine claw while walking was measured to test the hypotheses that the vertical ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some (regions of the) claws more prone to injuries due to overloading than others. Each limb of nine recently trimmed Holstein

  13. Gamow-Teller strength function for 90Zr: Effects of spin and isospin exchange forces, and ground-state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Hausman, R.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Shell-model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength function for 90 Zr have been performed utilizing a realistic finite-range two-body interaction in a model space consisting of the 2p and 1g shells. The effects of admixtures of two-particle two-hole excitations in 90 Nb, mostly due to the spin and isospin exchange components of the nucleon-nucleon force, are discussed. Ground state correlations in 90 Zr are also added via seniority-zero two-proton excitations from the 2p shell into the 1g/sub 9/2/ shell. With the correlations the Gamow-Teller strength function is in good agreement with the experimental results and accounts for essentially all of the observed dispersion of strength. The inclusion of these correlations does not, however, produce either a displacement of Gamow-Teller strength to higher excitation energies, or a significant change in the total strength. Thus, they cannot account for the observed Gamow-Teller quenching. The quenching factor derived by a comparison of our calculated results with experiment is 0.52

  14. Hoof accelerations and ground reaction forces of Thoroughbred racehorses measured on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterbo, Jacob J; Garcia, Tanya C; Campbell, Ian P; Reese, Jennifer L; Morgan, Jessica M; Kim, Sun Y; Hubbard, Mont; Stover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    To compare hoof acceleration and ground reaction force (GRF) data among dirt, synthetic, and turf surfaces in Thoroughbred racehorses. 3 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses. Forelimb hoof accelerations and GRFs were measured with an accelerometer and a dynamometric horseshoe during trot and canter on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces at a racecourse. Maxima, minima, temporal components, and a measure of vibration were extracted from the data. Acceleration and GRF variables were compared statistically among surfaces. The synthetic surface often had the lowest peak accelerations, mean vibration, and peak GRFs. Peak acceleration during hoof landing was significantly smaller for the synthetic surface (mean + or - SE, 28.5g + or - 2.9g) than for the turf surface (42.9g + or - 3.8g). Hoof vibrations during hoof landing for the synthetic surface were dirt and turf surfaces. Peak GRF for the synthetic surface (11.5 + or - 0.4 N/kg) was 83% and 71% of those for the dirt (13.8 + or - 0.3 N/kg) and turf surfaces (16.1 + or - 0.7 N/kg), respectively. The relatively low hoof accelerations, vibrations, and peak GRFs associated with the synthetic surface evaluated in the present study indicated that synthetic surfaces have potential for injury reduction in Thoroughbred racehorses. However, because of the unique material properties and different nature of individual dirt, synthetic, and turf racetrack surfaces, extending the results of this study to encompass all track surfaces should be done with caution.

  15. Support to the Air Force Installation and Mission Support Center: Enabling AFIMSC’s Role in Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-23

    development, test, and evaluation; and supply chain management —and also quality-of-life support to military members, their families, retirees, and so on...AFIMSC and Air Education and Training Command Director of Logistics (AETC/A4) at a time when AFIMSC was being established to focus on managing the...operations of new ACS global management organizations.3 1 Program Action Directive (PAD) 14-04, Implementation of the Air Force Installation and

  16. The response of grounded ice to ocean temperature forcing in a coupled ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice shelves provide a pathway for the heat content of the ocean to influence continental ice sheets. Changes in the rate or location of basal melting can alter their geometry and effect changes in stress conditions at the grounding line, leading to a grounded ice response. Recent observations of ice streams and ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica have been consistent with this story. On the other hand, ice dynamics in the grounding zone control flux into the shelf and thus ice shelf geometry, which has a strong influence on the circulation in the cavity beneath the shelf. Thus the coupling between the two systems, ocean and ice sheet-ice shelf, can be quite strong. We examine the response of the ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity system to changes in ocean temperature using a recently developed coupled model. The coupled model consists a 3-D ocean model (GFDL's Generalized Ocean Layered Dynamics model, or GOLD) to a two-dimensional ice sheet-ice shelf model (Goldberg et al, 2009), and allows for changing cavity geometry and a migrating grounding line. Steady states of the coupled system are found even under considerable forcing. The ice shelf morphology and basal melt rate patterns of the steady states exhibit detailed structure, and furthermore seem to be unique and robust. The relationship between temperature forcing and area-averaged melt rate is influenced by the response of ice shelf morphology to thermal forcing, and is found to be sublinear in the range of forcing considered. However, results suggest that area-averaged melt rate is not the best predictor of overall system response, as grounding line stability depends on local aspects of the basal melt field. Goldberg, D N, D M Holland and C G Schoof, 2009. Grounding line movement and ice shelf buttressing in marine ice sheets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surfaces, 114, F04026.

  17. Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces, Center of Pressure and Body Center of Mass Changes in the Voluntary, Semi-Voluntary and Involuntary Gait Termination in Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behrooz teymourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the ground reaction forces, center of pressure and body center of mass changes in voluntary, semi-voluntary and involuntary gait termination in healthy young men. Methods: In this study, 12 young men performed termination of gait in three different patterns. The variable of peak antero-posterior and vertical forces in two directions at both limbs, the time to reach peak and average forces in every limb in both directions, the center of pressure displacement of medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction for each limb and the net center of pressure and the displacement of the center of mass motion in all three motion plates were recorded using motion analysis system and force plate.The repeated measurements test was used to compare three patterns of gait termination at significance level of p&le0.5. Results: The results showed a significant difference in variables of peak antero-posterior force, the time to reach peak antero-posterior force and mean antero-posterior forces of the leading limb, the peak antero-posterior force of the trialing limbs, the depth force of leading limbs, medio-lateral cop of leading limbs displacement and vertical displacement of the center of mass, among different patterns of gait termination. Conclusion: While walking, the probability of a fall or collision damage, when a sudden or unexpected stop is required, increases. Therefore, more coordination between neuromuscular systems is required.

  18. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes

  19. Improving Relative Combat Power Estimation: The Road to Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    was unthinkable before. Napoleon Bonaparte achieved a superior warfighting system compared to his opponents, which resulted in SOF. Napoleon’s...observations about combat power estimation and force empoloyment, remain valid. Napoleon also offered thoughts about combat power and superiority whe he...force. However, Napoleon did not think one- sidedly about the problem. He also said: “The moral is to the physical as three to one.”11 This dual

  20. Malaria and mefloquine prophylaxis use among Japan Ground Self-Defense Force personnel deployed in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Kaku, Koki; Jelinek, Tomas; Kimura, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    Malaria poses a significant threat to military personnel stationed in endemic areas; therefore, it is important to examine the risks of military operations, particularly in areas where malaria-related data are scarce. The recent deployment of Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) for a peacekeeping operation in East Timor provided an opportunity to investigate these risks. The results of these studies may be translated into chemoprophylactic strategies for travelers. A total of 1,876 members were deployed between April 2002 and September 2003. They consisted of three battalions; each remained for 6 months and was put on mefloquine prophylaxis. Malaria infection was investigated, including exposure to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, assessed by seroconversion for anticircumsporozoite (anti-CS) protein antibodies. Adherence to and adverse events (AEs) of mefloquine were studied via questionnaires. Four members were evacuated: one each with optic neuritis, lung cancer with brain metastasis, IgA nephropathy, and psychotic reactions that may have been precipitated by mefloquine. Six clinical episodes of Plasmodium vivax occurred, including one relapse, but there were no clinical cases of P falciparum, yielding a crude malaria attack rate of 0.32% for the 6-month period. Overall, 3.1% of the study population seroconverted for the anti-CS protein antibodies, with some regional differences noted. About 24% of questionnaire respondents, reported AEs; however, none of the AEs was severe. The AEs tended to emerge during the initial doses of chemoprophylaxis. The implementation of mefloquine prophylaxis among JGSDF personnel in East Timor, where P falciparum constitutes a moderate risk, appears to have been a success. Mefloquine prophylaxis was generally safe for Japanese unless predisposed to neuropsychiatric illness. However, given that mefloquine is the only chemoprophylactic agent available, a risk-benefit analysis tailored to the traveler is required for visits to

  1. A full cost analysis of the replacement of Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay's Marine ground defense force by the fleet antiterrorism security team

    OpenAIRE

    Ordona, Placido C.

    2000-01-01

    Constrained defense budgets and manpower resources have motivated the United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy to seek initiatives that maximize the efficient use and allocation of these diminishing resources. One such initiative is the restructuring of the Marine security presence at Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through the replacement of the 350 man Marine Ground Defense Force with a smaller, rotating unit consisting of two platoons from the Fleet Antiterrorism Security...

  2. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOTION, MUSCLE ACTIVITY, AND GROUND REACTION FORCES IN MEN AND WOMEN DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Women tear their Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL 2-8 times more frequently than men. Frontal plane knee motion can produce a pathological load in the ACL. During a state of fatigue the muscles surrounding the knee joint may lose the ability to protect the joint during sudden deceleration while landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and gender on frontal plane knee motion, EMG amplitudes, and GRF magnitudes during drop- jump landing. Pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. Twenty-six volunteers (14 women; 12 Men; Mean ± standard deviation age = 24.5 ± 2.7 yrs; height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m; mass = 74.3 ± 11.8 kg participated in the study. Knee frontal plane ranges of motion and positions, ground reaction force peak magnitudes, and surface EMG RMS amplitudes from five lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring, and lateral gastrocnemius were obtained during the landing phase of a drop-jump. MANOVA and ANOVA indicated that peak GRF significantly (p < 0.05; 2.50 ± 0.75 BW vs. 2.06 ± 0.93 BW decreased during fatigued landings. No other variables exhibited a fatigue main effect, although there was a significant (p < 0.05 fatigue by gender interaction for the frontal plane range of motion from initial contact to max knee flexion variable. Follow-up analyses failed to reveal significant gender differences at the different levels of fatigue for this variable. Additionally, no variables exhibited a significant gender main effect. Single subject analysis indicated that fatigue significantly altered frontal plane knee motion, peak GRF, and EMG in some subjects and the direction of differences varied by individual. Fatigue altered some aspects of landing performance in both men and women, but there were no gender differences. Additionally, both group and single subject analyses provided valuable but different information about factors representing

  3. Estimation of ground reaction forces and joint moments on the basis on plantar pressure insoles and wearable sensors for joint angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Michal; Pauk, Jolanta

    2018-05-16

    Gait analysis is a useful tool medical staff use to support clinical decision making. There is still an urgent need to develop low-cost and unobtrusive mobile health monitoring systems. The goal of this study was twofold. Firstly, a wearable sensor system composed of plantar pressure insoles and wearable sensors for joint angle measurement was developed. Secondly, the accuracy of the system in the measurement of ground reaction forces and joint moments was examined. The measurements included joint angles and plantar pressure distribution. To validate the wearable sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, an experimental study on ten volunteer subjects was conducted. The accuracy of measurement of ground reaction forces and joint moments was validated against the results obtained from a reference motion capture system. Ground reaction forces and joint moments measured by the wearable sensor system showed a root mean square error of 1% for min. GRF and 27.3% for knee extension moment. The correlation coefficient was over 0.9, in comparison with the stationary motion capture system. The study suggests that the wearable sensor system could be recommended both for research and clinical applications outside a typical gait laboratory.

  4. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  5. Combat desertification, arret deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Latt; Soe-Win-Hlaing

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the major progress on the actions of the Forest Department and Dry Zone Greening Department to arrest forestation and to combat desertification in the dry zone of central Myanmar

  6. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001.  Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.

  7. Rotational foot placement specifies the lever arm of the ground reaction force during the push-off phase of walking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Piazza, Stephen J

    2002-06-01

    The lever arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) about the talocrural joint axis is a functionally important indicator of the nature of foot loading. Walking initiation experiments (ten subjects; age, 23-29 years) were completed to demonstrate that rotational foot placement is a possible strategy to specify the lever arm. Externally-rotated foot placement resulted in larger lever arms during push-off. A computer simulation of push-off revealed that a decreased lever arm reduces the plantarflexion moment necessary to maintain a constant forward velocity, while increasing the required plantarflexion velocity. Shortening of the foot thus diminishes the muscular force demand but also requires high muscle fiber shortening velocities that may limit the force generating capacity of plantar flexors. Decreased plantar flexion moment and slow walking previously noted in partial-foot amputees may result from shortened lever arms in this manner.

  8. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire

  9. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  10. Integrating Contractors into the Logistics Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrell, Ronald G

    2006-01-01

    ... a panacea. For a combatant commander to effectively integrate them with his military force requires an understanding of the operational environment, contractor capabilities, acceptable levels of risk...

  11. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop. To examine the moment difference due to an interaction of ATCN3 polymorphism and muscle imbalance, all participants were divided into 4 groups (R+MB, R+MIB, X+MB, and X+MIB). There was no significant difference of hip, knee, and ankle joint moment in R allele and X allele during V-cut jumping and stop based on ACTN3 gene polymorphism. Otherwise, muscle imbalance of knee moment in X-axis and ground reaction force of knee in Z-axis showed a higher significance in muscle imbalance during V-cut jumping and stop compared to muscle balance (pimbalance in X allele group had significantly higher knee moment of V-cut ground reaction force in X-axis and higher ankle moment of jumping ground reaction force in X and Z-axis compared to muscle balance with R and/or X group (p imbalance in lower extremity of combat athletes might induce higher risk factors of sports injury incidence than genetic factor and training might reduce the ratio of sports injury risk incidence.

  12. U.S. Air Force Combat Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    of rest as a palliative and restorative, and (2) their own influence in sympathetic yet authoritative roles which offer understanding while expecting...came to the clearing station remained there for 48 hours. These men were given sufficient sedation to insure a good 12-24 hours of sleep, only...In spite of stated doctrine, flexibility in assigning mental health nurses and occupational therapists to this facility may also prove useful. In the

  13. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...) facility on Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The Communication Squadron is preparing to install new GATR communication antennas and systems, for tactical aircraft control and commercial air traffic control...

  14. Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    vi Acronyms AQI Al Qaeda of Iraq ARVN Army of Vietnam CF Coalition Forces COP Combat Outpost IED Improvised...Finally, there was an unorganized criminal element that was interested in profiting from the general violence and lawlessness.181 The prime objective of...Ramadi. In June, the 1BCT ordered one of its battalion’s, TF 1/37 Armor, to establish COP Falcon in the southwest section of the city.201 The operation

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  17. Analysis of the vertical ground reaction forces and temporal factors in the landing phase of a countermovement jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel Rojano; Rodríguez Bíes, Elisabeth C; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively) and the length of the impact absorption phase (T). Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH) and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster. Key pointsIn the landing phase of a jump there are always sev-eral peak forces. The combination of these peaks forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produces a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury.In the most common two-footed landings usually appear two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve and the second one is usually related to

  18. Army and Air Force Unmanned Air Reconnaissance: Warrior and Hydra Navigating a Maze of Strategic Hedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Thus, while an optimal solution serves as this analysts’ unicorn , ultimately the crucible of war and deterrence will pass judgment on the efficacy of...configurations. Outside of Army ground-centric operations, the question remains: will the Army take a share of the growing number of combatant commander...Operations Officer The Air Force has provided theater and tactical battlefield ISR--and a growing amount of offensive counter-land--support to the Army

  19. Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Interface Processor BCT Brigade Combat Team BFT Blue Force Tracking BLOS Beyond Line-of-Sight C2 Command And Control C2E Communications in...Satellite Communications and Tactical Networking Appendix D-2 GIG Global Information Grid GMR Ground Mobile Radio GPS Global Positioning System...System SIPRNet Secret Internet Protocol Router Network SITREPS Situational Reports SMART -T Secure Mobile Anti-Jam Reliable Tactical Terminal SMC Space

  20. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Bowen, P.; Kappl, M.; Butt, H. J.; Stuer, M.; Pecharromán, C.; Aschauer, U.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomi...

  1. How Funding and Policy Affect Access to and Modernization of Major Air Force Ground Test Infrastructure Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    annually for the DoD, other government agencies, allies, and commercial customers at the world’s largest ground test flight simulation facility...center’s wind tunnels, gas turbine sea level and altitude test cells, space chambers, altitude rocket cells, ballistic ranges, arc heaters and other...complex and the second was an 12 altitude solid rocket motor test facility called J6.xx The first was the result of a herculean effort that took

  2. History of the Army Ground Forces. Study Number 15. The Desert Training Center and C-AMA, (California - Arizona Area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    kitchens would be eliminated. The Ground Surgeon did not object to the use of the "B" ration, considering the vitamin content adequate if~the ration was...History of Communications Zone, CAY1A. Ibid. 29. Memo of Col R. F. Ennis for AGF G-3, 30 Nov k3 , sub: Visit of Isp to Cp Cooke, Calif, and CAMA, AGF G

  3. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  4. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. The Long War Concept: Using the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Address Irregular Threats through Shaping and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziegler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... As the nation comes to grips with the momentous task of combating terrorism and other irregular threats in the Long War, it must continually assess the effectiveness of foreign policy, and especially...

  6. Uprooting force balance for pioneer woody plants: A quantification of the relative contribution of above- and below-ground plant architecture to uprooting susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Skorko, K.; Stella, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Cottonwood (Populus), willow (Salix), and tamarisk (Tamarix) populate riparian areas in many dryland regions, and their recruitment depends heavily on hydrogeomorphic conditions. The survival of pioneer woody seedlings depends in part on the establishment of root systems capable of anchoring plants in subsequent floods, and this root system development in turn influences the cohesion that plants provide to bars. The factors influencing the anchoring ability and resistance to scour of woody seedlings include plant frontal area and flexibility, root structure, and water table elevation. This study aims to quantify the factors comprising the force balance to uproot woody seedlings and saplings in two field sites characterized by different hydrologic conditions. The Bill Williams River (AZ) is an impounded river with elevated water table elevations produced by dam-released base flows. The Bitterroot River (MT) is an unimpounded river with a snowmelt hydrograph and seasonal fluctuations in river and water table elevation. We simulate uprooting from flooding events by saturating substrates and applying force near the base of the plant in a lateral, downstream direction until uprooting occurs, for a range of plant sizes but with a focus on small (plants, with cottonwood and tamarisk seedlings showing greater variability than willow. In contrast, root length and stem diameter are only weakly correlated with pull-out force. By combining pull test results with measurements of geomorphic and groundwater conditions, this study provides insights into the relative contribution of a plant's above-ground and below-ground architecture to uprooting potential and into the feedbacks between vegetation and morphodynamics on river bars.

  7. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal

  8. An experimental study on advancement of damping performance of foundations in soft ground. Pt.1: Forced vibration tests of a foundation block constructed on improved soil medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, S.; Shimomura, Y.; Kawamura, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Hata, I.; Ishigaki, H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to enhance attenuation performance of structures that will be constructed in the soft ground area. We conducted material tests to obtain basic properties of the soil cement column. The forced vibration tests then were carried out to acquire dynamic feature of the reinforced concrete block constructed on improved soil mediums. Additional forced vibration tests for various conditions of trenches dug along the block were conducted to obtain fundamental features of damping effect of the side surfaces of the test block. According to results of the material testing, densities of the soil cement columns were 1.45-1.52 g/cm 3 and the unconfined compressive strengths were 2.4-4.2 times as large as the specified design strength (1 MPa). In comparison of resonance curves by experiments and simulation analysis, simulation analysis results estimated by the hybrid approach were in good agreement with experiment ones for both the X and Y-directions. From the results of the forced vibration test focusing on various condition of the trenches dug along the test block, it was indicated that response of tamping by the rammer decreased compared with that of treading. (authors)

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND TEMPORAL FACTORS IN THE LANDING PHASE OF A COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rojano Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2 in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively and the length of the impact absorption phase (T. Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05 and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05 were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05. T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster.

  10. Women in Combat Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    support area • Location of unit TOC or HQ • Location of actual combat operations • No basis to answer this question 4. Given the U.S. Army’s current...welfare issue. I recall that part of General Order #1 was no sexual relations when deployed. Obviously, soldiers discovering pregnancy in the middle of...and had discussion about sexual relations and the 60 effect on unit cohesion, pregnancy testing, and affairs of the heart; whether appropriate or

  11. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  12. The 0302/1802/1803 MOS Merger: Infantry and Combat Arms One in the Same

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Brian R

    2008-01-01

    ...) 1802, 1802 and 0302 into a single entity. The aggregate result of this merger will provide commanders with a multi-talented ground combat officer thereby capitalizing on the Marine Corps' scarce manpower resources...

  13. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  14. Women Warriors: Why the Robotics Revolution Changes the Combat Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Secretary Leon Panetta and General Martin Dempsey, U.S. Department of Defense, “Elimination of the 1994 Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment... Feminism and International Relations, eds. J. Ann Tickner and Laura Sjoberg, (London: Routledge, 2011): 146 and 162. Photos Page 100. Photo by IDF

  15. Evaluation of gait characteristics and ground reaction forces in cognitively declined older adults with an emphasis on slip-induced falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Thurmon; Kim, Sukwon; Kapur, Radhika; Jarrott, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between gait adaptation and slip/fall risk of older adults with cognitive impairments. The study investigated the gait characteristics of six healthy older adults and five older adults with dementia. Participants walked on an instrumented walkway at their preferred walking speeds. After ensuring that the preferred walking speeds were consistent, participants' natural posture and ground reaction forces were measured. The results suggested that participants with dementia walked more cautiously yet demanded more friction at the shoe/floor interface at the time of heel contact, increasing the risk of slip initiation. To reduce the risk of slip-induced falls among older adults with dementia, specific gait training to reduce friction demand requirements by increasing the transfer speed of the whole body mass is suggested.

  16. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  17. Is Soleus Muscle-Tendon-Unit Behavior Related to Ground-Force Application During the Sprint Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödter, Erik; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Willwacher, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    To describe the stretch-shortening behavior of ankle plantar-flexing muscle-tendon units (MTUs) during the push-off in a sprint start. Fifty-four male (100-m personal best: 9.58-12.07 s) and 34 female (100-m personal best: 11.05-14.00 s) sprinters were analyzed using an instrumented starting block and 2-dimensional high-speed video imaging. Analysis was performed separately for front and rear legs, while accounting for block obliquities and performance levels. The results showed clear signs of a dorsiflexion in the upper ankle joint (front block 15.8° ± 7.4°, 95% CI 13.2-18.2°; rear block 8.0° ± 5.7°, 95% CI 6.4-9.7°) preceding plantar flexion. When observed in their natural block settings, the athletes' block obliquity did not significantly affect push-off characteristics. It seems that the stretch-shortening-cycle-like motion of the soleus MTU has an enhancing influence on push-off force generation. This study provides the first systematic observation of ankle-joint stretch-shortening behavior for sprinters of a wide range of performance levels. The findings highlight the importance of reactive-type training for the improvement of starting performance. Nonetheless, future studies need to resolve the independent contributions of tendinous and muscle-fascicle structures to overall MTU performance.

  18. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  19. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Rauber

    2006-01-01

    Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  20. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  1. Effect of the walking speed to the lower limb joint angular displacements, joint moments and ground reaction forces during walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2004-06-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in ground reaction forces (GRF), joint angular displacements (JAD), joint moments (JM) and electromyographic (EMG) activities that occur during walking at various speeds in water and on land. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. In the water experiments, the water depth was adjusted so that body weight was reduced by 80%. A video-motion analysis system and waterproof force platform was used to obtain kinematics and kinetics data and to calculate the JMs. Results revealed that (1) the anterior-posterior GRF patterns differed between walking in water and walking on land, whereas the medio-lateral GRF patterns were similar, (2) the JAD patterns of the hip and ankle were similar between water- and land-walking, whereas the range of motion at the knee joint was lower in water than on land, (3) the JMs in all three joints were lower in water than on land throughout the stance phase, and (4) the hip joint extension moment and hip extensor muscle EMG activity were increased as walking speed increase during walking in water. Rehabilitative water-walking exercise could be designed to incorporate large-muscle activities, especially of the lower-limb extensor muscles, through full joint range of motion and minimization of joint moments.

  2. Concurrent validity and reliability of using ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters in the determination of leg movement initiation during single leg lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Daniela; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Postural adjustment evaluations during single leg lift requires the initiation of heel lift (T1) identification. T1 measured by means of motion analyses system is the most reliable approach. However, this method involves considerable workspace, expensive cameras, and time processing data and setting up laboratory. The use of ground reaction forces (GRF) and centre of pressure (COP) data is an alternative method as its data processing and setting up is less time consuming. Further, kinetic data is normally collected using frequency samples higher than 1000Hz whereas kinematic data are commonly captured using 50-200Hz. This study describes the concurrent-validity and reliability of GRF and COP measurements in determining T1, using a motion analysis system as reference standard. Kinematic and kinetic data during single leg lift were collected from ten participants. GRF and COP data were collected using one and two force plates. Displacement of a single heel marker was captured by means of ten Vicon(©) cameras. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a sample frequency of 1000Hz. Data were analysed in two stages: identification of key events in the kinetic data, and assessing concurrent validity of T1 based on the chosen key events with T1 provided by the kinematic data. The key event presenting the least systematic bias, along with a narrow 95% CI and limits of agreement against the reference standard T1, was the Baseline COPy event. Baseline COPy event was obtained using one force plate and presented excellent between-tester reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch

    2016-03-01

    Among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015, there were 456 incident episodes of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 17% between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the highest incidence rates occurred in service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; black, non-Hispanic; members of the Marine Corps and Army; recruit trainees; and in combat-specific occupations. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain and swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (e.g., myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  4. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  5. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface over land (DSSF, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of regional applications of the method is attainable by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite instrument which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and radiative transfer computations.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments: an urban site near Paris and a continental background site located South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6 in magnitude. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 W m−2 (5% in relative in 70% of the situations, and within 40 W m−2 in 90% of the situations, for the two case studies considered here.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 W m−2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous

  6. Mental health status of Sri Lanka Navy personnel three years after end of combat operations: a follow up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveen Hanwella

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN, three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased.

  7. Mental health status of Sri Lanka Navy personnel three years after end of combat operations: a follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E L W; de Silva, Varuni A

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased.

  8. United States Army Rangers in Somalia: An Analysis of Combat Casualties on an Urban Battlefield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mabry, Robert L; Holcomb, John B; Baker, Andrew M; Cloonan, Clifford C; Uhorchak, John M; Perkins, Denver E; Canfield, Anthony J; Hagmann, John H

    2000-01-01

    .... From July 1998 to March 1999 data were collected for a retrospective analysis of all combat casualties sustained by United States military forces in Mogadishu, Somalia, on October 3 and 4, 1993...

  9. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer 3: Final Prototype Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...

  10. Toward Unity of Command for Multinational Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asjes, David

    1998-01-01

    To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...

  11. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  12. Unintended Relevance: The Role of the Stryker Brigade Combat Team in the Decisive Action Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    its_time_to_create_a_megacities_combat_unit_110717.html. 47 Steve Krippel and Chris Ricci, “The Stryker Brigade Combat Team: America’s Early Entry Force,” Infantry, July...vehicles to transport the large amounts of equipment to do their job , which is to fight dismounted in complex terrain. Light infantry is necessary...2015_National_Military_Strategy.pdf. Krippel, Steve , and Chris Ricci. “The Stryker Brigade Combat Team: America’s Early Entry Force.” Infantry, July-September 2014

  13. Ground Reaction Force and Mechanical Differences Between the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and Smith Machine While Performing a Squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, William E.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Schneider, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal unloading in microgravity has been shown to induce losses in bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength. Currently, an Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is being flown on board the ISS to help counteract these losses. Free weight training has shown successful positive musculoskeletal adaptations. In biomechanical research, ground reaction forces (GRF) trajectories are used to define differences between exercise devices. The purpose of this evaluation is to quantify the differences in GRF between the iRED and free weight exercise performed on a Smith machine during a squat. Due to the differences in resistance properties, inertial loading and load application to the body between the two devices, we hypothesize that subjects using iRED will produce GRF that are significantly different from the Smith machine. There will be differences in bar/harness range of motion and the time when peak GRF occurred in the ROMbar. Three male subjects performed three sets of ten squats on the iRED and on the Smith Machine on two separate days at a 2-second cadence. Statistically significant differences were found between the two devices in all measured GRF variables. Average Fz and Fx during the Smith machine squat were significantly higher than iRED. Average Fy (16.82 plus or minus.23; p less than .043) was significantly lower during the Smith machine squat. The mean descent/ascent ratio of the magnitude of the resultant force vector of all three axes for the Smith machine and iRED was 0.95 and 0.72, respectively. Also, the point at which maximum Fz occurred in the range of motion (Dzpeak) was at different locations with the two devices.

  14. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  15. Lower limb joint angles and ground reaction forces in forefoot strike and rearfoot strike runners during overground downhill and uphill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Erik; Li, Jing Xian

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners. Active peaks decreased during the downhill conditions in forefoot strike runners while active loading rates increased during downhill conditions in RFS runners. Compared to the level condition, parallel braking peaks were larger during downhill conditions and parallel propulsive peaks were larger during uphill conditions. Combined with previous biomechanics studies, our findings suggest that forefoot strike running may be an effective strategy to reduce impacts, especially during downhill running. These findings may have further implications towards injury management and prevention.

  16. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  17. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  18. Combatant Commanders Informational Series, USEUCOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Steven

    1996-01-01

    ...) and the diverse challenges it faces require it to maintain one of the highest operational and personnel tempos of the combatant command, are limited in the opportunity of personnel new to the command...

  19. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rauber

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  20. Polymers for Combating Biocorrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing of great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anticorrosion and antimicrobial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to prevent biocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbial corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: (i traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, (ii antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and (iii conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting antibacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization, and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  1. Association between increase in vertical ground reaction force loading rate and pain level in women with patellofemoral pain after a patellofemoral joint loading protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Waiteman, Marina Cabral; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2018-04-11

    The etiology of patellofemoral pain (PFP) is thought to be the result of increased patellofemoral joint (PFJ) load and aberrant lower extremity mechanics, including altered vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF). However, few studies have investigated the association between an increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in the context of PFP. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of PFJ loading on pain and VGRF loading rate, and to see if there is a link between modification of both pain and VGRF loading rate during stair negotiation. Thirty-four women with PFP underwent VGRF analysis during stair negotiation under two conditions: with (condition 2) and without (condition 1) being previously submitted to a PFJ loading protocol in order to or not to exacerbate their knee pain, respectively. The VGRF loading rates were significantly higher in condition 2 (Mean ± standard deviation (SD)=4.0±0.6N/s) compared to condition 1 (Mean±SD=3.6±0.5N/s) during stair ascent and during stair descent (Mean±SD: condition 1=6.3±1.1N/s; condition 2=7.0±1.4N/s). In addition, VGRF loading rates were higher during stair descent compared to stair ascent in both conditions. There were significant correlations between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rate during both tasks. There seemed to be an important relation between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in women with PFP. Based on these findings, interventions aimed at reducing VGRF loading rates are important in the context of PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-22

    reduction — Reduced logistics burdens — Regenerative braking / energy recovery • Enhance functionality, flexibility, power quality, and management...ground based maneuver tasks. The MPC, as the medium capability category platform, provides a bridge in capability between the EFV and JLTV and a

  3. Imaging of Combat-Related Thoracic Trauma - Blunt Trauma and Blast Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Kim, Andrew M; Fisher, Dane; Tatum, Peter S; Neubauer, Brian; Peterson, P Gabriel; Carter, Brett W

    2018-03-01

    Combat-related thoracic trauma (CRTT) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality of the casualties from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Penetrating, blunt, and blast injuries are the most common mechanisms of trauma to the chest. Imaging plays a key role in the battlefield management of CRTT casualties. This work discusses the imaging manifestations of thoracic injuries from blunt trauma and blast injury, emphasizing epidemiology and diagnostic clues seen during OEF and OIF. The assessment of radiologic findings in patients who suffer from combat-related blunt thoracic trauma and blast injury is the basis of this work. The imaging modalities for this work include multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and chest radiography. Multiple imaging modalities are available to imagers on or near the battlefront, including radiography, fluoroscopy, and MDCT. MDCT with multi-planar reconstructions is the most sensitive imaging modality available in combat hospitals for the evaluation of CRTT. In modern combat, blunt and blast injuries account for a significant portion of CRTT. Individual body armor converts penetrating trauma to blunt trauma, leading to pulmonary contusion that accounted for 50.2% of thoracic injuries during OIF and OEF. Flail chest, a subset of blunt chest injury, is caused by significant blunt force to the chest and occurs four times as frequently in combat casualties when compared with the civilian population. Imaging features of CRTT have significant diagnostic and prognostic value. Pulmonary contusions on chest radiography appear as patchy consolidations in the acute setting with ill-defined and non-segmental borders. MDCT of the chest is a superior imaging modality in diagnosing and evaluating pulmonary contusion. Contusions on MDCT appear as crescentic ground-glass opacities (opacities through which lung interstitium and vasculature are still visible) and areas of consolidation that often do not

  4. 30 Brigade Combat Teams: Is the Army too Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    brigade combat teams, Army end strength, boots on the ground to dwell time ratio 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...into contingency operations (Bonds, Baiocchi, and McDonald 2010). Consequently, such a significant change in end strength has had an equally...Baiocchi and McDonald 2010). 11 The reason behind these findings was the increase in operational tempo attributed to the increased demand in both

  5. Self-Directed and Informed Forced-Landing System for UAV Avoidance of On-Ground Persons, Vehicles, and Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During a piloted forced landing in which the aircraft can no longer maintain level flight and is therefore forced to make an emergency off-airport landing, the human...

  6. Outsourcing Sealift for the Modular Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donnie Walker, Jr, Flem B

    2008-01-01

    .... Army transforms its force to modular expeditionary brigade combat teams to compensate for these evolving challenges and threats, the importance of strategic sealift becomes paramount in terms of power projection...

  7. No Men in Combat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    NATO nations are incorporating advanced technologies that enable military forces to find and strike targets precisely from great distances at little risk to themselves. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent the next step in modern airpower’s long-range reconnaissance/precision strike complex...

  8. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2008-04-15

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  9. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2009-12-01

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  10. Legal Principles and Solutions to Combat Money Laundering in the International System

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Karimi

    2013-01-01

    This study focuse on combat money laundering legal principles and solutions to in the International System. As its clear Money laundering is the attempt to disguise the proceeds of illegal activity so that they appear to come from legitimate sources. Money is laundered through banking systems and credit institutions, non financial institutions and non financial economic activities. Combating money laundering phenomenon dates back to the 1980s. In 1989, Financial Action Task Force was set up t...

  11. Determining If the United States Military is Ready to Eliminate Its Pilots: Use of Combat Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fingal, Tod

    2001-01-01

    .... Increased costs associated with operating a viable Air Force combined with a growing aversion to human, combat losses have prompted military leaders to look for alternate means of conducting warfare...

  12. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer - 2: Second Generation Design and Prototype Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gossman, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...

  13. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  14. Challenging the conclusion that lower preinduction cognitive ability increases risk for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder in 2,375 combat-exposed, Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William W; Gottesman, Irving I

    2008-06-01

    Among U.S. Vietnam War veterans, we assessed whether preinduction cognitive abilities were associated with the risk of developing combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sample included 2,375 single-term, enlisted, male, Army, Vietnam War veterans who reported exposure to combat during the war. There were two measures of cognitive abilities obtained before military induction, the Armed Forces Qualification Test and the General Technical Examination. Associations of ability with current and lifetime diagnoses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD were assessed. An index was used to grade the severity of combat exposure. Among low-combat exposure veterans, higher preinduction cognitive abilities decreased the risk for lifetime, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD. For veterans with higher levels of combat exposure, higher scores for preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on reducing the risk for lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD. For a current diagnosis of combat-related PTSD, approximately 20 years after the stressful life events, preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on the rates of combat-related PTSD. We found significant interactions between preinduction cognitive abilities and severity of combat exposure for the lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD among Army Vietnam War veterans. High levels of combat exposure are likely to exhaust intellectual resources available for coping with stressful life events. Lower scores for cognitive abilities are not uniformly disadvantageous, and this should be considered by military manpower policymakers.

  15. Battlemind Training: Transitioning Home from Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W; Milliken, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Adler, Amy B; Cox, Anthony; Bliese, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    .... Destruction, injury, and death were ever present in the combat zone. Transitioning from combat to home can be difficult, and many Soldiers encounter readjustment problems ranging from elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  16. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous

  17. LOS tercios en España: el combate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine WHITE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante el siglo ??? hubo un importante incremento de la actividad militar en la Península Ibérica. Las tropas hubieron de luchar en su propio territorio y contra otros subditos del rey de España. Este artículo se centra en el combate de los ejércitos españoles en la Península. Examina el componente humano de estas fuerzas, los motivos para servir o para desertar, el conflicto de lealtades, los riesgos y las realidades del combate, así como la asistencia médica y espiritual que recibían.ABSTRACT: There was a significant rise in military activity in the Iberian Peninsula during the seventeenth century. Troops fought on 'home' territory and against fellow subjects of the Spanish king. This article looks at combat in Spain's home-based armies. It explores the human component of these forces, the motives and disincentives for serving, the conflict of loyalties, the risks and realities of combat, and medical and spiritual care.

  18. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lead Free Frangible Ammunition Exposure at United States Air Force Small Arms Firing Ranges, 2005 - 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moran, Michael P; Ott, Darrin K

    2008-01-01

    ...) has performed related to health concerns expressed by Security Forces Combat Arms (CATM) instructors regarding exposure to contaminants generated during the discharge of lead free frangible ammunition...

  20. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  1. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Enhancing Brigade Combat Team Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Developing Learning Infrastructures (Training, Education , Practice, Research, Doctrine) -Create a shared vision -Build the business case (assess/Buy...To effectively respond to the characteristics of the operational environment, Brigade Combat Teams must be able to learn constantly from experience...behavior. Organizational adaptive behavior consists of three supporting emergent behaviors which are: self-organization, learning , and organizational

  3. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    alternative routes. On the other hand, European border control and its ‘combat against smugglers’ has emerged as a massively lucrative market for the European arms industry, both in terms of contracts to guard the EU’s external borders and in terms of the export of weapons and control systems to North African...

  4. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  5. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  6. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  7. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  8. Selecting Candidates for Key Leadership Positions in Program Executive Offices Ground Combat Systems and Combat Service and Combat Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    start or continue a profitable growth pattern and boost morale and motivation, a poor decision may bring the company to the brink of financial...HON Frank Kendall issued a memorandum titled “Key Leadership Positions and Qualification Criteria” (Kendall, 2013). This memorandum provides a...Chief Developmental Tester • Program Lead, Business Financial Manager SELECTING CANDIDATES FOR KEY LEADERSHIP POSITIONS 4

  9. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  10. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  11. Ground Cloud Dispersion Measurements During The Titan IV Mission #K22 (12 May 1996) at Vandenberg Air Force Base; Volume 1-Test Overview and Data Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) into the launch areas at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Large quantities of hazardous liquid fuels and oxidizers could also be released as a result of propellant transfer accidents or launch vehicle failures...

  12. Weight Loss Strategies in Combat Sports and Concerning Habits in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-12-28

    Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.

  13. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain. 19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables. The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, -0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, -0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817). Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs.

  14. NRC Task Force report on review of the Federal/State program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds. Analysis of public comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Correspondence after publication of NUREG-0217 in the Federal Register is listed by docket. A summary of the comments is given. Comments on the task force conclusions on federal/state roles, comprehensive regulator program, and need to study alternatives, provide adequate capacity, and avoid proliferation are analyzed. A breakdown of the comments of states, industry, and others on the task force conclusions and recommendations is tabulated

  15. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-05-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  16. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  17. Estimation of shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing at four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains: Model results and ground measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2017-08-01

    This study provides observational results of aerosol optical and radiative characteristics over four locations in IGP. Spectral variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Asymmetry Parameter (AP) were analysed using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. The analysis revealed that coarse particles were dominant in summer and pre-monsoon, while fine particles were more pronounced in winter and post-monsoon. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal variations of Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (SDARF) and Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency (SDARFE) at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), SURface (SUR) and within ATMosphere (ATM) were calculated using SBDART model. The atmospheric Heating Rate (HR) associated with SDARFATM were also computed. It was observed that the monthly averaged SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were found to be negative leading to positive SDARFATM during all the months over all sites. The increments in net atmospheric forcing lead to maximum HR in November-December and May. The seasonal analysis of SDARF revealed that SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were negative during all seasons. The SW atmospheric absorption translates to highest atmospheric HR during summer over Karachi and during pre-monsoon over Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. Like SDARF, the monthly and seasonal variations of SDARFETOA and SDARFESUR were found to be negative, resulting in positive atmospheric forcing. Additionally, to compare the model estimated forcing against AERONET derived forcing, the regression analysis of AERONET-SBDART forcing were carried out. It was observed that SDARF at SUR and TOA showed relatively higher correlation over Lahore, moderate over Jaipur and Kanpur and lower over Karachi. Finally, the analysis of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that air masses were arriving from multiple source locations.

  18. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH

    2014-01-01

    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...

  19. A Simple Probabilistic Combat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. This page intentionally left blank. ABSTRACT The Lanchester ...page intentionally left blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Abstract iii List of Illustrations vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETERMINISTIC LANCHESTER MODEL...This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION The Lanchester combat model1 is a simple way to assess the effects of quantity and quality

  20. A Theory of Combative Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...

  1. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental location Tripura in North-East India: Model results and ground observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pranab; De, Barin Kumar; Banik, Trisanu; Gogoi, Mukunda M; Babu, S Suresh; Guha, Anirban

    2017-02-15

    Northeast India (NEI) is located within the boundary of the great Himalayas in the north and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the southwest, experiences the mixed influence of the westerly dust advection from the Indian desert, anthropogenic aerosols from the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and marine aerosols from BoB. The present study deals with the estimation and characterization of aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental site Tripura, which is a strategic location in the western part of NEI having close proximity to the outflow of the IGP. Continuous long term measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) are used for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing in each monthly time scale. The study revealed that the surface forcing due to aerosols was higher during both winter and pre-monsoon seasons, having comparable values of 32W/m 2 and 33.45W/m 2 respectively. The atmospheric forcing was also higher during these months due to increased columnar aerosol loadings (higher AOD ~0.71) shared by abundant BC concentrations (SSA ~0.7); while atmospheric forcing decreased in monsoon due to reduced magnitude of BC (SSA ~0.94 in July) as well as columnar AOD. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is positive in pre-monsoon and monsoon months with the highest positive value of 3.78W/m 2 in June 2012. The results are discussed in light of seasonal source impact and transport pathways from adjacent regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predição da força de reação do solo durante a corrida na água Prediction of ground reaction force during water immersion running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Haupenthal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou desenvolver um modelo para a predição da força de reação do solo na corrida subaquática. Participaram 20 sujeitos (9 homens e 11 mulheres, que realizaram corrida subaquática em dois níveis de imersão e três velocidades. Para cada sujeito foram coletadas seis passagens válidas em cada condição, com a utilização de uma plataforma subaquática de força. O modelo para predição da força foi construído por regressão linear múltipla. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes a componente vertical e a componente ântero-posterior da força de reação do solo. As variáveis imersão, sexo, velocidade, massa corporal, densidade corporal e percentual de gordura foram consideradas independentes. Permaneceu no modelo final de regressão para a componente vertical a velocidade (pThis study aimed at developing a model to predict ground reaction force during deep-water running. A total of 20 subjects ((9 men, 11 women ran in water at two immersion levels and three different speeds. Each subject performed six valid trials in each condition, data being captured by an underwater force plate. The force prediction model was build by multiple linear regression. Dependent variables were the vertical and anteroposterior components of the ground reaction force; independent variables were runners' immersion, sex, speed, body mass, body density, and percentage of fat. At the final regression model for the vertical component, only speed remained (p<0.001, while for the anteroposterior component, speed, immersion, and body mass were maintained (all at p<0.001. The obtained model for the anteroposterior component of ground reaction force may be found satisfactory, as adjusted determination coefficient was 0.79. However, the prediction model for the vertical component cannot be recommended for prediction during deep-water running, since that coefficient was 0.18. It must be noted that the proposed prediction model applies to subjects

  4. Toward an Expeditionary Army: New Options for Combatant Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Eric

    2004-01-01

    .... Within this research, we have examined how prepositioning might be leveraged as part of a three-pronged strategy for improving the strategic responsiveness of our nation's ground forces. I appreciate the opportunity to take part in this dialog today.

  5. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be established

  6. The Effects of Shoulder- Girdle Muscles Fatigue on Ground Reaction Force, Elbow and Shoulder Joint Angle, and Accuracy of the Athletic Performance in Handball Penalty Throws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shiravand

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: As the subjects were professional, muscle fatigue did not have a significant effect on postural control, angles and angular velocity; but did affect the reaction force and accuracy of the throws before and after fatigue, which could ultimately affect the performance of athletes and competition results.

  7. What Schools Can Do To Combat Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L. Dean; And Others

    1997-01-01

    By their silence and failure to combat peer sexual harassment, schools are serving as training grounds for domestic violence. Schools must establish a districtwide program of student peer sexual harassment prevention and intervention comprised of a school policy, an environmental survey of the problem, a grievance procedure, a training component,…

  8. Comparison of the Percentage Stance and Swing Phases and Ground Reaction Force between Young and Older Adults during Walking at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Brooshak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In general, the percentage of stance and swing phases of a gait cycle is similar between young and older adults. Lower VGRFs of weight acceptance and push off phases in the elders reflects the weakness of the knee extensor, hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors. It seems that older adults reduce the rate of force production during fast gait to achieve the necessary capacity for power generation and thereby, overcome the weakness of the lower extremity muscles.

  9. Air and Ground Gunnery: Test Areas A-73, A-77, A-78, A-79, B-7, and B-75, Range Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    rehabilitates wildlife, fish, and game on each reservation. Air Force is to manage the natural resources of its reservations to provide for sustained...waste from landfill disposal by fiscal year 2005. These policies and procedures are designed to preserve landfill space, increase recycling and...nontraditional, unproven technology and or materials. 6. REHABILITATION , LONG-TERM MAlNTENANCE AND PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC STRUCTURES A. Historic

  10. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  11. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be established

  12. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  13. NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

  14. Combating cyberspace fraud in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in Africa Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Defence, Peace, Safety & Security © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za Combating cyber crime in Africa is a reality • Computer crime... www.csir.co.za Reduction of Cyber Crime was given as one of the major objectives during the State of the Nation address by President Zuma on 3 June 2009. “Amongst other key initiatives, we will start the process of setting up a Border Management...

  15. Littoral Combat Vessels: Analysis and Comparison of Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiansen, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    .... The candidates are a Littoral Combat Ship with a surface warfare module, a National Security Cutter augmented with offensive and defensive weaponry, a "Sea Lance" inshore combat vessel, and a Combat...

  16. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact differences in ground reaction force and center of mass between the first and second landing phases of a drop vertical jump and their implications for injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-04-26

    The drop vertical jump (DVJ) task is commonly used to assess biomechanical performance measures that are associated with ACL injury risk in athletes. Previous investigations have solely assessed the first landing phase. We examined the first and second landings of a DVJ for differences in the magnitude of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and position of center of mass (CoM). A cohort of 239 adolescent female basketball athletes completed a series of DVJ tasks from an initial box height of 31 cm. Dual force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. There was no difference in peak vGRF between landings (p=0.445), but side-to-side differences increased from the first to second landing (p=0.007). Participants demonstrated a lower minimum CoM during stance in the first landing than the second landing (p<0.001). The results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors in adolescent female athletes. Greater side-to-side asymmetry in vGRF and higher CoM during impact indicate the second landing of a DVJ may exhibit greater perturbation and better represent in-game mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of Pakistan is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and was prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The assessors reviewed the inst...

  19. suicide prevention and management in the sa national defence force

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rene

    DEFENCE FORCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL. DISCUSSION ... military, among British veterans of the Falkland war and during the recent Iraq conflict.1 In the United ... Nye reported in her research on Vietnam combat veterans, that posttraumatic ...

  20. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  1. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction...... phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual...... inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high...

  2. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  3. Exercise Design for the Joint Force 2020 Brigade Combat Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    include within their calculus .41 With these factors in mind, in his February 2012 testimony before congress, General Dempsey stressed that the...moving the existing contracted ―civilian on the battlefield vehicle‖ (COBV) motor pool and maintenance facility, the post dental clinic, the dump

  4. A Baseline Analysis of Combat Logistics Force Scheduling Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    minimize the total ballast (empty) leg of a voyage and therefore minimized overall costs (1983, p. 123). Ronen suggested, in 1983, that computerized...non-working distance is the distance required to return to port and this is known as the ballast leg of the voyage. In Example 1, the working

  5. Optimizing the US Navy’s Combat Logistics Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    by some uniformed navy crew, “A” auxillary , “O” fuel oil, “E” explosive ord- nance, “F” refrigerated, and “K” general cargo. The respective crew...may govern the minimum or maximum days allowed between these planned events). 7.4. Decision Variables HITs,bg,d Binary indicator of shuttle s CONSOL...anticipating decisions to procure the T-AKE, shapes the fundamental questions: • How many T-AKEs will be enough? • What is the optimal T-AKE load of ordnance

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Applications for the Combat Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-13

    9 2.2.2 weC Mote...variety of enclosures (sometime weather or impact resistant). Since most applications make it infeasible to routinely change batteries, nodes are... environmental monitors or data loggers as examples since extremely small nodes would not be required for those types of activities [Hol00]. A similar

  7. Performance measures for combat-ready forces in the military

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, GN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available will not suffer a catastrophic failure, that is, the system shall not abort its mission due to some failure. Capability of a weapon system, ( )I OP C D A , is the probability that a user system is capable of effecting its designed for function given...

  8. The Brigade Combat Team - Stability and Security Force Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    it makes absolute sense to embed these transition teams within the brigade, assigned within the brigade. The beauty of this is that it allows the...accessed October 19, 2009). 22 COL Peter Newell, “Department of Defense Bloggers Roundtable with COL Peter Newell, Subject: Completion of Advise and

  9. Reorganizing Geographic Combatant Command Headquarters for Joint Force 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Keegan, Global Marketing Management, 7 th Ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002), 523. 30 Hellriegel, Jackson, and Slocum, Management...bring together mission, resources, and time. 31 Keegan, Global Marketing Management, 520. 20... Marketing Management, 523. 34 Keegan, Global Marketing Management, 523. 22 strategic alliance is an “agreement for cooperation among two or more

  10. Combat Health Support of the Transformation Force in 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouge, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... Minimizing death and morbidity requires appropriate and timely evacuation and treatment. Joint medical doctrine has been changed to emphasize evacuation of less-stable patients out of theater and decrease the theater hospital footprint...

  11. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  12. INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE ON COMBAT SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2006-07-01

    on research and theory. An intention of this special issue was to provide up-to-date research in combat sport that can be used by theory driven practitioners and theorists alike. The authors for this special replied to an open call for papers. The principle that we select the best is key to raising quality. All papers were subjected to peer review. Nineteen papers have been published out of the 41 that were submitted, and given no papers were rejected because they did not focus on combat sport, it is argued that the resultant papers represent quality submissions. Diversity in terms of where authors come from and the range of topics covered also is a strength of this issue. Articles have been submitted from all around the World: From Brazil, to India, from the USA to the UK - a perusal of the papers and represents an impressive range of countries interested in this edition. Articles cover a range of different subjects and disciplines. Smith, 2006 provides a comprehensive review of physiological variables associated with boxing performance. Data are taken from consultancy experiences and provide normative data for use by practitioners and researchers alike. On a related theme, Khanna and Manna (2006 provide normative physiological data on a sample of Indian Boxers. A number of studies investigate physiological factors in combat sport. O'Donovan O. et al. (2006 investigate leg, trunk strength and reaction times of hard-style martial arts practitioners. Beekley et al., 2006 investigate aerobic capacity body composition of sumo wrestlers to athletes in combat and other sports. Baker and Davies (2006 investigated the variation in resistive force selection during brief high intensity cycle ergometry and discussed the implications of these results for power assessment and production in elite karate practitioners. Ribeiro et al. (2006 investigated heart rate and blood lactate responses to modern wushu techniques. Imamura et al., 2006 conducted a three-dimensional analysis of

  13. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  14. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  15. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  16. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were

  17. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  18. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  19. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites

  20. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6 and LS (28 g’s, 1504 participants, g = 0.179, 95% CI = −0.003, 0.361, p = 0.05, Q = 77.7, p I2 = 65.3%, NNT = 6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed

  1. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  2. The Impact of Combat Status on Veterans' Attitudes Toward Help Seeking: The Hierarchy of Combat Elitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy; Brown, Jodi Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Many veterans do not seek assistance for mental health concerns despite the staggering prevalence of trauma-related symptomatology. Barriers to service provision include personal and professional stigma and inter-veteran attitudes that dictate who is more or less deserving of services. Veteran attitudes are shaped by military culture, which promotes a hyper-masculine paradigm upholding combat experience as the defining feature of the "ideal soldier." The stratification of soldiers into combat or non-combat status creates a hierarchy of combat elitism that extends far beyond active duty. This pilot study surveyed veterans (n = 24) to explore how combat experience may affect attitudes toward help seeking. Findings indicate combat and non-combat veterans are less accepting of non-combat veterans' help-seeking behavior, supporting the notion that veterans' attitudes toward help seeking are influenced by combat status. Despite limitations, the results of this study reflect a need for increased attention to the attitudes veterans have about each other and themselves.

  3. 76 FR 63927 - Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action Plan to Combat... outlined in A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance (Action Plan) and solicit... (AR) in recognition of the increasing importance of AR as a public health threat. The Task Force is co...

  4. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  5. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  6. Innovative contracting strategies for combating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Land Combat Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alyaqout, Faisal

    2001-01-01

    .... The days when production lines and factories hummed at peak capacity are gone. Orders for land combat systems have been reduced by nearly two-thirds since 1990, and competition for what few procurement dollars remain is stiff...

  8. Combat Neurosis in the Battered Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Investigates the effect of school violence on classroom teachers. The study of 253 Los Angeles inner city classroom teachers reveals that many of them have developed conditions similar to the combat neurosis found in soldiers at war. (HM)

  9. [Psychiatric, Cognitive and Emotional Profile in Ex-combatants of Illegal Armed Groups in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Carlos; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ramos, Claudia Patricia; Pineda, David

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to armed conflict produces biological adaptations oriented to handle the highly stressful conditions in war environments. The special features of The Colombian armed create a special scenario to evaluate the human behavior. In this study, psychiatric, cognitive and emotional processing characteristics of a group of Colombian armed illegal forces of ex-combatants are described. Sixty-three ex combatants and 22 controls were assessed with WAIS (IQ), INECO frontal screening (executive functions), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy), emotional features recognition and MINI (psychiatric profile). When compared to the control group, ex-combatants showed higher frequency of antisocial personality disorder (P=.031) and behavioral dissocial disorder (P=.017). In cognitive profile, the ex-combatants showed a lower score in the executive function test (Me=18.50; RQ=4.00), control (Me=23.00; RQ=5.25), with a poor personal distress in emphatic profile (Me=10.00; RQ=5.00) compared to control group (Me=37.00; RQ=7.25). We found differences in cognitive and psychiatric profile in ex-combatants in comparison with controls. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. University Research Initiative Program for Combat Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    microscope image of one of the lenses. This array was selected for testing because it is fabricated in a relatively inexpensive polyacrylic material, the...potent analogues of the potassium -sparing diuretic, amiloride. However, our results 179 University Reasearch Initiative for Combat Readiness Annual Report...for Combat Readiness Annual Report for the period June 1, 1998 - June 30, 1999 Roger H. Sawyer University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 May

  11. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    non-combatants to military operations in an urban area. We show how to link this model with COMBATXXI at the application programming interface (API...level so that the model can be run in tight conjunction with COMBATXXI. TRAC and other anaytic organizations can use this type of crowd model to... organizations , and materiel. crowd, agent-based modeling , combat models , COMBATXXI, NetLogo, mega-cities, civilians on the battlefield Unclassified U U U U 39

  12. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  13. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  14. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  15. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  16. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  17. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  18. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  19. Simulation of a force on force exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.; Van Slyke, D.; Sheppard, T.; Brandrup, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Security Exercise Evaluation System (SEES) is under development for use in planning Force on Force exercises and as an aid in post-exercise evaluation. This study is part of the development cycle where the simulation results are compared to field data to provide guidance for further development of the model. SEES is an event-driven stochastic computer program simulating individual movement and combat within an urban terrain environment. The simulator models the physics of movement, line of sight, and weapon effects. It relies on the controllers to provide all knowledge of security tactics, which are entered by the controllers during the simulation using interactive color graphic workstations. They are able to develop, modify and implement plans promptly as the simulator maintains real time. This paper reports on how SEES will be used to develop an intrusion plan, test the security response tactics and develop observer logistics. A Force on Force field exercise will then be executed to follow the plan with observations recorded. An analysis is made by first comparing the plan and events of the simulation with the field exercise, modifying the simulation plan to match the actual field exercise, and then running the simulation to develop a distribution of possible outcomes

  20. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in committing violence during combat: A cross-sectional study with former combatants in the DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Roos; Hermenau, Katharin; Elbert, Thomas; Moran, James K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i.e., appetitive perception of violence), and the number of received extrinsic rewards during their time in the armed group (e.g., money, extra food, alcohol, or drugs). A moderated multiple regression analysis showed that the number of received extrinsic rewards and the level of intrinsic rewards were significantly positively related to the number of different types of offenses committed. In contrast to our expectations and previous findings, the recruitment type (forced conscription vs. voluntary enlistment) did not moderate this relation. Our findings suggest that both types of rewards play a role in committing violence during combat. We suggest, therefore, that reintegration programs should not only consider the influence of extrinsic rewards, but also need to address the influence of intrinsic rewards to counter violent behavior among former combatants. Aggr. Behav. 43:241-250, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    foundations are nu- clear structure, cell physiology and chemical reaction kinetics. Example topics in production are the nuclear fuel cycle, fermentation and...Grand Challenge 2007 Robert A. Pfeffer, Physical Scientist N o more negotiating the 1.5-mile Beer Bottle Pass force, especially in software

  2. Military Modernization and the Russian Ground Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Army infantry regi- ment, including 3 years in Northern Ireland and 1 year as a Serbo-Croat interpreter in Bosnia (1992-93). He has lived and worked...democratic manifestation, is not one characterized by entrepreneurship , drive, and innova- tion. Rather, as any historian of this land would aver

  3. General Purpose Ground Forces: What Purpose?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Challis, Dan

    1993-01-01

    "New World Order," a phrase uttered frequently by former President George Bush during and after the Persian Gulf War, no longer connotes the optimism of America's global view at the end of Desert Storm...

  4. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  5. Combating student plagiarism an academic librarian's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lampert, Lynn D

    2014-01-01

    This practical book introduces readers to the current issues facing todays academic reference and instruction librarians grappling with the growing problem of student plagiarism. The book provides up-to-date overviews of student plagiarism, examples of ways in which librarians can educate students through proven instructional techniques, collaboration approaches and outreach methods, and discusses common problems and questions librarians may encounter when incorporating current anti-plagiarism instruction into their instructional services. Topics include: role of the academic librarian in combating student plagiarism, discipline-based approaches to combating student plagiarism, information literacy techniques and faculty/librarian collaboration. Investigates the issues surrounding the growth of instances of student plagiarism Discusses the academic librarian's role in combating student plagiarism Recommends effective outreach techniques and instructional methods for preventing plagiarism.

  6. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 44, 1st Quarter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    excellent lineup of articles addressing both areas, JFQ has interviewed key leaders to provide broader coverage of the issues, pursu- ant to our...each of the combatant commanders who had combatant command authority over forces. The recommendations were obtained in a redundant and sequential ...management recommendations were obtained in a redundant and sequential process that proved too slow and segmented for the war on terror soldie rs per form

  7. The Realities of War: Assessing the Operational Risk of Revoking the Combat Exclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Command CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CJTF Combined Joint Task Force CMH Center of Military History COIN Counterinsurgency COP ...fire, slaughtering Bishop and at least ten other civilians. 25 As word of Government Printing Office, 1984), 440. 23 Antigua, Dominica, Grenada...the handful of well-equipped FOBs it operated from during 2001-2003 to hundreds of combat outposts ( COP ) established near key

  8. Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Niger

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) regime in Niger was conducted on the basis of the Forty Recommendations and the Nine Special Recommendations on the financing of terrorism drawn up in 2003 and 2001, respectively, by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and on the AML/CFT Methodology of 2004. The assessment was based on the la...

  9. Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Republic of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of Uganda was based on the 2003 Forty Recommendations on Money Laundering and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) (FATF 40+9), and was prepared using the AML/CFT Methodology of 2004. During the mission, the assessment team me...

  10. Measures to prevent and combat unusual occurences in the use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To achieve the objectives set out in the Ordinance on the Assurance of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984, senior managers of establishments using atomic energy are responsible for planning and implementing measures to prevent UOs, and staff, material and organizational preconditions necessary to immediately combat UOs, and to limit and remedy their consequences. The principles were compiled on the basis of legal regulations in force in the German Democratic Republic taking into account national and international experience

  11. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  12. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  13. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  14. THE POSSIBLY PREVENTION AND COMBATING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P. POPA

    2014-11-01

    - A faulty legislation that allows them to circumvent the failure to pay taxes. Measures to combat tax evasion must act in the areas of legislative, administrative and educational. The legislative drafting tax legislation seeks appropriate, clear, concise, stable and consistent. It is also necessary to eliminate or withdrawal of exemptions, reductions and deductions that give rise to multiple interpretations. In terms of administrative measures aimed at creating a comprehensive and operational information system, ensuring adequate administrative structures and instruments effectively combating tax evasion and training specialists with morality and professionalism required of shapes and sizes evasion.

  15. Building Software Tools for Combat Modeling and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuanxin, Chen

    2004-01-01

    ... (Meta-Language for Combat Simulations) and its associated parser and C++ code generator were designed to reduce the amount of time and developmental efforts needed to build sophisticated real world combat simulations. A C++...

  16. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W

    1997-01-01

    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  17. Unit Reconstitutions: Combat Stress as an Indicator of Unit Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    doctrinally “Combat and Operational Stress Reactions:” A. Shell shock B. War neurosis C. Battle fatigue D. Combat exhaustion E. Combat stress F...... neurosis . The approach that evolved–proximity, immediacy, and expectancy–was a formula that incorporated some of the best practices to increase the

  18. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

  19. Assessment of Psychophysiological Response and Specific Fine Motor Skills in Combat Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2018-03-02

    Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation. A combat simulation provokes an alteration of the psycho-physiological basal state in soldiers and a great unbalance in the sympathetic-vagal interaction. The specific training of Light Infantry unit involves lower metabolic, cardiovascular, and anxiogenic response not only previous, but mainly after a combat maneuver, than Heavy Infantry unit's. No differences were found in relation with fine motor skills, improving in both cases after the maneuver. This fact should be taken into account for betterment units´ deployment preparation in current theaters of operations.

  20. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  1. New Equipping Strategies for Combat Support Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Combat and Doctrine Development and COL Timothy Lamb , supported by MAJ Gary Cooper, included members of our team in visits to Sierra Army Depot and...aspect of improving materiel stew - ardship is improving the quality of data related to the procurement, maintenance, and upgrading of equipment

  2. Africanity: A Combative Ontology | Mafeje | CODESRIA Bulletin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africanity: A Combative Ontology. Archie Mafeje. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy ...

  3. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  4. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  5. Extending the Operational Relevance of the Current Heavy Mechanized and Armor Force to 2020 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boston, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Can the U.S. Army's current heavy mechanized and armor force adapt emerging Joint Vision 2020 operational concepts, in order to remain relevant to the land power requirements of combatant commanders across...

  6. Reform of Command and Control Structures in North Atlantic Treaty Organization Special Operations Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    .... The central research question is as follows: Does NATO require a standing Special Operations Force Command and Control structure and combat capability to meet the emerging global security requirements of the Alliance...

  7. Reserve Forces: Observations on Recent National Guard Use in Overseas and Homeland Missions and Future Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Laurent, Janet A

    2004-01-01

    ... than an operational force designed for continued overseas deployments. Moreover, units with certain specialties military police, transportation, and combat arms have been in high demand, resulting in lengthy and repeated deployments...

  8. Radiation consequences of combatant radioactive substances tests on the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strilchuk, Yu.G.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Kuzin, D.E.; Bryantseva, N.V.; Bozhko, V.V.; Tonevitskaya, O.V.; Panitskaya, D.S.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Georgievskij, V.; Murley, R.; Wells, D.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear explosions were not the only type of tests carried out on the STS territory. In 1953 - 1957 the STS territory was the area of testing of combatant radioactive substances (CRS). Combatant radioactive substances were liquid or powder-like combatment radioactive mixtures manufactured either from the wastes of radiochemical industry or by neutron irradiation of specally selected substances in nuclear reactor. Their specific activity ranged from tenths of Curie to several Curie per liter. CRS tests were made on testing grounds ''4'' and ''4A'' situated near northern outpost beyond the Opytnoye Pole (Experimental field). Dispersion of CRS was achieved by blasting of individual shells, bombardment of the area by mortar shells, bombardment from aircraft bombers or dispersion of CRS from airplanes. Investigations carried out in the past years on the territory of the testing grounds discovered fragments of metal products used in the CRS tests and over 30 areas of local radioactive contamination. 90 Sr was the main radioactive pollutant, whose specific activity in upper soil is as high as 5*10 8 Bq/kg; other radionuclides are presented by isotopes: 239+240 Pu, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, 137 Cs, 241 Am, 60 Co. The areas of radioactively-contaminated soil range from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of square meters with some of them expanding to distances of several kilometers. Concentration of radionuclides in soil and vegetation may be compared with that of radioactive waste

  9. Defense at Low Force Levels: The Effect of Force to Space Ratios on Conventional Combat Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    attempted falsification , or to answer the kinds of detailed questions that emerged once the policy community discovered the issue. How strong is the...Pat I," Milk =x.eview. September 1985, pp. 35-36.3 12CJ. Dick, ’Soviet Operational Art, Part I: The Fruits of Experience," IDR No. 7,1988, pp. 759-760...2,1989, p. 141. 3 14 DaiM M. Glantz, "Operational Art mnd Tactcs," Milk = Review, December 1988, pp. 37-38. 151bid, p. 39. 3 16 C.N. Donnelly, "The

  10. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  11. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  12. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  13. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  14. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  15. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  16. Towards a Determination of the Physiological Characteristics Distinguishing Successful Mixed Martial Arts Athletes: A Systematic Review of Combat Sport Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Haff, G Gregory; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2016-10-01

    were included. The search history spanned from the earliest record until September 2015. Of the eight combat sports searched for, five were represented across 23 studies. Sixteen investigations described maximal strength or neuromuscular power variables, while 19 articles reported anaerobic or aerobic measures. The results indicate that a number of strength, neuromuscular power and anaerobic variables distinguished higher- from lower-level combat sport athletes. However, these differences were less clear when groups were stratified within, rather than between competition grades. Greater aerobic power was generally not present amongst superior combat sport competitors. There appear to be differing physiological profiles between more successful grappling and striking combat sport athletes. This is represented by high-force demands of grappling sports causing an upwards shift of the entire force-velocity relationship driven by an increase in maximal strength. In comparison, smaller increases in maximal force production with more notable enhancements in lighter load, higher velocity actions may better identify superior performance in striking sports. Anaerobic capabilities largely distinguished higher- from lower-level combat sport athletes. In particular, longer-term anaerobic efforts seem to define successful grappling-based athletes, while superior competitors in striking sports tend to show dominance in shorter-term measures when compared with their lower-level counterparts. Given the demand for both forms of combat in MMA, a spectrum of physiological markers may characterize higher-level competitors. Furthermore, the performance profile of successful MMA athletes may differ based on combat sport history or competition strategy.

  17. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  18. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Among active component service members in 2016, there were 525 incident diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion and/or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). The crude incidence rate in 2016 was 40.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 46.2% between 2013 and 2016, with the greatest percentage change occurring between 2014 and 2015. In 2016, relative to their respective counterparts, the highest incidence rates of exertional rhabdomyolysis affected service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; and black, non-Hispanic. During the surveillance period, annual incidence rates were highest among service members of the Marine Corps, intermediate among those in the Army, and lowest among those in the Air Force and Navy. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or the Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain or swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (possibly due to myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  19. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  20. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  1. New approaches to combat Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented. In addition, oral infectious diseases in which P. gingivalis plays a key role are described, and an overview of conventional and new therapies for combating P. gingivalis biofilms is given. More insight into this intriguing pathogen might direct the development of better strategies to combat oral infections. PMID:28473880

  2. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care.

  3. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  4. US policies on combating proliferation of nuclear weapons after the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Combating nuclear proliferation has been one of the top priorities for the international community in the post post-Cold War era, and the United States has been taking initiative for tackling the problems. The current Bush administration has placed value high on the effective and concrete actions - including the use of military forces - for such efforts. It is imperative that such actions should be taken in resolving the nuclear proliferation. However, the United States has been criticized that it has disregarded the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime, and that its non-proliferation policy has given negative implications to the regime. Combating nuclear proliferation should be pursued in balanced approach with legitimacy, in consideration of the discriminately nature of the regime as well as of its three pillars - nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  5. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  6. Combat Stress and Substance Use Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Additionally, excessive alcohol use in the military has been linked to serious consequences and loss of productivity , both of which are detrimental...and absenteeism among Iraq war veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(1), 150– 153. Jakupcak, M., Tull, M. T., McDermott, M. J., Kaysen, D...2015, 2016) 106 1 Product Line Review (PLR) Meeting Technology- Facilitated Monitoring and Treatment in Mental Health 21 August 2012 Combat

  7. Combat Conditioning: The Need for Stronger Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-18

    pounds. This leads to overuse injuries that can reduce a unit’s combat effectiveness. Typically the injuries are isolated to the lower...extremities in the form of femoral and hip stress fractures. The way to avoid these types of injuries is to strengthen the muscles around these areas as...shows how the average weight carried by warriors has increased over time. 3 “ CrossFit is a core strength and conditioning program

  8. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0302 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Kulis, Ph.D...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC 27599 REPORT DATES: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR...Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

  9. Combat Trains Command Post (CTCP) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    development through the execution of several validation exercises leading up to the NTC rotation. The squadron utilized home station training opportunities at...evolving problem as the troop 1SG had the responsibility to tie in all disabled vehicles awaiting parts into the security plan. The crews of those...Additionally, depth of knowledge in critical equipment would have assisted the CTCP [i.e. only one operator for the Combat-Service- Support Automated

  10. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  11. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  12. Combating Corruption in International Business Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Celentani, Marco; Ganuza, Juan-José; Peydró, José-Luis

    2004-01-01

    International business transactions pose the problem of deterring bribing of public officials by foreign firms. We first analyse a convention styled after the OECD's 'Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions', which requires signatory countries to proceed against firms that have bribed public officials of any foreign country. We then study the case in which the convention requires signatory countries to proceed against firms that have ...

  13. A model management system for combat simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolk, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The design and implementation of a model management system to support combat modeling is discussed. Structured modeling is introduced as a formalism for representing mathematical models. A relational information resource dictionary system is developed which can accommodate structured models. An implementation is described. Structured modeling is then compared to Jackson System Development (JSD) as a methodology for facilitating discrete event simulation. JSD is currently better at representin...

  14. Groundwork for a Theory of the Combatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    moral status of an individual combatant might have to be relativized to particular roles, or particular missions, rather than the justice of his or her...contemporary scholars understand killing in war. However, such arguments can be very complex, which makes them of little practical value in actual moral ...is the collectivist, because it better captures the nature of the various morally relevant relationships involved. Those relationships are between

  15. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  16. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  17. Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, Brian J; Mabry, Robert L; Seguin, Peter; Cantrell, Joyce; Tops, Terrill; Uribe, Paul; Mallett, Olga; Zubko, Tamara; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne; Rasmussen, Todd E; Butler, Frank K; Kotwal, Russ S; Kotwal, Russell S; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles; Champion, Howard; Lawnick, Mimi; Moores, Leon; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2012-12-01

    Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility (pre-MTF) environment. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service Mortality Surveillance Division was used to identify Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualties from October 2001 to June 2011 who died from injury in the deployed environment. The autopsy records, perimortem records, photographs on file, and Mortality Trauma Registry of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service were used to compile mechanism of injury, cause of injury, medical intervention performed, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) on all lethal injuries. All data were used by the expert panel for the conduct of the potential for injury survivability assessment of this study. For the study interval between October 2001 and June 2011, 4,596 battlefield fatalities were reviewed and analyzed. The stratification of mortality demonstrated that 87.3% of all injury mortality occurred in the pre-MTF environment. Of the pre-MTF deaths, 75.7% (n = 3,040) were classified as nonsurvivable, and 24.3% (n = 976) were deemed potentially survivable (PS). The injury/physiologic focus of PS acute mortality was largely associated with hemorrhage (90.9%). The site of lethal hemorrhage was truncal (67.3%), followed by junctional (19.2%) and peripheral-extremity (13.5%) hemorrhage. Most battlefield casualties died of their injuries before ever reaching a surgeon. As most pre-MTF deaths are nonsurvivable, mitigation strategies to impact outcomes in this population need to be directed

  18. Analysis of Error Propagation Within Hierarchical Air Combat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air...values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air engagement... PROPAGATION WITHIN HIERARCHICAL AIR COMBAT MODELS by Salih Ilaslan June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas Second Reader: Jeffrey

  19. 597 Days: A Division’s Morale During Sustained Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    The army broke combat exhaustion into two groups: new replacements and veterans. For new replacements the symptoms of combat exhaustion appeared...through the initial effects of combat to fall into the veteran group. The manifestation of symptoms for veterans generally occurred around the 120th...concentrated strength” that the German Army was simply overrun. The battle turned into a “ gigantic mopping- up operation,” one that saw the Red Bulls solidify

  20. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30?years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health servi...

  1. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea.

  3. Deflection of electron beams by ground planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well

  4. National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Soldiers. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) commander, Lieutenant General Edward Cardon stated that Guard will begin to build combat power with...90 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review, 15. 91 Ibid. 92 Edward C. Cardon , "ARMY.MIL, The Official Homepage of the United

  5. Institutional Memory and the US Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    38 | Air & Space Power Journal Institutional Memory and the US Air Force Lt Col Daniel J. Brown, USAF Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed...or implied in the Journal are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air...national defense. After each ad- vance is tested in combat, a new round of intellectual sparring commences regarding Summer 2016 | 39 Institutional Memory

  6. Army Combat Medic Resilience: The Process of Forging Loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Preetha A; Russell, Dale W; Huffman, Sarah; Deuster, Patricia; Gibbons, Susanne W

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a grounded theory analysis of in-depth interviews of United States Army Combat Medics (CMs) who had served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. The study explores how 17 CMs nominated by their peers as resilient cope with military stressors in order to identify the factors that enable them to thrive amidst harsh conditions. Four distinct categories of characteristics unique to this group emerged: (1) social bonding, (2) readiness, (3) dual loyalty as performance, and (4) leader by example. Forging loyalty underpins these characteristics and represents the main process used by resilient CMs and comprised three behavior patterns: (1) commitment to the family, (2) commitment to the military mission, and (3) commitment to their guiding religious and spiritual beliefs. Prominent behavioral tendencies of forging loyalty likely developed during childhood and re-enforced by families, friends, and other role models. Based on the findings, new training and education efforts should focus on developing positive emotional, environmental, and social resources to enhance the health and well-being of service members and their families.

  7. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  8. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  9. Women in Combat: The Medical and Behavioral Health Effects on Women Who Have Served in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    urinary tract infections or bacterial vaginosis while deployed, and with limited medical care available, could lead to long-term reproductive issues......experience (Gaylord 2006). Several studies have been conducted on pregnancy outcomes in female Soldiers who have deployed to combat, such as fertility

  10. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  12. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  13. The Role of Leadership and Peer Behaviors in the Performance and Well-Being of Women in Combat: Historical Perspectives, Unit Integration, and Family Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Mady Wechsler; Smith, David G; Segal, David R; Canuso, Amy A

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes how the behaviors of leaders and peers affect the performance and well-being of military women. Locating our analysis within the conceptual model in this issue, we summarize the empirical literature and make practice and policy recommendations. We synthesize results about unit integration, such as research on the conditions for successful integration of previously excluded groups and on the relationship between cohesion and performance. We apply lessons learned from the history of diversity integration in military and civilian organizations, analyzing the treatment of military personnel by race, gender, and sexual orientation. The opening of ground combat specialties and units to women is the latest step in personnel policy changes broadening the recruitment base. We analyze research on gender integration in contemporary armed forces, focusing on positive and negative effects on women of leader and peer behaviors. We discuss conditions for successfully integrating women and those that tend to lead to failure. We analyze military women's family issues, including the effects of deployments and how leaders and peers can help ameliorate problems-or exacerbate them with inappropriate or unsupportive behavior. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  15. The Potential Utility of Urinary Biomarkers for Risk Prediction in Combat Casualties: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-16

    Methods The study took place at Craig Joint Theater Hospital (CJTH) in Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan from October 2012 to December 2013. We included US...explain why we failed to observe an association be- tween KIM-1 and the combined outcome. There is evidence that elevated UBs even in the ab- sence of...several limitations. We had initially sought to enroll 226 subjects; however, the study took place during a drawdown of combat forces in Afghanistan

  16. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  17. Energy Harvesting Combat Boot for Satellite Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Akay

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most portable electronic devices are power-limited by battery capacity, and recharging these batteries often interrupts the user’s experience with the device. The product presented in this paper provides an alternative to powering portables by converting regular human walking motion to electricity. The device harvests electric power using air bulbs, distributed in the sole of a shoe to drive a series of micro-turbines connected to small DC motors. The number and position of air bulbs is optimized to harvest the maximum airflow from each foot-strike. The system is designed to continuously drive the micro-turbines by utilizing both outflow and inflow from the air bulbs. A prototype combat boot was fitted on the right foot of a 75 kg test subject, and produced an average continuous power on the order of 10 s of mW over a 22 Ω load during walking at 3.0 mph. This combat boot provides enough electric power to a passive GPS tracker that periodically relays geographical coordinates to a smartphone via satellite without battery replacement.

  18. Promotion of good governance and combating corruption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melvin Mbao and G.G Komboni criticise the legal regime and institutional arrangements designed to promote good government and to combat corruption and maladministration in Botswana, a country widely acclaimed as Africa's success story. Using internationally accepted benchmarks on good governance and combating ...

  19. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  20. Ponderomotive Forces in Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, R.; Guglielmi, A.

    2006-12-01

    manifestations of ponderomotive forces in the Earth's magnetosphere, for instance the ionospheric plasma acceleration and outflow. The polar wind and the auroral density cavities are considered in relation to results from the Freja and Viking satellites. The high-altitude energization and escape of ions is discussed. The ponderomotive anharmonicity of standing Alfvén waves is analyzed from ground based ULF wave measurements. The complexity of the many challenging problems related with plasma processes near the magnetospheric boundaries is discussed in the light of recent Cluster observations. At the end of Section 6, we consider the application of ponderomotive forces to the diversity of phenomena on the Sun, in the interstellar environment, on newborn stars, pulsars and active galaxies. We emphasize the role of forcing of magnetized plasmas in general and ponderomotive forcing in particular, presenting some simple conceivable scenarios for massive outflow and jets from astrophysical objects.

  1. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  2. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  3. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNTER, KEITH O.; HART, WILLIAM E.; FORSYTHE, JAMES C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project

  4. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  5. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes.

  6. Uncloaking the dagger: does adherence to the Geneva Conventions betray Special Operations Forces?

    OpenAIRE

    Staab, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Bombs, Special Operations Forces (SOF), and proxy forces are growth industries in the modern fight. As President Obama identified in an address covering the nation's strategy in Syria, "airstrikes, Special Forces, and working with local forces who are fighting to regain control of their own country -- that is how we'll achieve a more sustainable victory." [i] These remarks capture the nation's current policy for combating terrorist threats. From its origins in the Second World War to prese...

  7. Will the Current Solution Survive the Future Battlespace? An examination of the Combatant Role of the Australian Army’s Protected mobility capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Interim Infantry Mobility Vehicle IMV Infantry Mobility Vehicle INTERFET International Force East Timor LOE Lines of Effort LWD -1 Land Warfare...produce strategically relevant and combat ready forces.”39 This doctrinal publication, Land Warfare Doctrine 1 ( LWD 1), echoes the difficulties outlined...time. The acknowledgement of this concern is further underlined in LWD 1 which enunciates that “while the strategic situation can change quickly

  8. Combat Internist: The Internal Medicine Experience in a Combat Hospital in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    massive trans- fusion protocol.6 As such, critical care included frequent monitoring of hemoglobin and coagulation parameters with administration of...ongoing resuscitation. With the rise in nutritional supplement use, it was no sur- prise that they were frequently used in the combat zone. Numerous...recommendations on standard precautions and further care of his vaccine site. Education and Administration There were many opportunities to train and

  9. Olecranon Bursitis in a Military Population: Epidemiology and Evidence for Prolonged Morbidity in Combat Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, Haggai; Karakis, Isabella; Dolkart, Oleg; Maman, Eran; Kadar, Assaf; Chechik, Ofir

    2017-09-01

    Olecranon bursitis (OB) is a benign but disturbing condition that may adversely affect a military recruit's combat preparedness. This study was designed to assess incidence, risk factors, and associated medical burden of OB in the Israel Defense Forces. This is a retrospective study drawing on medical records of all Israel Defense Forces soldiers diagnosed as having OB between 2005 and 2015. OB was classified as septic and noninfectious. Crude incidence rates and duty-specific incidence rates were calculated. Medical burden was defined by the number of physician visits, referrals to orthopedic specialist consultations, duration of symptoms, and duration of pharmaceutical treatment. Demographic and occupational information (age, sex, height, weight, socioeconomic status, country of origin, type of military service, time of presentation to medical services) was used to identify risk factors for septic bursitis and longer duration of symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed in R statistical software. Risk factors were evaluated using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for continuous variables. The study was approved by the Israeli Defense Force IRB. A total of 2,692 soldiers were diagnosed with OB during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of OB was 29/100,000 person-years (PY). Combat duty had an incidence of 97/100,000 PY, and noncombat duties had an incidence of 12/10,000 PY (p Origin from the former USSR was associated with a higher duration of symptoms (p = 0.012). Type of military service was the principal risk factor for OB, as indicated by a higher incidence of the disorder among combat compared to noncombat units, possibly the result of field training without protective gear and repetitive trauma to elbows. The greater number of diagnoses of OB during summer and autumn, when training is more intensive, support that explanation. Sex did not affect incidence of OB in administrative

  10. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  11. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  12. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-07-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15(th) June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation.The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with

  13. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  14. Combating (Child Human Trafficking: Building Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Winterdyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation/paper focuses on the challenges and necessity of building capacity at local, national, and international levels with a focus of how to more effectively combat trafficking in human beings (THB. Insight from several of initiatives are shared with the aim of illustrating how to capitalize on the vast number of opportunities that already exist at these levels and how they might be coordinated to enable collaborative work in an informed and dynamic manner to combat human trafficking. Information from several recent research projects that focus on some of these same issues is also incorporated into this paper. El artículo se centra en los desafíos de la lucha contra el tráfico de personas y en la necesidad de aumentar la capacidad para ser más eficaces en ese sentido, local, nacional e internacionalmente. Nos hacemos eco de la visión de varias iniciativas, con el fin de ilustrar cómo capitalizar el gran número de oportunidades que ya existen en los ámbitos citados, y la forma en que se podrían coordinar para posibilitar la colaboración de una manera informada y dinámica para combatir la trata de personas. También se incluye en el artículo información emanada de diversos proyectos recientes de investigación sobre el tema que nos ocupa. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3086067

  15. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  16. [Gastrointestinal diseases and abdominal pain in combat veterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'tsev, A I; Torgashov, M N; Popova, O S

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the role of consequences of combat stress in the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases. One hundred and sixty-one combat veterans aged 24 to 69 years were examined. All underwent a clinical and neurological examination using the McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), Beck depression inventory, Kotenev trauma stress questionnaire, and visual analogue scale to determine pain intensity. Anxiety, impairments in memory and sleep, and depression were identified. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to estimate quality of life in the patients. Gastric secretory function was investigated; esophagogastroduodenoscopy, X-ray and ultrasound studies, clinical and biochemical blood tests, coprological examinations, fecal tests for dysbiosis, if indicated, occult blood were made. Combat stress and its consequences as posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GIT diseases and in the development of chronic abdominal pain. GIT diseases in combat veterans are in larger measure a sequel of impaired processes of adjustment to combat stress. Chronic abdominal pains were heterogeneous. On the one hand, chronic GIT disease serves as a source of pain syndrome; on the other hand, the central nervous system is of importance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. In addition to therapy for GIT and hepatobiliary diseases, the treatment of GIT diseases in this category of patients involves psychotherapy and neuroprotection, aimed at reducing the consequences of combat stress in combat veterans.

  17. Armor Battalion Force Structure in Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Briggs, David

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of the armor unit in a cost effective manner. The initial stages of problem definition led to the identification of an initial effective need of developing a rapidly deployable system capable of effective armored combat...

  18. Narrative approach in understanding the drivers for resilience of military combat medics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Gibbons, S W; Abraham, P A; Howe, E R; Deuster, P; Russell, D W

    2017-12-10

    Qualitative insights may demonstrate how combat medics (CM) deal with stressors and identify how resilience can potentially develop. Yet, qualitative research is scant in comparison to the many quantitative studies of health outcomes associated with military service. Semistructured qualitative interviews were used to collect personal narratives of US Army CMs who had previously served in Iraq or Afghanistan. Thematic analysis revealed three key driving forces for how resilience develops in the context of combat and war. The first was patriotism, which captures loyalty and full commitment to the military and its missions. The second was commitment to their family, reflecting the balance of responsibility to family of origin with the obligation one feels towards their military family. The last driving force was faith, or the drive to reach towards the transcendent to provide a moral compass and develop empathy in the face of difficult situations. An individual's commitment to country, military family and faith strengthens their resilience, and this can be used to inform future research efforts as well as current clinical practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  20. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  1. Combating Desertification and Mitigating the Effects of Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuondo, C.O

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the effects of desertification and drought on the well-being of humankind and therefore it important for them to be combated and mitigated. Desertification is the process that turns fertile lands into desert; drought is defined as lack of sufficient precipitation to sustain plant and human life. In an effort to discuss how to combat desertification, the author has subdivided the paper into five sections namely; introduction, ecological crisis, strategies for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and finally the conclusion

  2. Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    GEC 2015. Conferência realizada em Helsínquia, de 9-10 october 2014. Conferência de Abertura do Painel 2 – Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories, da Conferência promovida pelo Conselho da Europa sobre “Combating gender stereotypes in and through education”. Apresentam-se alguns desafios decorrentes do combate ao sexismo na escola e propõem-se algumas linhas de ação, ao nível individual, coletivo, organizacional e institucional. info:eu-repo/semantics/pub...

  3. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  4. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  5. WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, Norman; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2010-01-01

    and psychiatrists of the general public, of students of medicine, of health professionals other than psychiatrists and of persons with mental illness and their families. It also reviewed the evidence about the interventions that have been undertaken to combat stigma and consequent discrimination and made a series......In 2009 the WPA President established a Task Force that was to examine available evidence about the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and to make recommendations about action that national psychiatric societies and psychiatrists as professionals could do to reduce or prevent...... of recommendations to the national psychiatric societies and to individual psychiatrists. The Task Force laid emphasis on the formulation of best practices of psychiatry and their application in health services and on the revision of curricula for the training of health personnel. It also recommended that national...

  6. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  7. Virtual Individual Combatant Trainer for Embedded Rehearsal (VICTER)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barham, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Report developed under SBIR contract. Reality by Design, Inc. (RBD) presents its Phase 2 Plus results of developing a modular, man-in-the-loop, embedded simulation system for Individual Combatant (IC...

  8. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Mitchell, John T.; Kimbrel, Azure D.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity. PMID:28966424

  9. Russia's Chechen Wars 1994-2000: Lessons from Urban Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliker, Olga

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of Russian combat in Chechnya beginning with the first modern Chechen war of 1994-1996 and comparing and contrasting it with the ongoing conflict that began in 1999...

  10. The Big Issue: Command and Combat in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, David

    2003-01-01

    This Occasional Paper considers command and combat in the information age. A small team in the British Army's conceptual "think tank," the Directorate General Development and Doctrine, worked together on this issue for 18 months...

  11. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  12. Future Combat Systems (FCS) Creates Cannon and Mortar Synergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Kirby; James, Jeff; Tolbert, Vincent J

    2008-01-01

    .... The NLOS-C is one of the eight MGVs. Program Manager FCS (Brigade Combat Team (PM FCS(BCT)) is leveraging previous and current research and development efforts to create synergy between cannons and mortars, without duplication of effort...

  13. Contributions of Women to U.S. Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnes, Thresa

    2008-01-01

    .... combat operations from the Revolutionary War to present-day conflicts. The U.S. military continues to fight a transnational, dispersed enemy that employs irregular tactics and asymmetric warfare...

  14. Is Democratization a Sound Strategy for Combating Fundamentalist Islam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper examines the premise that "universal human rights", as the basis for democracy, is compatible with Islamic culture and is therefore a sound strategy for combating the spread of "Islamic...

  15. Surface Combatant Planning Since the End of the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... This reduction was part of the U.S. military transformation in the post-Cold War period. This thesis examined the major factors that influenced the change in surface combatant planning since 1990, i.e...

  16. Public Affairs Capacity Building: A Soft Tool for Combatant Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salata, Jason P

    2008-01-01

    Public affairs capacity building is a valuable soft component of the Combatant Commander's Theater Campaign Plan that builds habitual relationships, fosters transparency, and enhances the ability to shape the AOR...

  17. Report to Congress on the Review of Laws, Policies and Regulations Restricting the Service of Female Members in the U.S. Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    of vessels on which enlisted women can serve are more limited than those of their male counterparts. Women in occupations such as yeoman, culinary ...Marine Corps training in skills necessary for managing combat trauma casualties and operating with Marine forces in a combat environment. After this...commanders in dealing [with] the management of military forces and the requirements of military discipline.” Id. at 69. In Rostker, the Court

  18. Submersible Combatant Concept for Improved Littoral Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leadmon, John

    2004-01-01

    .... power projection in many areas of the world. This problem is especially evident in the littoral environment, where enemy forces may employ a host of access denial methods including submarines, mines, small boats, and undersea sensor systems...

  19. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  20. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...