WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground development stage

  1. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  2. GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR PROPULSION STAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    The results of studies on transportation problems associated with the development and testing of nuclear rocket powered space vehicles at the static test size are presented. Factors involved in selecting a transport mode are discussed. Radiation shutdown considerations and a conceptual transporter capable of handling test articles of foreseeable size are examined. (D.C.W.)

  3. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  4. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  5. Two stages of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth. The two stages of economic development have been indicated in the growth theory of macroeconomics and in the various "turning point" theories in development economics, including Lewis's dual economy theory, Kuznet...

  6. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  7. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis

    2006-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...

  8. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  9. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...

  10. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  11. Theory of Economic Development (Secondary Stage)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.

  12. Saturn V First Stage Lowered to the Ground After Static Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    This vintage photograph shows the 138-foot long first stage of the Saturn V being lowered to the ground following a successful static test firing at Marshall Space flight Center's S-1C test stand. The firing provided NASA engineers information on the booster's systems. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  13. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  14. Early Stages of Figure–Ground Segregation during Perception of the Face–Vase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A.; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure–ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects’ perceptions of the face–vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects’ figure–ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ~150–200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early “border ownership” stage, and a subsequent “figure–ground segregation” stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure–ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure–ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention. PMID:20146604

  15. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ∼ 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention.

  16. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  17. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  18. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  19. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  20. Final Stage Development of Reactor Console Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2013-01-01

    The Reactor Console Simulator PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor was developed since end of 2011 and now in the final stage of development. It is will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behavior and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of human system interface (HSI) is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate and estimated reactor console parameters. The capabilities in user interface, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics can be expanded and explored to simulation as well as modeling for New Reactor Console, Research Reactor and Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  1. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  2. Stages of educational development? Beeby revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    1980-12-01

    Beeby's model of stages of educational change in developing countries has been accepted into the educational literature with remarkably little critical analysis. Though valuable for a large number of experiential insights, the author argues that the model has certain weaknesses which should restrict its application. The stages have a teleological bias and are not sufficiently distinct, nor do the labels used for them meet the formal requirements of measuring scales. Furthermore, the model overgeneralizes from the experience of British-tradition South Pacific school systems, and the equation of western teaching with good teaching is an unsupported view which may not be valid in many countries. The most fundamental problem is the lack of clear distinction between empirical issues and the ethical judgements implicit in the formulation. However, the model has a number of positive features well worth building upon, such as its focus on the qualitative aspects of teaching and on qualitative change, the realistic emphasis on the gradualism of such change in practice, and the identification of the teacher as the key change agent in the classroom — a fundamental point often overlooked by innovators. The continua of general and professional education which underlie the teaching styles provide useful hypotheses for empirical analysis of the relationship between teacher education and classroom teaching style, but the association of this education with certain types of teaching style needs careful examination. Stripped of its evaluative connotations, Beeby's interest in qualitative change was a valuable early attempt to move attention in developing countries from linear, quantitative expansion of existing systems to a consideration of what was actually being taught and how. The real lesson to be learned from his work is that education should be paying closer attention to its theoretical propositions.

  3. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  4. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  5. Grounding our practice in nursing professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-07-01

    The Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice is foundational to the work of nurses in a continuing professional development role. Use of the practice and professional performance aspects of the standards supports both quality of learning activities and the continuous growth process of nurses engaged in this area of practice. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Stage Development: A Rasch Re-Analysis of Longitudinal Socio-Moral Reasoning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Jan; Wouters, Hans; Keller, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Kohlberg's characterization of moral development as displaying an invariant hierarchical order of structurally consistent stages is losing ground. However, by applying Rasch analysis, Dawson recently gave new interpretation and support to his characterization of stage development. Using Rasch models, we replicated and strengthened her findings in…

  7. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  8. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  9. A proposed model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2017-09-01

    Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  11. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Development Training Project. Stage I and Stage II. [The Granville Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Vivienne C., Ed.

    The book presents a training program developed at the Granville Work Preparation Centre in Australia, to teach mildly retarded adolescents basic social skills and competencies. The program is divided into two stages, with a total of 17 different skill areas. Stage 1 covers self-awareness, social/interpersonal skills, relaxation and behavioral self…

  13. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. A project on research stage of investigating prediction from ground surface. Project report at fiscal year of 2000 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This was a detailed plan after fiscal year 2000 on the first stage of the Research stage at investigating prediction from ground surface' in three researches carried out at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) according to the 'Basic plan on research of underground science at MIU', based on progress of investigation and research before fiscal year 1999. This project contains following three items as its general targets; establishment of general investigating techniques for geological environment, collection of informations on deep underground environment, and development on foundation of engineering technology at super-deep underground. And, targets at investigating prediction stage from ground surface contain acquisition of geological environment data through investigations from ground surface to predict changes of the environment accompanied with underground geological environment and construction of experimental tunnel, to determine evaluating method on prediction results, and to determine plannings of an investigating stage accompanied with excavation of the tunnel by carrying out detail design of the tunnel. Here were introduced about results and problems on the investigation of the first phase, the integration of investigating results, and the investigation and researches on geology/geological structure, hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater, mechanical properties of rocks, and the mass transfer. (G.K.)

  14. Coronary heart disease patients transitioning to a normal life: perspectives and stages identified through a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Yadavar Nikravesh, Mansoureh; Emami, Azita

    2014-02-01

    To explore how Iranian patients with coronary heart disease experience their lives. Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in Iran and worldwide. Understanding qualitatively how patients experience the acute and postacute stages of this chronic condition is essential knowledge for minimising the negative consequences of coronary heart disease. Qualitative study using grounded theory for the data analysis. Data for this study were collected through individual qualitative interviews with 24 patients with coronary heart disease, conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. Patients with angina pectoris were selected for participation through purposive sampling, and sample size was determined by data saturation. Data analysis began with initial coding and continued with focused coding. Categories were determined, and the core category was subsequently developed and finalised. The main categories of the transition from acute phase to a modified or 'new normal' life were: (1) Loss of normal life. Experiencing emotions and consequences of illness; (2) Coming to terms. Using coping strategies; (3) Recreating normal life. Healthcare providers must correctly recognise the stages of transition patients navigate while coping with coronary heart disease to support and educate them appropriately throughout these stages. Patients with coronary heart disease lose their normal lives and must work towards recreating a revised life using coping strategies that enable them to come to terms with their situations. By understanding Iranian patients' experiences, healthcare providers and especially nurses can use the information to support and educate patients with coronary heart disease on how to more effectively deal with their illness and its consequences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Outsourcing technical services : Stages of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, T.; Baven, Geert

    1994-01-01

    This article is based on an investigation of the development of two service functions, software development and engineering, in the automobile industry. The inquiry revealed the importance of 'learning and leverage', and the need for a successful combination of functional and application

  16. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  17. Stages of growth in economic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2003), s. 771-800 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

  18. Life Skills Developed on the Camp "Stage."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research concerning the components of sense of place, the rootedness of college students to their hometowns, and categories of environmental competence. Offer insights to camp staff into fostering sense of place and the emotional attachments to camp that comprise place attachment, and to developing environmental competence among campers…

  19. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  20. [The stages of development of Ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotialov, M A; Sorokina, T S; Druzhinin, V Iu

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurveda medicine as one the three traditional systems of healing developed during millennia at the Hindustan subcontinent (the ancient India). Nowadays, Ayurveda medicine is widely used in many countries. The present day researchers mark out and analyze several periods in its history.

  1. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  2. Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. Alan; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment, the objective of which is to determine the solar constant value and its variability, is scheduled for launch as part of the Space Shuttle/Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS) spacelab mission. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software was developed to monitor and analyze the SOLCON telemetry data during flight and to test the instrument on the ground. The design and development of the GSE software are discussed. The SOLCON instrument was tested during Davos International Solar Intercomparison, 1989 and the SOLCON data collected during the tests are analyzed to study the behavior of the instrument.

  3. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  4. Methodological Grounds of Managing Innovation Development of Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Naidiuk V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification and further development of methodological grounds of managing the innovation development of restaurants. Based on the data of the critical analysis of existing scientific views on interpretation of the essence of the "managing innovation development of an enterprise" notion, the article conducts clarification of this definition. In the result of the study the article builds up a cause-effect diagram of solution of the problem of ensuring efficien...

  5. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong

    2001-01-01

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  6. Development of Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    The status of the development of a multi-monostatic stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at The Department of Applied Electronics (IAE), The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is presented. The feasibility of the used approach is demonstrated by the successful detection of small me...... metallic and non-metallic objects with a diameter of 54 mm buried in loamy soil....

  7. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  9. Development of two-stage grain grinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important task in the development of the diet of farm animals feeding is a selection of the most balanced in its composition and most nutritious feeds, which are safe and meet all the necessary requirements at the same time. To evaluate the productive value of feeds and their effectiveness the rate of food productive action η was proposed. This ratio reflects the productive part of the total value of the exchange energy of the daily feed ration and is an essential criterion of the feed quality indicators. In the feed rations of animals the most expensive, but energy-rich feed is a mixed fodder, a mixture of grinded seeds of agricultural crops and protein, mineral and vitamin additives. In the diet for its nutritional value, this feed product is for cattle – 50, pigs – 60… 100 and birds – 100%. The basic operation in the production of mixed fodder is seeds grinding, i.e. their destruction under the influence of external forces, exceeding the forces of molecular adhesion of the grains particles. To grind the grain different ways are used: chopping, grinding, impact «in flight», crushing, etc. In the production of mixed fodder on the existing production equipment, there is the problem of getting the grain mixed fodder the necessary degree of grinding and uniform in its particle size distribution at the same time. When receiving too coarse grinding there is a problem of difficult digestibility of mixed fodder by farm animals. Moreover grinding process is accompanied by a high energy consumption. Grain grinder, the principle of which is based on the implementation of two ways of grinding grain: splitting and impact «in flight» is proposed. The proposed constructive solutions allow to obtain a high-performance technical means for crushing seeds of crops, as well as reduce energy costs that arise during the course of the process of obtaining of mixed fodder. The methodology justification of degree of grain grinding by

  10. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  11. Memory for conversation and the development of common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Geoffrey L; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-11-01

    Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener. The process of developing common ground was positively related to both item and context memory. In addition, content that was spoken was remembered better than content that was heard. Our findings illustrate how memory assessments can complement language measures by revealing the impact that basic conversational processes have on memory for what has been discussed. By taking this approach, we show that not only does the process of forming common ground facilitate communication in the present, but it also promotes an enduring record of that event, facilitating conversation into the future.

  12. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat

    2018-02-01

    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  13. Development of a Subject-Specific Foot-Ground Contact Model for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer N; Hass, Chris J; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    Computational walking simulations could facilitate the development of improved treatments for clinical conditions affecting walking ability. Since an effective treatment is likely to change a patient's foot-ground contact pattern and timing, such simulations should ideally utilize deformable foot-ground contact models tailored to the patient's foot anatomy and footwear. However, no study has reported a deformable modeling approach that can reproduce all six ground reaction quantities (expressed as three reaction force components, two center of pressure (CoP) coordinates, and a free reaction moment) for an individual subject during walking. This study proposes such an approach for use in predictive optimizations of walking. To minimize complexity, we modeled each foot as two rigid segments-a hindfoot (HF) segment and a forefoot (FF) segment-connected by a pin joint representing the toes flexion-extension axis. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) and moments acting on each segment were generated by a grid of linear springs with nonlinear damping and Coulomb friction spread across the bottom of each segment. The stiffness and damping of each spring and common friction parameter values for all springs were calibrated for both feet simultaneously via a novel three-stage optimization process that used motion capture and ground reaction data collected from a single walking trial. The sequential three-stage process involved matching (1) the vertical force component, (2) all three force components, and finally (3) all six ground reaction quantities. The calibrated model was tested using four additional walking trials excluded from calibration. With only small changes in input kinematics, the calibrated model reproduced all six ground reaction quantities closely (root mean square (RMS) errors less than 13 N for all three forces, 25 mm for anterior-posterior (AP) CoP, 8 mm for medial-lateral (ML) CoP, and 2 N·m for the free moment) for both feet in all walking trials. The

  14. Stages of Teachers' Careers: Implications for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Judith; And Others

    This monograph on the development of teachers' careers synthesizes researchers' prescriptions for early-, mid-, and late-career professional development; and describes successful programs that demonstrate sensitivity to the stages of teachers' growth. The first chapter, "Teachers' Career Development," reviews current adult- and career-stage…

  15. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  16. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  17. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  18. Early Stages of Figure–Ground Segregation during Perception of the Face–Vase

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Michael A.; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure–ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects’ perceptions of the face–vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP...

  19. Methodological Grounds of Managing Innovation Development of Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidiuk V. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification and further development of methodological grounds of managing the innovation development of restaurants. Based on the data of the critical analysis of existing scientific views on interpretation of the essence of the “managing innovation development of an enterprise” notion, the article conducts clarification of this definition. In the result of the study the article builds up a cause-effect diagram of solution of the problem of ensuring efficient management of the innovation development of a restaurant. The article develops a conceptual scheme of development and realisation of the strategy of innovation development in a restaurant. It experimentally confirms the hypothesis of availability of a very strong density of the feedback between resistance to innovation changes and a variable share of qualified personnel that is capable of permanent development (learning and generation of new ideas, in restaurants and builds a model of dependency between them. The prospects of further studies in this direction could become scientific studies directed at development of methodical approaches to identification of the level of innovation potential and assessment of efficiency of managing innovation development of different (by type, class, size, etc. restaurants. The obtained data could also be used for development of a new or improvement of the existing tools of strategic management of innovation development at the micro-level.

  20. THE STAGES OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman GRESHKO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews major stages of establishment and development of financial management, main conceptual theories, and methods, approaches, developed by academic economists in the field of corporate finance that became the basis for the development of financial management as a science. In the paper, the authors identify the major five stages of its establishment, in the process of which the range of thoroughly studied issues was constantly expanded, the methodologies of their research were enriched. The paper describes the main scientific works of famous economists of the relevant periods that have made a significant contribution to the formation and development of financial management as a science. The authors drew the conclusions about prerequisites to the development of financial science and research priorities in the financial management of enterprises.

  1. Measurements and evaluation of building response to ground motion at various stages of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Architectural elements contribute significantly to the total seismic response of high-rise frame buildings. Although the characteristics of ground motion have considerable effect on the response of buildings, architectural elements increase the stiffness of the total system and reduce its period. The measurements also showed that partition influence is reduced over a period of time, as indicated by the lengthening of periods. At low levels of motion where the partitions contribute lateral stiffness to the system, they carry a proportional amount of the total lateral load and add sizable energy-absorbing capacity to the system. However, when the partitions are removed, the load formerly carried by the partitions is again transferred to the structural system. Because of the different response mode shapes of the models, the interstory drift at the first floor for the same roof displacement can vary significantly among models. In the models studied, the building without partitions at the first floor had the largest interstory drift

  2. Development of Ground Test System For RKX-200EB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-04-01

    After being postponed for seven years, the development of RKX-200EB now restarts by initiating a ground test, preceding the real flight test. The series of the development starts from simulation test using the real vehicle and its components, focusing on a flight sequence test using hardware in the loop simulation. The result of the simulation shows that the autonomous control system in development is able to control the X tail fin vehicle, since take off using booster, separating booster-sustainer, making flight maneuver using sustainer with average cruise speed of 1000 km/h, and doing bank to maneuver up to ±40 deg heading to the target. The simulation result also shows that the presence of sustainer in vehicle control can expand the distance range by 162% (12.6 km) from its ballistic range using only a booster.

  3. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  4. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame and ground with good characteristic sensorial and nutritional. The addition of the toasted sesame and ground it was carried out in dose of 10, 15 and 20% to the formulation of a sweet cookie. The sweet cookies were evaluated by seven trained judges to determine the most appropriate dose according to the general impression of obtained quality. The accepted formulation it was determined humidity, proteins, fat, ashy, calcium, iron, and zinc and texture analysis. The best formulation wasthat of 15% sesame for the obtaining of a product with an acceptability of excellent, a percentage of humidity and typical fat of sweet cookies and high content of proteins and calcium as well as appreciable iron content and zinc. The obtained sweet cookie was characterized sensorial to possess a scent and flavor defined to sesame, good crujencia and harmony among its components, very pleasant hardness and the weight and thickness similar to that of other sweet cookies.

  5. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  6. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  7. X-ray diffraction topography. Stages and tendencies of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'pina, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The physical foundation of X-ray diffraction topography, its methods, the achievements in image theory, the stages of evolution were described in this review. It was found that modern topography is well along in development associated with the use of third-generation synchrotron radiation and with its adaptation to advance materials and problems of materials science. Some proposals about prospects for X-ray topography progress in the future have been made [ru

  8. Buddhism in the Astrakhan territory: stages of the historical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Курапов

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In authors article are considered the basic stages of distribution of the Buddhism on the Bottom Volga region, within the limits of the Astrakhan province. Analysed characteristic features of historical development of a Buddhist community (sangha at Kalmyks, participation of Buddhist clergy in political life of region. Determined and considered specificity of interaction of a Buddhist community with secular authorities of region and national elite.

  9. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  11. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  12. SPHERES: From Ground Development to Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2015-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES Facility on ISS is managed and operated by the SPHERES National Lab Facility at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. To help make science a reality on the ISS, the SPHERES ARC team supports a Guest Scientist Program (GSP). This program allows anyone with new science the possibility to interface with the SPHERES team and hardware. In addition to highlighting the available SPHERES hardware on ISS and on the ground, this presentation will also highlight ground support, facilities, and resources available to guest researchers. Investigations on the ISS evolve through four main phases: Strategic, Tactical, Operations, and Post Operations. The Strategic Phase encompasses early planning beginning with initial contact by the Principle Investigator (PI) and the SPHERES program who may work with the PI to assess what assistance the PI may need. Once the basic parameters are understood, the investigation moves to the Tactical Phase which involves more detailed planning, development, and testing. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the tactical phase may be split into the Lab Tactical Phase or the ISS Tactical Phase due to the difference in requirements for the two destinations. The Operations Phase is when the actual science is performed; this can be either in the lab, or on the ISS. The Post Operations Phase encompasses data analysis and distribution, and generation of summary status and reports. The SPHERES Operations and Engineering teams at ARC is composed of

  13. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  14. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  16. Breeders’ work after cultivar development - the stage of recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new cultivars is the ultimate goal of breeding programs and is the result of many years of hard work and dedication of breeders and their teams. An important part of the process, often neglected by geneticists, is the stage from recommendation to the production of breeder seed (post-breeding. This paper discusses the role of the breeder in the recommendation, registration, protection and marketing of new cultivars. The breeder’s active participation in all phases of post-breeding is fundamental to ensure that the cultivar reaches farmers quickly and can provide the benefits expected by society

  17. Mechanisms important to later stages of streamer system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, N. G.; Carlson, B.; Kochkin, P.; Østgaard, N.

    2017-12-01

    Typical streamer modeling focuses on the propagation of the streamer head and thus neglects processes such as electron detachment, electron energy relaxation, and thermalization of the electron energy distribution. These mechanisms, however, may become important at later stages of streamer system development, in particular following streamer collisions. We present a model of a later-stage streamer system development which includes these processes. A linear analysis suggests that these processes under some conditions can lead to new effects, such as excitation of waves similar to striations in the positive column of a glow discharge. Such instabilities do not occur if these mechanisms are neglected under the same conditions, although previous modeling suggested existence of wave-like phenomena during the streamer propagation [Luque et al, 2016, doi:10.1002/2015JA022234]. In the sea-level pressure air, the obtained striation-like waves may manifest as very high frequency range (>10 MHz) oscillations in plasma parameters and may have been detected in the electrode current and electromagnetic radiation measurements during laboratory spark experiments. We discuss whether the longitudinal electric field in such waves can efficiently transfer energy to charged particles, because such a process may play a role in production of x-rays.

  18. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    The successful implementation of a PDE running on fuel and air mixtures will require fast-acting fuel-air injection and mixing techniques, detonation initiation techniques such as DDT enhancing devices or a pre-detonator, an effective ignition system that can sustain repeated firing at high rates and a fast and capable, closed-loop control system. The control system requires high-speed transducers for real-time monitoring of the PDE and the detection of the detonation wave speed. It is widely accepted that the detonation properties predicted by C-J detonation relations are fairly accurate in comparison to experimental values. The post-detonation flow properties can also be expressed as a function of wave speed or Mach number. Therefore, the PDE control system can use C-J relations to predict the post-detonation flow properties based on measured initial conditions and compare the values with those obtained from using the wave speed. The controller can then vary the initial conditions within the combustor for the subsequent cycle, by modulating the frequency and duty cycle of the valves, to obtain optimum air and fuel flow rates, as well as modulate the energy and timing of the ignition to achieve the required detonation properties. Five different PDE ground demonstrators were designed, built and tested to study a number of the required sub-systems. This work presents a review of all the systems that were tested, along with suggestions for their improvement. The PDE setups, ranged from a compact PDE with a 19 mm (3/4 in.) i.d., to two 25 mm (1 in.) i.d. setups, to a 101 mm (4 in.) i.d. dual-stage PDE setup with a pre-detonator. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in the smaller PDEs. In the dual-stage PDE, propane-oxygen was used in the pre-detonator, while propane-air mixtures were used in the main combustor. Both rotary valves and solenoid valve injectors were studied. The rotary valves setups were tested at 10 Hz, while the solenoid valves were tested at up to 30 Hz

  19. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  20. A Proven Methodology for Developing Secure Software and Applying It to Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Part Two expands upon Part One in an attempt to translate the methodology for ground system personnel. The goal is to build upon the methodology presented in Part One by showing examples and details on how to implement the methodology. Section 1: Ground Systems Overview; Section 2: Secure Software Development; Section 3: Defense in Depth for Ground Systems; Section 4: What Now?

  1. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  2. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  4. Modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.; Pietsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge was performed by solving numerically the coupled continuity, the Poisson and Townsend ionization equations and taking into account the ionization, attachment and detachment processes. The potential distribution at the dielectric surface and at the boundaries which surround the integration region have been calculated with the charge-image method in a 3D approach. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion effects, the solution of the continuity equation was corrected using a flux correction transport routine. At the positive voltage the development of the discharge channel is determined mainly by the shape of the electrode tip. At the negative voltage the following phases of the discharge may be distinguished: the initial phase, the cathode directed streamer phase resulting in the cathode layer formation, and the propagating phase. The physical processes governing each discharge phase are described in detail. (J.U.)

  5. [Premorbid stage in the development of anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savost'ianova, O L

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of premorbid stage in children, aged 5-15 years, with ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety-phobic disorders have been studied. The patient's mental state has been described earlier (Savostyanova, 2001). Retrospective evaluation of the patient's state in premorbid allowed to detect the disturbances in personality formation, anxiety phobic reactions and autochthon phases, represented by continuum of subclinical disorders, from floating anxiety to the signs of vital anxiety. These traits are distinguished by instability and inconsistency as well as by mild expression, which did not reach a level of manifest disorders. Personality of the children, who develop anxiety phobic disorders, may be emotionally labile as well as rigid one inclining to negative effectiveness. Hereditable and environment factors influencing anxiety phobic disorders development were detected. The premorbid traits are concluded to reflect inherited anxiety diathesis, which determines the peculiarities of reaction to negative environment and results not only in personality development but also in the large spectrum of future anxiety phobic symptoms.

  6. Preservation Effect of Two-Stage Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Burmanii) Oleoresin Microcapsules On Vacuum-Packed Ground Beef During Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfiana, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (0%, 0.5% and 1%) on the TPC (Total Plate Count), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), pH, and RGB color (Red, Green, and Blue) of vacuum-packed ground beef during refrigerated storage (at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days). This study showed that the addition of two stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules affected the quality of vacuum-packed ground beef during 16 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that the TPC value of the vacuum-packed ground beef sample with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules was lower than the value of control sample. The TPC value of the control sample, sample with additional 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were 5.94; 5.46; and 5.16 log CFU/g respectively. The TBA value of vacuum-packed ground beef were 0.055; 0.041; and 0.044 mg malonaldehyde/kg, resepectively on the 16th day of storage. The addition of two-stage cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules could inhibit the growth of microbia and decrease the oxidation process of vacuum-packed ground beef. Moreover, the change of vacuum-packed ground beef pH and RGB color with the addition 0.5% and 1% microcapsules were less than those of the control sample. The addition of 1% microcapsules showed the best effect in preserving the vacuum-packed ground beef.

  7. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  8. Development of flying spot illumination system for stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Hisashi; Ishii, Katsunori; Koshiro, Hikari; Baba, Junko; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2014-02-01

    The system to control the area of illumination is important for the luminaires used for stages and TV studios. Presently the methods to change the distance between a lamp and lenses, or to use a zooming projection of the aperture illuminated by the lamp are used to control the area. However, these methods require many optical components or mechanical components. Moreover, the energy of the light source is partially consumed by the absorption of the shutter on adjusting the illumination area. On the other hand, the control of the illuminance over the illuminated area is not possible by the methods. In this study, we developed the lighting system which enables to control both the illuminated area and the illuminance distribution within the area by scanning the beam from a LED array light source. The area of illumination was expanded along one dimension by scanning the LED beam using a rotating polygon mirror. The selection of the illuminated width and the control of the illuminance distribution were achieved by synchronizing the pulse width modulation (PWM) control of the LED with the rotation of the mirror using a time sharing control. As a result, various illuminance distributions can be realized at real time by using software control for the luminaire. The developed system has the merits of compact and high efficiency.

  9. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  10. Relationship Marketing Stage of Development in Romanian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Filip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the relationship marketing stage of development within the banking industry in Romania, by identifying the extent to which business objectives and marketing strategies of companies are customer oriented. In order to achieve this aim a qualitative marketing research was conducted, by applying in-depth semi-structured interviews. The target group of the research consisted of nine banking companies, selected according to the market share, while the research participants were employees responsible for marketing, sales and customer relationship management activities. Due to respondents’ expertise, during the interviews could be applied mixed research methods in the process of data collection and subsequently, in data analysis. According to research objectives and results, although there is an increase in the importance of customer orientation within banking policies, the integration of relationship marketing optics at the institutional management level is facing a number of deficiencies, especially with regard to the concerns about employees’ satisfaction and loyalty or to the development of relationships with other stakeholders. The degree of satisfaction with the adoption of customer relationship management technology is relatively high among banks, being appreciated mainly those banking performance achieved in terms of retention rate, cross-selling and customer satisfaction. Most banks use the gross customer retention index as the main indicator of customer portfolio stability, although retention objectives tend to be set differently depending on customer value. Internal marketing strategies are developed around staff training processes, while performance evaluation criteria are rather specific to a transactional marketing approach. Results of the research provide clues on the relationship marketing processes and activities that need to be improved, in order to strengthen the current customer base and the competitive

  11. Energy regulation in context: Free-living female arctic ground squirrels modulate the relationship between thyroid hormones and activity among life history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M; Williams, Cory T

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, are likely modulators of energy allocation within and among animal life history stages. Despite their role in modulating metabolism, few studies have investigated whether THs vary among life history stages in free-living animals or if they exhibit stage-specific relationships to total energy expenditure and activity levels. We measured plasma total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) at four, discrete life history stages of female arctic ground squirrels from two different populations in northern Alaska to test whether plasma THs correlate with life history stage-specific changes in metabolic rate and energy demand. We also tested whether THs explained individual variation in aboveground activity levels within life history stages. T3 peaked during lactation and was lowest during pre-hibernation fattening, consistent with known changes in basal metabolism and core body temperature. In contrast, T4 was elevated shortly after terminating hibernation but remained low and stable across other life-history stages in the active season. THs were consistently higher in the population that spent more time above-ground but the relationship between THs and activity varied among life history stages. T3 was positively correlated with activity only during lactation (r(2)=0.50) whereas T4 was positively correlated with activity immediately following lactation (r(2)=0.48) and during fattening (r(2)=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that THs are an important modulator of basal metabolism but also suggest that the relationship between THs and activity varies among life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  13. Development of a hybrid mode linear transformer driver stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Liangji; Tian, Qing; Guo, Fan; Wang, Lingyun; Qing, Yanling; Zhao, Yue; Dai, Yingmin; Han, Wenhui; Chen, Lin; Xie, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    At present, the mainstream technologies of primary power sources of large pulse power devices adopt Marx or linear transformer driver (LTD) designs. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of these two types of circuit topologies, the concept of a hybrid mode LTD stage based on Marx branches is proposed. The analysis shows that the hybrid mode LTD stage can realize the following goals: (a) to reduce the energy and power handled by the basic components (switch and capacitor) to lengthen their lifetime; (b) to reduce the requirements of the multipath synchronous trigger system; and (c) to improve the maintainability of the LTD stage by using independent Marx generators instead of "traditional LTD bricks." To verify the technique, a hybrid mode LTD stage consisting of 50 branches (four-stage compact Marx generators) was designed, manufactured and tested. The stage has a radius of about 3.3 m and a height of 0.6 m. The single Marx circuit's load current is about 21 kA, with a rise time of ˜90 ns (10%-90%), under the conditions of capacitors charged to ±40 kV and a 6.9 Ω matched load. The whole stage's load current is ˜1 MA , with a rise time of ˜112 ns (10%-90%), when the capacitors are charged to ±45 kV and the matched load is 0.14 Ω .

  14. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  15. Validating a Measure of Stages of Change in Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Michael, Tony; Luke, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Research on the processes of change in career development has focused on developmental stages rather than processes. This manuscript reports on the development and validation of the stages of change-career development scale, adapted from McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer (1983) measure of stages of change in psychotherapy. Data from 875…

  16. Rock stress measurements. Preparatory stage of the equipment development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononen, S.; Hakala, M.; Mikkola, P.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the rock stress measurement methods used in Finland have been overcoring and hydraulic fracturing. There have been mainly two companies involved in these measurements, namely Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) and SwedPower AB. Smoy has done measurements for mines and for rock engineering projects, whereas SwedPower AB has mainly been involved in nuclear waste disposal investigations and conducted hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes. Smoy together with its partners started in February 2001 a project named JTM, which was a preliminary stage for a future project, which aims to develop a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finland. The partners in the project were HUT Rock Engineering, Posiva Oy, Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Gridpoint Finland Oy and Geopros Oy. Tekes, the National Technology Agency, provided almost half of the project funding. In the management group of the project were Pekka Mikkola (chairman) and Tero Laurila from Smoy, Pekka Saerkkae and Sakari Mononen (full-time researcher) from HUT, Aimo Hautojaervi (Posiva Oy), Erik Johansson (Saanio and Riekkola Oy), Matti Hakala (Gridpoint Finland Oy) and Heikki Haemaelaeinen (Geopros Oy). The aim of the JTM-project was to find out the needs for the development of a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finnish mines and rock engineering projects. During the project work was done to find out the range of rock stress measurement devices available, to find out the needs for measurements, and to get acquainted to the measurements done in Scandinavia. Also a report of the most suitable methods for Finnish rock conditions was done based on literature and on interviews of rock stress experts. Based on all the information collected during the project a clear picture of the needs for rock stress measurements in Finland could be formed and a preliminary plan of a future project was done. The aim of the suggested project is to build a device based on hydraulic fracturing

  17. Stages of socio-economic development: Shah Wali-Allah's concept of al-irtifaqat

    OpenAIRE

    aislahi, Abdul Azim

    1989-01-01

    The present paper introduces Shah Wali-Allah Dehlawi’s concept of the stages of socio-economic developments (al-irtifaqat). According to him, starting from simple primitive village life to an international community, the socio-economic development of human society can be divided into four stages. The first stage is dominated by simple economic struggle while the last stage is developed to maintain just political order on international level, to safeguard the socio-economic interests of differ...

  18. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  19. The Onset of Representation and Entry into Stage 6 of Object Permanence Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joseph J.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether infants' performance in two search tasks is related to their entry into Stage 6 of object permanence development (thereby testing Piaget's claim that only Stage 6 infants possess the capacity for representation). (BD)

  20. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl

    2006-01-01

    In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...

  1. Development of Explosive Ripper with Two-Stage Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    inch pipe duct work, the width of this duct proved to be detrimental in marginally rippable material; the duct, instead of the penetrator tip, was...marginally rippable rock. ID. Operating Requirements 2. Fuel The two-stage combustion device is designed to operate using S A 42. the same diesel

  2. How nursing home residents develop relationships with peers and staff: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tonya; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Social support and social relationships have been repeatedly identified as essential to nursing home resident quality of life. However, little is known about ways residents develop relationships with peers or staff. This study was conducted to explore the ways resident develop relationships with peers and staff in nursing homes. Fifteen cognitively intact nursing home residents from two facilities were interviewed for this grounded theory study. Sampling, interviewing, and analysis occurred in a cyclical process with results at each stage of the study informing decisions about data collection and analysis in the next. Unstructured interviews and field observations were conducted. Data were analyzed with open, axial, and selective coding. Residents developed relationships with peers and staff largely as an unintended consequence of trying to have a life in the nursing home. Having a life was a two-step process. First, life motivations (Being Self and Creating a Positive Atmosphere) influenced resident preferences for daily activities and interaction goals and subsequently their strategies for achieving and establishing both. Second, the strategies residents used for achieving their required daily activities (Passing Time and Getting Needs Met) and interaction goals then influenced the nature of interaction and the subsequent peer or staff response to these interactions. Residents defined relationships as friendly or unfriendly depending on whether peers or staff responded positively or negatively. There was considerable overlap in the ways peer and staff relationships developed and the results highlight the role of peer and staff responsiveness in relationship development. The results provide possible explanations for the success of interventions in the literature designed to improve staff responsiveness to residents. The results suggest that adapting these kinds of interventions for use with peers may also be successful. The conceptual model also presents a number

  3. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  4. The search for common ground: developing emergency medicine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey P; Shokoohi, Hamid; Holliman, James C

    2007-05-01

    Academic ties between Iran and the United States were extensive before the 1979 revolution in Iran. After 20 years of negligible academic exchanges, there has been a growing trend of professional contacts between the two countries over the past few years. The genuine warmth of friendship and commitment to excellence in emergency medicine (EM) among Iranians has transcended the political barriers to allow international contribution of EM development in the country. Since 1999, there has been a successful academic collaboration between Iranian and U.S. universities to help develop EM in Iran. Today, remarkable progresses have been achieved through recognition of EM as a distinct profession, developing EM residency programs, improving emergency medical services, establishing qualified emergency departments, training faculty and staff, starting physician exchange programs, and building mutual contributions with professionals throughout the world. A supportive policy environment and a high-quality health care system have had incredible impacts on EM development in the country.

  5. Developing Instrumentation for Ground and Balloon-Borne Observing Platforms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In my research I will focus on developing hardware and software technology for two instruments searching for polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)....

  6. Ground-breaking virtual research in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Buck, Nuka

    2008-01-01

    MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument.......MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument....

  7. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for seismic ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Issues regarding evaluation of active fault and ground motion for formulation of design basis ground motion (Ss) were prescribed in 'NSC seismic and tsunami safety reviewing manual' in 2012. Moreover, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) is establishing the new seismic safety guideline. In this theme following four subjects were investigated to resolve the important problems for ground motion evaluation, (1) advanced evaluation of ground motion using fault model and uncertainty; (2) improving evaluation of ground motion using attenuation relation of response spectrum; (3) development of advanced and generic techniques for ground motion observation and observation tool in deep borehole; (4) improving the evaluation of site effect and seismic wave propagation characteristics. In addition as emergency requirements from NRA following two subjects were also investigated; (5) hazard evaluation development on fault displacement; (6) ground motion evaluation at near-by source location. Obtained results will be reflected not only in the domestic guideline established by NRA but in the national safety review and also in the safety standard guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Extra-Budgetary Program (EBP), thereby contributing to technical cooperation in global nuclear seismic safety. (author)

  8. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón; Lic. Dialina García-Pedroso; Ing. Jehannara Calle-Domínguez; MSc.Cira Duarte-García

    2015-01-01

    The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum) it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame a...

  9. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY L2 Ground Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretschany, Sergei; Lichtenberg, Günter; Meringer, Markus; Theys, Nicolas; Lerot, Christophe; Liebing, Patricia; Noel, Stefan; Dehn, Angelika; Fehr, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming Version 7 of ESA's operational Level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had been originally developed for the GOME-2 sensor and later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to utilize BrO total columns (already an operational product) and split them into stratospheric VCDstrat and tropospheric VCDtrop fractions. BrO VCDstrat is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O3 and NO2 observations. VCDtrop is then determined simply as a difference: VCDtrop = VCDtotal - VCDstrat. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher sensitivity w.r.t. thin clouds. 3. A new

  10. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  11. Preparation of JEREMI Experiment: Development of the Ground Based Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnou, V.; Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of preparing the space experiment JEREMI (Japanese and European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities). The use of forced coaxial gas flow is proposed as a way to stabilize the Marangoni convection in liquid bridges, which might have important technological applications in the floating zone technique. A new set-up is under development and all sub-systems have passed severe tests. Here we present the design of this set-up and preliminary results of experiments for shear-driven two-phase flows in a confined volume of liquid under conditions of normal gravity. The geometry corresponds to a cylindrical liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel with external solid walls. Gas enters into the annular duct, flows between solid walls and upon reaching the liquid zone entrains initially quiescent liquid. The test liquids are ethanol, n-decane and 5 cSt silicone oil, which have different degrees of viscosity and of volatility. The gas flow along the interface strongly enhances the evaporation and, correspondingly, affects the interface shape. Silhouette measurements are used for optical determination of the interface shape. From the digital images the variation of the liquid volume as a function of flow rate is calculated.

  12. Model Development for Atomic Force Microscope Stage Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Ralph C; Hatch, Andrew G; De, Tathagata; Salapaka, Murti V; Raye, Julie K; del Rosario, Ricardo C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop nonlinear constitutive equations and resulting system models quantifying the nonlinear and hysteretic field-displacement relations inherent to lead zirconate titanate (PZT...

  13. Development of LHCD launcher for next stage tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, M.; Obara, K.; Maebara, S.

    1994-01-01

    In next stage LHCD experiment, long pulse RF injection is required for studying quasi-steady state tokamaks. The suppression of outgassing from waveguides is one of the main issues for LHCD launchers to transmit RF power in the waveguides continuously and stably. In order to know the parameters which control outgassing rate and to investigate how to reduce outgassing rate, JAERI and CEA have performed outgassing experiment by using four divided waveguides. The experimental setup and the results are reported. Steady state outgassing was observed in long duration up to 1800s when RF heat was removed by water cooling. In next generation LHCD launchers, it should be demanded to launch the high directive and sharp spectra, and to make the structure simple and compact. But these spectra require many waveguides in front of plasma, and this situation is not compatible with the compact structure which is necessary for low cost and easy maintenance. Moreover, the launchers are advantageous if the controllability is wide, and the low RF power density at grill mouth makes power launching easy. In order to realize the above features, a new launcher was devised. The conceptual structure is shown. The main R and D item is to divide RF power into three waveguides lined in poloidal direction. The RF property is discussed. (K.I.)

  14. Development of Response Spectral Ground Motion Prediction Equations from Empirical Models for Fourier Spectra and Duration of Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, S. S.; Scherbaum, F.; Kuehn, N. M.; Stafford, P.; Edwards, B.

    2014-12-01

    In a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) framework, it still remains a challenge to adjust ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for application in different seismological environments. In this context, this study presents a complete framework for the development of a response spectral GMPE easily adjustable to different seismological conditions; and which does not suffer from the technical problems associated with the adjustment in response spectral domain. Essentially, the approach consists of an empirical FAS (Fourier Amplitude Spectrum) model and a duration model for ground motion which are combined within the random vibration theory (RVT) framework to obtain the full response spectral ordinates. Additionally, FAS corresponding to individual acceleration records are extrapolated beyond the frequency range defined by the data using the stochastic FAS model, obtained by inversion as described in Edwards & Faeh, (2013). To that end, an empirical model for a duration, which is tuned to optimize the fit between RVT based and observed response spectral ordinate, at each oscillator frequency is derived. Although, the main motive of the presented approach was to address the adjustability issues of response spectral GMPEs; comparison, of median predicted response spectra with the other regional models indicate that presented approach can also be used as a stand-alone model. Besides that, a significantly lower aleatory variability (σbrands it to a potentially viable alternative to the classical regression (on response spectral ordinates) based GMPEs for seismic hazard studies in the near future. The dataset used for the presented analysis is a subset of the recently compiled database RESORCE-2012 across Europe, Middle East and the Mediterranean region.

  15. An overview of the development principles, stages and building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expert Systems are not suited for all types of problems. Many developers actively seek problems pliable to Expert System solution or tried to solve all problems encountered using Expert System. Experience has also shown that developers' attention has become more focused on the problems to be solved rather than on the ...

  16. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  17. Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) Integral Structure Development Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, Jim; Hamilton, Brent; Burton, Randy; Crockett, Dave; Taylor, Zach

    2004-01-01

    .... AFRL/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped...

  18. Development of an international schedule for the assessment and staging of care for dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semrau, M.; Burns, A.; Djukic-Dejanovic, S.; Eraslan, D.; Han, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Lobo, A.; Mihai, A.; Morris, J.; Palumbo, C.; Robert, P.; Stiens, G.; Stoppe, G.; Volpe, U.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Sartorius, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A reliable and valid global staging scale has been lacking within dementia care. OBJECTIVE: To develop an easy-to-use multi-dimensional clinical staging schedule for dementia. METHODS: The schedule was developed through: i) Two series of focus groups (40 and 48 participants,

  19. The role of competence assessment in the different stages of competence development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.; Tattersall, C.; Miao, Y.; Stefanov, K.; Aleksieva-Petrova, A.; Adelsberger, H.H.; Kinshuk,; Pawlowski, J.M.; Sampson, D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of e-assessment in the process of competence development. Its basic claim is that competence development is a process with distinct stages, and that the assessment forms and the roles taken on by those involved in the process depend on the stage in which learning

  20. An empirical test of stage models of e-government development: evidence from Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooks, G.; Matzat, U.; Sadowski, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we empirically test stage models of e-government development. We use Lee's classification to make a distinction between four stages of e-government: informational, requests, personal, and e-democracy. We draw on a comprehensive data set on the adoption and development of e-government

  1. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha

    2015-08-01

    Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman

    2010-01-01

    The United States NASA Space Shuttle has long been considered an extremely capable yet relatively expensive rocket. A great part of the roughly US $500 million per launch expense was the support footprint: refurbishment and maintenance of the space shuttle system, together with the long list of resources required to support it, including personnel, tools, facilities, transport and support equipment. NASA determined to make its next rocket system with a smaller logistics footprint, and thereby more cost-effective and quicker turnaround. The logical solution was to adopt a standard Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process based on GEIA-STD-0007 http://www.logisticsengineers.org/may09pres/GEIASTD0007DEXShortIntro.pdf which is the successor of MIL-STD-1388-2B widely used by U.S., NATO, and other world military services and industries. This approach is unprecedented at NASA: it is the first time a major program of programs, Project Constellation, is factoring logistics and supportability into design at many levels. This paper will focus on one of those levels NASA ground support equipment for the next generation of NASA rockets and on building a Logistics Support Analysis Record (LSAR) for developing and documenting a support solution and inventory of resources for. This LSAR is actually a standards-based database, containing analyses of the time and tools, personnel, facilities and support equipment required to assemble and integrate the stages and umbilicals of a rocket. This paper will cover building this database from scratch: including creating and importing a hierarchical bill of materials (BOM) from legacy data; identifying line-replaceable units (LRUs) of a given piece of equipment; analyzing reliability and maintainability of said LRUs; and therefore making an assessment back to design whether the support solution for a piece of equipment is too much work, i.e., too resource-intensive. If one must replace or inspect an LRU too much, perhaps a modification of

  4. Short-Term Responses of Ground Beetles to Forest Changes Caused by Early Stages of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)-Induced Ash Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kayla I; Herms, Daniel A

    2016-04-22

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive wood-boring beetle native to Asia, has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction into North America, resulting in widespread formation of canopy gaps and accumulations of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. The objective was to quantify effects of canopy gaps and CWD caused by early stages of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality, and their interaction on ground beetle assemblages. The impact of canopy gaps and CWD varied, as gaps affected beetle assemblages in 2011, while effects of CWD were only observed in 2012. Gaps decreased beetle activity-abundance, and marginally decreased richness, driving changes in species composition, but evenness and diversity were unaffected. Effects of the CWD treatment alone were minimal, but CWD interacted with the canopy treatment, resulting in an increase in activity-abundance of ground beetles in canopy gaps without CWD, and a marginal increase in species richness in canopy gaps with CWD. Although there were some initial changes in species composition, these were ephemeral, suggesting that ground beetle assemblages may be resilient to disturbance caused by emerald ash borer. This study contributes to our understanding of the cascading ecological impacts of biological invasions on forest ecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Classical and post-classical stages of development of ideas on global conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Pilipenko

    2016-06-01

    Thus, in the history of the development of ideas about the nature of the conflict, it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is a classic, it representatives of which are O. Conte, K. Marx, G. Zimmel. The second stage is post-classical, represented by such scholars as P. Sztompka, G. lutsishin, N. Luhmann, M. Zelenkov, V. Zavalniuk. The third stage is multi-paradigmal, not formed yet, but actively developed by modern sociologists as I. Bekeshkina, Ye. Golovakha, A. Ruchka and other.

  6. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A novel genetic technique in Plasmodium berghei allows liver stage analysis of genes required for mosquito stage development and demonstrates that de novo heme synthesis is essential for liver stage development in the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeksha L Rathnapala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes. The lethality of FC deletions in the mosquito stage makes it difficult to study the impact of these mutations in the subsequent liver stage. To overcome this, we combined locus-specific fluorophore expression with a genetic complementation approach to generate viable, heterozygous oocysts able to produce a mix of FC expressing and FC deficient sporozoites. These sporozoites show normal motility and can invade liver cells, where FC deficient parasites can be distinguished by fluorescence and phenotyped. Parasites lacking FC exhibit a severe growth defect within liver cells, with development failure detectable in the early to mid stages of liver development in vitro. FC deficient parasites could not complete liver stage development in vitro nor infect naïve mice, confirming liver stage arrest. These results validate the heme pathway as a potential target for prophylactic drugs targeting liver stage parasites. In addition, we demonstrate that our simple genetic approach can extend the phenotyping window beyond the insect stages, opening considerable scope for straightforward reverse genetic analysis of genes that are dispensable in blood stages but essential for completing mosquito development.

  8. A novel genetic technique in Plasmodium berghei allows liver stage analysis of genes required for mosquito stage development and demonstrates that de novo heme synthesis is essential for liver stage development in the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnapala, Upeksha L; Goodman, Christopher D; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2017-06-01

    The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes. The lethality of FC deletions in the mosquito stage makes it difficult to study the impact of these mutations in the subsequent liver stage. To overcome this, we combined locus-specific fluorophore expression with a genetic complementation approach to generate viable, heterozygous oocysts able to produce a mix of FC expressing and FC deficient sporozoites. These sporozoites show normal motility and can invade liver cells, where FC deficient parasites can be distinguished by fluorescence and phenotyped. Parasites lacking FC exhibit a severe growth defect within liver cells, with development failure detectable in the early to mid stages of liver development in vitro. FC deficient parasites could not complete liver stage development in vitro nor infect naïve mice, confirming liver stage arrest. These results validate the heme pathway as a potential target for prophylactic drugs targeting liver stage parasites. In addition, we demonstrate that our simple genetic approach can extend the phenotyping window beyond the insect stages, opening considerable scope for straightforward reverse genetic analysis of genes that are dispensable in blood stages but essential for completing mosquito development.

  9. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  10. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  11. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for strong ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Issues regarding evaluation of active fault and ground motion for formulation of design basis ground motion (Ss) were identified during NISA and NSC seismic safety reviewing activities, which have been conducted in the light of the revision of the relevant seismic regulatory guide in 2006 and the experiences of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. In this theme following four subjects were investigated to resolve the important problems for ground motion evaluation, (1) advanced evaluation of ground motion using fault model and uncertainty; (2) improving evaluation of ground motion using attenuation relation of response spectrum; (3) development of advanced technique for ground motion observation and observation tool in deep borehole; (4) improving the evaluation of site effect and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Obtained results will be incorporated into the national safety review and also in the safety standard guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP), thereby contributing to technical cooperation in global nuclear seismic safety. (author)

  12. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  13. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  14. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  15. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  16. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the technical assessment and advancement phase to the ground engineering phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the ground engineering phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase. 5 references

  17. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the Technical Assessment and Advancement Phase to the Ground Engineering Phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the Ground Engineering Phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase

  18. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bioethics as a stage in development of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ketova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers humanistic substance of bioethics - a discipline which originated in 1960's. Bioethics has an interdisciplinary character and presents itself as a reflection on problematic situations, which can appear as a result of biomedical progress. Bioethics in a wider sense can be viewed as ethics of life, which highlights its ecological substance. This article analyses the problem of consequences of radical human transformation and also the article shows significance of leading principle of «personal autonomy of the patient». In the article functions and goals of ethical committees, existing in various countries, are highlighted. In conclusion, the article highlights specifics of bioethics as a syncretic discipline, which assists development of humanism and responds to modern civilization's challenges.

  20. Effects of marketing in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, by reason of ignorance of the essence of marketing, we come across numerous cases of misuse and improper understanding of word marketing. Nowadays people have more the attitude in the consciousness of the need for understanding and recognition of the right meaning of the word marketing. There are many definitions about Marketing in literature and contemporary practice, each attempt to define the term marketing can only partly be understood as successful and complete. Indeed, it is impossible to define and summarize in only a few sentences everything that has to do with marketing as a process and its roles. Marketing specialists need to identify the concerns and desires of consumers to be able to target their minds, hearts and souls. In the paradox of globalization, concern and common consumer’s desire is to make the society and the world a better place and even an ideal place to live. Some companies are doing a kind of differentiation through corporate philanthropy for social or environmental causes. Now we are witnessing the birth of Marketing 3.0. In a world full of confusion, they are looking for those companies that can complement them deeper for social justice, economic and environmental mission, vision and company values that they represent. In selecting products and services, people not only demand the fulfillment of their functional and emotional, but also the human spiritual fulfillment. The third force that gives impetus to the creation of marketing 3.0 is the emergence of creative society. People in creative society are people who have developed the activity of the right brain hemisphere and working in creative sectors such as science, arts and professional services. Based on these facts the era of marketing 3.0 is the era where marketing practices are strongly affected by changes in consumer behaviors and attitudes. It is the most sophisticated customercentric era where the customer requires more cooperative

  1. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lind

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.

  2. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  3. The development of co-innovation strategies: stages and interaction patterns in interfirm innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Organizations that choose or are forced to innovate in co-operation withother organizations, go through four stages of co-innovation strategy development.The stages are successively: (1) autonomous strategy making: organizations developstrategies on their own, (2) co-operative strategy making:

  4. From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI), a self-report questionnaire, is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events. (Author/GK)

  5. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  6. The Heme Biosynthesis Pathway Is Essential for Plasmodium falciparum Development in Mosquito Stage but Not in Blood Stages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hangjun; Sigala, Paul A.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Mather, Michael W.; Crowley, Jan R.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Goldberg, Daniel E.; Long, Carole A.; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for aerobic organisms. Its redox chemistry is central to a variety of biological functions mediated by hemoproteins. In blood stages, malaria parasites consume most of the hemoglobin inside the infected erythrocytes, forming nontoxic hemozoin crystals from large quantities of heme released during digestion. At the same time, the parasites possess a heme de novo biosynthetic pathway. This pathway in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been considered essential and is proposed as a potential drug target. However, we successfully disrupted the first and last genes of the pathway, individually and in combination. These knock-out parasite lines, lacking 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase and/or ferrochelatase (FC), grew normally in blood-stage culture and exhibited no changes in sensitivity to heme-related antimalarial drugs. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay to monitor stable isotope incorporation into heme from its precursor 5-[13C4]aminolevulinic acid, and this assay confirmed that de novo heme synthesis was ablated in FC knock-out parasites. Disrupting the FC gene also caused no defects in gametocyte generation or maturation but resulted in a greater than 70% reduction in male gamete formation and completely prevented oocyst formation in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that the heme biosynthesis pathway is not essential for asexual blood-stage growth of P. falciparum parasites but is required for mosquito transmission. Drug inhibition of pathway activity is therefore unlikely to provide successful antimalarial therapy. These data also suggest the existence of a parasite mechanism for scavenging host heme to meet metabolic needs. PMID:25352601

  7. Implementing national nuclear safety plan at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yabin; Cui Shaozhang; Pan Fengguo; Zhang Lizhen; Shi Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the importance of nuclear power project design and engineering methods at the preliminary stage of its development on nuclear power plant's operational safety from the professional view. Specifically, we share our understanding of national nuclear safety plan's requirement on new reactor accident probability, technology, site selection, as well as building and improving nuclear safety culture and strengthening public participation, with a focus on plan's implications on preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. Last, we introduce China Huaneng Group's work on nuclear power project preliminary development and the experience accumulated during the process. By analyzing the siting philosophy of nuclear power plant and the necessity of building nuclear safety culture at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development, this study explicates how to fully implement the nuclear safety plan's requirements at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. (authors)

  8. Theoretical Grounds of Identification of the Essence of the Enterprise Development Efficiency Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzhavenko Maryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern economic conditions put a new problem in front of scientists, namely: capability of an enterprise to survive in the unfavourable external environment. This problem is a system and complex one and its solution is within the plane of management of capital, personnel, development, efficiency, etc. The article marks out that efficiency is a corner stone of the modern economic science, which justifies studies of the gnoseological essence of the efficiency category. The main goal of the article lies in the study of scientific and theoretical grounds of formation of the enterprise development efficiency under modern conditions of the changing internal and external environments. The other goals of the article are identification of the essence of the development efficiency category, deepening the theoretical foundation of assessment of efficiency of enterprise development in the modern economic science. The article conducts an ontological analysis of the essence and goals of the enterprise development efficiency notion, studies evolution of scientific approaches and systemises theoretical provisions of the specified category and their assessment in the economic science. In the result of the study the article identifies a new vector of theoretical grounds and dominating logic of formation of the methodology of assessment of efficiency of enterprises under conditions of innovation development of the state, namely: it underlines principles of systemacy, complexity, self-organisation, significance of human capital as an important factor of increase of efficiency and development. Development of methodological grounds of assessment of efficiency of enterprise innovation development is a prospective direction of further studies.

  9. The Development of Videos in Culturally Grounded Drug Prevention for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…

  10. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  11. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  12. Understanding College Students' Civic Identity Development: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study designed to understand the development of college students' civic identity--that is, an identity encompassing their knowledge, attitudes, values, and actions regarding civic engagement. Grounded theory was used to examine the experiences and attitudes of 19 college seniors who manifested strong civic…

  13. Gestalt and Figure-Ground: Reframing Graduate Attribute Conversations between Educational Developers and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knewstubb, Bernadette; Ruth, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Academics implementing graduate attributes, and the educational developers who support those academics, may experience graduate attributes and disciplinary knowledge and skills as unrelated dimensions of curriculum. Gestalt conceptions of curriculum, together with a figure-ground understanding of the relationship between disciplinary understanding…

  14. Techniques for enhancing durability and equivalence ratio control in a rich-lean, three-stage ground power gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rig tests of a can-type combustor were performed to demonstrate two advanced ground power engine combustor concepts: steam cooled rich-burn combustor primary zones for enhanced durability; and variable combustor geometry for three stage combustion equivalence ratio control. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. Three degrees of variable geometry were successfully implemented to control airflow distribution within the combustor. One was a variable blade angle axial flow air swirler to control primary airflow while the other two consisted of rotating bands to control secondary and tertiary or dilution air flow.

  15. The Development of Proportional Reasoning and the Ratio Concept: Part I - Differentiation of Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelting, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    This study considers two problems related to cognitive development: "Is development hierarchical?" and "If so, what are the mechanisms involved in the process of development?" Analysis of the results of an experiment lead to differentiation of stages of development, and problem-solving strategies at each level are discussed.…

  16. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  17. Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knospe, C

    2002-02-01

    Twenty-two stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat are described for intraspecies comparison in embryological studies. These are assigned to the 15 embryonal periods based on the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria to make the interspecies comparison possible.

  18. From trust on intimacy: A new inventory for examining erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Gurney, R M; Moore, S M

    1981-12-01

    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. The self-report questionnaire, developed in a pilot study of 97 adolescents and tested in a study of 622 adolescents, has 12 items for each subscale. Measures of reliability and validity are reported. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events.

  19. Changes in psychosocial well-being during stages of gay identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Sean A; Allen, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    The current study evaluated the stage theory of Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) developed by Cass (1979), in terms of the relationship between stage of gay identity development and psychosocial well-being. Four hundred twenty-five males (12 to 64 years, M = 29.2) reporting sexual attraction to other men provided demographic information and completed psychosocial measures: the Happiness-Sadness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978), the Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982), and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (Brady & Busse, 1994). Correlation analysis and ANCOVAs controlling for age and nationality demonstrated that the 6 sequential stages of HIF were associated with a U-shaped function for the psychosocial variables. Well-being was high during the initial Confusion and Comparison stages of HIF, was reduced during the middle Tolerance and Acceptance stages, and was again high in the later Pride and Synthesis stages. Each of the psychosocial variables was significantly different according to stage of development (p <.001). Qualitative analysis of subjects' comments also revealed support for the U-shaped pattern.

  20. Development of a package program for estimating ground level concentrations of radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilkamhang, W.

    1986-01-01

    A package program for estimating ground level concentration of radioactive gas from elevate release was develop for use on IBM P C microcomputer. The main program, GAMMA PLUME NT10, is based on the well known VALLEY MODEL which is a Fortran computer code intended for mainframe computers. Other two options were added, namely, calculation of radioactive gas ground level concentration in Ci/m 3 and dose equivalent rate in mren/hr. In addition, a menu program and editor program were developed to render the program easier to use since the option could be readily selected and the input data could be easily modified as required through the keyboard. The accuracy and reliability of the program is almost identical to the mainframe. Ground level concentration of radioactive radon gas due to ore program processing in the nuclear chemistry laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Technology was estimated. In processing radioactive ore at a rate of 2 kg/day, about 35 p Ci/s of radioactive gas was released from a 14 m stack. When meteorological data of Don Muang (average for 5 years 1978-1982) were used maximum ground level concentration and the dose equivalent rate were found to be 0.00094 p Ci/m 3 and 5.0 x 10 -10 mrem/hr respectively. The processing time required for the above problem was about 7 minutes for any case of source on IBM P C which was acceptable for a computer of this class

  1. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Wu, Changjiang; Kobayashi, Genyu; Mamada, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The NSC regulatory guide for reviewing seismic design, revised in September 2006 requires revision of evaluation method for design seismic ground motion. The new design seismic ground motion must be evaluated based on not only response spectra method but also fault model method. In the case of evaluation method using fault model, factors which affect ground motion (heterogeneous fault rupture, frequency dependence of radiation pattern on seismic waves and high-frequency reduction on observed spectrum (fmax)) were studied in order to apply the models to actual phenomenon. In the case of response spectra, attenuation relationships for earthquake response spectra on seismic basement, considering the earthquake source types (e.g. inter-plate, intra-plate and crustal types), were developed. In addition, in coping with the problems on evaluating ground motion amplification and attenuation in deep underground, JNES drills 3000 m deep boring and acquires the data for verification of new evaluation methods at deep borehole locating on sedimentary rock site in the Niigata Institute of Technology. Moreover JNES develops borehole seismometer enduring high temperature and high pressure and enabling multi-depth seismic observation system to perform vertical seismic array observation. (author)

  2. The Development of the TPR-DB as Grounded Theory Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2018-01-01

    and refine the emerging concepts and categories and to validate the developing theories, the TPR-DB has been extended with further translation studies in different languages and translation modes. In this respect, it shares many features with Grounded Theory Method. This method was discovered in 1967...... and used in qualitative research in social science ad many other research areas. We analyze the TPR-DB development as a Grounded Theory Method....... on quantitative assessment of well-defined research questions on cognitive processes in human translation production, the integration of the data into the TPR-DB allowed for broader qualitative and exploratory research which has led to new codes, categories and research themes. In a constant effort to develop...

  3. Radiologic Predictors for Clinical Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma with Ground Glass Components: A Multi-Center Study of Long-Term Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    Full Text Available This study was to define preoperative predictors from radiologic findings for the pathologic risk groups based on long-term surgical outcomes, in the aim to help guide individualized patient management.We retrospectively reviewed 321 consecutive patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass component on computed tomography (CT scanning. Pathologic diagnosis for resection specimens was based on the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Patients were classified into different pathologic risk grading groups based on their lymph node status, local regional recurrence and overall survival. Radiologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules were re-evaluated by reconstructed three-dimension CT (3D-CT. Univariate and multivariate analysis identifies independent radiologic predictors from tumor diameter, total volume (TV, average CT value (AVG, and solid-to-tumor (S/T ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC studies were carried out to determine the cutoff value(s for the predictor(s. Univariate cox regression model was used to determine the clinical significance of the above findings.A total of 321 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components were included in our study. Patients were classified into two pathologic low- and high- risk groups based on their distinguished surgical outcomes. A total of 134 patients fell into the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified AVG (HR: 32.210, 95% CI: 3.020-79.689, P<0.001 and S/T ratio (HR: 12.212, 95% CI: 5.441-27.408, P<0.001 as independent predictors for pathologic risk grading. ROC curves studies suggested the optimal cut-off values for AVG and S/T ratio were-198 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.921, 2.9 (AUC 0.996 and 54% (AUC 0.907, respectively. The tumor diameter and TV were excluded for the low AUCs (0.778 and 0.767. Both the cutoff values of AVG and S/T ratio were correlated with pathologic

  4. The problems of plant control on modern stage of development of the nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the successful development of nuclear industry at the present stage of its development, the problems of control of nuclear power plants, their classes and the choices of modern science in the field of design of fast neutron reactors as one of the promising directions of development of atomic energy.

  5. Contemporary sand wedge development in seasonally frozen ground and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Stephen A.; Morse, Peter D.; Neudorf, Christina M.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Lian, Olav B.; O'Neill, H. Brendan

    2018-05-01

    Contemporary sand wedges and sand veins are active in seasonally frozen ground within the extensive discontinuous permafrost zone in Northwest Territories, Canada. The region has a subarctic continental climate with 291 mm a-1 precipitation, -4.1 °C mean annual air temperature, warm summers (July mean 17.0 °C), and cold winters (January mean -26.6 °C). Five years of continuous observations indicate that interannual variation of the ground thermal regime is dominantly controlled by winter air temperature and snow cover conditions. At sandy sites, thin snow cover and high thermal conductivity promote rapid freezing, high rates of ground cooling, and low near-surface ground temperatures (-15 to -25 °C), resulting in thermal contraction cracking to depths of 1.2 m. Cracking potentials are high in sandy soils when air temperatures are air temperatures are ≤-17 °C, and snow cover is conditions in peatlands maintain permafrost, but thermal contraction cracking does not occur because thicker snow cover and the thermal properties of peat prolong freezeback and maintain higher winter ground temperatures. A combination of radiocarbon dating, optical dating, and stratigraphic observations were used to differentiate sand wedge types and formation histories. Thermal contraction cracks that develop in the sandy terrain are filled by surface (allochthonous) and/or host (autochthonous) material during the thaw season. Epigenetic sand wedges infilled with allochthonous sand develop within former beach sediments beneath an active eolian sand sheet. Narrower and deeper syngenetic wedges developed within aggrading eolian sand sheets, whereas wider and shallower antisyngenetic wedges developed in areas of active erosion. Thermal contraction cracking beneath vegetation-stabilized surfaces leads to crack infilling by autochthonous host and overlying organic material, with resultant downturning and subsidence of adjacent strata. Sand wedge development in seasonally frozen ground

  6. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  7. Using XML Configuration-Driven Development to Create a Customizable Ground Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Brent; DeMore, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The Mission data Processing and Control Subsystem (MPCS) is being developed as a multi-mission Ground Data System with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) as the first fully supported mission. MPCS is a fully featured, Java-based Ground Data System (GDS) for telecommand and telemetry processing based on Configuration-Driven Development (CDD). The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the ideal language for CDD because it is easily readable and editable by all levels of users and is also backed by a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard and numerous powerful processing tools that make it uniquely flexible. The CDD approach adopted by MPCS minimizes changes to compiled code by using XML to create a series of configuration files that provide both coarse and fine grained control over all aspects of GDS operation.

  8. Engineering-geophysical criteria for evaluating the development stages of landslides in loess rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullayev, S K

    1981-01-01

    As a result of conducting geophysical observations on landslide slopes formed by loess rocks, with their artifical moistening, quantitiative engineering-geophysical criteria were obtained which characterize the basic stages of landslide development. The studies were conducted by surface methods of electrical resistance and seismometry conducted directly in the massif. According to the indicators of moisture content, state of comminution, compactness calculated with the help of geophysical parameters, the stage of preparation and movement of landslides are characterized.

  9. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    maximizing the use of existing and flight proven liquid rocket and stage hardware (e.g., from the RL10-B2 engine and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage) to further ensure affordability. This paper provides a preliminary NASA, DOE and industry assessment of what is required - the key DDT&E activities, development options, and the associated schedule - to affordably build, ground test and fly a small NTR engine and stage within a 10-year timeframe.

  10. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Ground System Architectures Workshop GMSEC SERVICES SUITE (GSS): an Agile Development Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Vuong

    2017-01-01

    The GMSEC (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center) Services Suite (GSS) is a collection of tools and software services along with a robust customizable web-based portal that enables the user to capture, monitor, report, and analyze system-wide GMSEC data. Given our plug-and-play architecture and the needs for rapid system development, we opted to follow the Scrum Agile Methodology for software development. Being one of the first few projects to implement the Agile methodology at NASA GSFC, in this presentation we will present our approaches, tools, successes, and challenges in implementing this methodology. The GMSEC architecture provides a scalable, extensible ground and flight system for existing and future missions. GMSEC comes with a robust Application Programming Interface (GMSEC API) and a core set of Java-based GMSEC components that facilitate the development of a GMSEC-based ground system. Over the past few years, we have seen an upbeat in the number of customers who are moving from a native desktop application environment to a web based environment particularly for data monitoring and analysis. We also see a need to provide separation of the business logic from the GUI display for our Java-based components and also to consolidate all the GUI displays into one interface. This combination of separation and consolidation brings immediate value to a GMSEC-based ground system through increased ease of data access via a uniform interface, built-in security measures, centralized configuration management, and ease of feature extensibility.

  12. Development of eggs and the planktonic stages of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxaspen, Karin; Næss, Tore

    2000-01-01

    To verify if and to what extent egg and nauplii development of the salmon lice take place during winter, the development from egg to the copepodid stage at 2,3,4,5 and 10°C was examined. Newly extruded egg strings from a winter population of salmon lice were individually placed in 6 ml stagnant

  13. Stages of Psychometric Measure Development: The Example of the Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2006-01-01

    This paper chronicles the steps, methods, and presents hypothetical results of quantitative and qualitative studies being conducted to develop a Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM). Per Hinkin (1995), the stages of scale development are domain and item generation, content expert validation, and pilot test. Content/face validity and internal…

  14. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  15. A three-stage heuristic for harvest scheduling with access road network development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark M. Clark; Russell D. Meller; Timothy P. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present a new model for the scheduling of forest harvesting with spatial and temporal constraints. Our approach is unique in that we incorporate access road network development into the harvest scheduling selection process. Due to the difficulty of solving the problem optimally, we develop a heuristic that consists of a solution construction stage...

  16. Towards re-use of knowledge in the concept stage of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, K.; Halman, J.I.M.; Mal, van H.H.

    1996-01-01

    A framework for specifying the intended result of a product development project is introduced in the paper. This framework has been developed for the concept stage and facilitates the establishment and re-use of acquired knowledge. In this way, core capabilities naturally grow stronger with each

  17. The Generality of Adult Development Stages and Transformations: Comparing Meaning-making and Logical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hagström

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human development theories differ in “context sensitivity,” covering those stressing development stages and those stressing continuously progressing changes. The former theories differ in whether, how and why the stages are regarded as being generalized across domains, i.e. their generality claims. Piaget’s developmental stage theory of logical complexity of children and adolescents fulfill “strong” such claims, including fixed stage sequentiality of increasing complexity levels and higher stage structures integrating earlier ones. His theory has inspired a number of adult development stage theories with varying generality claims. These provide suggestions of stages and stage transitions reaching beyond “pure” cognition, integrating more of e.g. emotional, value and moral dimensions. From a neo-Piagetian perspective, core generality aspects seem to concern on the one hand logical reasoning and on the other hand meaning-making. This raises questions of how these aspects are related to each other in terms of stage structures and transformations. The aim of the article is to discern general features in adult development stage structures and transitions, in terms of logical reasoning and meaning making. This is carried out by a “thought experiment” interrelating two theories that differ in these respects but that are both based on Piaget’s theory, namely Robert Kegan’s constructive developmental Subject-Object Theory (SOT and Michael Common´s behaviouristic Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC. This comparing approach concerns the 3rd, 4th and 5th order of consciousness as well as transitions between these according to SOT, and order 9 to 12 and corresponding transitions according to MHC. The thought experiment indicates that the generality claims of both models can be argued for without one of them necessarily being subordinated to the other one. Both theories are interpreted as differing but partly overlapping structures of

  18. Vital and dispensable roles of Plasmodium multidrug resistance transporters during blood- and mosquito-stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Sanna R; van der Velden, Maarten; Annoura, Takeshi; Matz, Joachim M; Kenthirapalan, Sanketha; Kooij, Taco W A; Matuschewski, Kai; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; Graumans, Wouter; Ramesar, Jai; Klop, Onny; Russel, Frans G M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belong to the B subfamily of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which export a wide range of compounds including pharmaceuticals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to study the role of all seven Plasmodium MDR proteins during the life cycle of malaria parasites. Four P. berghei genes (encoding MDR1, 4, 6 and 7) were refractory to deletion, indicating a vital role during blood stage multiplication and validating them as potential targets for antimalarial drugs. Mutants lacking expression of MDR2, MDR3 and MDR5 were generated in both P. berghei and P. falciparum, indicating a dispensable role for blood stage development. Whereas P. berghei mutants lacking MDR3 and MDR5 had a reduced blood stage multiplication in vivo, blood stage growth of P. falciparum mutants in vitro was not significantly different. Oocyst maturation and sporozoite formation in Plasmodium mutants lacking MDR2 or MDR5 was reduced. Sporozoites of these P. berghei mutants were capable of infecting mice and life cycle completion, indicating the absence of vital roles during liver stage development. Our results demonstrate vital and dispensable roles of MDR proteins during blood stages and an important function in sporogony for MDR2 and MDR5 in both Plasmodium species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ∼1  MA current pulse with a rise time of ∼100  ns into the ∼0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.

  20. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Ares I Vehicle First Stage Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Holland, Scott D.; Covell, Peter F.; Klopfer, Goetz, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis and database development for the first stage separation of the Ares I A106 Crew Launch Vehicle configuration. Separate databases were created for the first stage and upper stage. Each database consists of three components: isolated or free-stream coefficients, power-off proximity increments, and power-on proximity increments. The power-on database consists of three parts, all plumes firing at nominal conditions, the one booster deceleration motor out condition, and the one ullage settling motor out condition. The isolated and power-off incremental databases were developed using wind tunnel test data. The power-on proximity increments were developed using CFD solutions.

  1. Optimized ex-ovo culturing of chick embryos to advanced stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, Kellie; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara Anne

    2015-01-24

    Research in anatomy, embryology, and developmental biology has largely relied on the use of model organisms. In order to study development in live embryos model organisms, such as the chicken, are often used. The chicken is an excellent model organism due to its low cost and minimal maintenance, however they present observational challenges because they are enclosed in an opaque eggshell. In order to properly view the embryo as it develops, the shell must be windowed or removed. Both windowing and ex ovo techniques have been developed to assist researchers in the study of embryonic development. However, each of the methods has limitations and challenges. Here, we present a simple, optimized ex ovo culture technique for chicken embryos that enables the observation of embryonic development from stage HH 19 into late stages of development (HH 40), when many organs have developed. This technique is easy to adopt in both undergraduate classes and more advanced research laboratories where embryo manipulations are conducted.

  2. Development and validation of a clinically applicable score to classify cachexia stages in advanced cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Liu, Huiquan; Yang, Kaixiang; Thapa, Sudip; Zhang, Haowen; Li, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is highly prevalent in advanced cancer patients and leads to progressive functional impairments. The classification of cachexia stages is essential for diagnosing and treating cachexia. However, there is a lack of simple tools with good discrimination for classifying cachexia stages. Therefore, our study aimed to develop a clinically applicable cachexia staging score (CSS) and validate its discrimination of clinical outcomes for different cachexia stages. Methods Advanced cancer patients were enrolled in our study. A CSS comprising the following five components was developed: weight loss, a simple questionnaire of sarcopenia (SARC‐F), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, appetite loss, and abnormal biochemistry. According to the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia, pre‐cachexia, cachexia, and refractory cachexia stages, and clinical outcomes were compared among the four groups. Results Of the 297 participating patients, data from 259 patients were ultimately included. Based on the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia (n = 69), pre‐cachexia (n = 68), cachexia (n = 103), and refractory cachexia (n = 19) stages. Patients with more severe cachexia stages had lower skeletal muscle indexes (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004 in male and female patients, respectively), higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.027 in male and female patients, respectively), more severe symptom burden (P cachexia stages. This score is extremely useful for the clinical treatment and prognosis of cachexia and for designing clinical trials. PMID:29372594

  3. Development and use of interactive displays in real-time ground support research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Donald C.; Hammons, Kvin R.; Malone, Jacqueline C.; Nesel, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is one of the world's most advanced aeronautical research flight test support facilities. A variety of advanced and often unique real-time interactive displays has been developed for use in the mission control centers (MCC) to support research flight and ground testing. These dispalys consist of applications operating on systems described as real-time interactive graphics super workstations and real-time interactive PC/AT compatible workstations. This paper reviews these two types of workstations and the specific applications operating on each display system. The applications provide examples that demonstrate overall system capability applicable for use in other ground-based real-time research/test facilities.

  4. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Engine and Stage: How Small Is Big Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2016-01-01

    89-centimeters) -long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 thermal megawatts of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple one-burn lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and flight proven liquid rocket and stage hardware (e.g., from the RL10B-2 engine and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage) was also maximized to further aid affordability. This paper examines the pros and cons of using these two small engine options, including their potential to support future human exploration missions to the Moon, near Earth asteroids (NEA), and Mars, and recommends a preferred size. It also provides a preliminary assessment of the key activities, development options, and schedule required to affordably build, ground test and fly a small NTR engine and stage within a 10-year timeframe.

  5. 3. SEGMITE International Symposium on Sustainable Development of Surface and Ground Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrez, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Society of Economic Geologist and Mineral Technologist (SEGMITE), National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and Association of Geo-scientists for International Development with the collaboration of Export Promotion Bureau, Government of Pakistan has organised this symposium. The third Segmite International Symposium on Sustainable Development of surface and ground water resources was held on 8-10 march 1999 at Karachi, Pakistan. This book gives the conference information, brochure and abstracts of papers presented in the conference. There are about 38 abstracts submitted for the conference and related nature of the materials. Out of these 38 papers 16 are of nuclear oriented which are presented here separately. (A.B.)

  6. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  7. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers. Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  8. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  9. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships. PMID:29085818

  10. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  11. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  12. Simple-1: Development stage of the data transmission system for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarce, Andrés; Sebastián Rodríguez, Juan; Galvez, Julián; Gómez, Alejandro; García, Manuel J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the development stage of a communication module for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model. The communication module was named. Simple-1 and this work considers its design, construction and testing. A rocket model Estes Ventris Series Pro II® was modified to introduce, on the top of the payload, several sensors in a CanSat form factor. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed and fabricated from Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components and assembled in a cylindrical rack structure similar to this small format satellite concept. The sensors data was processed using one Arduino Mini and transmitted using a radio module to a Software Defined Radio (SDR) HackRF based platform on the ground station. The Simple-1 was tested using a drone in successive releases, reaching altitudes from 200 to 300 meters. Different kind of data, in terms of altitude, position, atmospheric pressure and vehicle temperature were successfully measured, making possible the progress to a next stage of launching and analysis.

  13. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  14. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  15. A staged service innovation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, L.Z.; Song, Michael; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the new product development (NPD) literature, service quality literature (SERVQUAL), and empirically grounded research with 53 service innovation decision makers, we develop a staged service innovation model (SIM) for decision makers. We tested the model using empirical data from 329

  16. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic hepatitis C on the early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zhevnerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – to assess the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC on the early stages of development and their comparison with the level of galectin3. The study included 78 patients with oligosymptomatic course of the disease and minimal liver fibrosis in the most cases. In the most patients with stages of the disease exceeding 8 years, viral load was over a million copies/ml. In 10 % of patients on the early stages of the disease, changes corresponding to severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis F3 and F4 were detected. Moderate correlation of ALT activity, viral load and low severity with the duration of the disease was identified. There is a trend towards a higher level of galectin3 in a long course of CHC in comparison with earlier stages of its development, with significantly higher average level of galectin-3 in patients with minimal liver fibrosis (F0–F1 as compared to advanced stages, suggesting its importance in the launching and initial mechanisms of fibrogenesis.

  17. Trust Development With the Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Patient: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2018-06-01

    Interpersonal trust between patient and nurse is important in patient-centered care. Trust development may be more difficult if the patient and nurse do not speak the same language. In this grounded theory study, Spanish-speaking Mexican American adults ( n = 20) hospitalized on a medical-surgical or obstetric unit in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Through data analysis, a model of how trust develops between nurse and patient revealed eight categories and the core category Caring for Me Well Even When Not Understanding Me. The beginning phase had four categories: Asking for Help, Bothering, Communicating, and Understanding. The middle phase had two categories: Platicando (chatting) and Being Available. The end point category was Having Trust, and outcomes were Feeling Comfortable and Feeling Supported. The language barrier was a hindrance to trust development but the nurse's way of being (personality) was more important. Therefore, the patient did develop trust with nurses who did not speak Spanish.

  18. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 2 - The Later Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poole, S.; Simon, M; Sweatman, A.

    1999-01-01

    , Central Europe, and the USA are carrying out ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures that compnies have experienced and the lessons learned along the way. Part 1 of this two-part paper focuses on the early stages of the product development process. It shows how products can...

  19. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  20. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  1. Every Picture Tells A Story: Stages of Art Development in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-07

    Jul 7, 2013 ... The crux in this work is an analysis of the stages of art development among children .... emotional and cognitive competences in the child. In the same ... a basic property of the nervous system) as well as a psychological need.

  2. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  3. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  4. Main stages in the development of radiation immunology: from immunochemical analysis of injury to monitored radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarilin, A.A.; Kashkin, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research of the radiation action on immunity are presented. The results of immunochemical investigation of radiation tissue injuries are considered. Much attention is given to the problem of radiation injury and repair of the lymphoid system. It is shown that the next stage of development of radiation immunology is immunologic control of radiotherapy of oncologic patients

  5. Research, development and evaluation of measured data for the second stage in Hokuto solar project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroo; Iwato, Takeshi; Kudou, Mitsuru; Asano, Keiichiro [Solar Project Headquarters, NTT Facilities Inc., Granparktower, 3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    The first stage 600 kW system of Hokuto Mega-solar Project has been installed in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan in 2008. The outline and the developing target of the project are introduced first and some results that have been provided so far are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Reading Skills of Students with Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…

  7. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  8. A Project to Help Child Development Students Recognize Piagetian Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Ann

    This practicum report was designed to help child development students differentiate between the preoperational and concrete operational stages of the Piagetian cognitive hierarchy. The 36 on-campus and 63 instructional television students used a Piagetian Game booklet, which is included in the appendix. Using this booklet, students were able to…

  9. Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner: Stages of Child Development and Implications for Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Iona H.

    1982-01-01

    The views of Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner concerning children's stages of development are compared and related to present-day instructional practices used in the Waldorf schools, which employ Steiner's ideas. Educational principles and practices used at the elementary school level are discussed. (PP)

  10. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  11. Development of ground-based wind energy in DOM and Corsica - Joint CGEDD / CGEIET report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joannis de Verclos, Christian de; Albrecht, Patrick; Iselin, Philippe; Legait, Benoit; Vignolles, Denis

    2012-09-01

    Addressing the peculiar cases of the French overseas districts (DOM: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyana, Mayotte, La Reunion) and Corsica, this report analyzes four main topics: the objectives and challenges of ground-based wind energy (sustainable development, not-interconnected areas, and public service of electricity supply), the local situations and their cartography, the legal issues and the possible evolution options (energy law, environmental law, urban planning law, local community law), and the modalities of devolution of project. The authors highlight the issues which require a new legal framework, notably governance and the devolution procedure

  12. Development of single-well techniques for quantitative ground water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmat, Y.; Bugayevsky, M.; Mandel, S.; Behrens, H.; Drost, W.; Klotz, D.; Moser, H.

    1984-02-01

    The signle-well pulse technique was modified in such manner that the dispersivity of the ground water bearing strata can be derived from the measured results. An outline of the theoretical fundamentals is followed by solutions to apparative problems, i.e. tracer selection (Br-82, colour), set-up of measuring points, etc.. The method was tested in the laboratory and in a test field. Suitable, quick methods of evaluation were developed and the technical equipment was optimized for routine application. The method was tested in wells in Israel. (HP) [de

  13. Development and testing of a two stage granular filter to improve collection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangan, R.S.; Prakash, S.G.; Chakravarti, S.; Rao, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    A circulating bed granular filter (CBGF) with a single filtration stage was tested with a PFB combustor in the Coal Research Facility of BHEL R and D in Hyderabad during the years 1993--95. Filter outlet dust loading varied between 20--50 mg/Nm{sup 3} for an inlet dust loading of 5--8 gms/Nm{sup 3}. The results were reported in Fluidized Bed Combustion-Volume 2, ASME 1995. Though the outlet consists of predominantly fine particulates below 2 microns, it is still beyond present day gas turbine specifications for particulate concentration. In order to enhance the collection efficiency, a two-stage granular filtration concept was evolved, wherein the filter depth is divided between two stages, accommodated in two separate vertically mounted units. The design also incorporates BHEL's scale-up concept of multiple parallel stages. The two-stage concept minimizes reentrainment of captured dust by providing clean granules in the upper stage, from where gases finally exit the filter. The design ensures that dusty gases come in contact with granules having a higher dust concentration at the bottom of the two-stage unit, where most of the cleaning is completed. A second filtration stage of cleaned granules is provided in the top unit (where the granules are returned to the system after dedusting) minimizing reentrainment. Tests were conducted to determine the optimum granule to dust ratio (G/D ratio) which decides the granule circulation rate required for the desired collection efficiency. The data brings out the importance of pre-separation and the limitation on inlet dust loading for any continuous system of granular filtration. Collection efficiencies obtained were much higher (outlet dust being 3--9 mg/Nm{sub 3}) than in the single stage filter tested earlier for similar dust loading at the inlet. The results indicate that two-stage granular filtration has a high potential for HTHT application with fewer risks as compared to other systems under development.

  14. Forensic age estimation based on development of third molars: a staging technique for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Phlypo, I; Fieuws, S; Politis, C; Verstraete, K L; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults. Using 3T MRI in three planes, all third molars were evaluated in 309 healthy Caucasian participants from 14 to 26 years old. According to the appearance of the developing third molars on MRI, descriptive criteria and schematic representations were established to define a specific staging technique. Two observers, with different levels of experience, staged all third molars independently with the developed technique. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were calculated. The data were imported in a Bayesian model for age estimation as described by Fieuws et al. (2016). This approach adequately handles correlation between age indicators and missing age indicators. It was used to calculate a point estimate and a prediction interval of the estimated age. Observed age minus predicted age was calculated, reflecting the error of the estimate. One-hundred and sixty-six third molars were agenetic. Five percent (51/1096) of upper third molars and 7% (70/1044) of lower third molars were not assessable. Kappa for inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.80. For intra-observer agreement kappa ranged from 0.80 to 0.89. However, two stage differences between observers or between staging sessions occurred in up to 2.2% (20/899) of assessments, probably due to a learning effect. Using the Bayesian model for age estimation, a mean absolute error of 2.0 years in females and 1.7 years in males was obtained. Root mean squared error equalled 2.38 years and 2.06 years respectively. The performance to

  15. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  16. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  17. Complete Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage development in liver-chimeric mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Grompe, Markus; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Bial, John; Ploss, Alexander; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most lethal form of human malaria, replicates in the host liver during the initial stage of infection. However, in vivo malaria liver-stage (LS) studies in humans are virtually impossible, and in vitro models of LS development do not reconstitute relevant parasite growth conditions. To overcome these obstacles, we have adopted a robust mouse model for the study of P. falciparum LS in vivo: the immunocompromised and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase–deficient mouse (Fah–/–, Rag2–/–, Il2rg–/–, termed the FRG mouse) engrafted with human hepatocytes (FRG huHep). FRG huHep mice supported vigorous, quantifiable P. falciparum LS development that culminated in complete maturation of LS at approximately 7 days after infection, providing a relevant model for LS development in humans. The infections allowed observations of previously unknown expression of proteins in LS, including P. falciparum translocon of exported proteins 150 (PTEX150) and exported protein-2 (EXP-2), components of a known parasite protein export machinery. LS schizonts exhibited exoerythrocytic merozoite formation and merosome release. Furthermore, FRG mice backcrossed to the NOD background and repopulated with huHeps and human red blood cells supported reproducible transition from LS infection to blood-stage infection. Thus, these mice constitute reliable models to study human LS directly in vivo and demonstrate utility for studies of LS–to–blood-stage transition of a human malaria parasite. PMID:22996664

  18. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensis changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4′-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis.

  19. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  20. Fish egg predation by Baltic sprat and herring: do species characteristics and development stage matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation of eggs by clupeids has been identified as a major factor contributing to early life stage mortality of Baltic cod. We used data from ichthyoplankton sampling and clupeid stomach analyses to investigate whether eggs of other fish species are to a similar extent subject to predation...... generally negatively selected by both predators, while fish eggs were non-selectively consumed in summer. Predation is suggested to account for a large fraction of mortality of cod eggs at older stages, i.e. those eggs, which have survived the often detrimentally low oxygen concentration in and below...... the permanent halocline. The consumption rates of sprat eggs at all development stages relative to production rates were considerably lower compared to cod, suggesting that egg predation is of lesser importance for sprat recruitment....

  1. SSE software test management STM capability: Using STM in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of a series discussing configuration management (CM) topics for Space Station ground systems software development. It provides a description of the Software Support Environment (SSE)-developed Software Test Management (STM) capability, and discusses the possible use of this capability for management of developed software during testing performed on target platforms. This is intended to supplement the formal documentation of STM provided by the SEE Project. How STM can be used to integrate contractor CM and formal CM for software before delivery to operations is described. STM provides a level of control that is flexible enough to support integration and debugging, but sufficiently rigorous to insure the integrity of the testing process.

  2. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  3. Development and verification of ground-based tele-robotics operations concept for Dextre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2013-05-01

    The Special Purpose Dextreous Manipulator (Dextre) is the latest addition to the on-orbit segment of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS); Canada's contribution to the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in March 2008, the advanced two-armed robot is designed to perform various ISS maintenance tasks on robotically compatible elements and on-orbit replaceable units using a wide variety of tools and interfaces. The addition of Dextre has increased the capabilities of the MSS, and has introduced significant complexity to ISS robotics operations. While the initial operations concept for Dextre was based on human-in-the-loop control by the on-orbit astronauts, the complexities of robotic maintenance and the associated costs of training and maintaining the operator skills required for Dextre operations demanded a reexamination of the old concepts. A new approach to ISS robotic maintenance was developed in order to utilize the capabilities of Dextre safely and efficiently, while at the same time reducing the costs of on-orbit operations. This paper will describe the development, validation, and on-orbit demonstration of the operations concept for ground-based tele-robotics control of Dextre. It will describe the evolution of the new concepts from the experience gained from the development and implementation of the ground control capability for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System; Canadarm 2. It will discuss the various technical challenges faced during the development effort, such as requirements for high positioning accuracy, force/moment sensing and accommodation, failure tolerance, complex tool operations, and the novel operational tools and techniques developed to overcome them. The paper will also describe the work performed to validate the new concepts on orbit and will discuss the results and lessons learned from the on-orbit checkout and commissioning of Dextre using the newly developed tele-robotics techniques and capabilities.

  4. [Development of a staging classification for leisure activities and social communication in dependent elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Jiro; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Higashi, Kentaro; Orimo, Kenichiro; Honma, Tatsuya; Nishiwaki, Keiko; Ando, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple staging classification to measure leisure activity and social communication among the elderly at geriatric health care facilities. In order to construct a staging scale for measuring the participation of the elderly subjects, we developed a list of 28 items for three domains: leisure activities, social participation and communication. Data were obtained from users of institutional and day care services at geriatric health service facilities. The Rasch model was applied to test the degree of item fit and difficulty. Simple staging scales were constructed based on 12 leisure activity and nine social communication items. The validity and reliability were tested using these newly developed scales according to the Rasch model and assessments of the test-retest reliability. The participants were 3,458 elderly persons, of whom 1,560 were currently using institutional services and 1,898 were using day care services. Among the 28 items, "traveling" was identified as the most difficult and "watching television" was identified as the easiest. Because items related to "social participation," such as volunteer activities, exhibited a low frequency, they were not used in the further analyses. Simple staging scales were constructed by analyzing the remaining items of leisure activities and social communication according to the Rasch model. The thresholds within the scales were determined in order of item difficulty. Cohen's kappa, as assessed by two different evaluators, was 0.75 for leisure activities and 0.77 for social communication. In this study, we developed staging scales for leisure activity and social communication. The construct validity and test-retest reliability were adequate for both scales. Service providers can improve service quality by using these scales for individual case management of elderly persons in conjunction with existing scales of activities of daily living.

  5. PRINCIPLES, STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AT CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Valeriy Yurevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research performed in the field of innovative development of enterprises are provided, and the main principles and the content of each stage of innovative development of construction enterprises in the new economic environment are developed on the basis of the research. Actions, proposed in the article, will ensure the implementation of the strategy of innovative development with a view to effective attainment of objectives of case management and successful adaptation of construction enterprises to altering factors of the media.

  6. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  7. The Development of an UAV Borne Direct Georeferenced Photogrammetric Platform for Ground Control Point Free Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. In this study, a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-based spatial information acquisition platform that can operate in Ground Control Point (GCP free environments is developed and evaluated. The proposed UAV based photogrammetric platform has a Direct Georeferencing (DG module that includes a low cost Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS Inertial Navigation System (INS/ Global Positioning System (GPS integrated system. The DG module is able to provide GPS single frequency carrier phase measurements for differential processing to obtain sufficient positioning accuracy. All necessary calibration procedures are implemented. Ultimately, a flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using GCPs. The preliminary results of positioning accuracy in DG mode illustrate that horizontal positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m at 300 m flight height above the ground. The positioning accuracy of the z axis is below 10 m. Therefore, the proposed platform is relatively safe and inexpensive for collecting critical spatial information for urgent response such as disaster relief and assessment applications where GCPs are not available.

  8. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Nam, Tran Hoai; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This report constitutes Stage 18 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The objective of the research program is to contribute to the strategic research goal of competence and research capacity by building up competence within the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, regarding reactor physics, reactor dynamics and noise diagnostics. The purpose is also to contribute to the research goal of giving a basis for SSM's supervision by developing methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. Results up to Stage 17 were reported in SKI and SSM reports, as listed in the report's summary

  9. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1999-01-01

    environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...... in the UK, Central Europe and the USA are carrying out Ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures companies had experienced and the lessons they had learnt along the way. From this survey we identified a number of success factors that enabled companies to successfully integrate...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  10. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  11. Development of a nomogram combining clinical staging with 18F-FDG PET/CT image features in non-small-cell lung cancer stage I-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desseroit, Marie-Charlotte; Visvikis, Dimitris; Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Tixier, Florent; Perdrisot, Remy; Cheze Le Rest, Catherine; Guillevin, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a nomogram by exploiting intratumour heterogeneity on CT and PET images from routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT acquisitions to identify patients with the poorest prognosis. This retrospective study included 116 patients with NSCLC stage I, II or III and with staging 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Primary tumour volumes were delineated using the FLAB algorithm and 3D Slicer trademark on PET and CT images, respectively. PET and CT heterogeneities were quantified using texture analysis. The reproducibility of the CT features was assessed on a separate test-retest dataset. The stratification power of the PET/CT features was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The best standard metric (functional volume) was combined with the least redundant and most prognostic PET/CT heterogeneity features to build the nomogram. PET entropy and CT zone percentage had the highest complementary values with clinical stage and functional volume. The nomogram improved stratification amongst patients with stage II and III disease, allowing identification of patients with the poorest prognosis (clinical stage III, large tumour volume, high PET heterogeneity and low CT heterogeneity). Intratumour heterogeneity quantified using textural features on both CT and PET images from routine staging 18 F-FDG PET/CT acquisitions can be used to create a nomogram with higher stratification power than staging alone. (orig.)

  12. Risk identification for quality on stage of pharmaceutical development of combined eye drops for glaucoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Миколайович Якубчук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the possible risks associated with critical quality attribute of combined eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma using of common risk evaluation methodologies for plannig a drug quality on the stage of pharmaceutical development. Methods: The paper used method of causal analysis. The maximal number of factors has been define to identify potential factors that provide most significant impact on the drug quality and Ishikawa diagram - graphical representation of causes and effects has been built.Results: Analysis allowed to organize the possible factors affecting the drug quality in the generalized categories: quality control methods, medicines and excipients, primary packaging, proper manufacturing conditions and the stage of the process. The most important factors that are carriers of the risk factors and may lead to negative effects have been identified for the generalized categories.Conclusions: Determined at the stage of pharmaceutical development potential critical quality attribute of AFI, excipients and primary packaging, critical parameters of the process, provide a better understanding, reduction and adoption of risk in subsequent stages of the life cycle of the drug

  13. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  14. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit

    2009-12-01

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  15. Intentionality: evolutionary development in healing: a grounded theory study for holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2005-03-01

    Although intentionality has been implicated as a causal variable in healing research, its definition has been inconsistent and vague. The objective of this grounded theory study is to develop a substantive theory of intentionality in a naturalistic encounter between nurse-healers and their healee-clients, and to consider the implications for practice and research. Six expert nurse-healers and six healee-clients were interviewed as individuals and in dyads before and after treatments. Interviews and observational data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and synthesized analysis. Participants described their experience of intentionality in healing as an evolutionary process characterized by distinctive shifts. The theory of intentionality: the matrix for healing (IMH) includes definitions of intentionality and a conceptual framework of three developmental phases of intentionality (generic, healing, and transforming intentionalities). The predominant attribute, development, is described. The theory contributes to knowledge about healing and intentionality and has implications for practice and future research.

  16. Development and performance validation of a cryogenic linear stage for SPICA-SAFARI verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Lorenza; Smit, H. P.; Eggens, M.; Keizer, G.; de Jonge, A. W.; Detrain, A.; de Jonge, C.; Laauwen, W. M.; Dieleman, P.

    2014-07-01

    In the context of the SAFARI instrument (SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument) SRON is developing a test environment to verify the SAFARI performance. The characterization of the detector focal plane will be performed with a backilluminated pinhole over a reimaged SAFARI focal plane by an XYZ scanning mechanism that consists of three linear stages stacked together. In order to reduce background radiation that can couple into the high sensitivity cryogenic detectors (goal NEP of 2•10-19 W/√Hz and saturation power of few femtoWatts) the scanner is mounted inside the cryostat in the 4K environment. The required readout accuracy is 3 μm and reproducibility of 1 μm along the total travel of 32 mm. The stage will be operated in "on the fly" mode to prevent vibrations of the scanner mechanism and will move with a constant speed varying from 60 μm/s to 400 μm/s. In order to meet the requirements of large stroke, low dissipation (low friction) and high accuracy a DC motor plus spindle stage solution has been chosen. In this paper we will present the stage design and stage characterization, describing also the measurements setup. The room temperature performance has been measured with a 3D measuring machine cross calibrated with a laser interferometer and a 2-axis tilt sensor. The low temperature verification has been performed in a wet 4K cryostat using a laser interferometer for measuring the linear displacements and a theodolite for measuring the angular displacements. The angular displacements can be calibrated with a precision of 4 arcsec and the position could be determined with high accuracy. The presence of friction caused higher values of torque than predicted and consequently higher dissipation. The thermal model of the stage has also been verified at 4K.

  17. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  18. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia; Guerra, Marcelo; Colaco, Waldeciro; Meunier, Isabelle; Camara, Terezinha R.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F 1 ) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F 2 ) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 5.0 mg L -1 KIN and 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 1.0 mg L -1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  19. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  20. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  1. A sporozoite asparagine-rich protein controls initiation of Plasmodium liver stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Silvie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium sporozoites invade host hepatocytes and develop as liver stages (LS before the onset of erythrocytic infection and malaria symptoms. LS are clinically silent, and constitute ideal targets for causal prophylactic drugs and vaccines. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying LS development remain poorly characterized. Here we describe a conserved Plasmodium asparagine-rich protein that is specifically expressed in sporozoites and liver stages. Gene disruption in Plasmodium berghei results in complete loss of sporozoite infectivity to rodents, due to early developmental arrest after invasion of hepatocytes. Mutant sporozoites productively invade host cells by forming a parasitophorous vacuole (PV, but subsequent remodelling of the membrane of the PV (PVM is impaired as a consequence of dramatic down-regulation of genes encoding PVM-resident proteins. These early arrested mutants confer only limited protective immunity in immunized animals. Our results demonstrate the role of an asparagine-rich protein as a key regulator of Plasmodium sporozoite gene expression and LS development, and suggest a requirement of partial LS maturation to induce optimal protective immune responses against malaria pre-erythrocytic stages. These findings have important implications for the development of genetically attenuated parasites as a vaccine approach.

  2. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, Imre; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders; Demaziere, Christophe (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, in the frame of a research contract with the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), contract No. SSM 2009/2093. The present report is based on work performed by Imre Pazsit, Victor Dykin, Anders Jonsson and Christophe Demaziere, with Imre Pazsit being the project leader. This report describes the results obtained during Stage 16 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of Stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50, Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996). Results up to Stage 15 were reported in (Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Demaziere et al, 2004; Sunde et al, 2006; Pazsit et al. 2008, 2009). A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in Stage 17 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 16 consists of four parts as follows: - An overview of the present status of experience with BWR stability; - An investigation of the significance of the properties of the noise source for BWR instability; - Study of the dynamics of molten salt systems: construction of the adjoint and calculating the space dependent noise induced by propagating perturbations in the fuel; - A specific study of some novel methods of analysis of non-linear and non-stationary processes

  3. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders; Demaziere, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, in the frame of a research contract with the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), contract No. SSM 2009/2093. The present report is based on work performed by Imre Pazsit, Victor Dykin, Anders Jonsson and Christophe Demaziere, with Imre Pazsit being the project leader. This report describes the results obtained during Stage 16 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of Stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50, Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996). Results up to Stage 15 were reported in (Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Demaziere et al, 2004; Sunde et al, 2006; Pazsit et al. 2008, 2009). A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in Stage 17 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 16 consists of four parts as follows: - An overview of the present status of experience with BWR stability; - An investigation of the significance of the properties of the noise source for BWR instability; - Study of the dynamics of molten salt systems: construction of the adjoint and calculating the space dependent noise induced by propagating perturbations in the fuel; - A specific study of some novel methods of analysis of non-linear and non-stationary processes

  4. Expectations for managing contaminated ground and groundwater: developing a common view of NDA and regulators - 16252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The management of contaminated ground and groundwater is a notable contributor to dealing with the challenge we face in cleaning up the legacy of the UK's civil nuclear industry in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner. To facilitate this mission, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Environmental Regulators and Safety Regulators are working together to develop common expectations for the management of contaminated ground and groundwater arising on and extending off nuclear licensed sites in the UK. The aims of this work are to: - set out shared expectations for land quality management, explaining any differing expectations where consensus is difficult; - interpret expectations to ensure they are clear and implementable, facilitating planning of programmes and deliverables; - provide a framework for dialogue against which progress in land quality management can be mapped; - promote positive action to manage land quality in a proportionate and sustainable manner to achieve consistent standards; and, - identify whether areas of the regulatory framework or NDA contractual requirements warrant review and propose improvements for consideration, as appropriate. This paper outlines the process currently ongoing to identify the best way of achieving these aims in a manner that avoids compromising the respective statutory obligations, duties and functions of each party. (author)

  5. Reaching for the stars - New developments in ground-based astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will briefly review the state-of-the-art in ground-based astronomy - both on the telescope side and the instrument side. Interesting parallels can be drawn in cost, construction and operations with the particle physics facilities. I will then present some recent results in the two hottest topics in astronomy, driving the requests for more advanced facilities: exoplanets and the hunt for life beyond the solar system (calling for Extremely Large Telescope); and cosmology and the understanding of dark energy (calling for large survey telescopes). This will lead to a description of the latest telescope project developments on the ground: the on-going construction of the Large Synoptic Telescope on a quest to better understand dark energy, and the start of the construction of three Extremely Large Telescopes by European and US-led international consortia, hoping to find life on planets around nearby stars.   ATS Seminars Organisers: H. Burkhardt (BE), M. Modena (TE), T. Stora (EN) Coffee / tea will ...

  6. Multi-stage subunit vaccine development against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Johne’s disease in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    paratuberculosis provide only partial protection and interfere with diagnostic tests for JD and surveillance for bovine TB. In contrast, recombinant subunit vaccines can be designed to be used without compromising control of bTB and Map. Taking advantage of data from mouse TB studies, and early Map vaccination...... in macrophages. The disease progression is very slow with neonatal animals being the most susceptible to infection, but without development of detectable IFN-γ responses for months after infection and rarely with clinical disease before the second or third year of life. Available whole cell vaccines against......- and field-studies we developed a vaccine with a single recombinant fusion protein comprising four acute-stage antigens (Ags) and one latent-stage Ag formulated in adjuvant (FET-vaccine). In post-exposure vaccination of calves and goats with necropsy 8-12 months post inoculation, we determined...

  7. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  8. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    of spatial variability of the hydraulic properties within soil layers and horizontal versus vertical anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity of soils. For the deformation zones, the same prescription for assigning transmissivities was followed as for stage 2.2, but a new method for automating the local conditioning of the deformation zone transmissivity in the vicinity of a measurement interval was used. The numerical simulations carried out in stage 2.2 demonstrated that the three geological units: deformation zones, fracture domains and regolith, can be parameterised by means of single-hole hydraulic tests and satisfactorily transformed into heterogeneous hydraulic conductor domains (HCD), hydraulic rock mass domains (HRD) and hydraulic soil domains (HSD). This means that the conceptual model developed from the interpretation of Forsmark data in stage 2.2 can be used to predict a wide range of different types of data and processes such as 1) large-scale cross-hole test responses, 2) natural point-water heads in the bedrock and the regolith, and 3) hydrochemistry profiles along the many cored boreholes drilled in close proximity to the so called target area. It is noted that a primary idea of the confirmatory testing applied in stage 2.2 is that the same groundwater flow and solute transport model is used for each type of simulation to make it transparent that a single implementation of the conceptual model could be calibrated against all three types of field observations, although it may have been possible to improve the modelling of a particular data type by refining the model around a relevant observation borehole, for example. The conceptual modelling in stage 2.2 invoked a number of hypotheses, three of which that were addressed in stage 2.3 by means of complementary field investigations (hydraulic tests). The results from these investigations do not falsify (contradict) any of the three hypotheses, hence none of them should be rejected. In fact, the three

  9. Three Global Land Cover and Use Stage considering Environmental Condition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, C.; Moon, J.; Ryu, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between around 30° - 60° latitude. This zone is a home to over more than 50% of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal regions which host most of the global problems related to development and poverty. Mid-Latitude region and its ecotone demands in-depth analysis, however, latitudinal approach has not been widely recognized, considering that many of natural resources and environment indicators, as well as social and economic indicators are based on administrative basis or by country and regional boundaries. This study sets the land cover change and use stage based on environmental condition and economic development. Because various land cover and use among the regions, form vegetated parts of East Asia and Mediterranean to deserted parts of Central Asia, the forest area was varied between countries. In addition, some nations such as North Korea, Afghanistan, Pakistan showed decreasing trends in forest area whereas some nations showed increasing trends in forest area. The economic capacity for environmental activities and policies for restoration were different among countries. By adopting the standard from IMF or World Bank, developing and developed counties were classified. Based on the classification, this study suggested the land cover and use stages as degradation, restoration, and sustainability. As the degradation stage, the nations which had decreasing forest area with less environmental restoration capacity based on economic size were selected. As the restoration stage, the nation which had increasing forest area or restoration capacity were selected. In the case of the sustainability, the nation which had enough restoration capacity with increasing forest area or small ratio in forest area decreasing were selected. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that regions of Mid-Latitudes are facing, grouping by

  10. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  11. Stages of recovery in early psychosis: Associations with symptoms, function, and narrative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Geneviève; Lecomte, Tania; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to explore the links between recovery stages, symptoms, function, and narrative development among individuals with a recent onset of psychosis. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted including quantitative data at baseline. Forty-seven participants were administered the Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview three times over 9 months and content analysis was performed. Participants also completed the Social Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale--Expanded, the California Verbal Learning Test, and the Trailing Making Test at baseline. Descriptive discriminant analysis was performed. Results suggested that participants were mostly in the first two stages of recovery (moratorium, awareness) and that being in the awareness, rather than moratorium, stage was associated, to a different extent, with richer narrative development, better levels of psychosocial function, less negative and positive symptoms, and more years of education. Furthermore, recovery appeared to be a stable process over the assessment period. Recovery is a complex concept including objective and subjective aspects. In the recovery path of persons recently diagnosed with psychosis, social engagement, narrative development, and occupational functioning seem to be particularly important aspects. This study is a first step, and future research is needed with larger and more diverse participant pools, and assessments conducted over longer periods of time. As greater level of social engagement was the most robust predictor of membership in the awareness versus moratorium stage, treatment of early psychosis should include interventions targeting social relations and social skills. As greater narrative development was the second most robust predictor, enhancing it via psychotherapy could be a pertinent clinical goal. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz, Robert J.; Becker, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the developmen...

  13. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  14. An embryonic staging table for in ovo development of Eublepharis macularius, the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Patrick A D; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Russell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    Squamates constitute a major vertebrate radiation, representing almost one-third of all known amniotes. Although speciose and morphologically diverse, they remain poorly represented in developmental studies. Here, we present an embryonic staging table of in ovo development for the basal gekkotan Eublepharis macularius (the leopard gecko) and advocate this species as a laboratory-appropriate developmental model. E. macularius, is a hardy and tractable species of relatively large body size (with concomitantly relatively large eggs and embryos), that is widely available and easy to maintain and propagate. Additionally, E. macularius displays a body plan appropriate to the study of the plesiomorphic quadrupedal condition of early pentadactylous terrestrial amniotes. Although not unexpected, it is worth noting that the morphological events characterizing limb development in E. macularius are comparable with those described for the avian Gallus gallus. Therefore, E. macularius holds great promise as a model for developmental studies focusing on pentadactyly and the formation of digits. Furthermore, it is also attractive as a developmental model because it demonstrates temperature-dependent sex determination. The staging table presented herein is based on an all-female series and represents the entire 52 day in ovo period. Overall, embryogenesis of E. macularius is similar to that of other squamates in terms of developmental stage attained at the time of oviposition, patterns of limb and pharyngeal arch development, and features of the appearance of scalation and pigmentation, indicative of a conserved developmental program. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A staging scheme for the development of the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R Wotton

    Full Text Available Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provide powerful experimental tools for the study of development. However, approaches using model systems need to be complemented by comparative studies for us to gain a deeper understanding of the functional properties and evolution of developmental processes. New model organisms need to be established to enable such comparative work. The establishment of new model system requires a detailed description of its life cycle and development. The resulting staging scheme is essential for providing morphological context for molecular studies, and allows us to homologise developmental processes between species. In this paper, we provide a staging scheme and morphological characterisation of the life cycle for an emerging non-drosophilid dipteran model system: the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. We pay particular attention to early embryogenesis (cleavage and blastoderm stages up to gastrulation, the formation and retraction of extraembryonic tissues, and the determination and formation of germ (pole cells. Despite the large evolutionary distance between the two species (approximately 150 million years, we find that M. abdita development is remarkably similar to D. melanogaster in terms of developmental landmarks and their relative timing.

  16. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage. PMID:22074416

  17. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  18. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS ABOUT ALGORITHM OF DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Eitutis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the initial stage of reorganization is to run diagnostics of the enterprise, under which a decision on development of an algorithm for structural transformations shall be made. Organizational and management analysis is an important component of diagnostics and is aimed at defining the methods and principles for the enterprise management system. The results of the carried out organizational analysis allow defining the problems and «bottle necks» in the system of strategic management of Ukrainian railways as a whole and in different directions of their economic activities.

  20. Approach to developing a ground-motion design basis for facilities important to safety at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology for developing a ground-motion design basis for prospective facilities at Yucca Mountain that are important to safety. The methodology utilizes a guasi-deterministic construct called the 10,000-year cumulative-slip earthquake that is designed to provide a conservative, robust, and reproducible estimate of ground motion that has a one-in-ten chance of occurring during the preclosure period. This estimate is intended to define a ground-motion level for which the seismic design would ensure minimal disruption to operations engineering analyses to ensure safe performance are included

  1. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  2. Development of dog-like retrieving capability in a ground robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Douglas C.; Ashok, Rahul; Rehg, James M.; Witus, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Mobile Intelligence Team's approach to addressing the CANINE outdoor ground robot competition. The competition required developing a robot that provided retrieving capabilities similar to a dog, while operating fully autonomously in unstructured environments. The vision team consisted of Mobile Intelligence, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Wayne State University. Important computer vision aspects of the project were the ability to quickly learn the distinguishing characteristics of novel objects, searching images for the object as the robot drove a search pattern, identifying people near the robot for safe operations, correctly identify the object among distractors, and localizing the object for retrieval. The classifier used to identify the objects will be discussed, including an analysis of its performance, and an overview of the entire system architecture presented. A discussion of the robot's performance in the competition will demonstrate the system's successes in real-world testing.

  3. New, but slow – technical newness challenges late stage development speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    The down-stream processes where new product prospects undergo pilot testing and adjustments before market launch can have significant impact on development speed. Previous literature has primarily pointed to firm traits as influential factors to speed. However, product specific measures such as t......The down-stream processes where new product prospects undergo pilot testing and adjustments before market launch can have significant impact on development speed. Previous literature has primarily pointed to firm traits as influential factors to speed. However, product specific measures...... such as technical innovativeness may be a critical factor when going through the crucial late stages of development. We have limited knowledge of the relation between product newness and the speed of NPD, and how this may be related to firm size and partnering strategies during development. Combining product traits...... with firm resources relevant to late stage development speed can enrich our understanding of time-tomarket in the aim of improving this crucial measure of NPD. The research model is tested on a dataset of all new drug developments approved for the US market 2000-2010. The results show that newness...

  4. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  5. Vulvovaginitis in a pediatric population: relationship among etiologic agents, age and Tanner staging of breast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugno, Silvina; Risso, Paula; Ocampo, Dolores; Rahman, Gisel; Rubinstein, Dra Anahí V

    2014-02-01

    Vulvovaginitis accounts for 25% of all pediatric gynecology consultations. To assess the etiology of vulvovaginitis based on age and Tanner staging of breast development. Descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted between January 1st and December 31st, 2011. Patients with vulvovaginitis were assessed based on two outcome measures: age group (GI: 0 to 8.9 years old, GII: 9 to 15.9 years old, and GIII: 16 to 18 years old), and the Tanner staging of breast development (I, II-III, IV-V). Results. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included, 78 girls in the GI group, 134 in the GII group, and 17 in the GIII group; 81 girls were classified as TI, 36 as TII-III, and 112 as TIV-V based on Tanner staging. Shigella and Oxyuris were the most commonly found etiologic agents in younger girls. Candida albicans, other Candida species, Gardnerella and Ureaplasma urealyticum were the germs most commonly observed in older patients. Oxyuris was predominant in prepubertal girls, while Candida albicans, in postpubertal girls. Hormonal influence was more relevant than the patient's age in terms of vulvovaginitis etiology.

  6. A development of time-resolved emulsion detector by multi-stage shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a powerful tracking device that can record the three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles within 1 μm spatial resolution. We are promoting GRAINE project which is 10 MeV-100 GeV cosmic γ-ray observations with a precise (0.08deg at 1-2 GeV) and polarization-sensitive large-aperture-area (∼10 m 2 ) emulsion telescope by repeating long duration balloon flights. We are developing multi-stage shifter which allows us to give a timing information to emulsion tracks with ∼seconds or below. The multi-stage shifter opened feasibilities of precise cosmic γ-ray observations, GRAINE, as well as precise measurements of ν-N interactions, J-PARC T60. ∼Millisecond time resolution in a balloon-borne experiment, ∼second time resolution for 126.7 days in an accelerator ν experiment and ∼10 6 time-resolved numbers are being achieved. New model of multi-stage shifter is also being developed for future experiments. (author)

  7. The development of pneumoconiosis and its final stages in miners of the Karvina district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochmon, O; Kratochvil, Z

    1974-01-01

    The authors studied 63 retired miners from the Ostrava- Karvina coal mines who had a complicated form of pneumoco niosis. They had been repeatedly hospitalized in the department for tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, mostly because of a complicated respiratory illness. Under conditions of the Ostrava-Karvina mines, pneumoco niosis develops rapidly in proportion to the dust pollution the miners are exposed to. In the above 63 miners pneumoconiosis was in an advanced stage (type B and C according to the Geneva classification). The disease progressed most rapidly (within 10 years) in the group of drifters. Chronic bronchitis was found in 44% of the patients, lung emphysema in 56%, cor pulmonale in 57% of cases. The gravest complications in retired miners with an advanced stage of pneumoconiosis were exacerbated chronic bronchitis and bronchopneumonia endangering the lives of the patients.

  8. Environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development: peculiar aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development is examined vis-a-vis the experience accumulated in studies on the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in a developed country. Differences in the optics of the nuclear industry in a developed country and that of segments of the public opinion are briefly discussed. Some peculiar aspects of a nuclear industry being implanted in a developing nation, including adoption of new legislation and regulations, are presented, taking into account the unusual opportunity to attack potential problems in advance. The unique example of the pre-operational survey of a region surrounding a uranium mine in a developing nation is mentioned as an example of cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining operations. The potential environmental impact of other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle is also examined. Further cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community of Latin American countries is suggested to minimize the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in nations starting nuclear programs. (author)

  9. Developing Plasmodium vivax Resources for Liver Stage Study in the Peruvian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Sanchez, Pamela; Villa, Zaira Hellen; Moreno, Marta; Tong-Rios, Carlos; Meister, Stephan; LaMonte, Gregory M; Campo, Brice; Vinetz, Joseph M; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-13

    To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region. Here, we report an in vitro culture system carried out on site in a malaria-endemic region for liver stage parasites of P. vivax sporozoites obtained from An. darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Americas. P. vivax sporozoites were obtained by dissection of salivary glands from infected An. darlingi mosquitoes and purified by Accudenz density gradient centrifugation. HC04 liver cells were exposed to P. vivax sporozoites and cultured up to 9 days. To overcome low P. vivax patient parasitemias, potentially lower mosquito vectorial capacity, and humid, nonsterile environmental conditions, a new antibiotic cocktail was included in tissue culture to prevent contamination. Culturing conditions supported exoerythrocytic (EEF) P. vivax liver stage growth up to 9 days and allowed for maturation into intrahepatocyte merosomes. Some of the identified small forms were resistant to atovaquone (1 μM) but sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase inhibitor, KDU691 (1 μM). This study reports a field-accessible EEF production process for drug discovery in a malaria-endemic site in which viable P. vivax sporozoites are used for drug studies using hepatocyte infection. Our data demonstrate that the development of meaningful, field-based resources for P. vivax liver stage drug screening and liver stage human malaria experimentation in the Amazon region is feasible.

  10. Development of Ground Coils with Low Eddy Current Loss by Applying the Compression Molding Method after the Coil Winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Aiba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ota, Satoru; Okada, Shigenori

    In a magnetically levitated transportation (MAGLEV) system, a huge number of ground coils will be required because they must be laid for the whole line. Therefore, stable performance and reduced cost are essential requirements for the ground coil development. On the other hand, because the magnetic field changes when the superconducting magnet passes by, an eddy current will be generated in the conductor of the ground coil and will result in energy loss. The loss not only increases the magnetic resistance for the train running but also brings an increase in the ground coil temperature. Therefore, the reduction of the eddy current loss is extremely important. This study examined ground coils in which both the eddy current loss and temperature increase were small. Furthermore, quantitative comparison for the eddy current loss of various magnet wire samples was performed by bench test. On the basis of the comparison, a round twisted wire having low eddy current loss was selected as an effective ground coil material. In addition, the ground coils were manufactured on trial. A favorable outlook to improve the size accuracy of the winding coil and uneven thickness of molded resin was obtained without reducing the insulation strength between the coil layers by applying a compression molding after winding.

  11. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  12. EXPLORATORY STUDY OF OBSTACLES IN SAFETY CULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the obstacles that prevent the development of a safety culture in Thailand’s large construction industry from various managerial points of view. Qualitative research methods were used by performing a series of semi-structured interviews of eight case studies selected from six prominent construction firms to investigate the obstacles they face. Glaser’s keyword coding from Grounded Theory was used to reduce the information load after the interviews. Our findings revealed that the factors influencing the successful development of a safety culture in the construction industry are the workers, the characteristics of construction, the subcontractors, the supervisors, and external factors. Based on the frequency analysis, the main obstacles in developing a safety culture result from problems related to the workers themselves. The three most frequently discussed problems are unskilled workers, unsafe worker habits, and high worker turnover. Our results also suggest that managers should encourage engagement from their workers to optimise the successful implementation of safety programs and their long-term improvement.

  13. Hospital development plans: a new tool to break ground for strategic thinking in Tanzanian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Steffen

    2005-12-01

    Tanzanian hospitals suffer from underfunding and poor management. In particular, planning and strategic thinking need improvement. Cultural values such as subordination, risk aversion, and high time preference, together with a long history of socialist government, result in lack of responsibility, accountability, and planning. This has been addressed by the health sector reform with its focus on decentralization, strengthened by the introduction of basket funding facilitated by the Comprehensive Council Health Plans. As a consequence of this the next logical step is to improve the authority of regional and district hospitals in the use of their resources by introducing hospital development plans. These strategic plans were introduced as tools of strategic planning in 2001 by the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau in close collaboration with the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, binding the release of rehabilitation funds to presentation of a strategic hospital plan. This study examines the rationale and content of hospital development plans. Initial experiences are discussed. The quality of presented plans has steadily improved, but there is a tendency for hospitals with a close connection to development partners to present well prepared reports while other hospitals have severe problems fulfilling the requirements. For many hospitals it is in fact the first time that they have had to define their functions and future role, thus breaking ground for strategic thinking.

  14. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  15. Stage-related expression of mRNAs during pollen development in lily and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, J A; de Groot, P F; van Herpen, M M; van der Lee, T; Reynen, W H; Weterings, K A; Wullems, G J

    1990-09-01

    Homogeneous populations of developing microspores and pollen from anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) show a continuous production of biomass, reaching a maximum in young pollen. The rate of RNA synthesis was 460 fg · h(-1) in young binucleate cells, 138 fg · h(-1) in late binucleate cells and 56 fg · h(-1) in microspores. The mRNA population in developing pollen can be separated into three groups. In the first group, certain types of mRNAs are present at a constant level during all stages of development. A second group is characteristic of young pollen and increases quantitatively until anthesis. A third group is seen transiently; to this belong mRNAs present only before mitosis or at a distinct cell stage after mitosis. Some of the translation products of this latter group of mRNAs showed similarities between lily and tobacco on two-dimensional gels in respect of molecular weight and isolectric point, indicating that those mRNAs and proteins play a role in the regulation of pollen development.

  16. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  17. Electromagnetic simulators for Ground Penetrating Radar applications developed in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Warren, Craig; Antonijevic, Sinisa; Doric, Vicko; Poljak, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Founded in 1971, COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) is the first and widest European framework for the transnational coordination of research activities. It operates through Actions, science and technology networks with a duration of four years. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (4 April 2013 - 3 October 2017) is to exchange and increase knowledge and experience on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe a wider use of this technique. Research activities carried out in TU1208 include all aspects of the GPR technology and methodology: design, realization and testing of radar systems and antennas; development and testing of surveying procedures for the monitoring and inspection of structures; integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing approaches; advancement of electromagnetic-modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for radargram analysis and interpretation. GPR radargrams often have no resemblance to the subsurface or structures over which the profiles were recorded. Various factors, including the innate design of the survey equipment and the complexity of electromagnetic propagation in composite scenarios, can disguise complex structures recorded on reflection profiles. Electromagnetic simulators can help to understand how target structures get translated into radargrams. They can show the limitations of GPR technique, highlight its capabilities, and support the user in understanding where and in what environment GPR can be effectively used. Furthermore, electromagnetic modelling can aid the choice of the most proper GPR equipment for a survey, facilitate the interpretation of complex datasets and be used for the design of new antennas. Electromagnetic simulators can be employed to produce synthetic radargrams with the purposes of testing new data-processing, imaging and inversion algorithms, or assess

  18. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and effect on heat production on salmon eggs at different stages of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, Kimmo A.; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K

    2004-05-28

    In this study, pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and its effect on heat dissipation was studied in eggs of the lake salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago). In bioaccumulation studies, the eggs were exposed to low concentrations (0.051-0.056 {mu}mol/l, 13.583-14.915) of waterborne [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCP at two developmental stages: (1) 3 weeks after fertilization, and (2) just before hatching. The effect of PCP on egg heat dissipation was measured by a microcalorimeter after exposing the eggs to gradual concentrations (0-0.992 {mu}mol/l) of PCP for 48 h. After both the bioaccumulation and heat dissipation experiments, the eggs were dissected and the concentrations of PCP in tissue were determined separately for eggshell, yolk and embryo. The bioaccumulation studies showed that PCP accumulates more in the eggs at the late developmental stage. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for different tissues were 3-42 times higher for the eggs at the late developmental stage compared with the eggs that were incubated only for 3 weeks. In early developmental stage, the eggshell adsorbs a large portion of the chemical. In late developmental stage, the actual embryo accumulated both proportionately and totally more than other dissected tissues in the beginning of the exposure, but eventually the yolk accumulated highest total amount of the chemical. A probable reason for the higher PCP body burden in the late developmental stage is that the respiration rate and metabolic activity of the embryo increases as it grows. The salmon eggs responded to an exposure to PCP with an elevated rate of heat dissipation. The threshold concentration above which the embryo heat dissipation was amplified was 29.64 {mu}mol/kg embryo wet weight (ww) or 0.28 {mu}mol/l. The highest embryo heat production was measured at the exposure concentration of 0.992 {mu}mol/l. At higher exposure concentrations the heat dissipation decreased. The basic findings of the study are that PCP accumulates in growing embryonic

  19. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  20. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  1. A human life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for chlorpyrifos: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Poet, Torka S

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to some chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to predict disposition of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, previously measured age-dependent metabolism of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were integrated into age-related descriptions of human anatomy and physiology. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ⩾0.6mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (100- to 1000-fold higher than environmental exposure levels), 6months old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent doses. At lower doses more relevant to environmental exposures, simulations predict that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict chlorpyrifos disposition and biological response over various postnatal life stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  3. Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). Method In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years; months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. Results For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Conclusion Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children’s literacy stages. PMID:23833280

  4. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  5. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  6. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  7. Syntheses of nucleic acid and protein in somatic embryos of Fritillaria ussuriensis maxim in different development stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Tang Wei; Wang Hui

    1993-09-01

    After developing a procedure for somatic embryogenesis in Fritillaria ussuriensis, dynamics on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein during globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped, cotyledonary, and mature somatic embryo stages was demonstrated by both autoradiography and scintillation counting. The rates of syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein gradually increase between the globular and cotyledonary somatic embryos stages. DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis rates are in peak at the cotyledonary later stage, precotyledonary stage, and cotyledonary stage, respectively. It appears that more DNA, RNA, and protein are synthesized in the cotyledonary somatic embryo stage than in other stages. All these results indicate that an increased syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein is associated with the differentiation of embryogenic cells and organogenesis in somatic embryos

  8. Development and testing of techniques for in-ground stabilization, size reduction, and safe removal of radioactive wastes stored in containments buried in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen; Christodoulou, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1950's radioactive wastes from a number of laboratories have been stored below ground at the Hanford site, Washington State, USA, in vertical pipe units (VPUs) made of five 200 litre drums without tops or bottoms, and in caissons, made out of corrugated pipe, or concrete and typically 2,500 mm in diameter. The VPU's are buried of the order of 2,100 mm below grade, and the caissons are buried of the order of 6,000 mm below grade. The waste contains fuel pieces, fission products, and a range of chemicals used in the laboratory processes. This can include various energetic reactants such as un-reacted sodium potassium (NaK), potassium superoxide (KO 2 ), and picric acid, as well as quantities of other liquids. The integrity of the containments is considered to present unacceptable risks from leakage of radioactivity to the environment. This paper describes the successful development and full scale testing of in-ground augering equipment, grouting systems and removal equipment for remediation and removal of the VPUs, and the initial development work to test the utilization of the same basic augering and grouting techniques for the stabilization, size reduction and removal of caissons. (authors)

  9. Exergy analysis of a two-stage ground source heat pump with a vertical bore for residential space conditioning under simulated occupancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, Moonis R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy and energy analysis of a vertical-bore ground source heat pump over a 12-month period is presented. • The ground provided more than 75% of the heating energy. • Performance metrics are presented. • Sources of systemic inefficiency are identified and prioritized using Exergy analysis. • Understanding performance metrics is vital for judicial use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56 W (2.16-ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m 2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kW h at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4 °C and 21.7 °C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work, are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources

  10. Multiple essential functions of Plasmodium falciparum actin-1 during malaria blood-stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujaan; Lemgruber, Leandro; Tay, Chwen L; Baum, Jake; Meissner, Markus

    2017-08-15

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes intracellular parasites causing immense global disease burden, the deadliest of them being the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which invades and replicates within erythrocytes. The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. However, novel invasion mechanisms have been described for several apicomplexans, and specific functions of the acto-myosin system are being reinvestigated. Of the two actin genes in P. falciparum, actin-1 (pfact1) is ubiquitously expressed in all life-cycle stages and is thought to be required for erythrocyte invasion, although its functions during parasite development are unknown, and definitive in vivo characterisation during invasion is lacking. Here we have used a conditional Cre-lox system to investigate the functions of PfACT1 during P. falciparum blood-stage development and host cell invasion. We demonstrate that PfACT1 is crucially required for segregation of the plastid-like organelle, the apicoplast, and for efficient daughter cell separation during the final stages of cytokinesis. Surprisingly, we observe that egress from the host cell is not an actin-dependent process. Finally, we show that parasites lacking PfACT1 are capable of microneme secretion, attachment and formation of a junction with the erythrocyte, but are incapable of host cell invasion. This study provides important mechanistic insights into the definitive essential functions of PfACT1 in P. falciparum, which are not only of biological interest, but owing to functional divergence from mammalian actins, could also form the basis for the development of novel therapeutics against apicomplexans.

  11. Developing a Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies (GUREGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna

    2018-01-01

    theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...

  12. How Do Individuals Develop Alcohol Use Disorder After Bariatric Surgery? A Grounded Theory Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Ruth; MacNeela, Padraig; Conway, Ronan; Heary, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. However, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, a small minority of patients develop new-onset alcohol use disorder (AUD), the aetiology of which is poorly understood. The aim is to construct a theory to explain the development of AUD among a sample of individuals who reported problematic drinking following RYGB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight RYGB patients diagnosed with AUD attending a multi-disciplinary outpatient weight management service at a public hospital in the Republic of Ireland. A constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to analyse interview transcripts. Participants' main concern was identified as 'unresolved psychological issues' which were managed by 'external coping mechanisms', namely, 'eating to cope'. After RYGB, comfort eating was no longer possible to the same extent. Following a 'honeymoon period', participants' need for an external coping mechanism resurfaced. 'Filling the void' provides a framework to explain how participants managed the symptoms of their unresolved psychological issues through 'behavioural substitution', that is, drinking alcohol instead of eating. The theoretical framework of 'filling the void' adds to contemporary research that conceptualises AUD behavioural substitution as 'addiction transfer' by describing the process by which the phenomenon occurs as well as the characteristics of participants. The clinical implication of this research is to advocate for a reshaping of treatment of RYGB patients, with increased psychological input following surgery.

  13. Sinkhole development resulting from ground-water withdrawal in the Tampa area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, William C.

    1982-01-01

    The area of municipal well fields on the Gulf Coastal Plain north of tampa, Fla., is densely pitted with natural sinkholes and sinkhole lakes that have resulted from collapse of surficial sand and clay into solution cavities in the underlying carbonate rocks of the Floridan aquifer. Although solution of the underlying rocks is the ultimate cause of sinkholes, some have been induced by abrupt changes in ground-water levels caused by pumping. Declines in water levels cause loss of support to the bedrock roofs over cavities and to surficial material overlying openings in the top of bedrock. The volume of calcium, magnesium , and carbonate (the constituents of limestone and dolomite) in solution in the water withdrawn from four well fields near Tampa totaled about 240,000 cubic feet in 1978. Most induced solution takes place at the limestone surface however, and the area of induced recharge is so extensive that the effect of induced limestone solution on sinkhole development is negligible. Alinement of established sinkholes along joint patterns in the bedrock suggests that a well along these lineations might have direct hydraulic connection with a zone of incipient sinkholes. Therefore, pumping of large-capacity wells along such lineations would increase the probability of sinkhole development. Although sinkholes generally form abruptly in the study area, local changes such as vegetative stress, ponding of rainfall, misalinement of structures, and turbidity in well water are all indications that percollapse subsidence may be taking place. (USGS)

  14. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its ...

  15. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William

    2009-03-10

    Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.

  16. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... stages of the design process and, to investigate the factors that influence the different dimensions of comfort (physical, physiological and psychological). The investigation has been conducted in strong collaboration with an industrial partner working with ear-worn devices, providing access to data...

  17. The stage of soil development modulates rhizosphere effect along a High Arctic desert chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Fusi, Marco; Scaglia, Barbara; Tsiamis, George; Rolli, Eleonora; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Ventura, Stefano; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    In mature soils, plant species and soil type determine the selection of root microbiota. Which of these two factors drives rhizosphere selection in barren substrates of developing desert soils has, however, not yet been established. Chronosequences of glacier forelands provide ideal natural environments to identify primary rhizosphere selection factors along the changing edaphic conditions of a developing soil. Here, we analyze changes in bacterial diversity in bulk soils and rhizospheres of a pioneer plant across a High Arctic glacier chronosequence. We show that the developmental stage of soil strongly modulates rhizosphere community assembly, even though plant-induced selection buffers the effect of changing edaphic factors. Bulk and rhizosphere soils host distinct bacterial communities that differentially vary along the chronosequence. Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium, and metabolite concentration in the soil account for the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Although the soil fraction (bulk soil and rhizosphere) explains up to 17.2% of the variation in bacterial microbiota, the soil developmental stage explains up to 47.7% of this variation. In addition, the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) co-occurrence network of the rhizosphere, whose complexity increases along the chronosequence, is loosely structured in barren compared with mature soils, corroborating our hypothesis that soil development tunes the rhizosphere effect.

  18. The stage of soil development modulates rhizosphere effect along a High Arctic desert chronosequence

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2018-01-09

    In mature soils, plant species and soil type determine the selection of root microbiota. Which of these two factors drives rhizosphere selection in barren substrates of developing desert soils has, however, not yet been established. Chronosequences of glacier forelands provide ideal natural environments to identify primary rhizosphere selection factors along the changing edaphic conditions of a developing soil. Here, we analyze changes in bacterial diversity in bulk soils and rhizospheres of a pioneer plant across a High Arctic glacier chronosequence. We show that the developmental stage of soil strongly modulates rhizosphere community assembly, even though plant-induced selection buffers the effect of changing edaphic factors. Bulk and rhizosphere soils host distinct bacterial communities that differentially vary along the chronosequence. Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium, and metabolite concentration in the soil account for the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Although the soil fraction (bulk soil and rhizosphere) explains up to 17.2% of the variation in bacterial microbiota, the soil developmental stage explains up to 47.7% of this variation. In addition, the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) co-occurrence network of the rhizosphere, whose complexity increases along the chronosequence, is loosely structured in barren compared with mature soils, corroborating our hypothesis that soil development tunes the rhizosphere effect.

  19. The stage of soil development modulates rhizosphere effect along a High Arctic desert chronosequence

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Fusi, Marco; Scaglia, Barbara; Tsiamis, George; Rolli, Eleonora; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Ventura, Stefano; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In mature soils, plant species and soil type determine the selection of root microbiota. Which of these two factors drives rhizosphere selection in barren substrates of developing desert soils has, however, not yet been established. Chronosequences of glacier forelands provide ideal natural environments to identify primary rhizosphere selection factors along the changing edaphic conditions of a developing soil. Here, we analyze changes in bacterial diversity in bulk soils and rhizospheres of a pioneer plant across a High Arctic glacier chronosequence. We show that the developmental stage of soil strongly modulates rhizosphere community assembly, even though plant-induced selection buffers the effect of changing edaphic factors. Bulk and rhizosphere soils host distinct bacterial communities that differentially vary along the chronosequence. Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium, and metabolite concentration in the soil account for the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Although the soil fraction (bulk soil and rhizosphere) explains up to 17.2% of the variation in bacterial microbiota, the soil developmental stage explains up to 47.7% of this variation. In addition, the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) co-occurrence network of the rhizosphere, whose complexity increases along the chronosequence, is loosely structured in barren compared with mature soils, corroborating our hypothesis that soil development tunes the rhizosphere effect.

  20. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  1. Periconceptional maternal one-carbon biomarkers are associated with embryonic development according to the Carnegie stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, F; Rousian, M; Koning, A H J; Willemsen, S P; Cetin, I; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-03-01

    Is periconceptional maternal one-carbon (I-C) metabolism associated with embryonic morphological development in non-malformed ongoing pregnancies? Serum vitamin B12, red blood cell (RBC) folate and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) are associated with embryonic development according to the Carnegie stages. Derangements in maternal I-C metabolism affect reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as future health of the offspring. Between 2010 and 2014, women with singleton ongoing pregnancies were enrolled in a prospective periconceptional cohort study. A total of 234 pregnancies, including 138 spontaneous or IUI pregnancies with strict pregnancy dating and 96 pregnancies derived from IVF, ICSI or cryopreserved embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI pregnancies), underwent longitudinal transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) scans from 6+0 up to 10+2 weeks of gestation. Carnegie stages were defined using internal and external morphologic criteria in a virtual reality system. Maternal venous blood samples were collected at enrollment for serum vitamin B12, RBC folate and plasma tHcy assessment. Associations between biomarker concentrations and longitudinal Carnegie stages were investigated using linear mixed models. We performed a median of three 3D US scans per pregnancy (range 1-5) resulting in 600 good quality data sets for the Carnegie stage annotation (80.5%). Vitamin B12 was positively associated with embryonic development in the total study population (β = 0.001 (95% CI: 0.000; 0.002), P Carnegie stages only in IVF/ICSI pregnancies (β = 0.001 (95% CI: 0.0005; 0.0015), P < 0.05). In this group, low RBC folate concentrations (-2SD, 875.4 nmol/l) were associated with a 1.8-day delay (95% CI: 1.7-1.8) in development compared with high concentrations (+2SD, 2119.9 nmol/l). tHcy was negatively associated with embryonic development in the total study population (β = -0.08 (95% CI: -0.14; -0.02), P < 0.01), as well as in the IVF/ICSI subgroup (β = -0.08 (95% CI: -0

  2. Global health governance in the sustainable development goals: Is it grounded in the right to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Pas, Remco; Hill, Peter S; Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Forman, Lisa; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; McKee, Martin; Sridhar, Devi

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which global health governance - in the context of the early implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals is grounded in the right to health. The essential components of the right to health in relation to global health are unpacked. Four essential functions of the global health system are assessed from a normative, rights-based, analysis on how each of these governance functions should operate. These essential functions are: the production of global public goods, the management of externalities across countries, the mobilization of global solidarity, and stewardship. The paper maps the current reality of global health governance now that the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals are beginning to be implemented. In theory, the existing human rights legislation would enable the principles and basis for the global governance of health beyond the premise of the state. In practice, there is a governance gap between the human rights framework and practices in global health and development policies. This gap can be explained by the political determinants of health that shape the governance of these global policies. Current representations of the right to health in the Sustainable Development Goals are insufficient and superficial, because they do not explicitly link commitments or right to health discourse to binding treaty obligations for duty-bearing nation states or entitlements by people. If global health policy is to meaningfully contribute to the realization of the right to health and to rights based global health governance then future iterations of global health policy must bridge this gap. This includes scholarship and policy debate on the structure, politics, and agency to overcome existing global health injustices.

  3. Study and development of three jaboncillo (Sapindus saponaria L.) products as grounding in its industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechas, Henry; Arango, Camilo; Morales, Nelly B; Jimenez, Jhon

    2009-01-01

    This research included the chemical and phyto chemical studies and the industrial scaling in pilot plant of three products of Sapindus saponaria, commonly known as jaboncillo, Michu. This work is part of an interdisciplinary research project aimed at the exploitation and commercialization of its harvested products: oil, gum, and triterpenoidal sapogenins. These three products were obtained through physical and chemical processes both in laboratory (phase 1) and in the industrial scaling stage (phase 2). During the laboratory stage different methods of extraction and purification were studied and assessed, along with the corresponding methods of chemical analysis for the three origins (Palmira, Valle; Viota, Cundinamarca, and Santa Maria, Huila). Based on laboratory studies, extraction and purification processes were designed in a pilot plant supplied by the QUINACOL Ltda. company, whose business is the production, research and development of products for the phyto pharmaceutical industry. Developed products were characterized by methods of instrumental analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C), flame ionization detector gas chromatography (GC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and specific chemical analysis techniques designed for these products. The mature fruit of Santa Maria presented increased performance of oil and rubber; as well as the green fruit of Viota, in a substance called Ss1, possibly hederagenina. Of the products obtained in the pilot phase, oil presented a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and rubber showed a high thickening capacity in aqueous solutions. Oil and rubber could be marketed from this species' fruit, because its composition and characteristics, as well as its performance, meets the main parameters of marketing, for which studies on industrial perfectibility are needed.

  4. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  5. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  6. Current role and future developments of radiotherapy in early-stage favourable Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, H.T.; Mueller, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    The radiosensibility of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is well established since 1902, when Pusey was one of the first to publish about radiotherapeutical treatment of a HL. In the early years, radiotherapy was the only curative treatment for this systemic disease, but the reports of Kaplan and Rosenberg and Peters in the fifties and seventies showed that irradiation of involved lymph node regions only resulted in high local and distant recurrences. The introduction of linear accelerator based high dose extended field (EF)-radiotherapy by Kaplan in Stanford was a milestone in the evolution of definitive curative radiotherapy strategies. The application of the mantle field for supradiaphragmatic and the inverted Y (with or without including the spleen or splenic pedicle) for infradiaphragmatic disease resulted in a dramatic improvement of survival rates in the early stages I and II (Ann Arbor) from 25-30% in the sixties to 65-80% in the eighties. Kaplan reported about a close relationship between radiation dose and cure rates in the case of definitive radiotherapy. A dose of at least 40 Gy resulted in local recurrences below 5% and is today the standard dose for radiotherapy only outside protocols. Despite complete remission rates after radiotherapy of 90-100%, the overall recurrence rate (including in-field, marginal and distant relapses) was between 20 and 30%. Analysis of the relapses revealed some stage migrating risk factors: large mediastinal mass, extra nodal involvement, number of involved lymph node areas (≥ 3) and high ESR. The possibility of more accurate staging by using new imaging techniques like ultrasonography, CT and MRI as well as PET in the recent years resulted e.g. in the definition of early-favourable, early-unfavourable (intermediate) and high risk stages and more specific, risk adapted treatment strategies. The objective of this article is to show recent achievements and developments in the management of early-stage favourable HL exemplified by

  7. Development of a Tool to Stage Households' Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Sarma, P S; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach's Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay community

  8. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  9. Investigation of Intellectual Risk-Taking Abilities of Students According to Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development and Education Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Derya DAŞCI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the cognitive development stages of students of 4-8th class and is to research the effect to ability of intellectual risk-taking of this periods and education grade. Survey method and clinical method are used in the study which practices for this purpose. In the study which 20 students from every grade, in total 100 students, 6 different activities which are improved and used by different researchers are applied to determine the cognitive development stages whose classification is made by Piaget with Intellectual Risk-Taking and Predictor Scale which was improved by Beghetto (2009. Activities that students made individualistically are marked with observation form and their cognitive development stages are determined according to responses of each. Cognitive development stages and intellectual risk-taking level of students are analyzed with descriptive statistics. In the research result it is seen that majority of students is in the transitional stage and as long as class level increases it is passed to formal operational stage from concrete operational stage. While it is seen that as long as education grade rise intellectual risk-taking abilities of students decreases, it is determined that cognitive development stages has not any effect on this ability. The research is completed with suggestions based on results.

  10. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  11. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  12. What are your priorities right now? Identifying service needs across recovery stages to inform service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are, for many, chronic conditions that are typically associated with severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. "Recovery" from SUD is, for most, a lengthy process; improvements in other areas of functioning do not necessarily follow the attainment of abstinence. The current SUD service model providing intense, short-term, symptom-focused services is ill-suited to address these issues. A recovery-oriented model of care is emerging, which provides coordinated recovery-support services using a chronic-care model of sustained recovery management. Information is needed about substance users' priorities, particularly persons in recovery who are not currently enrolled in treatment, to guide the development of recovery-oriented systems. As a first step in filling this gap, we present qualitative data on current life priorities among a sample of individuals that collectively represent successive recovery stages (N = 356). Findings suggest that many areas of functioning remain challenging long after abstinence is attained, most notably employment and education, family/social relations, and housing. Although the ranking of priorities changes somewhat across recovery stages, employment is consistently the second most important priority, behind working on one's recovery. Study limitations are noted, and the implications of findings for the development and evaluation of recovery-oriented services are discussed.

  13. The development of an intervention to manage pain in people with late-stage osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kruger-Jakins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions worldwide, affecting the functional abilities of millions of people. Arthroplasty is recommended as a successful treatment option for late-stage OA. However, in South Africa there are extensive waiting lists for OA-related arthroplasty in government hospitals. This has negative consequences for patients having to cope for long periods of time with chronic pain and its impact. Alternative treatment methods in the form of physiotherapy-led exercise and education programmes focusing on pain, disability, self-efficacy, physical function and health-related quality of life have had good impact in populations elsewhere. Objectives: To develop an exercise and education intervention based on the current literature and by doing a field survey in a South African population. Results: A combined educational approach, with a strong focus on the physical aspects of exercise in particular, was adopted for the intervention in order to improve function and manage the disability associated with OA. Conclusion: This paper reports on the process and development of an intervention for use in South Africans with late-stage OA awaiting arthroplasty. Keywords: Hip/knee osteoarthritis, arthroplasty, joint replacement, bio-psychosocial intervention, waiting list, physiotherapy, exercise, education, chronic pain

  14. Changes of lysosomes in the earliest stages of the development of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Shchelkunova, Tatyana A; Morozov, Ivan A; Rubtsov, Petr M; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Smirnov, Alexander N

    2013-05-01

    One of hypotheses of atherosclerosis is based on a presumption that the zones prone to the development of atherosclerosis contain lysosomes which are characterized by enzyme deficiency and thus, are unable to dispose of lipoproteins. The present study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics and changes of lysosomes in the earliest stages of the development of atherosclerosis. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that there were certain changes in the distribution of CD68 antigen in lysosomes along the 'normal intima-initial lesion-fatty streak' sequence. There were no significant changes found in the key mRNAs encoding for the components of endosome/lysosome compartment in initial atherosclerotic lesions, but in fatty streaks, the contents of EEA1 and Rab5a mRNAs were found to be diminished while the contents of CD68 and p62 mRNAs were increased, compared with the intact tissue. The study reinforces a view that changes occurring in lysosomes play a role in atherogenesis from the very earlier stages of the disease. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The challenges and opportunities of climate change policy under different stages of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liobikienė, Genovaitė; Butkus, Mindaugas

    2018-06-18

    Climate change policy confronts with many challenges and opportunities. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse the impact of gross domestic product (hereinafter GDP), trade, foreign direct investment (hereinafter FDI), energy efficiency (hereinafter EF) and renewable energy (hereinafter RE) consumption on greenhouse gas (hereinafter GHG) emissions in 1990-2013 and reveal the main challenges and opportunities of climate policy for which policy makers should take the most attention under different stages of economic development. The results showed that the economic growth significantly contributed to the increase of GHG emissions and remains the main challenge in all groups of countries. Analysing the trade impact on pollution, the results revealed that the growth of export (hereinafter EX) significantly reduced GHG emissions only in high income countries. However, the export remains a challenge in low income countries. FDI insignificantly determined the changes in GHG emissions in all groups of countries. Meanwhile, energy efficiency and share of renewable energy consumption are the main opportunities of climate change policy because they reduce the GHG emissions in all groups of countries. Thus, technological processes, the increase of energy efficiency and the shift from carbon to renewable energy sources are the main tools implementing the climate change policy in all countries despite the different stage of economic development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

    better understanding of students' ideas and her mindset shifted to place more value on the diversity of students' thinking and help them be more aware of their ideas. This study illustrates the complexities of enacting formative assessment practices in particular classrooms because teachers may interpret and use these tools in different ways. Thus, when teachers enacted these mediating tools, their interaction with the activity system's components produced different instructional outcomes and tensions. Similarly, this study describes how the use of artifacts of practice can be a vehicle between professional development and classrooms, especially in early stages of professional development. This study presents implications for professional development and formative assessment research and practice. Professional development needs to support teachers in reflecting on their practice in terms of activity systems, use a solid and research-based understanding of formative assessment, and promote opportunities to teachers to create, enact, and reflect on formative assessment artifacts and tools.

  17. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Development of a low background test facility for the SPICA-SAFARI on-ground calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, P.; Laauwen, W. M.; Ferrari, L.; Ferlet, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Meinsma, L.; Huisman, R.

    2012-09-01

    SAFARI is a far-infrared camera to be launched in 2021 onboard the SPICA satellite. SAFARI offers imaging spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the wavelength range of 34 to 210 μm with detector NEP of 2•10-19 W/√Hz. A cryogenic test facility for SAFARI on-ground calibration and characterization is being developed. The main design driver is the required low background of a few attoWatts per pixel. This prohibits optical access to room temperature and hence all test equipment needs to be inside the cryostat at 4.5K. The instrument parameters to be verified are interfaces with the SPICA satellite, sensitivity, alignment, image quality, spectral response, frequency calibration, and point spread function. The instrument sensitivity is calibrated by a calibration source providing a spatially homogeneous signal at the attoWatt level. This low light intensity is achieved by geometrical dilution of a 150K source to an integrating sphere. The beam quality and point spread function is measured by a pinhole/mask plate wheel, back-illuminated by a second integrating sphere. This sphere is fed by a stable wide-band source, providing spectral lines via a cryogenic etalon.

  19. Development of the command data system and ground software for the SEDSAT-1 microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, B. Earl

    1996-01-01

    SEDSAT-1 is designed to be a low cost scientific satellite which is to be used to perform a minimum of five tasks which include: (1) the acquisition of a number of important parameters associated with the tethering processes from the payloads perspective (such as accelerations incurred and imaging data of the tether during deployment), (2) to act as a remote sensing platform for making measurements of the Earth's Atmosphere (allowing research to be performed in such areas as vertical lightning observation, visible light spectrography, and cloud cover studies, (3) to act as a general purpose amateur radio communication satellite relaying information back to earth, (4) to demonstrate the feasibility of the deployment in low earth orbit of advanced technology such as the Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells, Nickel Metal Hydride batteries, and multi-chip module technology and, (5) to support student's active participation in applying the disciplines of engineering and science to space-based hardware platforms. The project includes the Three-axis Accelerometer System, TAS, Experiment which is designed to report the accelerations that the satellite undergoes during the tethering operations and during the second phase of the mission when the free floating satellite comes in contact with orbit debris. The SEASIS (SEDS Earth, Atmosphere, and Space Imaging System) is another SEDSAT experiment designed to provide images of the tether during its deployment and the earth during the second phase of the mission. To control these experiments and virtually all other satellite operations the Command Data System, CDS is employed. This system utilizes a moderate complexity micro-controller controlled by tasks operating under a real-time operating system to dynamically monitor and control the satellite. The scope of this researchers efforts has been in the general area of coordinating and assisting the student researchers with the development of the CDS and ground station interfaces. This

  20. The illusion of parental celibacy. A necessary stage in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopper, Moisy

    2002-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing Freud's case history of Dora and emphasizing her involvement in and overstimulation by her parents' sexual behavior. This markedly interfered with her ability to desexualize her relationship with them. As a result she was unable to develop the illusion of parental celibacy, which I postulate is an important and necessary defensive stage in normal adolescence. This illusion facilitates the desexualization of the adolescent's relationship to the parents and so contributes to separation from them and the seeking of non-incestuous sexual outlets. The disruption of this illusion of parental celibacy by parental sex education, or by the complications of parental divorce may contribute significantly to the development of adolescent psychopathology. Clinical vignettes are presented.

  1. Innovative financing for late-stage global health research and development: the Global Health Investment Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph Robert; Fan Li, Julia; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Innovative financing strategies for global health are urgently needed to reinvigorate investment and new tools for impact. Bottleneck areas along the research and development (R&D) pipeline require particular attention, such as the transitions from preclinical discovery to clinical study, and product development to implementation and delivery. Successful organizations mobilizing and disbursing resources through innovating financing mechanisms include UNITAID, the Global Fund, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Although precise numbers are poorly documented, estimated investment in low-income settings falls seriously short of local need. This commentary discusses the newly established Global Health Investment Fund as a case study to support late-stage global health R&D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The development of Kaliningrad regional economy: A new stage of restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimbitsky K. K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kaliningrad region is developing in complicated exclave conditions, which results in insufficient resilience of its economy to external impacts. There is a need for constant monitoring of the economic situation in the region and the adaptation of the regional strategy to changing conditions. This article sets out to evaluate the stages of regional economy development and the methods of its modernisation and restructuring in view of accumulated experience in reacting to changes in conditions of regional development. The authors analyse complex statistical data from 1990—2012 and the modern condition of the Kaliningrad regional economy compared to the national average. The article relies heavily on the results of the survey of specialists working in regional companies. Russian accession to the WTO and the abolition of certain customs privileges planned for 2016 form the basis for the import substitution manufacturing and will significantly affect the conditions of regional economy development. Implementation of the Strategy for the Socioeconomic Development of the Region will contribute to the innovativeness of economy, its export orientation, development through an increase in labour productivity, and cooperation with both Russian and international partners. It will reduce the dependence of production on imported raw materials and semi-finished produces, as well as its energy intensity. The formation of a new more stable economy will be facilitated through federal support and implementation of a number of regional programmes.

  3. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  4. Further development of the methodical instruments to calculate ground water movements at repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Clauser, C.; Fein, E.; Karpinski, P.; Storck, R.

    1990-06-01

    In addition to the subsequent requirements concerning the Konrad plan approval procedure, other ground water and propagation calculations were also made. All available programs were used. Simple one- and two-dimensional models were considered for which an analytical solution exists. In some cases such analytical solutions are only approximate under certain conditions. By calculating such simple problems, the programs used were tested and verified, and the use of those programs was reviewed and documented. In addition to the finite-difference program SWIFT and the finite-element program CFEST, two other ground water and propagation programs were applied: 1) Finite-difference program MOL, two-dimensional propagation program for ground water flow; 2) SUTRA, two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated finite-difference model for ground water flow and radionuclide migration. (orig./HP) [de

  5. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  6. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  7. Creb1 regulates late stage mammalian lung development via respiratory epithelial and mesenchymal-independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, N.; McDougall, A. R.; Mantamadiotis, T.; Cole, T. J.; Bird, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian lung development, the morphological transition from respiratory tree branching morphogenesis to a predominantly saccular architecture, capable of air-breathing at birth, is dependent on physical forces as well as molecular signaling by a range of transcription factors including the cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1). Creb1−/− mutant mice exhibit complete neonatal lethality consistent with a lack of lung maturation beyond the branching phase. To further define its role in the developing mouse lung, we deleted Creb1 separately in the respiratory epithelium and mesenchyme. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a morphological lung defect nor compromised neonatal survival in either conditional Creb1 mutant. Interestingly however, loss of mesenchymal Creb1 on a genetic background lacking the related Crem protein showed normal lung development but poor neonatal survival. To investigate the underlying requirement for Creb1 for normal lung development, Creb1−/− mice were re-examined for defects in both respiratory muscles and glucocorticoid hormone signaling, which are also required for late stage lung maturation. However, these systems appeared normal in Creb1−/− mice. Together our results suggest that the requirement of Creb1 for normal mammalian lung morphogenesis is not dependent upon its expression in lung epithelium or mesenchyme, nor its role in musculoskeletal development. PMID:27150575

  8. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  9. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  10. Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qian

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures.To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development.We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies.Current study showed that (i conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5 resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives.Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.

  11. Development of an innovative two-stage process, a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.K.; Shin, H.S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil and Enviromental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen produced from waste by means of fermentative bacteria is an attractive way to produce this fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. It also helps treat the associated waste. The authors have undertaken to optimize acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. Building on this, they then developed a two-stage process that produces both hydrogen and methane. Acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was investigated using a leaching bed reactor. The dilution rate was varied in order to maximize efficiency which was as high as 70.8 per cent. Further to this, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor converted the wastewater from acidogenic hydrogenesis into methane. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates exceeded 96 per cent up to a COD loading of 12.9 COD/l/d. After this, the authors devised a new two-stage process based on a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. The authors report on results for this process using food waste as feedstock. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  13. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  14. SUCCESS FACTORS IN GROWING SMBs: A STUDY OF TWO INDUSTRIES AT TWO STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Jarl Trondsen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to identify factors for growing SMBs. An evolutionary phase approach has been used. The study also aims to find out if there are common and different denominators for newer and older firms that can affect their profitability. The study selects a sampling frame that isolates two groups of firms in two industries at two stages of development. A variety of organizational and structural data was collected and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions that may be drawn from the study are that it is not easy to find a common definition of success, it is important to stratify SMBs when studying them, an evolutionary stage approach helps to compare firms with roughly the same external and internal dynamics and each industry has its own set of success variables.The study has identified three success variables for older firms that reflect contemporary strategic thinking such as crafting a good strategy and changing it only incrementally, building core competencies and outsourcing the rest, and keeping up with innovation and honing competitive skills.

  15. Development of an optochemical sensor for continuous reversible determination of nitrate in drinking water and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpp, R.

    1993-09-01

    An optochemical sensor has been developed for continuous reversible determination of nitrate in drinking water and ground water. The sensor is based on the combination of the anion selective liquid ion exchanger Ni(II[bathophenanthroline] 3 2+ with phenolsulfonephtalein dyes in a polyvinylchloride membrane. (orig.) [de

  16. A Grounded Theory of Adolescent High School Women's Choir Singers' Process of Social Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the process of social identity development for adolescent high school women's choir participants. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to identify three public high school women's choirs where 54 interviews were conducted with 40 different public school singers. Three waves of data…

  17. Preparatory research to develop an operational method to calibrate airborne sensor data using a network of ground calibration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, E.J.; Smith, G.M.; Lawless, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an operational method to convert airborne spectral radiance data to reflectance using a number of well-characterized ground calibration sites located around the UK. The study is in three phases. First, a pilot study has been conducted at a disused airfield in southern England to test the feasibility of the open-quote empirical line close-quote method of sensor calibration. The second phase is developing methods to predict temporal changes in the bidirectional reflectance of ground calibration sites. The final phase of the project will look at methods to extend such calibrations spatially. This paper presents some results from the first phase of this study. The viability of the empirical line method of correction is shown to depend upon the use of ground targets whose in-band reflectance encompasses that of the targets of interest in the spectral band(s) concerned. The experimental design for the second phase of the study, in which methods to predict temporal trends in the bidirectional reflectance of these sites will be developed, is discussed. Finally, it is planned to develop an automated method of searching through Landsat TM data for the UK to identify a number of candidate ground calibration sites for which the model can be tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  18. A Grounded Theory for Regional Development through the IT Offshoring Industry with the Triple-Helix Involvment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal de la Garza, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded study was to explore the thoughts, experiences, and needs of potential clients and of the triple-helix members with the intention to establish a framework to support the development of the regional economy through the information technology (IT) and business processing outsourcing (BPO) offshoring industry.…

  19. Fostering values: four stages towards developing professional ethics for future accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zaleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The many accounting scandals occurred in the last three decades have change the perspective of accountant globally. As such, the higher institutions have to play their role in nurturing professional ethics in order to change the misconception towards the profession. Our observation of the literature indicates that incorporating professional ethics in higher institutions is a way forward towards developing future accountants with values. Henceforth, we conducted a generic inquiry study to explore how higher institutions could inculcate accounting graduates with professional ethics. Our findings show a conceptual framework which depicted four stages towards incorporating professional ethics at tertiary level education there are: 1 value development, 2 ethics maturation, 3 professionalism development and 4 ownership through effective implementation and enforcement. Consequently, the findings contribute to expanding the current knowledge in our conceptualisation of the professional ethics concept. In addition, the findings support the development of ethics education for accounting graduates in higher institutions in Malaysia. We consider that this study provides evidence to educators and policy makers that teaching methods and pedagogical policies should ensure professional ethics education in business schools in Malaysia is treated as a pervasive element of curricula rather than an optional choice.

  20. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  1. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. AIMS: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. METHOD: A comprehensive search......: Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders...... seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies...

  2. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley Caldera, Mono County, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. This paper reports that early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by ground-water or geothermal development

  3. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  4. Information support of decision-making in the early stages of new product development when approaching marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tishhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To create theoretical and practical approaches to information support of the decision making procedure at the initial stages of developing a new product with a marketing management approach that allows to improve the quality of management decisions on the product. Material and methods. The projected software package on the basis of expert assessments and fuzzy sets, allows to automate the decision to implement innovation at an early stage. The work used such scientific methods as generalization of scientific literature in the field of shaping and taking into account the features of innovation, Solutions in the initial stages of development, methods of expert evaluation and elements of fuzzy sets. Results and its discussion. The article presents the rationale and possibilities for informational support of the decision-making procedure for innovative products. The authors also proposed a methodology for making a decision when developing a new product based on expert and predictive assessments of innovation at the initial stages of its creation. A software package has been developed that automates the decision to manufacture a new product at the initial stages of production. Conclusion. Despite a large number of theoretical developments in innovative management, the risk associated with the release of new products remains quite high. The developed methodology of information support for decision-making at the initial stages of the development of a new product will reduce the risk of the lack of demand for innovation.

  5. Development of optical ground verification method for μm to sub-mm reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Y.; Thizy, C.; Lemaire, P.; Georges, M.; Mazy, E.; Mazzoli, A.; Houbrechts, Y.; Rochus, P.; Roose, S.; Doyle, D.; Ulbrich, G.

    2017-11-01

    Large reflectors and antennas for the IR to mm wavelength range are being planned for many Earth observation and astronomical space missions and for commercial communication satellites as well. Scientific observatories require large telescopes with precisely shaped reflectors for collecting the electro-magnetic radiation from faint sources. The challenging tasks of on-ground testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of the reflector shapes and antenna structures and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperatures). Due to the specific surface characteristics of reflectors operating in these spectral regions, standard optical metrology methods employed in the visible spectrum do not provide useful measurement results. The current state-of-the-art commercial metrology systems are not able to measure these types of reflectors because they have to face the measurement of shape and waviness over relatively large areas with a large deformation dynamic range and encompassing a wide range of spatial frequencies. 3-D metrology (tactile coordinate measurement) machines are generally used during the manufacturing process. Unfortunately, these instruments cannot be used in the operational environmental conditions of the reflector. The application of standard visible wavelength interferometric methods is very limited or impossible due to the large relative surface roughnesses involved. A small number of infrared interferometers have been commercially developed over the last 10 years but their applications have also been limited due to poor dynamic range and the restricted spatial resolution of their detectors. These restrictions affect also the surface error slopes that can be captured and makes their application to surfaces manufactured using CRFP honeycomb technologies rather difficult or impossible. It has therefore been considered essential, from the viewpoint of supporting future ESA exploration missions, to

  6. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  7. A 3D reconstruction of pancreas development in the human embryos during embryonic period (Carnegie stages 15-23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, M; Gaubert, J; Cristol-Gaubert, R; Baecker, V; Travo, P; Prudhomme, M; Godlewski, G; Prat-Pradal, D

    2010-01-01

    The goal in this paper was to rebuild a three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds, in the human embryos, at Carnegie stages 15-23. The early development of the pancreas is studied by tissue observation and reconstruction by a computer-assisted method, using a light micrograph images from consecutive serial sagittal sections (diameter 7 microm) of ten human embryos ranging from Carnegie stages 15-23, CRL 7-27 mm, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin, were stained alternately with haematoxylin-eosin or Heindenhain'Azan. The images were digitalized by Canon Camera 350 EOS D. The serial views were aligned automatically by software, manual alignment was performed, the data were analysed following segmentation and threshold. The two buds were clearly identified at stage 15. In stage 16, both pancreatic buds were in final position, and begin to merge in stage 17. From stage 18 to the stage 23, surrounding connective tissue differentiated. In the stage 23, the morphology of the pancreas was definitive. The superior portion of the anterior face of the pancreas's head was arising from the dorsal bud. The rest of the head including the uncinate process emanated from the ventral bud. The 3D computer-assisted reconstruction of the human pancreas visualized the relationships between the two pancreatic buds. This explains the disposition and the modality of the components fusion. This embryologic development permits a better understanding of congenital abnormalities.

  8. Developing a Ballistic Software Kit to Estimate Vehicle Characteristics at the Draft Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Maiorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a ballistic software kit to calculate a moving vehicle trajectory in atmosphere and space. Such software gives an opportunity to accelerate the acquisition of flying vehicle’s ballistic parameters at the stage of draft design. It contributes to improving collaboration efficiency between adjacent departments involved in the project. The developed software kit includes three different programs: Trajectory-LAND© (motion in atmosphere with possible correction of a trajectory, Trajectory-SPACE© (motion in the non-central gravity field with possible simulation of maneuvers, Trajectory-LAUNCH© (launch-vehicle’s insertion into the orbit with possible defining the impact points of separated stages. Each of the software concedes the addition of computational modules to use the solution results of the basic task. Implemented mathematical models permit to take into account the influence of main perturbations on the flying vehicle during the flight. For illustration purposes, the article gives some examples of using each of the programs and their block-diagrams.The developed software implements some algorithms, which allow attaining the convergence of numerical simulation of differential equations of motion. This problem arises, for example, while determining an attitude in case the stages have already separated from the launch vehicle. The mathematical conversion from Rodriguez-Hamilton parameters into Euler’s angles disables us to obtain reliable values of attitude angles due to the limitations for existing area of inverse trigonometric functions being used. Incorrect values of pitch lead to raw and roll channels divergences. Moreover, the mistakes in attitude determination lead to mistakes in obtained values of attack angle, which is included into the forms for aerodynamic forces and torques. As a result, the solution of system of differential equations is a failure when a flying vehicle enters the height of 30-35 km. The

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW HEAT LEAK CFRP STAND FOR MIRI COOLER JT HEAT EXCHANGER STAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, K. P.; Hayashil, B.; Larson, M. E.; Loc, A. S.; Zhang, B. X.; Leland, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    A low heat leak stand is being developed for the Heat exchanger Stage Assembly (HSA) of the cryocooler subsystem for the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The HSA stand is a hexapod structure supporting the 18 K HSA in a nominal 40 K background environment. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been selected for this application to meet the stringent design requirements of a low parasitic heat leak (less than 3.8 mW including both conductive and radiative heat loads for the thermal environment defined above) and a resonance frequency above 120 Hz. A directional lay-up of T300/polycyanate has been chosen for the construction of the hexapod struts. End fittings made of Invar 36 are bonded to the struts to provide structural interfaces. The development effort includes fabricating and testing (including cryogenic thermal cycling) six types of coupons for material characterization, determination of structural degradation due to thermal cycling, and selection of the joint bonding epoxy. Consequently, strut samples are used for final material characterization, performance assessment, and bond joint design evaluation. This paper describes the development process and addresses the challenges in meeting the design requirements. Results of finite element analysis (FEA) for the composite structure and experimental data collected through structural and thermal testing are also presented.

  10. A Case for Developing a Ground Based Replication of the Earth, Moon and Mars Spaceflight Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Best, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    When the systems are developed and in place to provide the services needed to operate en route and on the Lunar and Martian surfaces, an Earth based replication will need to be in place for the safety and protection of mission success. The replication will entail all aspects of the flight configuration end to end but will not include any closed loop systems. This would replicate the infrastructure from Lunar and Martian robots, manned surface excursions, through man and unmanned terrestrial bases, through the various types of communication systems and technologies, manned and un-manned space vehicles (large and small), to Earth based systems and control centers. An Earth based replicated infrastructure will enable checkout and test of new technologies, hardware, software updates and upgrades and procedures without putting humans and missions at risk. Analysis of events, what ifs and trouble resolution could be played out on the ground to remove as much risk as possible from any type of proposed change to flight operational systems. With adequate detail, it is possible that failures could be predicted with a high probability and action taken to eliminate failures. A major factor in any mission to the Moon and to Mars is the complexity of systems, interfaces, processes, their limitations, associated risks and the factor of the unknown including the development by many contractors and NASA centers. The need to be able to introduce new technologies over the life of the program requires an end to end test bed to analyze and evaluate these technologies and what will happen when they are introduced into the flight system. The ability to analyze system behaviors end to end under varying conditions would enhance safety e.g. fault tolerances. This analysis along with the ability to mine data from the development environment (e.g. test data), flight ops and modeling/simulations data would provide a level of information not currently available to operations and astronauts. In

  11. Quarantine treatment by gamma radiation for different development stages of Callosobruchus maculatus in bean Vigna sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Machi, André R.; Franco, Suely S.H.

    2017-01-01

    The loss of stored grain caused by insects generates a problem of economic order of importance, due to concern about the increased supply of food for the world population is expanding. Associated with this fact, there is the problem of nutritional deficiency due to lack of protein, especially for the less privileged populations. The use of ionizing radiation in grains and products stored without a doubt can solve the problem of the losses in these products, since it does not induce resistance to insects and leaves no toxic residue in the products, and is considered an effective and safe method. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation from cobalt-60 as a quarantine treatment for the different stages of development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1972) (Coleóptera, Chysomilidae) in bean Vigna sinensis. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Bean samples infested with eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae C. maculatus, the experiment consisted of 4 replicates for each stage of the insect's life cycle, and each repetition consisted of 20 individuals (eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae), a total of 200 subjects per treatment which were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, a source of cobalt-60, Gammabeam-650 type, in a rate dose of 1.3 kGy / h. The experiment was conducted in a room with a relative of 25 ± 2 ° C temperature and humidity of 70 ± 5%. After 35 days of irradiation process were carried out evaluations of the number of insects emerged in each repetition within the treatments. From the results obtained it was concluded that the dose lethal to eggs and larvae was 25 Gy, while for pre-pupae was 50 Gy, to pupae 100 Gy was not sufficient to control the adult emergence. (author)

  12. Frost resistance of reproductive tissues during various stages of development in high mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Erler, Agnes; Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Frost resistance of reproductive vs aboveground vegetative structures was determined for six common European high alpine plant species that can be exposed to frosts throughout their whole reproductive cycle. Freezing tests were carried out in the bud, anthesis and fruit stage. Stigma and style, ovary, placenta, ovule, flower stalk/peduncle and, in Ranunculus glacialis, the receptacle were separately investigated. In all species, the vegetative organs tolerated on an average 2-5 K lower freezing temperatures than the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures that differed in their frost resistance. In almost all species, stigma, style and the flower stalk/peduncle were the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures. Initial frost damage (LT₁₀) to the most susceptible reproductive structure usually occurred between -2 and -4°C independent of the reproductive stage. The median LT₅₀ across species for stigma and style ranged between -3.4 and -3.7°C and matched the mean ice nucleation temperature (-3.7 ± 1.4°C). In R. glacialis, the flower stalk was the most frost-susceptible structure (-5.4°C), and was in contrast to the other species ice-tolerant. The ovule and the placenta were usually the most frost-resistant structures. During reproductive development, frost resistance (LT₅₀) of single reproductive structures mostly showed no significant change. However, significant increases or decreases were also observed (2.1 ± 1.2 K). Reproductive tissues of nival species generally tolerated lower temperatures than species occurring in the alpine zone. The low frost resistance of reproductive structures before, during and shortly after anthesis increases the probability of frost damage and thus, may restrict successful sexual plant reproduction with increasing altitude. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  13. Quarantine treatment by gamma radiation for different development stages of Callosobruchus maculatus in bean Vigna sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Machi, André R.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Fontes, Lucia da Silva, E-mail: lsfontes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Harder, Márcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dep. Roque Trevisan; Rossi, Rodrigo S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Franco, José G., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: zegilmar60@gamil.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The loss of stored grain caused by insects generates a problem of economic order of importance, due to concern about the increased supply of food for the world population is expanding. Associated with this fact, there is the problem of nutritional deficiency due to lack of protein, especially for the less privileged populations. The use of ionizing radiation in grains and products stored without a doubt can solve the problem of the losses in these products, since it does not induce resistance to insects and leaves no toxic residue in the products, and is considered an effective and safe method. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation from cobalt-60 as a quarantine treatment for the different stages of development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1972) (Coleóptera, Chysomilidae) in bean Vigna sinensis. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Bean samples infested with eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae C. maculatus, the experiment consisted of 4 replicates for each stage of the insect's life cycle, and each repetition consisted of 20 individuals (eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae), a total of 200 subjects per treatment which were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, a source of cobalt-60, Gammabeam-650 type, in a rate dose of 1.3 kGy / h. The experiment was conducted in a room with a relative of 25 ± 2 ° C temperature and humidity of 70 ± 5%. After 35 days of irradiation process were carried out evaluations of the number of insects emerged in each repetition within the treatments. From the results obtained it was concluded that the dose lethal to eggs and larvae was 25 Gy, while for pre-pupae was 50 Gy, to pupae 100 Gy was not sufficient to control the adult emergence. (author)

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Meng, Jingjing; Yang, Sha; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jialei; Geng, Yun; Cui, Li; Wan, Shubo; Li, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+)-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4) and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3) showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2), S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway. PMID:28769950

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4 and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3 showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2, S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway.

  16. Grounded Blends and Mathematical Gesture Spaces: Developing Mathematical Understandings via Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how a person's gesture space can become endowed with mathematical meaning associated with mathematical spaces and how the resulting mathematical gesture space can be used to communicate and interpret mathematical features of gestures. We use the theory of grounded blends to analyse a case study of two teachers who used gestures…

  17. Modern developments for ground-based monitoring of fire behavior and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert Kremens; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Advances in electronic technology over the last several decades have been staggering. The cost of electronics continues to decrease while system performance increases seemingly without limit. We have applied modern techniques in sensors, electronics and instrumentation to create a suite of ground based diagnostics that can be used in laboratory (~ 1 m2), field scale...

  18. The development of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems and components according to patent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, A. M.; Tuktakiev, G. S.; Zhuravlev, A. V.; Zaitseva, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The paper contains the analysis of the main trends in the patenting of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems (ADAS) and unmanned vehicle components abroad during the period from 2010 to 2016. The conclusion was made that the intensity of their patenting abroad increased.

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Stingray, an Amphibious Maritime Interdiction Operations Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    include: • Size and weight: The robot should fit in a Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment ( MOLLE ) pouch and weigh approximately 1.5 Kg. • Ground...volumetric envelope for the Stingray was determined by the requirement to fit in a MOLLE pouch. It had repercussions in terms of the wheelbase, width

  20. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low-Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts (SMEs) have been tasked with developing the ground-test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototypes will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3. This paper describes the process by which the ground test protocol was developed and the objectives, methods, and metrics by which the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts will be rigorously and systematically evaluated. The protocol has been developed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. Top-down development began with the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) exploration objectives and ISS Exploration Capability Study Team (IECST) candidate flight objectives. Strategic

  1. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  2. Consideration of the restoring plan in subsidence prone areas through the development of ground stability assessment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Im-Ho; Baek, Sang-Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Consideration of the restoring plan in subsidence prone areas through the development of ground stability assessment techniques : The number of mines at rest as well as closed have abruptly increased since the 1980's, which has caused subsidence problems around the mined areas. To protect such places from damage due to subsidence, it is necessary to develop the assessment techniques of ground stability and make restoration plan. To achieve this goal, the site investigation should have been conducted before the subsidence events occurred, but ground behaviors around the places where a vertical movement is expected and recognised in advance before the occurrence of the subsidence events. In this study ground stability analysis for the area surrounding the Moo-Geuk Mine, located close to a city, was conducted and the measurements were recorded. The objectives of the present study include, the development of a risk assessment technique for the subsidence using GIS tool, an evaluation of the numerical methods related to the site investigation and the ground stability analysis, the application of the numerical tools to the present problems. (2) Integration of coal mine data and use of remote sensing in investigation of coal mine area : This study attempt to integrate the previous geological and mining data to avoid confusions often occurred when accessing source data. And the investigation of underground mining place using remote sensing method is the other effort to assure the geographic locations of mining places as well as to find out unknown mining place. The sample region for examining the remote sensing method is the Chungnam coal field, which locates in the middle western part of South Korea. Detailed investigation was held on the Seongju area, locating north eastern part of the coal field. (author). 54 refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Design, development and characterization studies of a large aperture high power Nd : glass rod amplifier stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, N.; Bapna, R.C.; Murali, C.G.; Narayan, B.S.; Dhareshwar, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-plasma interaction studies and experiments related to laser driven shocks as well as laser induced inertially confined thermonuclear fusion have resulted in an ever increasing demand for high brightness lasers capable of producing nanosecond pulse with energy of hundreds of kilo joules. High power Nd-glass laser chains with a master oscillator followed by a number of amplifier stages made up of rods, disks, slabs etc. are in operation in many leading laboratories in the world. This report describes the design, development and characterisation studies of a large aperture Nd:glass laser amplifier which is to be incorporated on line with the existing 40 J, 5 ns high power laser chain built for laser-plasma interaction and laser driven shock wave studies in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The development work described in this report discusses the design based on optimum material selection, optimisation of various sub components, ease of maintenance and smooth operation. The necessary operational electronics has also been described. The characterization studies mainly include measurement of spatial gain uniformity, thermally induced depolarization effects, and thermal relaxation studies. (author). 37 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Development of a two-stage inspection process for the assessment of deteriorating infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, Emma; O'Connor, Alan; Breysse, Denys; Schoefs, Franck; Yotte, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Inspection-based maintenance strategies can provide an efficient tool for the management of ageing infrastructure subjected to deterioration. Many of these methods rely on quantitative data from inspections, rather than qualitative and subjective data. The focus of this paper is on the development of an inspection-based decision scheme, incorporating analysis on the effect of the cost and quality of NDT tools to assess the condition of infrastructure elements/networks during their lifetime. For the first time the two aspects of an inspection are considered, i.e. detection and sizing. Since each stage of an inspection is carried out for a distinct purpose, different parameters are used to represent each procedure and both have been incorporated into a maintenance management model. The separation of these procedures allows the interaction between the two inspection techniques to be studied. The inspection for detection process acts as a screening exercise to determine which defects require further inspection for sizing. A decision tool is developed that allows the owner/manager of the infrastructural element/network to choose the most cost-efficient maintenance management plan based on his/her specific requirements.

  5. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelbaum, Richard [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kumfer, Benjamin [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Gopan, Akshay [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Yang, Zhiwei [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Phillips, Jeff [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pint, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The immediate need for a high efficiency, low cost carbon capture process has prompted the recent development of pressurized oxy-combustion. With a greater combustion pressure the dew point of the flue gas is increased, allowing for effective integration of the latent heat of flue gas moisture into the Rankine cycle. This increases the net plant efficiency and reduces costs. A novel, transformational process, named Staged, Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC), achieves additional step changes in efficiency and cost reduction by significantly reducing the recycle of flue gas. The research and development activities conducted under Phases I and II of this project (FE0009702) include: SPOC power plant cost and performance modeling, CFD-assisted design of pressurized SPOC boilers, theoretical analysis of radiant heat transfer and ash deposition, boiler materials corrosion testing, construction of a 100 kWth POC test facility, and experimental testing. The results of this project have advanced the technology readiness level (TRL) of the SPOC technology from 1 to 5.

  6. Nutrient limitation of soil microbial activity during the earliest stages of ecosystem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah C; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Knelman, Joseph; Hood, Eran; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K; Cleveland, Cory C

    2017-11-01

    A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences. Microbial respiratory responses in the microcosm experiment provided evidence for N, P and N/P co-limitation at Easton Glacier, Washington, USA, Puca Glacier, Peru, and Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, USA, respectively, and patterns of nutrient limitation generally reflected site-level differences in soil nutrient availability. The activities of three key extracellular enzymes known to vary with soil N and P availability developed in broadly similar ways among sites, increasing with succession and consistently correlating with changes in soil total N pools. Together, our findings demonstrate that during the earliest stages of soil development, microbial nutrient limitation and activity generally reflect soil nutrient supply, a result that is broadly consistent with biogeochemical theory.

  7. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of Ubc13-mediated Ubiquitination by GPS2 Regulates Multiple Stages of B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentucci, Claudia; Belkina, Anna C; Cederquist, Carly T; Chan, Michelle; Johnson, Holly E; Prasad, Sherry; Lopacinski, Amanda; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Monti, Stefano; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Tanasa, Bogdan; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-02-17

    Non-proteolytic ubiquitin signaling mediated by Lys 63 ubiquitin chains plays a critical role in multiple pathways that are key to the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous work indicates that GPS2 (G-protein Pathway Suppressor 2) is a multifunctional protein regulating TNFα signaling and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through modulation of Lys 63 ubiquitination events. However, the full extent of GPS2-mediated regulation of ubiquitination and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that GPS2 is required for restricting the activation of TLR and BCR signaling pathways and the AKT/FOXO1 pathway in immune cells based on direct inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Relevance of this regulatory strategy is confirmed in vivo by B cell-targeted deletion of GPS2, resulting in developmental defects at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal that GPS2 genomic and non-genomic functions are critical for the development and cellular homeostasis of B cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Peptone and tomato extract induced early stage of embryo development of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nintya Setiari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germination and growth of orchid seeds can be accelerated by the addition of organic supplement and plant extract in culture medium. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of peptone and tomato extract on early stage of embryo development of Dendrobium phalaenopsis orchids. Orchid seeds were sown on NP and VW medium with addition of 10% of CW (NPCW and VWCW.  Five weeks after seed germination, about 58.03% seed germination was observed on VWCW medium, and only 37.45% seed germination on NPCW. Tomato extract and peptone were added in VWCW, resulting VWCWTP medium. After 4-8 weeks on VWCWTP, 94.42% seeds was germinated into plantlet, but only 67.30% germinated seeds on VWCW. To get optimal growth and development of  D.  phalaenopsis orchids embryos in the in vitro condition, supplement of 100 ml.L-1 coconut water, 100 mg.L-1 tomato extract and 2 mg.L-1 peptone into VW basic medium is required.

  10. STAGES OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CURATIVE PEDAGOGICS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shmachilina-Tsybenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, humanistic problems of rehabilitation and successful socialization of children with border mental state and special needs arising because of various deviations from norms of physical and intellectual development are brought into focus due to the emphasis of value of each personality capable to make strong contribution to progressive economic, technological, and intellectual development of civilization. The problems listed above can be solved through the use of Curative Pedagogics (CP. CP is an integrative scientific direction which has appeared at the intersection of such disciplines as pedagogics, psychology, and medicine.The aim of the article is to present retrospective analysis of formation and development of CP trends in Russia and abroad; open the stages of its development from the point of view of axiological and anthropological approaches; demonstrate the heritage significance of works of the Russian and foreign scientists, which influence on formation and development of anthroposophical curative education have proved to be the most important one.Methodology and research methods. The methodological basis of the study was a set of general scientific methods of obtaining knowledge: analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. Having studied historical sources, psychological-pedagogical and medical publications and documents, the stages of formation of CP and challenges on the way of its development as an integrative scientific branch are highlighted and characterized from the point of view of axiological and anthropological approaches. The value and viability of scientific ideas of great educators and anthropologists of the past are confirmed; in particular, their thesis about formation of the humane medical and pedagogical environment. The research field of modern CP is designated: studying the questions of health-saving; rehabilitations of physical and mental well

  11. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  12. Isomyosin expression patterns in tubular stages of chicken heart development: a 3-D immunohistochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.; Geerts, W. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The 3-D distribution of atrial and ventricular isomyosins is analysed in tubular chicken hearts (stage 12+ to 17 (H/H)) using antibodies specific for adult chicken atrial and ventricular myosin heavy chains, respectively. At stage 12+ (H/H) all myocytes express the atrial isomyosin; furthermore, all

  13. The postnatal progeny development of males whose sexual cells were irradiated during different stages of spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepekhin, N.P.; Palyga, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Distinct genetic radiosensitivity if germinal cells of males irradiated during different stages of spermatogenesis with doses of 0.25-5.0 Gy leads to reduction in vital newborn rats number in the first generation progeny and to elevated postnatal mortality rate. These postnatal ontogeny disorders depend on the irradiation dose and spermatogenesis stage for a moment irradiation. 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. A comprehensive search of EMBASE, PsychInfo and Medline and hand-searching yielded 238 "hits". Fifteen articles were found to have sufficient quality and relevance to be included in the final review. The data were considered in six possible explanatory psychopathological models of the association between ADHD and BPD. Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. Many studies pointed at shared aetiology or the risk for development of one disorder, when the other disorder is present. The data do not evaluate how treatment factors or other factors mediate the risk or how overlap of diagnostic criteria adds to the statistical association. More research is much needed, in particular studies looking at early intervention and which treatment of ADHD that might prevent later development of BPD.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of pecan seeds at different developing stages and identification of key genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Ni, Jun; Shah, Faheem Afzal; Wang, Qiaojian; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wu, Lifang; Fu, Songling

    2018-01-01

    Pecan is an economically important nut crop tree due to its unique texture and flavor properties. The pecan seed is rich of unsaturated fatty acid and protein. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of fatty acids in the developing seeds. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Pecan seed embryos at different developmental stages were collected and sequenced. The transcriptomes of pecan seeds at two key developing stages (PA, the initial stage and PS, the fast oil accumulation stage) were also compared. A total of 82,155 unigenes, with an average length of 1,198 bp from seven independent libraries were generated. After functional annotations, we detected approximately 55,854 CDS, among which, 2,807 were Transcription Factor (TF) coding unigenes. Further, there were 13,325 unigenes that showed a 2-fold or greater expression difference between the two groups of libraries (two developmental stages). After transcriptome analysis, we identified abundant unigenes that could be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation and some other aspects of seed development in pecan. This study presents a comprehensive dataset of transcriptomic changes during the seed development of pecan. It provides insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis in the seed development. The identification of functional genes will also be useful for the molecular breeding work of pecan.

  16. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  17. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  18. Status of development of a code for predicting the migration of ground additions - MOGRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Uchida, Shigeo; Matsuoka, Syungo; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kurosawa, Naohiro

    2003-01-01

    MOGRA (Migration Of GRound Additions) is a migration prediction code for toxic ground additions including radioactive materials in a terrestrial environment. MOGRA consists of computational codes that are applicable to various evaluation target systems, and can be used on personal computers. The computational code has the dynamic compartment analysis block at its core, the graphical user interface (GUI) for computation parameter settings and results displays, data bases and so on. The compartments are obtained by classifying various natural environments into groups that exhibit similar properties. These codes are able to create or delete compartments and set the migration of environmental-load substances between compartments by a simple mouse operation. The system features universality and excellent expandability in the application of computations to various nuclides. (author)

  19. Kennedy Space Center: Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan

    2010-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is NASA's spaceport, launching rockets into space and leading important human spaceflight research. This spring semester, I worked at KSC on Constellation Program electrical ground support equipment through NASA's Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP). This report includes a discussion of NASA, KSC, and my individual research project. An analysis of Penn State's preparation of me for an internship and my overall impressions of the Penn State and NASA internship experience conclude the report.

  20. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  1. Development of membrane mechanical function during terminal stages of primitive erythropoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Richard E; Huang, Yu-Shan; Arif, Binish J; Bauserman, Richard; Palis, James

    2013-04-01

    During murine embryogenesis, primitive erythroblasts enter the circulation as immature nucleated cells and progressively mature as a semisynchronous cohort, enucleating between E12.5 and E16.5. In this report, we examine the mechanical properties of these cells to determine how their mechanical development differs from that of definitive erythroid cells, which mature extravascularly in protected marrow microenvironments. Primitive erythroid cells acquire normal membrane deformability by E12.5 (i.e., as late stage erythroblasts) and maintain the same level of surface stiffness through E17.5. During this same period, the strength of association between the membrane bilayer and the underlying skeleton increases, as indicated by an approximate doubling of the energy required to separate bilayer from skeleton. At the same time, these cells undergo dramatic changes in surface area and volume, losing 35% of their surface area and 50% of their volume from E14.5 to E17.5. Interestingly, membrane remodeling proceeded regardless of whether the cells completed enucleation. These data suggest that in primitive erythroid cells, unlike their definitive counterparts, the critical maturational processes of membrane remodeling and enucleation are uncoupled. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disrupting assembly of the inner membrane complex blocks Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Parkyn Schneider

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of malaria parasites relies on the formation of a specialized blood form called the gametocyte. Gametocytes of the human pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, adopt a crescent shape. Their dramatic morphogenesis is driven by the assembly of a network of microtubules and an underpinning inner membrane complex (IMC. Using super-resolution optical and electron microscopies we define the ultrastructure of the IMC at different stages of gametocyte development. We characterize two new proteins of the gametocyte IMC, called PhIL1 and PIP1. Genetic disruption of PhIL1 or PIP1 ablates elongation and prevents formation of transmission-ready mature gametocytes. The maturation defect is accompanied by failure to form an enveloping IMC and a marked swelling of the digestive vacuole, suggesting PhIL1 and PIP1 are required for correct membrane trafficking. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry we reveal that PhIL1 interacts with known and new components of the gametocyte IMC.

  3. To belong, contribute, and hope: first stage development of a measure of social recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Casadi Khaki

    2015-04-01

    Recovery from mental health challenges is beginning to be explored as an inherently social process. There is a need to measure social recovery. Targeted measures would be utilized in needs assessment, service delivery, and program evaluation. This paper reports on the first stage of development of a social recovery measure. Explore the social aspects of recovery as reported by individuals with lived experience. A qualitative study using thematic analysis of data from focus groups with 41 individuals in recovery. Three meta-themes of social recovery emerged: community, self-concept, and capacities. Each theme contained a number of sub-themes concerned with a sense of belonging, inherent acceptability of the self, and ability to cope with mental distress and engage socially. Study participants clearly spoke to common human needs to belong, contribute, and have hope for one's future. Findings converged with results of consumer-led research that emphasize the importance of overcoming the impact of illness on the self and social context.

  4. On teacher beliefs, self-identity and the stages of professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes teachers as a professional group, focusing on pre-service teachers and refining their profiles on the basis of the studies carried out in educational research. Personality as a major contributor to beliefs and teacher presence in the classroom in a more general sense help to building teacher identity over the period of first becoming and then being a fully-functioning classroom practitioner. Teacher self-concept and identity are developmental in nature and undergo constant fluctuations. They make for the success and/or failure, enthusiasm or burnout of every individual teacher, irrespective of his/her teaching contexts. New teachers who enter classrooms for the first time do not enter them empty-handed. They hold beliefs which have various origins and enjoy varying degrees of sustainability over time and the experiences they encounter. These are discussed here, both theoretically and by means of illustrative studies. When considering teachers over their whole careers, clear developmental stages can be distinguished. These are shown in the form of different models presented in the literature on teacher training and development. The article concludes with a brief description of pre-service teachers` profiles.

  5. Simulation of an electrostatic soot-filter with continuous electrochemical conversion during the stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muri, M.

    1996-04-01

    The dissertation describes the simulation of an electrostatic Diesel-Soot-Converter during its stages of development. This simulation is not only necessary for the interpretation of the experimental results, it also shows results for assumptions that cannot be received experimentally. The Diesel-Soot-Converter consists of a charging electrode, which charges the particles by a high-voltage and a ceramic monolith, where the particles are precipitated in the open channels because of an electric field created also by a high-voltage. Afterwards the particles are burned by a plasma. The filter-function of the Diesel-Soot-Converter was formulated and the efficiency for a vehicle was calculated. In the first part of the calculation the mass flow of a BMW 318tds and a BMW 325tds was determined for an US-FTP75-testcycle and for fuel load. In the second part the efficiency of different Diesel-Soot-Converter-types was calculated for the US-FTP75-testcycle and for full load. The use of the program with other testcycles is possible. The results of the calculations show the best configuration of the Diesel-Soot-Converter for the corresponding vehicle. Therefore with the help of this program time and money for the production of the ceramic can be saved. (author)

  6. Centro TORTUGA's Integrated Research and Professional Development Training for Early Stage Hispanic Students in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, F. C.; Allen, M. R.; Barberena-Arias, M.; Clark, J.; Harris, L.; Maldonado, P. M.; Olivo-Delgado, C.; Pierson, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years our multidisciplinary team explored different undergraduate research and professional development (PD) strategies to improve early stage Hispanic student retention in marine science with the objective of interesting them in pursuing degrees that may ultimately lead to geoscience careers. This research led to the 2016 launch of our current project, Centro TORTUGA (Tropical Oceanography Research Training for Undergraduate Academics). Our overarching goal is to increase the number of underrepresented students from minority serving institutions in geoscience-relevant disciplines and careers. Critical to success is building a program rich in both research and PD. Based on qualitative and quantitative evaluations we found students benefited from PD efforts to increase skills in areas such as: 1) speaking and writing English; 2) science communication; 3) teamwork; 4) project management; and 5) completing internship/graduate school applications. To build student self-confidence, networking, and science skills Centro Tortuga involves students' families, bridges cultural gaps across research and non-research institutions inside and outside of Puerto Rico, and provides a gathering place (Centro TORTUGA) for students. With our partners, Universidad del Turabo (UT), Universidad Metropolitana (UMET), and University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, we are now testing a 12-month integrated research and PD curriculum. Initial results suggest areas for improved student training include: 1) science communication (reports and graphs); 2) science ethics; and 3) poster and oral presentations. Students also identified specific preparation they would like included in the Centro TORTUGA curriculum.

  7. Analysis of the first stage in the reactor accident development at the Chernobyl NPP fourth unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Vasilevskij, V.P.; Ionov, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Results of analyzing possible development of the first stage of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP fourth unit from the moment of pressing the Az-5 push button are presented. Calculations were conducted using the TRIADA three-dimensional dynamic program both for conditions without pump switching off and with their switching off. Distribution of neutron field over the core volume was determined according to actual readings of in-core detectors immediately before turbogenerator switching off. It is shown that sufficient reconstruction of neutron field begins immediately after pressing the Az-5 push button. Prohibitive decrease of operative reactivity margin which was admitted by personnel in the accident resulted in the growth of neutron power in reactor lower part within 1.5 s, predominating over power decrease in the upper part. Thus, the average integral power grows achieving the maximum during 7.5 s, after which its sharp decrease begins. Conditions with switching off of 4 circulating pumps lead to intesive growth of power and reactor runaway, initiated in the lower part of the core, which safety rods have not managed to reach. Fuel element temperature at that exceeds fuel melting point in the most power-intensive regions. This causes extremely intensive process of steam generation and overheating, pressure growth in the circuit, short-time decrease of the rate of operating pumps, destruction of fuel channels and the whole reactor. Primary measures assuring RBMK ractor safety were formulated on the basis of conducted investigation

  8. THE STAGES OF HETEROTIC HYBRIDS F1 DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kosenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme  of  development  of  two-line  of  hybrids  F1  in European radish based on self-incompatibility includes five stages, as follows: 1 – selection of self-incompatible lines, common and specified combining ability estimation; 2 – inbreeding and selection to make the lines homozygous for morphological traits, common and specified combining ability estimation; maintenance and reproduction of self-incompatible lines; 4 – production of hybrid seeds. The research work on assessment of hybrid F1 that were obtained from cross of eight self-incompatible lines of European winter radish by the Griffing’s method was carried out in 2016. The assessment of length, diameter and yield of radish root was performed. According to the root shape the heterotic hybrids F1 were divided into three groups: rounded-flat,  48.2%; round, 50.0%; and flatten-round,  1.8%. The level of root marketability of hybrids F1 reached 100%. As a result of the work the promising hybrid combination distinguished by high uniformity, marketability and high yield were selected out.

  9. Boundaries in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and environmental variables at the edges of forest patches with residential developments

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Doreen E.; Gagné, Sara A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Few studies of edge effects on wildlife objectively identify habitat edges or explore non-linear responses. In this paper, we build on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) research that has begun to address these domains by using triangulation wombling to identify boundaries in beetle community structure and composition at the edges of forest patches with residential developments. We hypothesized that edges are characterized by boundaries in environmental variables that correspond...

  10. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M. P.; Wasyl, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples

  11. Update of super-speed ground transportation technology development status and performance capabilities. CIGGT report No. 89-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, W F

    1990-01-01

    This report presents an update of the Phase II assessment of development status and performance capabilities for four candidate super-speed ground transportation system alternatives for the Las Vegas-Southern California corridor. The four alternatives considered are the TGV wheel-on-rail technology, the Transrapid TR- 07 long-stator Electromagnetic Maglev (EMS) technology, the Japan Railways MLU Electrodynamic Maglev (EDS) technology, and the HSST Corp. HSST-400 short-stator Electromagnetic Maglev technology.

  12. Development of a Ground Test Concept Based on Multi-Rotors for In-Flight RVD Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Linux Real-Time work station • Ad-Hoc WiFi internal network for data streaming • High pressure air compressor and compressed air filling station. 12... Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research European Office of Aerospace Research and Development Unit 4515, APO...of screws and nuts, • the same rod is connected to a structure with a base on ground. 6 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is

  13. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin

    2014-09-30

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for

  14. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  15. Causes and outcome of late referral of children who develop end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean E; Bailey, Rohan; Kainer, Gad

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to characterise the timing of referral to a paediatric nephrology unit of children who develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This study also aims to determine whether late referral (LR) influences outcomes and to explore factors that may lead to LR. A retrospective case review of all incident patients with ESKD who received renal replacement therapy (RRT) at a single paediatric centre. Time between referral to a paediatric nephrologist and commencement of RRT, demographic and clinical data were collated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at referral was calculated using height and creatinine. LR was defined as having an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) when first seen by a paediatric nephrologist. RRT was initiated for 74 patients Children referred before age 1 year (41%) had a more prolonged course before ESKD. Median (interquartile range) eGFR at referral of children > 1 year was 27.2 (9.0-52.0) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Twenty-two (55%) of these children were referred late (LR) with an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . LR patients were more likely to have glomerulonephritis or haemolytic uraemic syndrome and to live in a remote or outer regional area. LR patients had higher urea, lower haemoglobin and were more likely to receive haemodialysis via a vascular catheter. A significant proportion of children who develop ESKD are referred late to nephrology units with potentially preventable complications. Aetiology of renal disease and geographic isolation contribute to LR. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. The cytosolic glyoxalases of Plasmodium falciparum are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus A. Wezena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes glyoxalase 1 and 2 (Glo1 and Glo2 are found in most eukaryotes and catalyze the glutathione-dependent conversion of 2-oxoaldehydes to 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Four glyoxalases are encoded in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the cytosolic enzymes PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2, the apicoplast enzyme PftGlo2, and an inactive Glo1-like protein that also carries an apicoplast-targeting sequence. Inhibition or knockout of the Plasmodium glyoxalases was hypothesized to lead to an accumulation of 2-oxoaldehydes and advanced glycation end-products (AGE in the host-parasite unit and to result in parasite death. Here, we generated clonal P. falciparum strain 3D7 knockout lines for PFGLO1 and PFcGLO2 using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Although 3D7Δglo1 knockout clones had an increased susceptibility to external glyoxal, all 3D7Δglo1 and 3D7Δcglo2 knockout lines were viable and showed no significant growth phenotype under standard growth conditions. Furthermore, the lack of PfcGlo2, but not PfGlo1, increased gametocyte commitment in the knockout lines. In summary, PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development while the loss of PfcGlo2 may induce the formation of transmissible gametocytes. These combined data show that PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are most likely not suited as targets for selective drug development.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  18. Recent developments of a two-stage light gas gun for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggiori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A report is given on a two-stage pneumatic gun operated with ambient air as first stage driver which has been built and tested. Cylindrical polyethylene pellets of 1 mm diameter and 1 mm length have been launched at velocities up to 1800 m/s, with divergence angles of the pellet trajectory less than 1 0 . It is possible to optimize the pressure pulse for pellets of different masses, simply changing the mass of the piston and/or the initial pressures in the second stage. (author)

  19. Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: A critical review of methods and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available,

  20. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  1. An automated technique to stage lower third molar development on panoramic radiographs for age estimation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Radesh, P; Vandermeulen, D; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al. 2015). To develop an automated method for step (2) based on lower third molars on panoramic radiographs. A modified Demirjian staging technique including ten developmental stages was developed. Twenty panoramic radiographs per stage per gender were retrospectively selected for FDI element 38. Two observers decided in consensus about the stages. When necessary, a third observer acted as a referee to establish the reference stage for the considered third molar. This set of radiographs was used as training data for machine learning algorithms for automated staging. First, image contrast settings were optimised to evaluate the third molar of interest and a rectangular bounding box was placed around it in a standardised way using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 software. This bounding box indicated the region of interest for the next step. Second, several machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB R2017a software were applied for automated stage recognition. Third, the classification performance was evaluated in a 5-fold cross-validation scenario, using different validation metrics (accuracy, Rank-N recognition rate, mean absolute difference, linear kappa coefficient). Transfer Learning as a type of Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Network approach outperformed all other tested approaches. Mean accuracy equalled 0.51, mean absolute difference was 0.6 stages and mean linearly weighted kappa was

  2. A Danish reference chart for assessment of psychomotor development based on the Ages & Stages Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Katrine Kure; Lando, Ane Vibeke; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age....

  3. Development of a Combination Cell and Gene Therapy Approach for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    The unique biology of the breast presents the opportunity to these cell and gene therapy techniques in a way that circumvents many of these technical limitations for the treatment of early stage breast cancer...

  4. Critical stages of a biodetection platform development from sensor chip fabrication to surface chemistry and assay development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yildiz

    2014-06-01

    Once viewed solely as a tool to analyse biomolecular interactions, biosensors are gaining widespread interest for diagnostics, biological defense, environmental and quality assurance in agriculture/food industries. Advanced micro fabrication techniques have facilitated integration of microfluidics with sensing functionalities on the same chip making system automation more convenient1. Biosensor devices relying on lab-on-a-chip technologies and nanotechnology has attracted much of attention in recent years for biological defense research and development. However, compared with the numerous publications and patents available, the commercialization of biosensors technology has significantly lagged behind the research output. This paper reviews the reasons behind the slow commercialisation of biosensors with an insight to the critical stages of a biosensor development from the sensor chip fabrication to surface chemistry applications and nanotechnology applications in sensing with case studies. In addition, the paper includes the description of a new biodetection platform based on Real-time Electrochemical ProfilingTM (REPTM) that comprises novel electrode arrays and nanoparticle based sensing. The performance of the REPTM platform has been tested for the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, one of the toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria, usually found in shallow fresh water sources that can be used for human consumption. The optimised REPTM assay allowed the detection of P. agardhii DNA down to 6 pM. This study, showed the potential of REPTM as a new biodetection platform for toxic bacteria and hence further studies will involve the development of a portable multi-analyte biosensor based on REPTM technology for on-site testing.

  5. Interactive Multimedia Solutions Developed for the Opening of the New Stage of the Alexandrinsky Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Nikolay; Smolin, Artem; Stolyarov, Denis; Shcherbakov, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on teamwork by the National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (NRU ITMO) and the Aleksandrinsky Theatre in preparation of opening of the New Stage of the Alexandrinsky Theatre. The Russian State Pushkin Academy Drama Theatre, also known as the Alexandrinsky Theatre, is the oldest national theatre in Russia. Many famous Russian actors performed on the Alexandrinsky’s stage and many great directors. May 2013 marked the opening of the New St...

  6. Development and validation of a surgical-pathologic staging and scoring system for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Xiong; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Hang; Tang, Fangxu; Jia, Yao; Hu, Ting; Sun, Haiying; Yang, Ru; Chen, Yile; Cheng, Xiaodong; Lv, Weiguo; Wu, Li; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Shaoshuai; Huang, Kecheng; Wang, Lin; Yao, Yuan; Yang, Qifeng; Yang, Xingsheng; Zhang, Qinghua; Han, Xiaobing; Lin, Zhongqiu; Xing, Hui; Qu, Pengpeng; Cai, Hongbing; Song, Xiaojie; Tian, Xiaoyu; Shen, Jian; Xi, Ling; Li, Kezhen; Deng, Dongrui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Changyu; Wu, Mingfu; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Gao, Qinglei; Wang, Shixuan; Hu, Junbo; Kong, Beihua; Xie, Xing; Ma, Ding

    2016-04-12

    Most cervical cancer patients worldwide receive surgical treatments, and yet the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system do not consider surgical-pathologic data. We propose a more comprehensive and prognostically valuable surgical-pathologic staging and scoring system (SPSs). Records from 4,220 eligible cervical cancer cases (Cohort 1) were screened for surgical-pathologic risk factors. We constructed a surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs, which was subsequently validated in a prospective study of 1,104 cervical cancer patients (Cohort 2). In Cohort 1, seven independent risk factors were associated with patient outcome: lymph node metastasis (LNM), parametrial involvement, histological type, grade, tumor size, stromal invasion, and lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI). The FIGO staging system was revised and expanded into a surgical-pathologic staging system by including additional criteria of LNM, stromal invasion, and LVSI. LNM was subdivided into three categories based on number and location of metastases. Inclusion of all seven prognostic risk factors improves practical applicability. Patients were stratified into three SPSs risk categories: zero-, low-, and high-score with scores of 0, 1 to 3, and ≥4 (P=1.08E-45; P=6.15E-55). In Cohort 2, 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes decreased with increased SPSs scores (P=9.04E-15; P=3.23E-16), validating the approach. Surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs show greater homogeneity and discriminatory utility than FIGO staging. Surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs improve characterization of tumor severity and disease invasion, which may more accurately predict outcome and guide postoperative therapy.

  7. Development of vegetation and solar radiation on hillside grounds of the Sierra de Bejar, Salamanca (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Regina Rodríguez, I.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out about the vegetation and solar radiation on hillside grounds of the Sierra de Béjar according to its characteristic orientation and slope for a better exploitation of its ecological resources. Chorologically the area is located in carpetano-ibéico-leonesa province, bejarano-gredense ection, bejarano-tormantino subsector. Its topography presents great contrasts, alternating great ondulations with high slopes. For as, in this area there was a three bioclimatic gronds: supramediterranean, oromediterranean and crioromediterranean [es

  8. Development of a Flat Type Six-Axis Stage Based on Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and investigates a six-DOF (degrees of freedom piezoelectric based stage for positioning error compensation. The relationship between the displacement of the piezoelectric actuators and the stage can be computed according to the geometric relationships of the actuators installed. In this study, a feedforward compensator based on the hysteresis model has been designed for compensation and a PI controller was used for positioning. The combination of a feedforward compensator and PI controller gives the stage good positioning and tracking performance. Stage position information is feedback from a six-DOF optical measurement system comprised of three modular two-dimensional measurement devices. Each module employs a quadrant photodiode (QPD, a laser diode, and a lens. The measurement signal is acquired and processed using an FPGA based processor for real time control. The linear and angular positioning resolution is 0.02 μm and 0.1 arcsec, respectively. When the stage is controlled in a closed loop, the positioning errors are in the range of ±0.1 μm and ±0.5 arcsec. The stage is controlled to track a sinusoidal wave with an amplitude of 2.5 μm and a frequency of 5 Hz; tracking errors were within ±0.1 μm and ±0.2 arcsec.

  9. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M and O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes

  10. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  11. Development and validation of a new screening questionnaire for dysphagia in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Janine A; Fietzek, Urban M; Waldmann, Annika; Warnecke, Tobias; Schuster, Tibor; Ceballos-Baumann, Andrés O

    2014-09-01

    Dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) significantly reduces quality of life and predicted lifetime. Current screening procedures are insufficiently evaluated. We aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome questionnaire for early diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with PD. The two-phased project comprised the questionnaire, diagnostic scales construction (N = 105), and a validation study (N = 82). Data for the project were gathered from PD patients at a German Movement Disorder Center. For validation purposes, a clinical evaluation focusing on swallowing tests, tests of sensory reflexes, and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) was performed that yielded a criteria sum score against which the results of the questionnaire were compared. Specificity and sensitivity were evaluated for the detection of noticeable dysphagia and for the risk of aspiration. The Munich Dysphagia Test - Parkinson's disease (MDT-PD) consists of 26 items that show high internal consistency (α = 0.91). For the validation study, 82 patients, aged 70.9 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD), with a median Hoehn & Yahr stage of 3, were assessed. 73% of patients had dysphagia with noticeable oropharyngeal symptoms (44%) or with penetration/aspiration (29%). The criteria sum score correlated positively with the screening result (r = 0.70, p dysphagia vs. risk of aspiration (noticeable dysphagia) with a sensitivity of 90% (82%) and a specificity of 86% (71%), and yielded similar results in cross-validation, respectively. MDT-PD is a valid screening tool for early diagnosis of swallowing problems and aspiration risk, as well as initial graduation of dysphagia severity in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and development of an automated D.C. ground fault detection and location system for Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, S.K.; Ramesh, N.; Jain, J.K.; Srivastava, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The original design of Cirus safety system provided for automatic detection of ground fault in class I D.C. power supply system and its annunciation followed by delayed reactor trip. Identification of a faulty section was required to be done manually by switching off various sections one at a time thus requiring a lot of shutdown time to identify the faulty section. Since class I power supply is provided for safety control system, quick detection and location of ground faults in this supply is necessary as these faults have potential to bypass safety interlocks and hence the need for a new system for automatic location of a faulty section. Since such systems are not readily available in the market, in-house efforts were made to design and develop a plant-specific system, which has been installed and commissioned

  13. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (Pbroilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (Plitter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (Plitter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (Plitter moisture (Plitter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  15. Development and calibration of a ground-based active collector for cloud- and fogwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kins, L.; Junkermann, W.; Meixner, F.X.; Muller, K.P.; Ehhalt, D.H.

    1986-04-01

    In spring 1985, field experiments were started to study the scavenging processes of atmospheric trace substances. Besides the chemical analysis of precipitation sample, these studies required simultaneous collection of cloud water for chemical analysis. In particular, a ground-based cloud water collector was needed, suitable for use on the top of a TV-tower. Existing designs of ground-based cloud or fogwater samplers be divided into two general classes: a) passive collectors, which utilize the ambient wind to impact the droplets on the collection surface; b) active collectors, which accelerate the droplets to a certain velocity as they approach the collection surface. Teflon-strings are extended between two disks which are 1m apart. The disadvantage of this collector, for these experiments, was that the collector strings are always exposed to the ambient air, so that contamination by aerosol impact during dry periods can not be excluded. Furthermore, because of the length of the strings, impacted droplets need a certain time to drain off, during which they remain exposed to the ambient air stream and continue to scavenge trace gases.

  16. Maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the stage of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Shigenobu; Hayashida, Kiichi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    A maintenance management required to nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage was discussed in this report. It is the most important to ensure safety of nuclear power plants by taking account of characteristics of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage. In addition, it is needed to establish a system of maintenance management technologies suitable for reactor types. In this report, objectives of maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage were clarified. Next, requirements and consideration for maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage were discussed according to the objectives. 'Code for Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants' and 'Guide for Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants' published by the Japan Electric Association were refereed in the discussion. Then, a draft of codes for maintenance management of nuclear power plants at the R and D stage was newly proposed. Finally, an example that the draft codes were applied to components containing sodium, typical components of sodium-cooled fast reactor, was presented. (author)

  17. Creation and Staging of Android Theatre “Sayonara”towards Developing Highly Human-Like Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Chikaraishi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Even after long-term exposures, androids with a strikingly human-like appearance evoke unnatural feelings. The behavior that would induce human-like feelings after long exposures is difficult to determine, and it often depends on the cultural background of the observers. Therefore, in this study, we generate an acting performance system for the android, in which an android and a human interact in a stage play in the real world. We adopt the theatrical theory called Contemporary Colloquial Theatre Theory to give the android natural behaviors so that audiences can comfortably observe it even after long-minute exposure. A stage play is created and shown in various locations, and the audiences are requested to report their impressions of the stage and their cultural and psychological backgrounds in a self-evaluating questionnaire. Overall analysis indicates that the audience had positive feelings, in terms of attractiveness, towards the android on the stage even after 20 min of exposure. The singularly high acceptance of the android by Japanese audiences seems to be correlated with a high animism tendency, rather than to empathy. We also discuss how the stage play approach is limited and could be extended to contribute to realization of human–robot interaction in the real world.

  18. The Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzyme FabI Plays a Key Role In the Development of Liver Stage Malarial Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Santha Kumar, T. R.; Nkrumah, Louis J.; Coppi, Alida; Retzlaff, Silke; Li, Celeste D.; Kelly, Brendan J.; Moura, Pedro A.; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Freundlich, Joel S.; Valderramos, Juan-Carlos; Vilcheze, Catherine; Siedner, Mark; Tsai, Jennifer H.-C.; Falkard, Brie; Sidhu, Amar bir Singh; Purcell, Lisa A.; Gratraud, Paul; Kremer, Laurent; Waters, Andy P.; Schiehser, Guy; Jacobus, David P.; Janse, Chris J.; Ager, Arba; Jacobs, William R.; Sacchettini, James C.; Heussler, Volker; Sinnis, Photini; Fidock, David A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid biosynthesis has been viewed as an important biological function of and therapeutic target for Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage infection. This apicoplast-resident type II pathway, distinct from the mammalian type I process, includes FabI. Here, we report synthetic chemistry and transfection studies concluding that Plasmodium FabI is not the target of the antimalarial activity of the bacterial FabI inhibitor triclosan. Disruption of fabI in P. falciparum or the rodent parasite P. berghei does not impede blood stage growth. In contrast, mosquito-derived fabI-deficient P. berghei sporozoites are markedly less infective for mice and typically fail to complete liver stage development in vitro. This is characterized by an inability to form intra-hepatic merosomes that normally initiate blood stage infections. These data illuminate key differences between liver and blood stage parasites in their requirements for host versus de novo synthesized fatty acids, and create new prospects for stage-specific antimalarial interventions. PMID:19064257

  19. Development and testing of a de novo clinical staging system for podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Fasil; Ayele, Zewdu; Mariam, Dereje Haile; Fuller, Claire; Davey, Gail

    2008-10-01

    To develop and test a robust clinical staging system for podoconiosis, a geochemical disease in individuals exposed to red clay soil. We adapted the Dreyer system for staging filarial lymphoedema and tested it in four re-iterative field tests conducted in an area of high-podoconiosis prevalence in Southern Ethiopia. The system has five stages according to proximal spread of disease and presence of dermal nodules, ridges and bands. We measured the 1-week repeatability and the inter-observer agreement of the final staging system. The five-stage system is readily understood by community workers with little health training. Kappa for 1-week repeatability was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80-0.96), for agreement between health professionals was 0.71 (95% CI 0.60-0.82), while that between health professionals and community podoconiosis agents without formal health training averaged 0.64 (95% CI 0.52-0.78). This simple staging system with good inter-observer agreement and repeatability can assist in the management and further study of podoconiosis.

  20. Modern Project: monitoring developments for safe repository operation and staged closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.; Ouchhi, S.; Verstricht, J.; Maurer, H.; Breen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In a first part, the overall objectives of the MoDeRn project (Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and stage closure project) are presented. MoDeRn is a four year (2009-2013) collaborative project co-funded under the 7. Framework Program for Nuclear Research and Training (EURATOM). It involves 17 organizations responsible for research into radioactive waste management in the European Union, United States, Japan and Switzerland, with partners with extensive experience in monitoring activities in underground research laboratories (URL); as well as research institutes and universities with substantial experience in research on socio-technical interactions and public and stakeholder engagement. An overview of the project work packages and of their interdependencies is given. The successful implementation of a repository program for radioactive waste relies on both the technical aspects of a sound safety strategy and scientific and engineering excellence as well as on social aspects such as stakeholder acceptance and confidence. Monitoring is considered key in serving both technical and social objectives. It is not only essential to underpin the technical safety strategy and quality of the engineering, but it can also be an important tool for public communication, contributing to public understanding of and confidence in the repository behaviour. By inclusion of specific national contexts of waste management programs in different countries, the MoDeRn project aims at providing a reference framework for development and implementation of monitoring activities. This will be achieved by stakeholder engagement during all identifiable phases of the radioactive waste disposal process. Thus, site characterisation, construction, operation and staged closure, as well as post-closure institutional control phases have to be addressed. MoDeRn considers different host rock types, such as salt, tuff, crystalline rock

  1. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Development of functional composts using spent coffee grounds, poultry manure and biochar through microbial bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S Aalfin; Yoo, Jangyeon; Kim, Eok-Jo; Chang, Jae-Soo; Park, Young-In; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2017-11-02

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m 2 g -1 . Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment. Moreover, germination indices for radish also increased by 14-34% through augmentation and biochar amendment. Microbial diversity was also enhanced in the augmented and biochar-amended composts by 7.1-8.9%, where two species of Sphingobacteriaceae were dominant (29-43%). The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were enhanced by 14.1% and 8.6% in the fruits of pepper plants grown in the presence of the TR-2 (augmentation applied only) and TR-3 (both augmentation and biochar amendment applied) composts, respectively. Total phenolic content was also enhanced by 68% in the fruits of the crops grown in TR-3. Moreover, the other compost, TR-L (augmentation applied only), boosted DPPH scavenging activity by 111% in leeks compared with commercial organic fertilizer, while TR-3 increased the phenolic content by 44.8%. Composting facilitated by microbial augmentation and biochar amendment shortened the composting time and enhanced the quality of the functional compost. These results indicate that functional compost has great potential to compete with commercially available organic fertilizers and that the novel composting technology could significantly contribute to the eco-friendly recycling of organic wastes such as spent coffee grounds, poultry manure, and agricultural wastes.

  3. Change in radiosensitivity on the development of sea urchin eggs during the early cleavage stage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi

    1975-01-01

    The effect of cysteamine on the fluctuation of X-ray sensitivity during early cleavage stage of sea urchin eggs expressed by pluteus formation rate was examined. Sea urchin eggs were very resistant to radiation immediately after insemination or after S phase of the cleavage. When irradiation was given just prior to S phase or in the phase of cytokinesis, the eggs were very sensitive. In these sensitive stages, existence of cysteamine during X-irradiation apparently protected eggs against radiation effect. Dose modifying factor increased linearly from 1.8 to 3.4 with increasing dose of cysteamine (25mM-75mM) added. (auth.)

  4. Scrum integration in stage-gate models for collaborative product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Slavensky, Andreas; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy

    2013-01-01

    to differentiate from low-cost competitors and increase PD performance, some industrial manufacturers now seek competitive advantage by experimenting with new ways for collaborative PD. This includes integrating customer-focused agile process models, like Scrum, from the software industry into their existing PD...... models. Thus, instead of replacing traditional stage-gate models agile methods are currently integrated in existing PD models generating hybrid solution for collaborative PD. This paper includes a study of three industrial cases that have successfully integrated Scrum into a stage-gate process model...

  5. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  6. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  7. Development of low-cost technology for the removal of iron and manganese from ground water in siwa oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Hesham M

    2010-01-01

    Ground water is the only water resource for Siwa Oasis. It is obtained from natural freshwater wells and springs fed by the Nubian aquifer. Water samples collected from Siwa Oasis had relatively higher iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) than the permissible limits specified in WHO Guidelines and Egyptian Standards for drinking water quality. Aeration followed by sand filtration is the most commonly used method for the removal of iron from ground water. The study aimed at development of low-cost technology for the removal of iron and manganese from ground water in Siwa Oasis. The study was carried out on Laboratory-scale columns experiments sand filters with variable depths of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 cm and three graded types of sand were studied. The graded sand (E.S. =0.205 mm, U.C. =3.366, depth of sand = 60 cm and filtration rate = 1.44 m3/m2/hr) was the best type of filter media. Iron and manganese concentrations measured in ground water with aeration only, decreased with an average removal percentage of 16%, 13% respectively. Iron and manganese concentrations after filtration with aeration came down to 0.1123, 0.05 mg/L respectively in all cases from an initial concentration of 1.14, 0.34 mg/L respectively. Advantages of such treatment unit included simplicity, low cost design, and no need for chemical addition. In addition, the only maintenance required was periodic washing of the sand filter or replacement of the sand in order to maintain reasonable flow rate through the system.

  8. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  9. Germ cell tumors in patients with disorders of sex development: Risk factors, initial developmental stages and targets for early diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.C.M. Cools (Martine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the origin, identification and correct diagnosis of the earliest stages of malignant germ cell tumors, i.e. intra tubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGNU) and gonadoblastoma, in patients with disorders of sex development. Special attention is given to the

  10. The development of bronchiectasis on chest computed tomography in children with cystic fibrosis: can pre-stages be identified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, Leonie A. [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Caudri, Daan [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Perez Rovira, Adria [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bruijne, Marleen de [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Bronchiectasis is an important component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease but little is known about its development. We aimed to study the development of bronchiectasis and identify determinants for rapid progression of bronchiectasis on chest CT. Forty-three patients with CF with at least four consecutive biennial volumetric CTs were included. Areas with bronchiectasis on the most recent CT were marked as regions of interest (ROIs). These ROIs were generated on all preceding CTs using deformable image registration. Observers indicated whether: bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, airway wall thickening, atelectasis/consolidation or normal airways were present in the ROIs. We identified 362 ROIs on the most recent CT. In 187 (51.7 %) ROIs bronchiectasis was present on all preceding CTs, while 175 ROIs showed development of bronchiectasis. In 139/175 (79.4 %) no pre-stages of bronchiectasis were identified. In 36/175 (20.6 %) bronchiectatic airways the following pre-stages were identified: mucus plugging (17.7 %), airway wall thickening (1.7 %) or atelectasis/consolidation (1.1 %). Pancreatic insufficiency was more prevalent in the rapid progressors compared to the slow progressors (p = 0.05). Most bronchiectatic airways developed within 2 years without visible pre-stages, underlining the treacherous nature of CF lung disease. Mucus plugging was the most frequent pre-stage. (orig.)

  11. Re-thinking stages of cognitive development: an appraisal of connectionist models on the balance scale task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinlan, P.T.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Booij, O.; Rendell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper re-appraises connectionist attempts to explain how human cognitive development appears to progress through a series of sequential stages. Models of performance on the Piagetian balance scale task are the focus of attention. Limitations of these models are discussed and replications

  12. Rethinking the Food and Drug Administration's 2013 guidance on developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lon S

    2014-03-01

    The February 2013 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) creates certain challenges as they guide toward the use of one cognitive outcome to gain accelerated marketing approval for preclinical AD drugs, and a composite clinical scale - the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in particular - for the primary outcome for prodromal AD clinical trials. In light of the developing knowledge regarding early stage diagnoses and clinical trials outcomes, we recommend that FDA describe its requirements for validating preclinical AD diagnoses for drug development purposes, maintain the principle for requiring coprimary outcomes, and encourage the advancement of outcomes for early stage AD trials. The principles for drug development for early stage AD should not differ from those for clinical AD, especially as the diagnoses of prodromal and early AD impinge on each other. The FDA should not recommend that a composite scale be used as a sole primary efficacy outcome to support a marketing claim unless it requires that the cognitive and functional components of such a scale are demonstrated to be individually meaningful. The current draft guidelines may inadvertently constrain efforts to better assess the clinical effects of new drugs and inhibit innovation in an area where evidence-based clinical research practices are still evolving. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertilization effects on biomass production, nutrient leaching and budgets in four stand development stages of short rotation forest poplar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Stupak, Inge

    2017-01-01

    leaching based on water fluxes modelled with CoupModel and soil solution analyses and calculated the nutrient budgets. Fertilization effects depended on the stage of stand development, but were inconsistent in time. The biomass production increased in EST in the first year after fertilization and in PT...

  14. The development of bronchiectasis on chest computed tomography in children with cystic fibrosis: can pre-stages be identified?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepper, Leonie A.; Caudri, Daan; Perez Rovira, Adria; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; Bruijne, Marleen de

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is an important component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease but little is known about its development. We aimed to study the development of bronchiectasis and identify determinants for rapid progression of bronchiectasis on chest CT. Forty-three patients with CF with at least four consecutive biennial volumetric CTs were included. Areas with bronchiectasis on the most recent CT were marked as regions of interest (ROIs). These ROIs were generated on all preceding CTs using deformable image registration. Observers indicated whether: bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, airway wall thickening, atelectasis/consolidation or normal airways were present in the ROIs. We identified 362 ROIs on the most recent CT. In 187 (51.7 %) ROIs bronchiectasis was present on all preceding CTs, while 175 ROIs showed development of bronchiectasis. In 139/175 (79.4 %) no pre-stages of bronchiectasis were identified. In 36/175 (20.6 %) bronchiectatic airways the following pre-stages were identified: mucus plugging (17.7 %), airway wall thickening (1.7 %) or atelectasis/consolidation (1.1 %). Pancreatic insufficiency was more prevalent in the rapid progressors compared to the slow progressors (p = 0.05). Most bronchiectatic airways developed within 2 years without visible pre-stages, underlining the treacherous nature of CF lung disease. Mucus plugging was the most frequent pre-stage. (orig.)

  15. Late-stage development of the Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway on the Louisiana continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.

    2000-01-01

    GLORIA sidescan imagery, multibeam bathymetry, seismic profiles, and piston cores (3–5 m penetration) reveal the near-surface geology of the Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway on the continental margin of Louisiana. This pathway extends from the continental shelf edge, across the continental slope, to a deep-sea fan on the continental rise. The pathway is narrow (thalweg no longer has a continuous down-slope gradient. Some mini-basin floors along the pathway are now more than 500 m deeper than their basin’s spill point. We propose a 6-stage conceptual model to explain our observations for the evolution of a mini-basin along this turbidite pathway. In this model, an active channel feeds sand to a mini-basin (Stabe B). Once the mini-basin is filled, the sand deposit is entrenched by a bypass channel (Stage C). When the turbidite system shuts off, salt migration oversteepens the mini-basin walls (Stage D) which collapse and create a layer of mass-transport deposits on the mini-basin floor (Stage E). The depositional succession is capped by a layer of highstand hemipelagic drape (Stage F). The Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway provides a recent example of a large turbidite pathway in the Gulf of Mexico that crosses an area of active salt tectonics thus providing a conceptual model for older systems in similar settings. In Bryant Canyon, thick turbidite sands presumably are found in mini-basins however, they are sealed by thick, fine-grained, mass-transport deposits which terminate mini-basin turbidite deposition cycles. The importance of mass-transport deposits in basins along this turbidite pathway is in startling contrast to the Trinity-Brazos pathway whose shallow subsurface expression is virtually free of mass-transport deposits and has undergone minimal deformation by salt movement.

  16. How normal is grammatical development in the right hemisphere following hemispherectomy? The root infinitive stage and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, Susan; de Bode, Stella

    2003-08-01

    We examined the morphosyntax of eight left hemispherectomized children at two different stages and compared it to MLU-matched normals. We found that the language of the hemispherectomies paralleled that of their MLU matches with respect to the specific morphosyntactic characteristics of each stage. Our findings provide strong evidence for the presence of functional categories in all early grammars and demonstrate that grammatical development, regardless of its neural substrate, is highly constrained by UG and follows a narrowly determined course. We discuss our findings within a neurobiological framework in which etiology defines the integrity of the remaining hemisphere, which in turn, determines its potential for linguistic reorganization and/or acquisition.

  17. Dynamical peculiarities of nucleo-genesis of light nuclei on the early stage of the Universe development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, N.Zh.; Spanova, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The item of the L group chemical elements nuclei generation on the early stage of the Universe development has been studied. At this stage the thermodynamical equilibrium inside of nucleus, the electromagnetic and the neutrino component are passing at adiabatic matter expand condition. Description of hot hadron substance and light nuclei nucleo-genesis process are considered in the conditions of matter thermodynamical equilibrium. The approach of thermodynamical potential and state equation were used for analysis. The reactions balance in subsystems, including isotope group and neutron medium (for example, reactions in the hydrogen group) is studied. The assessments for disintegration channel influence are given

  18. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  19. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...

  20. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  1. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  2. Development of Optimal Viscous Dampers for RC Structures in Near Field Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthanpurayil, Arun M.; Reynolds, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches show that more than 50% of the economic loss in earthquakes is due to damage of non-structural elements: $8 billion loss in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and $18.5 billion in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. An approach to reduce the economic loss during a seismic event without compromising the structural safety aspect is to incorporate special mechanical devices like fluid viscous dampers in the parent structural system. A recent study carried out to assess the efficacy of viscous dampers in reducing nonstructural damage of low, medium and high rise structures shows that; linear dampers are well suited for low rise category whereas the medium and high rise category requires nonlinear dampers. In this paper an analytical approach is adopted to derive the optimal combination of damper design parameters for all the three categories of structure subjected to near field ground motion. Linear time history analysis by direct time integration was carried out for the linear viscous dampers, while the parameters of the nonlinear viscous dampers were obtained using nonlinear modal time history analysis (Fast Nonlinear analysis). The results of the study are presented in the form of a set of design curves which can be used for the initial selection of parameters for Damper design

  3. Development of a Semielliptical Partial Ground Plane Antenna for RFID and GSM-900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact broadband patch antenna for UHF (ultrahigh frequency, RFID (radio frequency identification, and GSM-900 (global system for mobile communications band is shown in this paper. The antenna is composed of an ellipse shape annular ring at the patch. The ground plane of the planar antenna is modified with a semiellipse shape slot. The structure can generate substantial amount of current at the feed-line. The geometry of the antenna is evaluated by using HFSS simulation software and deliberated across the paper. Parametric study is exhibited to delineate the response change of the antenna. The antenna has a physical width of 0.24 λ and length of 0.3 λ. It covers a frequency starting from 0.9 GHz to 1.08 GHz. A fractional bandwidth of 18.2% has been achieved from 0.9 GHz till 1.08 GHz. An average gain of 5.5 dBi is achieved at the resonance frequency. The simulated and measured results have good agreement.

  4. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  5. New technologies as a factor of development of competitive Russian economy in the context of a post-industrial stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrai Yu.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article presents ways of development of a technological platform of the Russian economy and a role of new technologies and «human factor» in providing its competitiveness at a post-industrial stage. The author offers: education systems development, use of channels of the international migration of a skilled labor force, forming of the national market of new technologies, enhancement of interaction with the world market of new technologies.

  6. In vitro development of Strongylus edentatus to the fourth larval stage with notes on Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus equinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, R G; Klei, T R

    1985-08-01

    Strongylus edentatus was successfully cultured in vitro to the fourth larval stage (L4). Some growth continued for periods of 40-50 days at which time reductions in viability were observed in some of the culture systems tested. Various combinations of media, sera, buffers and organ explant cultures were tested. All cultures were incubated at 37 C in an atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. Larvae underwent growth and differentiation to the L4 in all medium-serum combinations with and without organ explant cultures. Development and growth did occur but viability was reduced to insignificant levels in media without serum or cells. Optimal growth, differentiation, and longevity were observed in bicarbonate buffered RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cecum explant cultures. Observations indicated that Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus equinus also developed to the L4 stage using similar techniques. However, viability of S. vulgaris L4 was markedly limited. Specific morphological changes marked phases of development of S. edentatus, categorized as early, middle and late third stage, third molt and early fourth stage. Strongylus equinus appeared to follow the same developmental pattern in vitro as S. edentatus. Distinct differences in morphological features during differentiation were observed between S. edentatus and S. vulgaris.

  7. PEER NGA-East Overview: Development of a Ground Motion Characterization Model (Ground Motion Prediction Equations) for Central and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C. A.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Al Atik, L.; Atkinson, G. M.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Graves, R. W.; Kuehn, N. M.; Youngs, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation project for Central and Eastern North America (CENA), NGA-East, is a major multi-disciplinary project coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). The project was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NGA-East involved a large number of participating researchers from various organizations in academia, industry and government and was carried-out as a combination of 1) a scientific research project and 2) a model-building component following the NRC Seismic Senior Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 process. The science part of the project led to several data products and technical reports while the SSHAC component aggregated the various results into a ground motion characterization (GMC) model. The GMC model consists in a set of ground motion models (GMMs) for median and standard deviation of ground motions and their associated weights, combined into logic-trees for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). NGA-East addressed many technical challenges, most of them related to the relatively small number of earthquake recordings available for CENA. To resolve this shortcoming, the project relied on ground motion simulations to supplement the available data. Other important scientific issues were addressed through research projects on topics such as the regionalization of seismic source, path and attenuation of motions, the treatment of variability and uncertainties and on the evaluation of site effects. Seven working groups were formed to cover the complexity and breadth of topics in the NGA-East project, each focused on a specific technical area. This presentation provides an overview of the NGA-East research project and its key products.

  8. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities.

  9. DNA extraction and barcode identification of development stages of forensically important flies in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olekšáková, Tereza; Žurovcová, Martina; Klimešová, Vanda; Barták, Miroslav; Šuláková, Hana

    2018-04-01

    Several methods of DNA extraction, coupled with 'DNA barcoding' species identification, were compared using specimens from early developmental stages of forensically important flies from the Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families. DNA was extracted at three immature stages - eggs, the first instar larvae, and empty pupal cases (puparia) - using four different extraction methods, namely, one simple 'homemade' extraction buffer protocol and three commercial kits. The extraction conditions, including the amount of proteinase K and incubation times, were optimized. The simple extraction buffer method was successful for half of the eggs and for the first instar larval samples. The DNA Lego Kit and DEP-25 DNA Extraction Kit were useful for DNA extractions from the first instar larvae samples, and the DNA Lego Kit was also successful regarding the extraction from eggs. The QIAamp DNA mini kit was the most effective; the extraction was successful with regard to all sample types - eggs, larvae, and pupari.

  10. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  11. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18degrees C to 22degrees C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  12. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  13. Aluminum 2195 T8 Gore Development for Space Launch System Core and Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Gores are pie-shaped panels that are welded together to form the dome ends of rocket fuel tanks as shown in figure 1. Replacing aluminum alloy 2219 with aluminum (Al)-lithium (Li) alloy 2195 as the Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank material would save enormous amounts of weight. In fact, it has been calculated that simply replacing Al 2219 gores with Al 2195 gores on the SLS core stage domes could save approximately 3,800 pound-mass. This is because the Al-Li 2195 alloy exhibits both higher mechanical properties and lower density than the SLS baseline Al 2219 alloy. Indeed, the known advantages of Al 2195 led to its use as a replacement for Al 2219 in the shuttle external tank program. The required thicknesses of Al 2195 gores for either SLS core stage tanks or upper stage tanks will depend on the specific design configurations. The required thicknesses or widths may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch-forming process. Accordingly, the primary objective of this project was to enhance the formability of Al 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch-forming process for gore thicknesses up to 0.75 inches, which envelop the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tank configurations.

  14. Land Resource Management as the Ground for Mining Area Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovitskiy, Aleksander; Brel, Olga; Nikulin, Nikolai; Nastavko, Ekaterina; Meser, Tatayna

    2017-11-01

    It is established that the problem of sustainable development of Kuzbass cities is their being tied to a single production and income from other sources is not considered. Therefore, their economy is underdeveloped, depends entirely on one city-forming enterprise (singleindustry city), which causes response to the slightest changes in the economic situation. In Kuzbass, all cities, except Kemerovo, are monodependent, including Kiselevsk, which economy mainly consists of coal mining enterprises. In the circumstances, there is a need to develop a set of measures for management the urban land, primarily aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Kiselevsk city. The development of principles and management mechanism of the urban territory land fund determines its effectiveness. Establishing the dependence of rational use of land resources and sustainable development characterizes a new level of information interaction between sciences (land management and economy). Practical use of this theory is to overcome the mono-urban development of mining cities, taking into account effective subsoil management.

  15. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  17. Development of suitability maps for ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hikari; Itoi, Ryuichi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Inatomi, Tadasuke [YBM Co. Ltd., Kishiyama 589-10 Kitahata, Karatsu 847-1211 (Japan); Uchida, Youhei [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Tsukuba Central 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The thermophysical properties of subsurface materials (soils, sediments and rocks) and groundwater flow strongly affect the heat exchange rates of ground heat exchangers (GHEs). These rates can be maximized and the installation costs of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems reduced by developing suitability maps based on local geological and hydrological information. Such maps were generated for the Chikushi Plain (western Japan) using field-survey data and a numerical modeling study. First, a field-wide groundwater model was developed for the area and the results matched against measured groundwater levels and vertical temperature profiles. Single GHE models were then constructed to simulate the heat exchange performance at different locations in the plain. Finally, suitability maps for GCHP systems were prepared using the results from the single GHE models. Variations in the heat exchange rates of over 40% revealed by the map were ascribed to differences in the GHE locations, confirming how important it is to use appropriate thermophysical data when designing GCHP systems. (author)

  18. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  19. Information indices as a tool for quantifying development of below-ground terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Tobor-Kaplon, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Information indices from ecosystem network analysis (ENA) describe the size and organization of an ecosystem and are claimed to quantify ecosystem development [Ulanowicz, R.E., 1986, Growth and Development, Springler-Verslag, New York, 203 pp.]. To date, these indices were not used to describe a

  20. Data Supporting Mobile Application Development for Use within the Marine Air-Ground Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Unhelkar & Murugesan, 2010) ............................................................. 36   Figure 7.   Starbucks iPhone payment application (from... Starbucks , 2015) .......... 38   Figure 8.   The Mobile Applications Development Framework (from Unhelkar & Murugesan, 2010...application (Unhelkar & Murugesan, 2010). Retailer-developed electronic 38 payment applications such as the Starbucks iPhone application (see Figure 7

  1. The Process of Professional School Counselor Multicultural Competency Development: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Professional School Counselors who work in schools with a range of student diversity are posed with a unique set of challenges which require them to develop their multicultural competencies. The following qualitative study examined the process of developing multicultural competence for four professional school counselors. The four professional…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Professional Learning in an Authentic Online Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teräs, Hanna; Kartoglu, Umit

    2017-01-01

    Online professional development (OPD) programs have become increasingly popular. However, participating in professional development does not always lead to profound professional learning. Previous research endeavours have often focussed on measuring user acceptance or on comparing the effectiveness of OPD with a face-to-face delivery, but there is…

  3. Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) engineering, manufacturing, and development (EMD) Block 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Jackson R.; Pabst, Donald; Sower, Gary D.; Nee, Larry; Green, Brian; Howard, Peter

    2001-10-01

    The United States Army has contracted EG&G Technical Services to build the GSTAMIDS EMD Block 0. This system autonomously detects and marks buried anti-tank land mines from an unmanned vehicle. It consists of a remotely operated host vehicle, standard teleoperation system (STS) control, mine detection system (MDS) and a control vehicle. Two complete systems are being fabricated, along with a third MDS. The host vehicle for Block 0 is the South African Meerkat that has overpass capability for anti-tank mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection and ballistic protection. It is operated via the STS radio link from within the control vehicle. The Main Computer System (MCS), located in the control vehicle, receives sensor data from the MDS via a high speed radio link, processes and fuses the data to make a decision of a mine detection, and sends the information back to the host vehicle for a mark to be placed on the mine location. The MCS also has the capability to interface into the FBCB2 system via SINGARS radio. The GSTAMIDS operator station and the control vehicle communications system also connect to the MCS. The MDS sensors are mounted on the host vehicle and include Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detector, and (as an option) long-wave infrared (LWIR). A distributed processing architecture is used so that pre-processing is performed on data at the sensor level before transmission to the MCS, minimizing required throughput. Nine (9) channels each of GPR and PMI are mounted underneath the meerkat to provide a three-meter detection swath. Two IR cameras are mounted on the upper sides of the Meerkat, providing a field of view of the required swath with overlap underneath the vehicle. Also included on the host vehicle are an Internal Navigation System (INS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communications for remote control and data transmission. The GSTAMIDS Block 0 is designed as a modular, expandable system

  4. Development of an in situ temperature stage for synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Serdy, J.; Culpepper, M. L.; Buonassisi, T., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); West, B.; Stuckelberger, M.; Bertoni, M. I. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Lai, B.; Maser, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In situ characterization of micro- and nanoscale defects in polycrystalline thin-film materials is required to elucidate the physics governing defect formation and evolution during photovoltaic device fabrication and operation. X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy is particularly well-suited to study defects in compound semiconductors, as it has a large information depth appropriate to study thick and complex materials, is sensitive to trace amounts of atomic species, and provides quantitative elemental information, non-destructively. Current in situ methods using this technique typically require extensive sample preparation. In this work, we design and build an in situ temperature stage to study defect kinetics in thin-film solar cells under actual processing conditions, requiring minimal sample preparation. Careful selection of construction materials also enables controlled non-oxidizing atmospheres inside the sample chamber such as H{sub 2}Se and H{sub 2}S. Temperature ramp rates of up to 300 °C/min are achieved, with a maximum sample temperature of 600 °C. As a case study, we use the stage for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-films and demonstrate predictable sample thermal drift for temperatures 25–400 °C, allowing features on the order of the resolution of the measurement technique (125 nm) to be tracked while heating. The stage enables previously unattainable in situ studies of nanoscale defect kinetics under industrially relevant processing conditions, allowing a deeper understanding of the relationship between material processing parameters, materials properties, and device performance.

  5. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Pandeló; Talita D. Melo; Júnya L. Singulani; Fernanda A. F. Guedes; Marco A. Machado; Cíntia M. Coelho; Lyderson F. Viccini; Marcelo O. Santos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS) gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were a...

  6. Basic stages in the development of the theory of Ramjet Engines (RJE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulov, I. A.

    1977-01-01

    Basic periods in the history of the development of ramjet engine theory are cited. The periods include the first experimental tests as well as the development of basic ideas and theoretical development of the cosmic ramjet engine.

  7. Airport Surface Traffic Control Visual Ground Aids Engineering and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The plan described in this document supports the overall program at the Transportation Systems Center to define, design, develop, and evaluate systems that meet the requirements of airport surface traffic control. This plan is part of documentation s...

  8. Systems Engineering Approach to Develop Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Global Positioning System HNA hybrid navigation algorithm HRI human-robot interface IED Improvised Explosive Device IMU inertial measurement unit...Potential Field Method R&D research and development RDT&E Research, development, test and evaluation RF radiofrequency RGB red, green and blue ROE...were radiofrequency (RF) controlled and pneumatically actuated upon receiving the wireless commands from the radio operator. The pairing of such an

  9. The role of vermetid gastropods in the development of the Florida Middle Ground, northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Poore, Richard Z.; Hickey, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Middle Ground is a complex of north to northwest trending ridges that lie approximately 180 km northwest of Tampa Bay, Florida. The irregular ridges appear on the otherwise gently sloping West Florida shelf and exhibit between 10-15 m of relief. Modern studies interpret the ridges as remnants of a Holocene coral-reef buildup that today provide a hard substrate for growth of a variety of benthic organisms including hydrocorals, scleractinians, alcyonarians, and algae. Recent rotary coring reveals that the core of the eastern ridge of the Florida Middle Ground complex consists of unconsolidated marine calcareous muddy sand that is capped by a boundstone composed primarily of the sessile vermetid gastropod Petaloconchus sp., and overlays a weathered, fossiliferous limestone. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon ages (uncalibrated) on the 3.6-m thick vermetid worm rock indicate that it developed during a sea-level stillstand in the early Holocene (8,225 ±30-8,910 ± 25 yr B.P.). Our observations suggest that the Florida Middle Ground is a remnant of a series of shore parallel bars that formed in the early Holocene and were capped by a 3.6-m thick unit of vermetid gastropods. During a rapid sea-level rise that began ~8,000 yr B.P. the vermetids growth ceased and the worm rock preserved the ridges structure. Diver observations document that the edges of the ridges are currently being eroded and undermined by biological activity and current action, leading to calving of large capstone blocks.

  10. Physiological quality and gene expression related to heat-resistant proteins at different stages of development of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, T; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, R G; Oliveira, G E; Andrade, V; Fernandes, J S

    2013-09-13

    We quantified and characterized the expression of heat-resistant proteins during seed development of maize lines with distinct levels of tolerance to high drying temperature. A corn field was planted for multiplication of seeds of different lines, two tolerant and two non-tolerant to high drying temperatures. Harvest of the seeds was carried out at various stages of development and they were then subjected to tests of moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, and cold test. The seeds were stored in a freezer for later analysis of expression of heat-resistant proteins by means of real-time PCR, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry. We observed that heat-resistant proteins are expressed in a differential manner in seeds from different lines and at different stages of development. The expression of heat-resistant proteins was earlier in lines tolerant to high drying temperatures. Greater germination and vigor values was found for seeds collected at the last stage of development.

  11. Effects of different rearing temperatures on muscle development and stress response in the early larval stages of Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aidos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating muscle development and stress response in early stages of Siberian sturgeon when subjected to different rearing temperatures, by analysing growth and development of the muscle and by assessing the stress response of yolk-sac larvae. Siberian sturgeon larvae were reared at 16°C, 19°C and 22°C until the yolk-sac was completely absorbed. Sampling timepoints were: hatching, schooling and complete yolk-sac absorption stage. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in order to characterize muscle growth (total muscle area, TMA; slow muscle area, SMA; fast muscle area, FMA, development (anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen -PCNA or anticaspase as well as stress conditions by specific stress biomarkers (heat shock protein 70 or 90, HSP70 or HSP90. Larvae subjected to the highest water temperature showed a faster yolk-sac absorption. Histometry revealed that both TMA and FMA were larger in the schooling stage at 19°C while no differences were observed in the SMA at any of the tested rearing temperatures. PCNA quantification revealed a significantly higher number of proliferating cells in the yolk-sac absorption phase at 22°C than at 16°C. HSP90 immunopositivity seems to be particularly evident at 19°C. HPS70 immunopositivity was never observed in the developing lateral muscle.

  12. Microbial landscape features in patients with generalized periodontitis at pre-clinical and radiological stage of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatamanyuk N.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of microbial landscape features in patients with generalized periodontitis at pre-clinical and radiological stage of its development in 42 patients. The purpose of the study is a comparative study of the composition of microbiocenosis of periodontal tissues in patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG and chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP at an early stage of development and development studies of microbiological criteria for early emergence of the destructive process in periodontal structures. We found that the microflora isolated from dento-gingival grooves is of importance in diagnostics to identify the etiology of chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis (CGCG and chronic generalized periodontitis in the early stages of its development. It was established that the presence of two or more types of fixed parodonto-pathogenic microorganisms in microbial association increases the likelihood of inflammatory and destructive events in periodontal tissues in patients with GCCG and is one of the reasons of is becoming CGP.

  13. Development of the Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuma; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishimaru, Daiki; Uematsu, Masayasu; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Until now, there has been no instrument to measure the quality of life (QoL) of patients with severe dementia in Japan. The purpose of this study was to translate the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version (QUALID-J). We translated the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia into Japanese with permission from the original authors. We assessed a total of 70 dementia patients (14 men, 56 women; mean age: 87.4 ± 7.9 years) with the QUALID-J. The test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the QUALID-J was significant. With regard to the criterion-related validity, the correlation coefficient for the total score between the QUALID-J and Quality of Life for Alzheimer's Disease was -0.287 (P quality of life scale for severe dementia. This scale finally enables an adequate assessment of the quality of life of patients with severe dementia in Japan, which has not been possible until now. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Uniform climate development between the subtropical and subpolar Northeast Atlantic across marine isotope stage 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Helmke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Proxy records from a core site off Northwest Africa were generated and compared with data from the subpolar Northeast Atlantic to unravel some main climatic features of interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS 11 (423–362 ka. The records point to an almost 25 kyr lasting full interglacial period during stage 11 that was preceded by a considerably long glacial-interglacial transition (Termination V. Off NW Africa, a strong reduction of terrestrially derived iron input is noted after 420 ka suggesting a pronounced increase in continental humidity and vegetation cover over Northwest Africa. In analogy to the Holocene climate of the region, this early wet phase of MIS 11 was likely associated with enhanced influence of the West African monsoon system on the Saharan-Sahel region which led to both a reduction in trade wind intensity off NW Africa and the formation of sapropel S11 in the Mediterranean Sea. A detailed comparison with data from the subpolar North Atlantic indicates a remarkable coherent timing for the main environmental changes in both regions giving evidence for strong interglacial climate connection between the low and high latitude North Atlantic. Although our records of MIS 11 compare well with the Holocene in terms of some major climate characteristics there are distinct differences in the temporal evolution of each peak warm interval. This suggests that care should be taken when using MIS 11 as analogue to forecast future interglacial conditions.

  15. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 μg L -1 of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 μg L -1 of 233 U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 μg L -1 of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 μg L -1 upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for 233 U than DU exposure, while the presence of 233 U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments

  16. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  17. Cytomorphological and autoradiografical studies on the receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Eherh. in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the cortex and pith cells of strawberries from the cultivar Talizman gradually increased until ripening, especially in the cortex. The volume of the nucleus also increased. The nuclei in the pith were smaller then in the cortex. The volume of the nucleolus increased significantly between days 1 and 5 after pollination, after which it remained unchanged. At the end of the growth period, the volume of the nucleolus in cortical and pith cells in the lower and central part of the fruit increased. Endomitotic polyploidization which was responsible for the growth of the fruit, occurred during the development of the receptacle. The intensity of 3H actinomycin binding reached a maximum in the oldest stages. This is proof for the accumulation of active DNA during mitosis. Saturation with this antibiotic occurred in the early stages of fruit development. No dependence between the volume of cells and the number of nuclei binding 3H actinomycin was observed.

  18. Development of Fast-Time Stochastic Airport Ground and Runway Simulation Model and Its Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport congestion, in particular congestion of departure aircraft, has already been discussed by other researches. Most solutions, though, fail to account for uncertainties. Since it is difficult to remove uncertainties of the operations in the real world, a strategy should be developed assuming such uncertainties exist. Therefore, this research develops a fast-time stochastic simulation model used to validate various methods in order to decrease airport congestion level under existing uncertainties. The surface movement data is analyzed first, and the uncertainty level is obtained. Next, based on the result of data analysis, the stochastic simulation model is developed. The model is validated statistically and the characteristics of airport operation under existing uncertainties are investigated.

  19. Consideration on the restoring plan in the subsidence prone areas through the development of ground stability assessment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.O.; Kwon, K.S.; Kim, I.H.; Cho, W.J.; Shin, H.S.; Lee, J.R.; Song, W.K.; Synn, J.H.; Park, C. [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Most of the ground stability analysis on the subsidence prone areas used to be performed through the conventional routine work which consist of a geological survey, a review of the ragged mining map, a trace-investigation on the surface subsidence, a coring job on the prone areas, a rock mass classification, and a two dimensional numerical analysis. Through the above works, we could analyze the stability problems of a surface structure and the tendency of a surface subsidence. However so many problems have been pointed out during the analysis of the subsidence problem owing to the lack of quantitative data in geological survey, the unreliability of the input data for numerical analysis. Also new techniques for ground stability on subsidence area which can replace the conventional passive method are requested among the civil and mining engineers for the safety control of the surface structure including the road and tunnel. In this study, the basic mechanism for the surface subsidence was surveyed first, and the proper input data for the two and three dimensional numerical analysis was selected. And these results were applied to Si-Heung Mine. According to the two dimensional numerical analysis, there is no possibility of surface subsidence even though tension failure was developed up to the region three times to the height of the cavity. Meanwhile the existing data for joints and the ground water was re-evaluated in order to analyze their effects on the subsidence. If we can recognize the characteristics of the spatial data on them in the future, the effect of the joint and ground water on the subsidence can be found out more precisely through the combination with GIS. Finally a finite difference numerical method was applied to Si-Heung Mine in the three dimension. But it was revealed that there are some problems in the three dimensional technique. In other words, it is difficult to obtain the exact spatial coordinates of the cavity, and the researcher should have

  20. Hybrid stage I palliation for hypo-plastic left heart condition without a hybrid suite: Suggestions for developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anuradha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hybrid procedures are performed in modern, spacious, and highly equipped hybrid suites in developed countries. Organizing such expensive suites in countries with an emerging economy is difficult from both a financial and logistics point of view. We share our experience of safely performing a Hybrid stage I palliation procedure for Aortic atresia with ventricular septal defect on a 2-month-old infant weighing 3.35 kg using minimal resources in a conventional catheterization laboratory.

  1. The Making of a CIO: A Grounded Theory Study of Professional Development of Information Technology Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    The CIO fulfills an important role for most business organizations by leading the information technology department and by aligning the firm's information technology assets with its corporate strategy. There is little research regarding the important components of CIO development and the relationships among these elements. This study examines…

  2. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 7. Grounds of Absolute Pitch Development in Yamaha Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iușcă Dorina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch is defined as the ability to identify the pitch class of a certain given sound without the aid of an external reference pitch (Takeuchi & Hulse, 1993; Deutsch, 2002. The incidence of absolute pitch is extremely rare among the general population, respectively 1 in 10.000 people and it depends on testing conditions such as the number of identified sounds, pitch Chroma, pitch height, timbre, register or requested reaction time, and also on subjects musical training commencing and Eastern-Asian origins. The way absolute pitch develops is described by three models: the tone language theory, the early training theory and the genetic theory. The early training theory states that absolute pitch appears due to the beginning of musical lessons during a critical development period situated before the age of 6. The educational implications of this theory are revealed in the principles and activities of Yamaha Music School which employs didactic strategies that naturally develop absolute pitch. Yamaha Music School is the largest private music education system from Japan, established by Torakusu Yamaha in 1954. Up to this day it has extended in 40 countries from Europe, Asia and the American continents, as it has about 710 million students and 30.000 teachers. The present study aims to illustrate a detailed analysis of the way the learning experiences offered by Yamaha School lead to the development of absolute pitch.

  3. Local economic development and migrant remittances in rural Zimbabwe : Building on sand or solid ground?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe paper explores the impact of migrant remittances on local economic development in a locality where more than half of the households have been recipients for at least five years. The study has taken place in rural Zimbabwe and uses an ethnographic method devised for this research. The

  4. Confident but not theoretically grounded – experienced simulation educators’ perceptions of their own professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allvin R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renée Allvin,1 Magnus Berndtzon,2 Liisa Carlzon,3 Samuel Edelbring,4,5 Håkan Hult,6 Magnus Hultin,7 Klas Karlgren,5,8 Italo Masiello,9 Marie-Louise Södersved Källestedt,10 Éva Tamás,11 1Clinical Skills Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, 2Metodikum – Skill Centre of Medical Simulation Region County Jönköping, Jönköping, 3Simulation Centre West, Department of Research, Education and Development, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, 4Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 5Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 6Institute of Medicine and Health, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 7Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Umeå University, Umeå, 8Department of Research, Education and Development and Innovation, Södersjukhuset Hospital, Stockholm, 9Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Södersjukhuset Hospital, Stockholm, 10Clinical Skills Centre, Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västerås, 11Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Institute of Medicine and Health, Medical Faculty, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden Background: Medical simulation enables the design of learning activities for competency areas (eg, communication and leadership identified as crucial for future health care professionals. Simulation educators and medical teachers follow different career paths, and their education backgrounds and teaching contexts may be very different in a simulation setting. Although they have a key role in facilitating learning, information on the continuing professional development (pedagogical development of simulation educators is not available in the literature. Objectives: To explore changes in

  5. The Cytoplasmic Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase of the Malaria Parasite is a Dual-Stage Target for Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jonathan D.; Pepper, Lauren R.; Cortese, Joseph F.; Estiu, Guillermina; Galinsky, Kevin; Zuzarte-Luis, Vanessa; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Ribacke, Ulf; Lukens, Amanda K.; Santos, Sofia A.; Patel, Vishal; Clish, Clary B.; Sullivan, William J.; Zhou, Huihao; Bopp, Selina E.; Schimmel, Paul; Lindquist, Susan; Clardy, Jon; Mota, Maria M.; Keller, Tracy L.; Whitman, Malcolm; Wiest, Olaf; Wirth, Dyann F.; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance is a major limitation of current antimalarials. The discovery of new druggable targets and pathways including those that are critical for multiple life cycle stages of the malaria parasite is a major goal for the development of the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. Using an integrated chemogenomics approach that combined drug-resistance selection, whole genome sequencing and an orthogonal yeast model, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PfcPRS) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a biochemical and functional target of febrifugine and its synthetic derivatives such as halofuginone. Febrifugine is the active principle of a traditional Chinese herbal remedy for malaria. We show that treatment with febrifugine derivatives activated the amino acid starvation response in both P. falciparum and a transgenic yeast strain expressing PfcPRS. We further demonstrate in the P. berghei mouse model of malaria that halofuginol, a new halofuginone analog that we developed, is highly active against both liver and asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite. Halofuginol, unlike halofuginone and febrifugine, is well tolerated at efficacious doses, and represents a promising lead for the development of dual-stage next generation antimalarials. PMID:25995223

  6. Two-stage SQUID systems and transducers development for MiniGRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L; Podt, M; Bassan, M; Flokstra, J; Karbalai-Sadegh, A; Minenkov, Y; Reinke, W; Shumack, A; Srinivas, S; Waard, A de; Frossati, G

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements on a two-stage SQUID system based on a dc-SQUID as a sensor and a DROS as an amplifier. We measured the intrinsic noise of the dc-SQUID at 4.2 K. A new dc-SQUID has been fabricated. It was specially designed to be used with MiniGRAIL transducers. Cooling fins have been added in order to improve the cooling of the SQUID and the design is optimized to achieve the quantum limit of the sensor SQUID at temperatures above 100 mK. In this paper we also report the effect of the deposition of a Nb film on the quality factor of a small mass Al5056 resonator. Finally, the results of Q-factor measurements on a capacitive transducer for the current MiniGRAIL run are presented

  7. Chinese Fine Art of the 3rd Century: On the Initial Stage of Development of Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Prasolova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the extant written data on Chinese painting on silk in the initial century of the Period of Disunion (Six Dynasties, Liu chao, III–VI A.D., known as the Sanguo (220–280 and the Western Jin (265–317 epochs. While it is scattered among diverse sources, it is mainly in the Lidai minghua ji treatise of Zhang Yanyuan (ca. 810–ca. 990. An analysis of accounts of individual masters and their creative activities attempts to reconstruct the probable artistic and essential features of pieces of art lost afterwards, offering a novel explanation of the initial stage of the formative process of an important genre of composition in Chinese painting and culture.

  8. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  9. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc, 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  10. The development and validation of oral cancer staging using administrative health data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ting, Chang; Chung-Ho, Chen; Yi-Hsin, Yang; Pei-Shan, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major global health problem. The complexity of histological prognosticators in oral cancer makes it difficult to compare the benefits of different treatment regimens. The Taiwanese National Health database provides an opportunity to assess correlations between outcome and treatment protocols and to compare the effects of different treatment regimens. However, the absence of indices of disease severity is a critical problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain how accurately we could assess the severity of oral cancer at the time of initial diagnosis on the basis of variables in a national database. In the cancer registry database of a medical center in Taiwan, we identified 1067 histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer (ICD9 codes 140, 141 and 143–145) that had been first diagnosed and subjected to initial treatment in this hospital. The clinical staging status was considered as the gold standard and we used concordance (C)-statistics to assess the model’s predictive performance. We added the predictors of treatment modality, cancer subsite, and age group to our models. Our final overall model included treatment regimen, site, age, and two interaction terms; namely, interactions between treatment regimen and age and those between treatment regimen, site, and age. In this model, the C-statistics were 0.82–0.84 in male subjects and 0.96–0.99 in female subjects. Of the models stratified by age, the model that considered treatment regimen and site had the highest C-statistics for the interaction term, this value being greater than 0.80 in male subjects and 0.9 in female subjects. In this study, we found that adjusting for sex, age at first diagnosis, oral cancer subsite, and therapy regimen provided the best indicator of severity of oral cancer. Our findings provide a method for assessing cancer severity when information about staging is not available from a national health-related database

  11. Seismic analysis during development stage of CANDU Model 2 fueling machine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.S.; Mansfield, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The CANDU Model 3 is a new small reactor presently being designed. This reactor is 450 MWe, and as with current operating CANDU's, is based on a heavy water moderated and cooled system using on-power fuelling for the once-through natural uranium fuel cycle. The CANDU 3 Standard plant is designed to be adaptable to a range of world-wide site conditions, i.e. for a peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g and a wide range of soft, medium and hard foundation medium properties. Consequently, a conservatism in the design of structure and equipment is accounted by using enveloped floor response spectra generated by the soil-structure interaction analysis. Seismic qualification of the fuelling machine (F/M) and its support structure are an essential design requirement for maintaining the integrity of the reactor coolant heat transport system (HTS) pressure boundary and the service ports penetrating the containment structure during on-power fueling. This paper deals with the initial conceptual phase of design where the details of the design are in fundamental outline form only and basic mass distribution plus layout geometry is defined

  12. Staging of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16 year old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of the developmental status of the third molar has been studied in assessment of the chronological age of adolescents in whom the development of the other permanent teeth is nearly complete. However, little is known about the timing and pattern of third-molar development in the Indian population. This study aimed to stage the third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16year old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, the status of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 1139 Indian children aged 5-16 years was evaluated radiographically, using Orhan's modification of Demirjian's method. The frequency of occurrence of the third molars varied from 47% to 70%. Crypt formation, crown completion and root completion occurred as early as 5.4, 8.7 and 15.0 years, respectively. No significant differences based on gender or side were observed in third-molar development (p>0.05). For most stages, maxillary third molars were slightly more advanced than their mandibular counterparts (p>0.05). Considering the high degree of variability observed in third molar genesis and development, the usefulness of this tooth in age determination studies may be very limited in the age group studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing a project-based computational physics course grounded in expert practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a project-based computational physics course developed using a backwards course design approach. From an initial competency-based model of problem solving in computational physics, we interviewed faculty who use these tools in their own research to determine indicators of expert practice. From these, a rubric was formulated that enabled us to design a course intended to allow students to learn these skills. We also report an initial implementation of the course and, by having the interviewees regrade student work, show that students acquired many of the expert practices identified.

  14. [Microscopic anatomy and volatile secondary metabolites at three stages of development of the inflorescences of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese Araque, José Fernando; Parra Garcés, María Isabel; Arrieta Prieto, Dagoberto; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Plants of the Verbenaceae family, like L. camara, have called the attention of researchers, not only because of its high diversity and its distribution around the world, but also for its variable use as popular medicine to treat diseases like tetanus, rheumatism and malaria, and as bactericide and insecticide. To assess this, the morphology and ontogeny of the inflorescences of Lantana camara and the chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed at three different ontogeny stages. Plants were collected from the experimental crop area in CENIVAM, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Fresh inflorescence stages were established and analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope, fixed in FAA and included in parafine. Transversal and longitudinal 10 microm thick sections were prepared using a rotative microtome, safranine-fastgreen stained and were observed and photographed using a light microscope. The chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed for each stage. The analytes, obtained from 0.7 g of plant, were isolated by solid phase micro-extraction in the headspace mode (HS-SPME) and were placed in 20 ml vials. The components were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stage I was microscopically characterized by an immature development in which the meristematic differentiation begins with a mass of cells. In Stage II, the morphogenetic movement gives way to the formation of the respective floral sexual structures, calyx and corolla. In Stage III, the different organs are conspicuous: four stamens epipetals and didynamous, monocarpelar, biloculate and globose gynoecium, upper ovary and lateral stigma; the flowers are hermaphroditic. The main secondary metabolites detected by GC-MS were bicyclosesquiphellandrene, E-beta-farnesene, E-beta-caryophyllene, gamma-muurolene + gamma-curcumene and alpha-zingiberene. Nevertheless, this study reports for the first time in plant species alpha-gurjunene, gamma

  15. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Development and evaluation of the Stingray, an amphibious maritime interdiction operations unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Castelli, Robin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. In 2011, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific conducted user evaluations on a number of small throwable robots and sensors, verified the requirements, and developed the key performance parameters (KPPs) for an MIO robot. Macro USA Corporation was then tasked to design and develop two prototype systems, each consisting of one control/display unit and two small amphibious Stingray robots. Technical challenges included the combination paddle wheel/shock-absorbing wheel, the tradeoff between impact resistance, size, and buoyancy, and achieving adequate traction on wet surfaces. This paper describes the technical design of these robots and the results of subsequent user evaluations by VBSS teams.

  17. Adaptive maternal immune deviations as a ground for autism spectrum disorders development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaev, Alexander B; Poletaeva, Alina A; Pukhalenko, Alexander I; Zamaleeva, Roza S; Cherepanova, Natalia A; Frizin, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a vexed problem today. Overall, there is a high frequency of birth children (1:80 - 1:150) with late diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and this trend is getting progressively stronger. The causes for the currently increased frequency of ASD and the pathogenesis of ASD are not fully understood yet. One of the most likely mechanisms inducing ASD may be a maternal immune imprinting. This phenomenon is based on transplacental translocation of maternal antibodies of IgG class and, as a consequence, on the epigenetic "tuning" of immune system of the fetus and child. This mechanism provides development of child's anti-infection resistance before meeting with microorganisms, but it can be also a cause of inborn pathology including the ASD appearance. The quantitative changes in maternal blood serum autoantibodies depend on a specific microbial population, or are induced by environmental chemical pollutants in association with some individual features of the maternal metabolism. These immune changes are adaptive in most cases for the maternal organism, but can be pathogenic for the fetus in some cases. We discuss in the present paper the possibilities to predict the risk from abnormal development of nervous system in fetus and early diagnosis of ASD in high-risk group of children.

  18. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.; Shahmim, M.A.; Elahi, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  19. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... is collected on an hourly basis, filtered, interpolated, and presented on zoomable maps and graphs. Compared with other environmental information initiatives, the main aspects of this Website is the allowance for user interactivity, free access to data, and high timeliness. Data are published 2 to 3 h after...

  20. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively