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Sample records for ground cover plots

  1. Accuracy assessment of the vegetation continuous field tree cover product using 3954 ground plots in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. White; J. D. Shaw; R. D. Ramsey

    2005-01-01

    An accuracy assessment of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation continuous field (VCF) tree cover product using two independent ground-based tree cover databases was conducted. Ground data included 1176 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots for Arizona and 2778 Southwest Regional GAP (SWReGAP) plots for Utah and western Colorado....

  2. Stratifying FIA Ground Plots Using A 3-Year Old MRLC Forest Cover Map and Current TM Derived Variables Selected By "Decision Tree" Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Hoppus; Stan Arner; Andrew Lister

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in variance for estimates of forest area and volume in the state of Connecticut was accomplished by stratifying FIA ground plots using raw, transformed and classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A US Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization (MRLC) vegetation cover map for Connecticut was used to produce a forest/non-...

  3. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  4. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  5. Ground ice and hydrothermal ground motions on aufeis plots of river valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized groundwater outflow and layered freezing of them in forms of large ice clusters on the surface creates specific conditions for energy and mass exchange in the «atmosphere–soil–lithosphere» system. In winter, the soil temperature profile is essentially deformed due to heat emission by the aufeis layer of water at its freezing that forms a specific thermocline layer. Deformation of the temperature profile, gradually decreasing, moves down the cross-section and disappearing at the interface between frozen and thawed rocks. Magnitude and number of the temperature deviations from a «normal» state depends on the heat storage of the aufeis-forming waters and on the number of outflows at a given point. The thermocline formation changes conditions of freezing for underlying ground layers together with mechanism of ice saturation of them, and that results in formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC which differ drastically from cryogenic features in adjacent parts of the valley. Analysis of genetic characteristics and relation of components of the surface and subsurface layers allowed identification of seven types of the aufeis IGC: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressureinjection, and fissure-vein. Yearly formation and destruction of aufeises and subsurface ices is accompanied by a sequence of particularly hazardous geodynamical phenomena, among which the most important are winter flooding of territories, layered freezing of water, ground heaving, thermokarst, and thermoerosion. Combination of these processes may cause a rapid (often unexpected reconfiguration of channels of both surface and subsurface runoff, abrupt uplifts and subsidences of the surface, and decompaction and «shaking-up» of seasonally thawing and seasonally freezing rocks, which may create exceptionally unfavorable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures. Aufeis plots

  6. Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete cast in place four span deck of a concrete bridge near Roanoke, Texas, was recently completed. Due to possible construction errors, it was suspected that the concrete covers in the deck did not conform to drawings and specifications. A full scale non-destructive evaluation of the concrete covers was carried out using ground penetrating radar (GPR equipment. Cover values were determined from the radargram generated from the scan. The estimated covers were plotted on contour maps. Migration data can substitute the drilling based ground truth data without compromising the concrete cover estimations, except for areas with very high cover values. Areas with high water content may result in inaccurate concrete dielectric constants. Based on the results, significant retrofitting of the bridge deck, such as additional overlay, was recommended.

  7. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Rainfall simulation over USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, María José; Bienes, Ramón; Jiménez, Luis; Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2007-05-25

    The erosive power of frequent light rainfalls is studied in this paper. Field experiments of simulated rainfall (Intensity, 21 mm h(-1) and kinetic energy, 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1)) were conducted over 8 bounded USLE plots (80 m(2) each) with a slope of 10%. In 4 plots the soil was almost bare (<4% vegetation cover); the other 4 plots had almost full cover with natural vegetation in one year. Runoff and sediment yield was recorded. The results revealed the efficiency of vegetation cover reducing runoff and sediments. Runoff and sediments were negligible in covered plots. Therefore, in bare plots, although sediment yield was generally low, averaging 74+/-43 kg ha(-1), the mean of runoff achieved a coefficient of 35%, this magnitude has to be taken into consideration in this region verging on aridity. Rains around 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1) of kinetic energy are quite frequent in the study area (34% of recorded rains en 12 years). If we would consider the usual lower limits from the literature, we would be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes.

  8. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  9. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  10. The impact of forest structure and spatial scale on the relationship between ground plot above ground biomass and GEDI lidar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Marselis, S.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; Kellner, J. R.; Calders, K.; Disney, M.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) will place a multi-beam waveform lidar instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide measurements of forest vertical structure globally. These measurements of structure will underpin empirical modelling of above ground biomass density (AGBD) at the scale of individual GEDI lidar footprints (25m diameter). The GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy for footprint level models relies on linking AGBD estimates from ground plots with GEDI lidar waveforms simulated from coincident discrete return airborne laser scanning data. Currently available ground plot data have variable and often large uncertainty at the spatial resolution of GEDI footprints due to poor colocation, allometric model error, sample size and plot edge effects. The relative importance of these sources of uncertainty partly depends on the quality of ground measurements and region. It is usually difficult to know the magnitude of these uncertainties a priori so a common approach to mitigate their influence on model training is to aggregate ground plot and waveform lidar data to a coarser spatial scale (0.25-1ha). Here we examine the impacts of these principal sources of uncertainty using a 3D simulation approach. Sets of realistic tree models generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data or parametric modelling matched to tree inventory data were assembled from four contrasting forest plots across tropical rainforest, deciduous temperate forest, and sclerophyll eucalypt woodland sites. These tree models were used to simulate geometrically explicit 3D scenes with variable tree density, size class and spatial distribution. GEDI lidar waveforms are simulated over ground plots within these scenes using monte carlo ray tracing, allowing the impact of varying ground plot and waveform colocation error, forest structure and edge effects on the relationship between ground plot AGBD and GEDI lidar waveforms to be directly assessed. We

  11. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  12. Estimating vegetation biomass and cover across large plots in shrub and grass dominated drylands using terrestrial lidar and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle E.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Spaete, Lucas P.; Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; McIlroy, Susan; Derryberry, DeWayne R.

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been shown to enable an efficient, precise, and non-destructive inventory of vegetation structure at ranges up to hundreds of meters. We developed a method that leverages TLS collections with machine learning techniques to model and map canopy cover and biomass of several classes of short-stature vegetation across large plots. We collected high-definition TLS scans of 26 1-ha plots in desert grasslands and big sagebrush shrublands in southwest Idaho, USA. We used the Random Forests machine learning algorithm to develop decision tree models predicting the biomass and canopy cover of several vegetation classes from statistical descriptors of the aboveground heights of TLS points. Manual measurements of vegetation characteristics collected within each plot served as training and validation data. Models based on five or fewer TLS descriptors of vegetation heights were developed to predict the canopy cover fraction of shrubs (R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 7%), annual grasses (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 21%), perennial grasses (R2 = 0.36, RMSE = 12%), forbs (R2 = 0.52, RMSE = 6%), bare earth or litter (R2 = 0.49, RMSE = 19%), and the biomass of shrubs (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 175 g) and herbaceous vegetation (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 99 g) (all values reported are out-of-bag). Our models explained much of the variability between predictions and manual measurements, and yet we expect that future applications could produce even better results by reducing some of the methodological sources of error that we encountered. Our work demonstrates how TLS can be used efficiently to extend manual measurement of vegetation characteristics from small to large plots in grasslands and shrublands, with potential application to other similarly structured ecosystems. Our method shows that vegetation structural characteristics can be modeled without classifying and delineating individual plants, a challenging and time-consuming step common in previous

  13. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  14. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  15. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  16. Ground cover in old-growth forests of the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; George R. Parker; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    1997-01-01

    Differences in ground cover (percent cover of litter, percent cover of vegetation and litter weight) in old-growth forests across this region are not well understood. We initiated a long-term study in a three-state region to enhance knowledge in this area. We present baseline results for ground cover and compare these data across productivity regions. Thirty 0.25-ac (0...

  17. A GIS-based tool for estimating tree canopy cover on fixed-radius plots using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes; Erik Lindblom; John Chase; Dennis M. Jacobs; Robert. Benton

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's definition of forest land precipitated the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for efficiently estimating tree canopy cover for all FIA plots. The FIA definition of forest land has shifted from a density-related criterion based on stocking to a 10 percent tree canopy...

  18. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  19. MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GROUND COVER CLUMPINESS: SCALING FROM FIELD TO SENTINEL-2 COVER ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the development of cover data and derived products based on remotely sensed fractional cover information and field data across Australia, and these cover data sets are now used for quantifying and monitoring grazing land condition. The availability of a dense time-series of nearly 30 years of cover data to describe the spatial and temporal patterns in landscape changes over time can help with monitoring the effectiveness of grazing land management practice change. With the advent of higher spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the Copernicus Sentinel 2 series of satellites, we can look beyond reporting purely on cover amount and more closely at the operational monitoring and reporting on spatial arrangement of cover and its links with land condition. We collected high spatial resolution cover transects at 20 cm intervals over the Wambiana grazing trials in the Burdekin catchment in Queensland, Australia. Spatial variance analysis was used to determine the cover autocorrelation at various support intervals. Coincident Sentinel-2 imagery was collected and processed over all the sites providing imagery to link with the field data. We show that the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of cover are important indicators of grazing land condition for both productivity and water quality outcomes. The metrics and products derived from this research will assist land managers to prioritize investment and practice change strategies for long term sustainability and improved water quality, particularly in the Great Barrier Reef catchments.

  20. Evaluating rapid ground sampling and scaling estimated plant cover using UAV imagery up to Landsat for mapping arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Paradis, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The small stature and spectral diversity of arctic plant taxa presents challenges in mapping arctic vegetation. Mapping vegetation at the appropriate scale is needed to visualize effects of disturbance, directional vegetation change or mapping of specific plant groups for other applications (eg. habitat mapping). Fine spatial grain of remotely sensed data (ca. 10 cm pixels) is often necessary to resolve patches of many arctic plant groups, such as bryophytes and lichens. These groups are also spectrally different from mineral, litter and vascular plants. We sought to explore method to generate high-resolution spatial and spectral data to explore better mapping methods for arctic vegetation. We sampled ground vegetation at seven sites north or west of tree-line in Alaska, four north of Fairbanks and three northwest of Bethel, respectively. At each site, we estimated cover of plant functional types in 1m2 quadrats spaced approximately every 10 m along a 100 m long transect. Each quadrat was also scanned using a field spectroradiometer (PSR+ Spectral Evolution, 400-2500 nm range) and photographed from multiple perspectives. We then flew our small UAV with a RGB camera over the transect and at least 50 m on either side collecting on imagery of the plot, which were used to generate a image mosaic and digital surface model of the plot. We compare plant functional group cover ocular estimated in situ to post-hoc estimation, either automated or using a human observer, using the quadrat photos. We also compare interpolated lichen cover from UAV scenes to estimated lichen cover using a statistical models using Landsat data, with focus on lichens. Light and yellow lichens are discernable in the UAV imagery but certain lichens, especially dark colored lichens or those with spectral signatures similar to graminoid litter, present challenges. Future efforts will focus on integrating UAV-upscaled ground cover estimates to hyperspectral sensors (eg. AVIRIS ng) for better combined

  1. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  2. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  3. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  4. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m 2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  5. Mapping ground cover using hyperspectral remote sensing after the 2003 Simi and Old wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire effects on the ground surface are indicative of the potential for post-fire watershed erosion response. Areas with remaining organic ground cover will likely experience less erosion than areas of complete ground cover combustion or exposed mineral soil. The Simi and Old fires burned ~67,000 ha in southern California in 2003. Burn severity indices calculated...

  6. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  7. Effects of application methods of metam sodium and plastic covers on horizontal and vertical distributions of methyl isothiocyanate in bedded field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of three application methods of metam sodium (broadcast, single irrigation drip tape delivery, and double irrigation drip tape delivery) and two plastic covers (polyethylene film and virtually impermeable film) on volatilization and on horizontal and vertical distributions of the biologically active product of metam sodium, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), in field plots in a Florida sandy soil. Volatilization of MITC from field beds lasted for about 20 hours after completion of metam sodium application regardless of application methods. Virtually impermeable film (VIF) was a better barrier to reduce volatilization loss than polyethylene film (PE). Since water was not applied during broadcast application, MITC was mainly retained in the shallow soil layer (0- to 20-cm depth) and downward movement of MITC was limited to about 30 cm. Large values of standard deviation indicated that initial spatial distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) of the two broadcast applied beds covered with PE or VIF was variable. Twice more water was delivered through the single drip tape than through individual tapes of double drip tape treatments during drip application of metam sodium. More water from the single drip tape likely facilitated downward movement of MITC to at least 60-cm depth, but MITC did not penetrate to this depth in the double drip tape beds. On the other hand, horizontal distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) in the double drip tape beds was more uniform than in the single drip tape beds. More MITC was retained in the subsurface of the VIF-covered beds regardless of application methods than in the PE-covered beds.

  8. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  10. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Lambot, Sé bastien; Dimitrov, Marin; Weihermü ller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn

  11. Topsoil and fertilizer effects on ground cover growth on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Canopy cover and above ground biomass of herbaceous species was measured in four studies for five years (1989-1993) in southeastern Ohio; on Central Ohio Coal Company's Muskingum Mine, 5 km South of Cumberland. Three studies compared graded cast overburden, standard graded topsoil (30 cm depth), and ripped topsoil. The fourth study lacked the ripped topsoil treatment. In 1987 two studies were seeded with both a standard and a modified mixture of grass and legume species, and two studies used the modified mix only. A nitrogen rate study used 45, 90 or 135 kg/ha of N applied on two occasions, and a phosphorus fertilizer study used rock phosphate amendment at 0, 1120, or 2240 kg/ha and triple superphosphate amendment at 0, 280, or 560 kg/ha. Based on one clipping per year, overall average biomass (Mg/ha dry weight) was slightly greater on standard topsoil (3.34), and ripped topsoil (3.30) than on cast overburden (3.09). Biomass did not differ significantly (p=0.05) on standard topsoil versus cast overburden for 15 of 19 comparisons. Legume biomass (Mg/ha, measured for 3 or 4 years) averaged 0.84 on standard topsoil, 0.75 on ripped topsoil, and 1.16 on cast overburden. In three studies, legume biomass was 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 1993. Nitrogen fertilizer increased ground cover only in the year when fertilizer was applied. Phosphorus fertilizer treatments had no significant effects. Ground cover showed no signs of deterioration during the last measurements in 1993. Observations in 1995 indicated dense canopy cover on all soil surfaces with substantial invasion by goldenrods (Solidago spp.) only on topsoils. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Intrusion of soil covered uranium mill tailings by whitetail prairie dogs and Richardson's ground squirrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the reclamation of uranium mill tailings is the long-term isolation of the matrial from the biosphere. Fossorial and semi-fossorial species represent a potentially disruptive influence as a result of their burrowing habits. The potential for intrusion was investigated with respect to two sciurids, the whitetail prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Populations of prairie dogs were established on a control area, lacking a tailings layer, and two experimental areas, underlain by a waste layer, in southeastern Wyoming. Weekly measurements of prairie dog mound surface activities were conducted to demonstrate penetration, or lack thereof, of the tailings layer. Additionally, the impact of burrowing upon radon flux was determined. Limited penetration of the waste layer was noted after which frequency of inhabitance of the intruding burrow system declined. No significant changes in radon flux were detected. In another experiment, it was found that Richardson's ground squirrels burrowed to less extreme depths when confronted by mill tailings. Additional work at an inactive tailings pile in western Colorado revealed repeated intrusion through a shallow cover, and subsequent transport of radioactive material to the ground surface by prairie dogs. Radon flux from burrow entrances was significantly greater than that from undisturbed ground. Data suggested that textural and pH properties of tailings material may act to discourage repeated intrusion at some sites. 58 references

  13. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Weiya; Wang Tiantian; Yang Shuhua; Zhao Ying; Ge Hong; Chen Lin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60 Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  14. [Characteristics of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities in a biodiversity monitoring plot of black soil cropland, northeastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gao, Mie Xiang; Wu, Dong Hui

    2017-12-01

    Agro-ecosystem is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and it is one of the key areas of global ecological and environmental studies. A 16 hm 2 permanent plot in black soil cropland was built to study the community structure of soil biodiversity in typical black soil region in Northeast China. Pitfall trap was used to investigate the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods from August to October 2015 in accordance with the three crop growth stages: whirling stage, silking stage, and milk stage. A total of 5284 ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods belonging to 47 species were captured sorted into 3 classes, 12 orders, 32 families. 3 dominant groups and 11 common groups were found. Phytophages and Omnivores were dominant groups. The individuals and species numbers of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods had significant changes with the vegetative growth period. The maximum values of the Shannon index, Margalef index, Pielou index of soil macro-arthropods all appeared in September, but the maximum dominant index appeared in August. From the variation coefficient (CV) and spatial interpolation of different species, it could be seen that there was heterogeneity in the horizontal direction of the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities. Regarding the relationships between the ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropod communities and soil environmental factors including soil pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen and soil water content, the bivariate correlation analysis showed there was no significant correlation between them. Results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) further indicated that the dominant and common groups were adaptable to environmental factors and widely distributed in the study area. The results showed that the species richness of ground-dwelling soil macro-arthropods was very high in cropland, and the dynamic of soil arthropod's composition and spatial distribution pattern in diffe-rent crop growth stages were significantly

  15. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  16. Distributed Modelling of Stormflow Generation: Assessing the Effect of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, B.; Sidle, R. C.; Roth, C. H.; Bartley, R.; Wilkinson, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of grazing management and land cover changes on surface hydrology is important for water resources and land management. A distributed hydrological modelling platform, wflow, (that was developed as part of Deltares's OpenStreams project) is used to assess the effect of land management practices on runoff generation processes. The model was applied to Weany Creek, a small catchment (13.6 km2) of the Burdekin Basin, North Australia, which is being studied to understand sources of sediment and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef. Satellite and drone-based ground cover data, high resolution topography from LiDAR, soil properties, and distributed rainfall data were used to parameterise the model. Wflow was used to predict total runoff, peak runoff, time of rise, and lag time for several events of varying magnitudes and antecedent moisture conditions. A nested approach was employed to calibrate the model by using recorded flow hydrographs at three scales: (1) a hillslope sub-catchment: (2) a gullied sub-catchment; and the 13.6 km2 catchment outlet. Model performance was evaluated by comparing observed and predicted stormflow hydrograph attributes using the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency metric. By using a nested approach, spatiotemporal patterns of overland flow occurrence across the catchment can also be evaluated. The results show that a process-based distributed model can be calibrated to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of runoff generation processes, to help identify dominant processes which may be addressed by land management to improve rainfall retention. The model will be used to assess the effects of ground cover changes due to management practices in grazed lands on storm runoff.

  17. Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S.

    2010-11-01

    It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in Rd that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the “void” nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their “dual” solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper

  18. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  1. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu Babu, P.; Eapen, S.

    2012-01-01

    residual mill tailings apart from containing residual radionuclides do have the capacity to support good plant growth. Several species like Rhynchosia minima, Rhynchosia, Thysanolaena maxima, Mucuna pruriens, Desmanthus virgatus, Desmodium gangeticum, Clitoria tematea, Chrysopogon fulvus and Indigofera trita were found to be quite suitable for planting on mill tailings as ground cover while a few others that registered poor growth and/or biomass perhaps can be grown in combination with other species. On the contrary a few species viz., Bothriochloa pertusa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum caudatum were found to be unsuitable as they could not survive in mill tailings. A combination of several plant species tested in this study coupled with a few agronomic practices can be tried on mill tailings in Jaduguda as an appropriate vegetative cover. (author)

  2. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  3. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  4. Feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction in table grape vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Cob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction (GCF at remote, unattended sites. Photographical techniques were used for measuring GCF (GCFref at a table grape vineyard grown under a net. Daily pyranometer-driven GCF estimates (GCFpyr were obtained from solar radiation measurements above and below the canopy. For GCFpyr computation, solar radiation was averaged for two hours around solar noon (midday periods and for daylight periods (8:00 to 18:00 Universal Time Coordinated. GCFpyr and GCFref (daylight periods showed a good agreement: mean estimation error, 0.000; root mean square error, 0.113; index of agreement, 0.967. The high GCF attained, the large measurement range for GCF and the presence of the net above the table grape were the likely reasons for the good performance of GCFpyr in this crop despite the short number of pyranometers used. Further research is required to develop more appropriate calibration equations of GCFpyr and for a more detailed evaluation of using a short number of pyranometers to estimate GCF.

  5. The Shorth Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.; Sawitzki, G.

    2008-01-01

    The shorth plot is a tool to investigate probability mass concentration. It is a graphical representation of the length of the shorth, the shortest interval covering a certain fraction of the distribution, localized by forcing the intervals considered to contain a given point x. It is easy to

  6. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants" (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  7. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    OpenAIRE

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or...

  8. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  9. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  10. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  11. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Evaluating remotely sensed plant count accuracy with differing unmanned aircraft system altitudes, physical canopy separations, and ground covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Josue Nahun; Robbins, James; Saraswat, Dharmendra; She, Ying; Ehsani, Reza

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flight altitude and canopy separation of container-grown Fire Chief™ arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) on counting accuracy. Images were taken at 6, 12, and 22 m above the ground using unmanned aircraft systems. Plants were spaced to achieve three canopy separation treatments: 5 cm between canopy edges, canopy edges touching, and 5 cm of canopy edge overlap. Plants were placed on two different ground covers: black fabric and gravel. A counting algorithm was trained using Feature Analyst®. Total counting error, false positives, and unidentified plants were reported for images analyzed. In general, total counting error was smaller when plants were fully separated. The effect of ground cover on counting accuracy varied with the counting algorithm. Total counting error for plants placed on gravel (-8) was larger than for those on a black fabric (-2), however, false positive counts were similar for black fabric (6) and gravel (6). Nevertheless, output images of plants placed on gravel did not show a negative effect due to the ground cover but was impacted by differences in image spatial resolution.

  13. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  14. SutraPlot, a graphical post-processor for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a graphical display post-processor (SutraPlot) for the U.S. Geological Survey Saturated-Unsaturated flow and solute or energy TRAnsport simulation model SUTRA, Version 2D3D.1. This version of SutraPlot is an upgrade to SutraPlot for the 2D-only SUTRA model (Souza, 1987). It has been modified to add 3D functionality, a graphical user interface (GUI), and enhanced graphic output options. Graphical options for 2D SUTRA (2-dimension) simulations include: drawing the 2D finite-element mesh, mesh boundary, and velocity vectors; plots of contours for pressure, saturation, concentration, and temperature within the model region; 2D finite-element based gridding and interpolation; and 2D gridded data export files. Graphical options for 3D SUTRA (3-dimension) simulations include: drawing the 3D finite-element mesh; plots of contours for pressure, saturation, concentration, and temperature in 2D sections of the 3D model region; 3D finite-element based gridding and interpolation; drawing selected regions of velocity vectors (projected on principal coordinate planes); and 3D gridded data export files. Installation instructions and a description of all graphic options are presented. A sample SUTRA problem is described and three step-by-step SutraPlot applications are provided. In addition, the methodology and numerical algorithms for the 2D and 3D finite-element based gridding and interpolation, developed for SutraPlot, are described. 1

  15. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and

  16. Water availability forecasting for Naryn River using ground-based and satellite snow cover data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Kalashnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of river nourishment in arid regions of Central Asia is the melting of seasonal snow accu‑ mulated in mountains during the cold period. In this study, we analyzed data on seasonal snow cover by ground‑based observations from Kyrgyzhydromet network, as well as from MODIS satellite imagery for the period of 2000–2015. This information was used to compile the forecast methods of water availability of snow‑ice and ice‑snow fed rivers for the vegetation period. The Naryn river basin was chosen as a study area which is the main tributary of Syrdarya River and belongs to the Aral Sea basin. The representative mete‑ orological stations with ground‑based observations of snow cover were identified and regression analysis between mean discharge for the vegetation period and number of snow covered days, maximum snow depth based on in‑situ data as well as snow cover area based on MODIS images was conducted. Based on this infor‑ mation, equations are derived for seasonal water availability forecasting using multiple linear regression anal‑ ysis. Proposed equations have high correlation coefficients (R = 0.89÷0.92 and  and fore‑ casting accuracy. The methodology was implemented in Kyrgyzhydromet and is used for forecasting of water availability in Naryn basin and water inflow into Toktogul Reservoir.

  17. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  18. UV hazard on Italian Apennines under different shading and ground cover conditions during peak tourist seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Daniele; Carreras, Giulia; Sabatini, Francesco; Zipoli, Gaetano

    2006-12-01

    In solar UV irradiance monitoring and forecasting services UV information is generally expressed in terms of its effect on erythema and referred to horizontal surface. In this work we define the UV radiative regime, in terms of biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBE) for skin and eye, under full sun and shaded conditions, over a mountainous tourist area of central Italy by means of two all-day measurements (summer and early spring) with different ground albedo (grass and snow cover respectively). UV irradiance was monitored on tilted surfaces (the most frequent for people standing and walking). Results show the significant contribution of ground albedo and sun position in determining the incident UVBE irradiance. On early spring days the UVBE irradiance measured on horizontal surface was much lower than on tilted ones; the opposite condition was observed in summer. The highest UVBE irradiance values, in particular conditions of sun elevation and ground cover, were reached in periods different from the summer both in full sun and shaded condition.

  19. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  20. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  2. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  3. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  4. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Land Use / Land Cover Change Factors in the Conterminous US and Prediction of Potential Working Timberlands in the US South from FIA Inventory Plots and NLCD Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuck, James A.

    This dissertation consists of research projects related to forest land use / land cover (LULC): (1) factors predicting LULC change and (2) methodology to predict particular forest use, or "potential working timberland" (PWT), from current forms of land data. The first project resulted in a published paper, a meta-analysis of 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forest land use changes. The response variables, representing some form of forest land change, were organized into four groups: forest conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified, from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and 10 U2D models. These variables were organized into a hierarchy of 119 independent variable groups, 15 categories, and 4 econometric drivers suitable for conducting simple vote count statistics. Vote counts were summarized at the independent variable group level and formed into ratios estimating the predictive success of each variable group. Two ratio estimates were developed based on (1) proportion of times independent variables successfully achieved statistical significance (p ≤0.10), and (2) proportion of times independent variables successfully met the original researchers'expectations. In F2D models, popular independent variables such as population, income, and urban proximity often achieved statistical significance. In F2A models, popular independent variables such as forest and agricultural rents and costs, governmental programs, and site quality often achieved statistical significance. In U2D models, successful independent variables included urban rents and costs, zoning issues concerning forestland loss, site quality, urban proximity, population, and income. F2NF models high success variables were found to be agricultural rents, site quality, population, and income. This meta

  6. Correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability in Alexandria City (Egypt) using time series SAR interferometry and optical Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, T.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Kourkouli, P.; Perrou, T.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2017-10-01

    The main scope of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability over Alexandria city, Egypt. Two different datasets for generating ground deformation and land cover maps were used. Hence, two different approaches were followed, a PSI approach for surface displacement mapping and a supervised classification algorithm for land cover/use mapping. The interferometric results show a gradual qualitative and quantitative differentiation of ground deformation from East to West of Alexandria government. We selected three regions of interest, in order to compare the obtained interferometric results with the different land cover types. The ground deformation may be resulted due to different geomorphic and geologic factors encompassing the proximity to the active deltaic plain of the Nile River, the expansion of the urban network within arid regions of recent deposits, the urban density increase, and finally the combination of the above mentioned parameters.

  7. Covering Ground: Movement Patterns and Random Walk Behavior in Aquilonastra anomala Sea Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-10-01

    The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.

  8. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  10. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  11. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  12. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  13. Portable and Airborne Small Footprint LiDAR: Forest Canopy Structure Estimation of Fire Managed Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M.C.S. Listopad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used an affordable ground-based portable LiDAR system to provide an understanding of the structural differences between old-growth and secondary-growth Southeastern pine. It provided insight into the strengths and weaknesses in the structural determination of portable systems in contrast to airborne LiDAR systems. Portable LiDAR height profiles and derived metrics and indices (e.g., canopy cover, canopy height were compared among plots with different fire frequency and fire season treatments within secondary forest and old growth plots. The treatments consisted of transitional season fire with four different return intervals: 1-yr, 2-yr, 3-yr fire return intervals, and fire suppressed plots. The remaining secondary plots were treated using a 2-yr late dormant season fire cycle. The old growth plots were treated using a 2-yr growing season fire cycle. Airborne and portable LiDAR derived canopy cover were consistent throughout the plots, with significantly higher canopy cover values found in 3-yr and fire suppressed plots. Portable LiDAR height profile and metrics presented a higher sensitivity in capturing subcanopy elements than the airborne system, particularly in dense canopy plots. The 3-dimensional structures of the secondary plots with varying fire return intervals were dramatically different to old-growth plots, where a symmetrical distribution with clear recruitment was visible. Portable LiDAR, even though limited to finer spatial scales and specific biases, is a low-cost investment with clear value for the management of forest canopy structure.

  14. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  15. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  16. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  17. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  18. Measurement of NO2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants using gas NO2 labelled 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, Nizar; Wungkar, Marietje; Gunawan, Andi; Gandanegara, Soertini; Suharsono, Heny

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the NO 2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants. 32 species of trees, 64 speceis of shrubs and 13 species of ground cover plants were exposed to 3 ppm (v / v) N- 15 O 2 in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. Experiment consisted of 2 replicates. The environment conditions in the chamber were set at 30 o C, 1000 lux, and initial relative humidity 60 %. After gas treatment, plants parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, than dried in 70 o C for 48 hours and then weighed. After weighing, those plants parts were ground to a pine powder. After kjendhal digestion, N total content of plants were analyzed by distillation method. 15 N content of plant samples were analyzed by emission spectrometer ( Yasco, N-151). The amount of N-15 absorbed by plant was the total content of 15 N in the whole plants ( leaves, stem and root ) per gram dry weight of leaves. The amount of 15 N absorbed by plants varied among investigated plants. 15 N sorption of trees are in the range 0.28 - 68.31μg/g. The sorption of shrubs and ground cover plants varied in 1.97 - 100.02 μg/g and 2.38 - 24.06μg/g, respectively. According to the amount of 15 N sorption , the plants were divided into 3 groups of sorption level, high ( > 30.0μg/g), moderate ( 15 - 30 μg/g ), and low sorption level ( 15 μg/g). Results showed that among of 32 investigated trees, 64 shrubs and 13 ground cover plant, 4 species of trees and 13 species of shrubs performed a high sorption level and no one of ground cover plants performed a high sorption level. The species of trees and 15 species of shrubs that mention above are recommended to use as an element of landscape which to be functioned to reduce NO 2 atmospheric pollutant

  19. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  20. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  1. BliP PLOT : PLOT DISTRIBUSI DATA BERDIMENSI - SATU

    OpenAIRE

    Anisa Anisa; Indwiati Indwiati

    2014-01-01

    Blip Plot, adalah salah satu plot yang sibuat untuk menampilkan data berdimensi-satu. Pada dasarnya plot ini terdiri dari kotak, garis, dan titik. Sebagaimana plot distribusi berdimensi-satu yang lain, BliP Plot menampilkan nilai-nilai data individu dalam titik-titik atau garis-garis, dan informasi berkelompok dalam garis atau kotak. Kelebihannya, Blip Plot menampilkan banyak keistimewaan baru seperti plot variable-widht dan beberapa pilihan pola titik. Keuntungan utama dari Blip ...

  2. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  3. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  4. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Weihermller, Lutz; McCabe, Matthew; Moghadas, Davood; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sbastien

    2015-01-01

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  5. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  6. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  7. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  8. Thickening the Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the content of daytime serial dramas to determine how the narrative structure promotes a sense of involvement in viewers. Competing plot lines, the lack of a concrete sense of resolution, the pattern of episodes, and the audience's awareness of information kept secret from characters all contribute to audience involvement. (JMF)

  9. Air Data - Tile Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool plots daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day. The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category.

  10. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  11. Active condensation of the atmospheric moisture as a self-irrigation mechanism for the ground-covering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted at the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban (Utch-Dere, Sochi pretty much allow to explain the abnormally high drought resistance of Liriope graminifolia Lour. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.-Gawl., plants that naturally grow mostly in sufficient humidity. Quite low temperatures of the leaves’ surface allow to effectively condense the atmospheric moisture and to direct it along the leaf blade to the ground. The accumulation of condensation water leads to self-irrigation, a mechanism that ensures survival of plants in case of insufficient natural precipitation in the form of rain or fog. Combined with xeromorphic leaves with a thick cuticle and thick branch roots with fusiform bulb-shaped swellings, allowing to store water, makes the named plants extremely resistant to stress factors such as prolonged summer droughts accompanied by high daytime temperatures.

  12. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  13. Effects of different ground surface on rye habit and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszewski, A.

    1995-01-01

    Rye was sown in pots imbeded into the ground, in non-competitive conditions. Plot differed only with kinds of ground surfaces (grass, bare soil) which affected the spectral composition of reflected sunlight. Plants growing on the ground covered with grass received more radiation in the range of far red than plants growing on bare soil. The plants from both plots reacted differently to the environmental conditions by creating different habits. Main shoots of rye growing in the neighbourhood of grass had been much taller than the rye growing on the bare soil; its internodes were longer and its heads heavier and heads had more grain

  14. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  16. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  17. LAND SURVEY AND CADASTRAL MEASUREMENT MADE FOR AN PLOT PLAN COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Marian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Law no. 7/1996 of Cadastre and Real Estate Publicity, plan plot is a strip ground graphical representation containing strip ground limits and details of all the buildings that define stable land and cadastral division strip ground is technical administrative unit defined by fixed details, identifiable field that does not change over time, such as roads, water, dams, etc. This paper presents how to make a plot plan strip ground covering a 4 forest Ups (production unit and 108UAs (limits of forestry, land use is forest, pasture and village road. High surface is located extraurban limits Arefu in Arges County and has 28185443mp, that’ s equivalent to 2818,54ha. Forest cadastre specific limits are drawn in the work arrangement of forests and are represented by plot limit and the subparcels limit. This paper aims to presenting the main components of a modern surveying device used in our country, to carry out surveying works for forest cadastre. To use GPS technology (Global Position System in combination with the total station.

  18. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1991-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1990 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buries radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continues to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs

  19. The half-half plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatterplot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  20. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  1. Generalized plotting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.; Gray, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    A command which causes the translation of any supported graphics file format to a format acceptable to any supported device was implemented on two linked DECsystem-10s. The processing of the command is divided into parsing and translating phases. In the parsing phase, information is extracted from the command and augmented by default data. The results of this phase are saved on disk, and the appropriate translating routine is invoked. Twenty-eight translating programs were implemented in this system. They support four different graphics file formats, including the DISSPLA and Calcomp formats, and seven different types of plotters, including Tektronix, Calcomp, and Versatec devices. Some of the plotters are devices linked to the DECsystem-10s, and some are driven by IBM System/360 computers linked via a communications network to the DECsystem-10s. The user of this facility can use any of the supported packages to create a file of graphics data, preview the file on an on-line scope, and, when satisfied, cause the same data to be plotted on a hard-copy device. All of the actions utilize a single simple command format. 2 figures.

  2. New systems for photogrametric plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Munoz, J.J.; Sarti Balsalobre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ground photogrammetry is a highly useful technique for up-dating as-built documentation of nuclear power plants as it has the following advantages: - It reduces radiation exposure - It provides information concerning all the structures, equipment, components, pipe lines, etc, in the zone - it avoids errors made in the interpretation of drawings In the past, the application of non-topographic photogrammetry was limited by the need to use costly restitution equipment, until computer technology made it possible to operate complete photogrametric systems using a PC, digitizer, the appropriate software and a simple 35 mm camera. It is not necessary to use a tripod, or known the location of the camera or that the photographs are stereoscopic pairs. The plotting process is basically reduced to placing the photographs on the digitizing board, making the necessary adjustments and obtaining the coordinates of each point indicated. This paper explains the new photogrametric tools currently on the market, the theory behind them, and their advantages and disadvantages. It also describes some of the applications of advanced photogrammetry applied to design modifications in the nuclear sector, performed using the Empresarios Agrupados Metadat System. (Author)

  3. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1993-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1992 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity

  4. Aspen Forest Cover by Stratum/Plot (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Average percent coverage and standard deviation of each canopy stratum from subplots at each aspen site during the SNF study in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota

  5. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative's had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg's bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots

  6. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  8. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  9. Generalized Probability-Probability Plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushkudiani, N.A.; Einmahl, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce generalized Probability-Probability (P-P) plots in order to study the one-sample goodness-of-fit problem and the two-sample problem, for real valued data.These plots, that are constructed by indexing with the class of closed intervals, globally preserve the properties of classical P-P

  10. Isodose plotting for pen plotters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.I.

    1985-01-01

    A general algorithm for treatment plan isodose line plotting is described which is particularly useful for pen plotters. Unlike other methods of plotting isodose lines, this algorithm is designed specifically to reduce pen motion, thereby reducing plotting time and wear on the transport mechanism. Points with the desired dose value are extracted from the dose matrix and stored, sorted into continuous contours, and then plotted. This algorithm has been implemented on DEC PDP-11/60 and VAX-11/780 computers for use with two models of Houston Instrument pen plotters, two models of Tektronix vector graphics terminals, a DEC VT125 raster graphics terminal, and a DEC VS11 color raster graphics terminal. Its execution time is similar to simpler direct-plotting methods

  11. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  12. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  13. Rapid responses of permafrost and vegetation to experimentally increased snow cover in sub-arctic Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Margareta; Bosiö, Julia; Akerman, H Jonas; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2013-01-01

    Increased snow depth already observed, and that predicted for the future are of critical importance to many geophysical and biological processes as well as human activities. The future characteristics of sub-arctic landscapes where permafrost is particularly vulnerable will depend on complex interactions between snow cover, vegetation and permafrost. An experimental manipulation was, therefore, set up on a lowland peat plateau with permafrost, in northernmost Sweden, to simulate projected future increases in winter precipitation and to study their effects on permafrost and vegetation. After seven years of treatment, statistically significant differences between manipulated and control plots were found in mean winter ground temperatures, which were 1.5 ° C higher in manipulated plots. During the winter, a difference in minimum temperatures of up to 9 ° C higher could be found in individual manipulated plots compared with control plots. Active layer thicknesses increased at the manipulated plots by almost 20% compared with the control plots and a mean surface subsidence of 24 cm was recorded in the manipulated plots compared to 5 cm in the control plots. The graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum has expanded in the manipulated plots and the vegetation remained green longer in the season. (letter)

  14. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  15. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  16. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  17. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Grau de cobertura do solo e dinâmica da vegetação em olivais de sequeiro com a introdução de herbicidas Ground cover and dynamic of weeds after the introduction of herbicides as soil management system in a rainfed olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    herbicides as soil management strategies in a rainfed olive orchard. The field experiment was carried out in Mirandela, NE Portugal. The soil management treatments included: conventional tillage; post-emergence herbicide (glyphosate; and post-emergence plus residual herbicide (diuron+glyphosate+terb utilazine. The ground cover percentage and the botanical composition of vegetation were monitored since 2002 to 2007 from the point-quadrat method. Both the herbicide formulations killed efficiently the vegetation in a single annual application. The ground cover percentages in conventional tillage, prior to the first tillage event, varied between 50 to 80 % beneath the trees and between 30 to 60 % in the open space. The ground cover percentages in April, in the treatment of glyphosate, were in the range of 60 to 90 % and 40 to 50 % beneath the trees and between rows, respectively. In the residual herbicide plot the ground cover percentages were always very low. The soil of the glyphosate plot was covered with vegetation over all the year. In au-tumn/spring the soil was covered with green weeds and in the summer with a mulching of the dead material. In the glyphosate plot the dynamic of species was high. One year after the first application of herbicide, Ornithopus compressus appeared as the most abundant species. Thereafter, acquired relevance species with short growing cycles which seeds mature before April (e.g. Mibora minima, Logfia gallica and other that produce a high number of seeds easily spread by wind (e.g. Hypochaeris radicata, Conyza canadensis and which seeds proceeded from surrounding untilled fields and rural-tracks or from individual plants that escaped to the herbicide control.

  19. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  20. SUPERIMPOSED MESH PLOTTING IN MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. HENDRICKS

    2001-02-01

    The capability to plot superimposed meshes has been added to MCNP{trademark}. MCNP4C featured a superimposed mesh weight window generator which enabled users to set up geometries without having to subdivide geometric cells for variance reduction. The variance reduction was performed with weight windows on a rectangular or cylindrical mesh superimposed over the physical geometry. Experience with the new capability was favorable but also indicated that a number of enhancements would be very beneficial, particularly a means of visualizing the mesh and its values. The mathematics for plotting the mesh and its values is described here along with a description of other upgrades.

  1. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  2. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  3. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  4. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  5. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...

  6. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  7. ABCASH plotting program users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Automated Bar Coding of Air Samples at Hanford (ABCASH) system provides an integrated data collection, sample tracking, and data reporting system for radioactive particulate air filter samples. The ABCASH plotting program provides a graphical trend report for ABCASH of the performance of air sample results. This document provides an operational guide for using the program. Based on sample location identifier and date range, a trend chart of the available data is generated. The trend chart shows radiological activity versus time. General indications of directional trend of the concentrations in air over time may be discerned. Comparison limit set point values are also shown as derived from the ABCASH data base

  8. Effects of Cover Crop Species and Season on Population Dynamics of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Neiunna L; Marine, Sasha Cahn; Everts, Kathryne L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-01-04

    Cover crops provide several ecosystem services, but their impact on enteric bacterial survival remains unexplored. The influence of cover cropping on foodborne pathogen indicator bacteria was assessed in five cover crop/green manure systems: cereal rye, hairy vetch, crimson clover, hairy vetch-rye and crimson clover-rye mixtures, and bare ground. Cover crop plots were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in the fall of 2013 and 2014 and tilled into the soil in the spring to form green manure. Soil samples were collected and the bacteria enumerated. Time was a factor for all bacterial populations studied in all fields (P cover crop was a factor for E. coli in year 1 (P = 0.004) and for L. innocua in year 2 (P = 0.011). In year 1, E. coli levels were highest in the rye and hairy vetch-rye plots. In year 2, L. innocua levels were higher in hairy vetch-rye (P = 0.01) and hairy vetch (P = 0.03) plots than in the rye plot. Bacterial populations grew (P cover crops/green manures on bacterial population dynamics in soil varied, being influenced by bacterial species, time from inoculation, soil temperature, rainfall, and tillage; this reveals the need for long-term studies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  10. Sacrifice as a plot device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikhmanova Natalya Alexandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the plot device “sacrifice” as a meaningful component of the narrative. It sets a minimum of substantive meaning of this formation (the idea of getting something over the loss of something. The main types of sacrifice: sacrifice and self-sacrifice. Sacrifice means bringing something to sacrifice for the sake of an idea or someone else and implies a greater degree of external attributes. Self-sacrifice brings a loss of the intrinsic value of the character. Sacrifice as the action takes place consciously and, as a rule, does not require compensation in return. Victims sacrifice not only material things but spiritual as well. Their actions are certainly driven by the idea, which is of value. In the case of self-sacrifice victim is itself a victim. Present for sacrifice plays a certain role in the development of some of the stories of fabulous narratives. Search of the present can be a starting point in the development of fantastic narrative plot. As a sacrifice the present can be considered in three forms: in the form of material expression, in the form of immaterial substance, as well as a way to transfer the character into magical power through knowledge empowerment of its formulaic spells.

  11. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  12. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  13. Investigation and Analysis on Ground Cover Plants Resources of Urban Green Space in Hunan%湖南城市园林绿地地被植物资源调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖姣娣

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出湖南省优良乡土地被植物,采用现场实地调查与查询相关文献资料的方式对湖南省典型城市园林绿地地被植物种类及利用形式进行研究。结果表明:湖南省共有地被植物243种,隶属77科177属,其中低矮灌木类地被植物87种、草本类地被植物103种、矮竹类地被植物10种、藤本地被植物33种、蕨类地被植物8种,主要以花坛、花境、色带、绿篱的形式应用在城市公共空间,疏林、密林、园林道路边界,坡地、水岸、建筑及围墙周边。%In order to screen native ground cover plants of Hunan province ,species and application form of typi-cal groundcover plants of urban greenspace were investigated by field investigation and consulting relevant lit-eratures .The results showed that there were 243 species of ground cover plants in Hunan province ,which be-longed to 77 families and 177 genus ,including 87 species of low bush ,103 species of herb ,10 species of bam-boo ,33 species of liana and 8 species of fern .They were applied in urban public space ,open forest ,dense forest , garden road boundary ,slope ,water-front and surrounding ground of buildings and walls with the form of flower bed ,flower border ,ribbon and hedge .

  14. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the representation of simple, bodily action has the function of endowing the narrative sequence with a visualizing power. It makes the narrated scenes or situations ready for visualization by the reader or listener. By virtue of this visualizing power or disposition...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...... definition of action, is unable to conceive of this visualizing function. In the second part, I argue that discourse-narratology fares no better since the visualizing function is independent of voice and focalization. In the final part, I sketch a possible account of the visualizing function of simple...

  15. Evaluating Plot Designs for the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; Bruce Bayle

    1991-01-01

    Theory and procedures are reviewed for determining the best type of plot for a given forest inventory. A general methodology is given that clarifies the relationship between different plot designs and the associated methods to produce the inventory estimates.

  16. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  17. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  18. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  19. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  20. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  1. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1991 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and surface stream. For many years it was the only radionclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of borehole next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity

  3. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M. Report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1997-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for 1996 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity

  4. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  5. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  6. IPLOT, interactive MELCOR data plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: IPLOT is an interactive MELCOR data plotting system. It provides several kinds of GUI interfaces for a flexible data plotting. IPLOT capabilities include creation, saving and loading of user specified MELCOR variables trend graphs. IPLOT can use one or several plot files for a graph generation while the graphs can be either in one window or in several windows. Besides IPLOT provides several graph convenient functions such as zooming, re-sizing, printing for a detail analysis of severe accidents. 2 - Methods: Trend values seeking in a plot file is performed by a binary search method for fast performance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MELCOR plot files are required for plotting

  7. Recurrence plots of exchange rates of currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Used to investigate the presence of distinctive recurrent behaviours in natural processes, the recurrence plots can be applied to the analysis of economic data, and, in particular, to the characterization of exchange rates of currencies too. In this paper, we will show that these plots are able to characterize the periods of oscillation and random walk of currencies and enhance their reply to news and events, by means of texture transitions. The examples of recurrence plots given here are obt...

  8. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  9. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  10. Assessing exotic plant species invasions and associated soil characteristics: A case study in eastern Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, using the pixel nested plot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stafford, E.J.; Woodly, P.J.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, contains a diversity of plant species. However, many exotic plant species have become established, potentially impacting the structure and function of native plant communities. Our goal was to quantify patterns of exotic plant species in relation to native plant species, soil characteristics, and other abiotic factors that may indicate or predict their establishment and success. Our research approach for field data collection was based on a field plot design called the pixel nested plot. The pixel nested plot provides a link to multi-phase and multi-scale spatial modeling-mapping techniques that can be used to estimate total species richness and patterns of plant diversity at finer landscape scales. Within the eastern region of RMNP, in an area of approximately 35,000 ha, we established a total of 60 pixel nested plots in 9 vegetation types. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and multiple linear regressions to quantify relationships between soil characteristics and native and exotic plant species richness and cover. We also used linear correlation, spatial autocorrelation and cross correlation statistics to test for the spatial patterns of variables of interest. CCA showed that exotic species were significantly (P radiation (r = 0.55), soil nitrogen (r = 0.58) and bare ground (r = -0.66). Pearson's correlation statistic showed significant linear relationships between exotic species, organic carbon, soil nitrogen, and bare ground. While spatial autocorrelations indicated that our 60 pixel nested plots were spatially independent, the cross correlation statistics indicated that exotic plant species were spatially associated with bare ground, in general, exotic plant species were most abundant in areas of high native species richness. This indicates that resource managers should focus on the protection of relatively rare native rich sites with little canopy cover, and fertile soils. Using the pixel nested

  11. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the

  12. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  13. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  14. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  15. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  16. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Christian Giardina; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Computers are widely used in all aspects of research but their application to in-field data collection for forest plots has rarely been evaluated. 2. We developed digital data collection methods using ESRI mapping software and ruggedized field computers to map and measure ~30 000 trees in two 4-ha forest dynamics plots in wet and dry...

  17. Plotting system for the MINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi

    1990-08-01

    The plotting system for the MINCS code is described. The transient two-phase flow analysis code MINCS has been developed to provide a computational tool for analysing various two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. Two plotting systems, namely the SPLPLOT system and the SDPLOT system, can be used as the plotting functions. The SPLPLOT system is used for plotting time transients of variables, while the SDPLOT system is for spatial distributions. The SPLPLOT system is based on the SPLPACK system, which is used as a general tool for plotting results of transient analysis codes or experiments. The SDPLOT is based on the GPLP program, which is also regarded as one of the general plotting programs. In the SPLPLOT and the SDPLOT systems, the standardized data format called the SPL format is used in reading data to be plotted. The output data format of MINCS is translated into the SPL format by using the conversion system called the MINTOSPL system. In this report, how to use the plotting functions is described. (author)

  18. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  19. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  20. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  1. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  2. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2006-04-10

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2005 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby handpumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the handpumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  3. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  4. How does litter cover, litter diversity and fauna affect sediment discharge and runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Litter cover plays a major role in soil erosion processes. It is known that litter cover reduces erosivity of raindrops, decreases sediment discharge and lowers runoff volume compared to bare ground. However, in the context of biodiversity, the composition of litter cover, its effect on sediment discharge and runoff volume and their influence on soil erosion have not yet been analyzed in detail. Focusing on initial soil erosion (splash), our experimental design is designated to get a better understanding of these mechanisms. The experiments were carried out within the DFG research unit "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (BEF)-China" in subtropical China. The "New Integrated Litter Experiment (NILEx)" used as platform combining different subprojects of BEF-China dealing with "decomposition and nutrient cycling", "mechanisms of soil erosion" and "functional effects of herbivores, predators and saproxylics" in one experiment. In NILEx, 96 40cm x 40cm runoff plots on two hill slopes inside a castanea molissima forest plantation have been installed and filled with seven different types of litter cover. 16 one-species plots, 24 two-species plots, 4 four-species plots and 4 bare ground plots have been set up, each replicated once. We prepared 48 Plots with traps (Renner solution) for soil macrofauna (diplopods and collembola), so half of the plots were kept free from fauna while the other half was accessible for fauna. Rainfall was generated artificially by using a rainfall simulator with a continuous and stable intensity of 60 mm/h. Our experiments included two runs of 20 minutes duration each, both conducted at two different time steps (summer 2012 and autumn 2012). Runoff volume and sediment discharge were measured every 5 minutes during one rainfall run. Litter coverage and litter mass were recorded at the beginning (summer 2012) and at the end of the experiment (autumn 2012). Our results show that sediment discharge as well as runoff volume decreases

  5. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  6. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  7. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  8. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  9. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  10. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1990-04-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Park Forest Preserve area for CY 1989 are presented. The monitoring program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study had determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 migrated from the burial ground and was present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. 16 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Using 7Be to document soil erosion on the weed plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2013-01-01

    Be tracing technology was applied to document soil erosion on the bare plot and weed plot, and compae soil erosion rate with the calculated rate. Results indicated that vegetation cover had obvious effect on the estimate of soil erosion rate on the weed plot using 7 Be measurement. Therefore, a factor of vegetation had been introduced into the Walling's model of converting 7 Be activity to soil erosion rate for estimating soil erosion rate on the weed slope surface. It was found that the soil erosion rates calculated by modified model were well close to the measured values on the weed plot, which illustrated that the modified model could be well used to estimate the rates of soil loss on the weed slope surface. These findings provide effective means for further study on the relationship between vegetation cover and soil erosion. (authors)

  12. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  13. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  14. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  15. SEGY to ASCII: Conversion and Plotting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a computer program to convert standard 4 byte, IBM floating point SEGY files to ASCII xyz format. The program then optionally plots the seismic data using the GMT plotting package. The material for this publication is contained in a standard tar file (of99-126.tar) that is uncompressed and 726 K in size. It can be downloaded by any Unix machine. Move the tar file to the directory you wish to use it in, then type 'tar xvf of99-126.tar' The archive files (and diskette) contain a NOTE file, a README file, a version-history file, source code, a makefile for easy compilation, and an ASCII version of the documentation. The archive files (and diskette) also contain example test files, including a typical SEGY file along with the resulting ASCII xyz and postscript files. Requirements for compiling the source code into an executable are a C++ compiler. The program has been successfully compiled using Gnu's g++ version 2.8.1, and use of other compilers may require modifications to the existing source code. The g++ compiler is a free, high quality C++ compiler and may be downloaded from the ftp site: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu Requirements for plotting the seismic data is the existence of the GMT plotting package. The GMT plotting package may be downloaded from the web site: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt/

  16. Rangeland monitoring using remote sensing: comparison of cover estimates from field measurements and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Boswell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland monitoring is important for evaluating and assessing semi-arid plant communities. Remote sensing provides an effective tool for rapidly and accurately assessing rangeland vegetation and other surface attributes such as bare soil and rock. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of remote sensing as a surrogate for field-based sampling techniques in detecting ground cover features (i.e., trees, shrubs, herbaceous cover, litter, surface, and comparing results with field-based measurements collected by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trent Program. In the field, five 152 m long transects were used to sample plant, litter, rock, and bare-ground cover using the Daubenmire ocular estimate method. At the same location of each field plot, a 4-band (R,G,B,NIR, 25 cm pixel resolution, remotely sensed image was taken from a fixed-wing aircraft. Each image was spectrally classified producing 4 cover classes (tree, shrub, herbaceous, surface. No significant differences were detected between canopy cover collected remotely and in the field for tree (P = 0.652, shrub (P = 0.800, and herbaceous vegetation (P = 0.258. Surface cover was higher in field plots (P < 0.001, likely in response to the methods used to sample surface features by field crews. Accurately classifying vegetation and other features from remote sensed information can improve the efficiency of collecting vegetation and surface data. This information can also be used to improve data collection frequency for rangeland monitoring and to efficiently quantify ecological succession patterns.

  17. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  18. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  19. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  20. Assessment of species diversity of plants and carabid beetles at sample plots in Korean pine-broad-leaved stands of postfire origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For natural pine forests in the southern part of the Primorsky Krai, an assessment of biological diversity has been performed based on the results of descriptions of valuable tree species, living ground cover and carabid beetles Carabus. Field work was carried out on the trial plots laid in the forest plantations of the pine and broad-leaved forest with the domination of Korean pine Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. Model sites contained a chronological sequence of development of forest plantations of fresh small-grass and different-bush type on the interval of age 50–200 years. In the process of reforestation, a decrease in the total projective coverage of living ground cover was observed, while the number of species characteristic for natural pine forests, as well as their leveling, increased at the same time. By the age of 200 years species richness and leveling of the number of ground beetle species have reached a maximum. Statistically significant difference was found between the total number of caught insects in the plantations of 50 and 200, 80 and 200 years. The most valuable in terms of biological diversity are the old-growth pine forests. A conclusion was made about the value of this group of forests for the protection of valuable communities and habitats of species. Among ground beetle species Carabus schrencki Motschulsky, Carabus maacki Morawitz and Carabus macleayi Dejean can serve as an indicator of forest value. With a minimum total projective coverage (8.3 %, 200-year-old pine forests are favorable for the growth of such characteristic species as the mountain peony Paeonia oreogeton S. Moore, pale-mountain Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai, and the Pale Indian Plantain Cacalia auriculata H. Rob. & Brettell. On this site the Shannon index of species of living ground cover was 3.6, the Carabus species is 1.4.

  1. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  2. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  3. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  4. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis

  5. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests.

  6. Investigation of 1 : 1,000 Scale Map Generation by Stereo Plotting Using Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S.; Kim, T.

    2017-08-01

    model. The results of analysis showed that the errors were within the specification of 1 : 1,000 map. Although the Y-parallax can be eliminated, it is still necessary to improve the accuracy of absolute ground position error in order to apply this technique to the actual work. There are a few models in which the difference in height between adjacent models is about 40 cm. We analysed the stability of UAV images by checking angle differences between adjacent images. We also analysed the average area covered by one stereo model and discussed the possible difficulty associated with this narrow coverage. In the future we consider how to reduce position errors and improve map drawing performances from UAVs.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF 1 : 1,000 SCALE MAP GENERATION BY STEREO PLOTTING USING UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rhee

    2017-08-01

    drawing a specific model. The results of analysis showed that the errors were within the specification of 1 : 1,000 map. Although the Y-parallax can be eliminated, it is still necessary to improve the accuracy of absolute ground position error in order to apply this technique to the actual work. There are a few models in which the difference in height between adjacent models is about 40 cm. We analysed the stability of UAV images by checking angle differences between adjacent images. We also analysed the average area covered by one stereo model and discussed the possible difficulty associated with this narrow coverage. In the future we consider how to reduce position errors and improve map drawing performances from UAVs.

  8. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  9. Activities: Plotting and Predicting from Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulte, Albert P.; Swift, Jim

    1984-01-01

    This teacher's guide provides objectives, procedures, and list of materials needed for activities which center around the use of a scatter plot to examine relationships shown by bivariate data. The activities are suitable for grades 7 to 12. Four student worksheets are included. (JN)

  10. Recurrence plot analysis of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zuobing [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: wuzb@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2004-11-15

    Recurrence plot technique of DNA sequences is established on metric representation and employed to analyze correlation structure of nucleotide strings. It is found that, in the transference of nucleotide strings, a human DNA fragment has a major correlation distance, but a yeast chromosome's correlation distance has a constant increasing.

  11. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  12. Effect of plant cover on presence of Black Francolin (Francolinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling ... Key words: Black francolin, Francolinus francolinus, plant cover, habitat, Iran. INTRODUCTION ... to get food.

  13. A comparison of FIA plot data derived from image pixels and image objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Werstak

    2012-01-01

    The use of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data for producing continuous and thematic maps of forest attributes (e.g., forest type, canopy cover, volume, and biomass) at the regional level from satellite imagery can be challenging due to differences in scale. Specifically, classification errors that may result from assumptions made between what the field data...

  14. Web-Based Search and Plot System for Nuclear Reaction Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, N.; Nakagawa, T.; Fukahori, T.; Katakura, J.; Aikawa, M.; Suda, T.; Naito, K.; Korennov, S.; Arai, K.; Noto, H.; Ohnishi, A.; Kato, K.

    2005-01-01

    A web-based search and plot system for nuclear reaction data has been developed, covering experimental data in EXFOR format and evaluated data in ENDF format. The system is implemented for Linux OS, with Perl and MySQL used for CGI scripts and the database manager, respectively. Two prototypes for experimental and evaluated data are presented

  15. Splatterplots: overcoming overdraw in scatter plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Adrian; Gleicher, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We introduce Splatterplots, a novel presentation of scattered data that enables visualizations that scale beyond standard scatter plots. Traditional scatter plots suffer from overdraw (overlapping glyphs) as the number of points per unit area increases. Overdraw obscures outliers, hides data distributions, and makes the relationship among subgroups of the data difficult to discern. To address these issues, Splatterplots abstract away information such that the density of data shown in any unit of screen space is bounded, while allowing continuous zoom to reveal abstracted details. Abstraction automatically groups dense data points into contours and samples remaining points. We combine techniques for abstraction with perceptually based color blending to reveal the relationship between data subgroups. The resulting visualizations represent the dense regions of each subgroup of the data set as smooth closed shapes and show representative outliers explicitly. We present techniques that leverage the GPU for Splatterplot computation and rendering, enabling interaction with massive data sets. We show how Splatterplots can be an effective alternative to traditional methods of displaying scatter data communicating data trends, outliers, and data set relationships much like traditional scatter plots, but scaling to data sets of higher density and up to millions of points on the screen.

  16. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture, box...

  17. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  18. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  19. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  20. Regional Quantitative Cover Mapping of Tundra Plant Functional Types in Arctic Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Macander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem maps are foundational tools that support multi-disciplinary study design and applications including wildlife habitat assessment, monitoring and Earth-system modeling. Here, we present continuous-field cover maps for tundra plant functional types (PFTs across ~125,000 km2 of Alaska’s North Slope at 30-m resolution. To develop maps, we collected a field-based training dataset using a point-intercept sampling method at 225 plots spanning bioclimatic and geomorphic gradients. We stratified vegetation by nine PFTs (e.g., low deciduous shrub, dwarf evergreen shrub, sedge, lichen and summarized measurements of the PFTs, open water, bare ground and litter using the cover metrics total cover (areal cover including the understory and top cover (uppermost canopy or ground cover. We then developed 73 spectral predictors derived from Landsat satellite observations (surface reflectance composites for ~15-day periods from May–August and five gridded environmental predictors (e.g., summer temperature, climatological snow-free date to model cover of PFTs using the random forest data-mining algorithm. Model performance tended to be best for canopy-forming PFTs, particularly deciduous shrubs. Our assessment of predictor importance indicated that models for low-statured PFTs were improved through the use of seasonal composites from early and late in the growing season, particularly when similar PFTs were aggregated together (e.g., total deciduous shrub, herbaceous. Continuous-field maps have many advantages over traditional thematic maps, and the methods described here are well-suited to support periodic map updates in tandem with future field and Landsat observations.

  1. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  2. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  3. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  4. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.

    1980-07-01

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  5. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  6. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  7. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L; Schacht, Walter H; Soper, Jonathan M; Wienhold, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L.; Schacht, Walter H.; Soper, Jonathan M.; Wienhold, Carol E.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  9. Tracker Alignment Performance Plots after Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC shutdown in Winter 2016/17, the CMS pixel detector, the inner component of the CMS Tracker, was replaced by the Phase-1 upgrade detector. Among others improvements, the new pixel detector consists of four instead of three layers in the central barrel region (BPIX) and three instead of two disks in the endcap regions (FPIX). In this report, performance plots of pixel detector alignment results are presented, which were obtained with both cosmic-ray and pp collision data acquired at the beginning of the 2017 LHC operation. Alignment constants have been derived for each data-taking period to the level of single module positions in both the pixel and the strip detectors. The complete understanding of the alignment and biases was derived by using two algorithms, Millepede-II and HipPy. The results confirm each other.

  10. Confronting remote sensing product with ground base measurements across time and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem models are essential tools in forecasting ecosystem responses to global climate change. One of the most challenging issues in ecosystem modeling is scaling while preserving landscape characteristics and minimizing loss of information, when moving from point observation to regional scale. There is a keen interest in providing accurate inputs for ecosystem models which represent ecosystem initial state conditions. Remote sensing land cover products, such as Landsat NLCD and MODIS MCD12Q1, provide extensive spatio-temporal coverage but do not capture forest composition and structure. Lidar and hyperspectral have the potential to meet this need but lack sufficient spatial and historical coverage. Forest inventory measurements provide detailed information on the landscape but in a very small footprint. Combining inventory and land cover could improve estimates of ecosystem state and characteristic across time and space. This study focuses on the challenges associated with fusing and scaling the US Forest Service FIA database and NLCD across regional scales to quantify ecosystem characteristics and reduce associated uncertainties. Across Southeast of U.S. 400 stratified random samples of 10x10 km2 landscapes were selected. Data on plant density, species, age, and DBH of trees in FIA plots within each site were extracted. Using allometry equations, the canopy cover of different plant functional types (PFTs) was estimated using a PPA-style canopy model and used to assign each inventory plot to a land cover class. Inventory and land cover were fused in a Bayesian model that adjusts the fractional coverage of inventory plots while accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. Results were compared to estimates derived from inventory alone, land cover alone, and model spin-up alone. Our findings create a framework of data assimilation to better interpret remote sensing data using ground-based measurements.

  11. PLOT-3D, Graphics Subroutines for 3-D Surface Plots with Arbitrary Rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basinger, D.; Gvildys, J.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PLOT-3D is a package of sub- programs designed to draw three-dimensional surfaces from arrays of points (x,y,z). The surfaces can be drawn after arbitrary rotations about the three coordinate axes. 2 - Method of solution: PLOT-3D is a computer program to plot any surface for which each coordinate pair (x,y) is associated with a unique z in the set of points (x,y,z). It uses matrix transformation of the points to generate different views of the surface after arbitrary rotations about the three coordinate axes. Four versions of PLOT-3D are available. Output of version 1 and 3 is by film recorder. Output of version 2 and 4 is by CalComp plotter. Versions 3 and 4 do not draw lines which would be invisible to a viewer looking at an opaque surface, whereas versions 1 and 2 draw every line on the surface. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Versions 3 and 4 limit number of rows in arrays (x,y,z) to 100 and also number of columns in arrays (x,y,z) to 100

  12. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  13. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  14. Longleaf pine regeneration following Hurricane Ivan utilizing the RLGS plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush

    2013-01-01

    On September 16, 2004, Hurricane Ivan hit the Alabama coast and severely impacted numerous plots in the U.S. Forest Service’s Regional Longleaf Growth Study (RLGS). The Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) has 201 of the 325 RLGS plots. Nearly one-third of the EEF was impacted. Nine plots with pole-sized trees were entirely lost. Another 54 plots had some type of damage...

  15. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  16. Presenting simulation results in a nested loop plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2014-12-12

    Statisticians investigate new methods in simulations to evaluate their properties for future real data applications. Results are often presented in a number of figures, e.g., Trellis plots. We had conducted a simulation study on six statistical methods for estimating the treatment effect in binary outcome meta-analyses, where selection bias (e.g., publication bias) was suspected because of apparent funnel plot asymmetry. We varied five simulation parameters: true treatment effect, extent of selection, event proportion in control group, heterogeneity parameter, and number of studies in meta-analysis. In combination, this yielded a total number of 768 scenarios. To present all results using Trellis plots, 12 figures were needed. Choosing bias as criterion of interest, we present a 'nested loop plot', a diagram type that aims to have all simulation results in one plot. The idea was to bring all scenarios into a lexicographical order and arrange them consecutively on the horizontal axis of a plot, whereas the treatment effect estimate is presented on the vertical axis. The plot illustrates how parameters simultaneously influenced the estimate. It can be combined with a Trellis plot in a so-called hybrid plot. Nested loop plots may also be applied to other criteria such as the variance of estimation. The nested loop plot, similar to a time series graph, summarizes all information about the results of a simulation study with respect to a chosen criterion in one picture and provides a suitable alternative or an addition to Trellis plots.

  17. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  18. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  19. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  20. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  1. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-08-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literature: the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot recently proposed by Critchley et al. The polar plot is thought to be the more advanced statistical tool, but care should be taken when it comes to its interpretation. The polar plot excludes possibly important measurements from the data. The polar plot transforms the data nonlinearily, which may prevent it from being seen clearly. In this article, we compare the 4-quadrant and the polar plot in detail and thoroughly describe advantages and limitations of each. We also discuss pitfalls concerning the methods to prepare the researcher for the sound use of both methods. Finally, we briefly revisit the Bland-Altman plot for the use in this context.

  2. Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

  3. The rainfall plot: its motivation, characteristics and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanska, Diana; Vodák, Daniel; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Salvatore, Stefania; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil

    2017-05-18

    A visualization referred to as rainfall plot has recently gained popularity in genome data analysis. The plot is mostly used for illustrating the distribution of somatic cancer mutations along a reference genome, typically aiming to identify mutation hotspots. In general terms, the rainfall plot can be seen as a scatter plot showing the location of events on the x-axis versus the distance between consecutive events on the y-axis. Despite its frequent use, the motivation for applying this particular visualization and the appropriateness of its usage have never been critically addressed in detail. We show that the rainfall plot allows visual detection even for events occurring at high frequency over very short distances. In addition, event clustering at multiple scales may be detected as distinct horizontal bands in rainfall plots. At the same time, due to the limited size of standard figures, rainfall plots might suffer from inability to distinguish overlapping events, especially when multiple datasets are plotted in the same figure. We demonstrate the consequences of plot congestion, which results in obscured visual data interpretations. This work provides the first comprehensive survey of the characteristics and proper usage of rainfall plots. We find that the rainfall plot is able to convey a large amount of information without any need for parameterization or tuning. However, we also demonstrate how plot congestion and the use of a logarithmic y-axis may result in obscured visual data interpretations. To aid the productive utilization of rainfall plots, we demonstrate their characteristics and potential pitfalls using both simulated and real data, and provide a set of practical guidelines for their proper interpretation and usage.

  4. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  5. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Landfill cover soil, soil solution, and vegetation responses to municipal landfill leachate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil W; Rediske, Richard R; Scull, Brian T; Wierzbicki, David

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachate must be removed and treated to maintain landfill cover integrity and to prevent contamination of surface and ground waters. From 2003 to 2007, we studied an onsite disposal system in Ottawa County, Michigan, where leachate was spray irrigated on the vegetated landfill cover. We established six 20-m-diameter circular experimental plots on the landfill; three were spray irrigated as part of the operational system, and three remained as untreated control plots. We quantified the effects of leachate application on soil properties, soil solution chemistry, vegetative growth, and estimated solute leaching. The leachate had high mean levels of electrical conductivity (0.6-0.7 S m(-1)), Cl (760-900 mg L(-1)), and NH(4)-N (290-390 mg L(-1)) but was low in metals and volatile organic compounds. High rates of leachate application in 2003 (32 cm) increased soil electrical conductivity and NO(3)-N leaching, so a sequential rotation of spray areas was implemented to limit total leachate application to <9.6 cm yr(-1) per spray area. Concentrations of NO(3)-N and leaching losses remained higher on irrigated plots in subsequent years but were substantially reduced by spray area rotation. Leachate irrigation increased plant biomass but did not significantly affect soil metal concentrations, and plant metal concentrations remained within normal ranges. Rotating spray areas and timing irrigation to conform to seasonal capacities for evapotranspiration reduced the localized impacts of leachate application observed in 2003. Careful monitoring of undiluted leachate applications is required to avoid adverse impacts to vegetation or soils and elevated solute leaching losses.

  7. Chain Plot: A Tool for Exploiting Bivariate Temporal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, CC; Zempeni, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a graphical tool useful for visualizing the cyclic behaviour of bivariate time series. We investigate its properties and link it to the asymmetry of the two variables concerned. We also suggest adding approximate confidence bounds to the points on the plot and investigate the effect of lagging to the chain plot. We conclude our paper by some standard Fourier analysis, relating and comparing this to the chain plot.

  8. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  9. Privatization of Land Plot Under Integral Real Estate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchek A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions concerning the privatization of a land plot under integral real estate complex. The authors come to conclusion that a number of legislation norms relating to privatization of a land plot do not take into account the construction of an integral real estate complex that could cause some problems in the realization of the right to privatization of the land plot

  10. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjalil Akrami; Mohammad Pashaei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot...

  11. Vegetation resurvey is robust to plot location uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim Resurveys of historical vegetation plots are increasingly used for the assessment of decadal changes in plant species diversity and composition. However, historical plots are usually relocated only approximately. This potentially inflates temporal changes and undermines results. Location Temperate deciduous forests in Central Europe. Methods To explore if robust conclusions can be drawn from resurvey studies despite location uncertainty, we compared temporal changes in species richness, frequency, composition and compositional heterogeneity between exactly and approximately relocated plots. We hypothesized that compositional changes should be lower and changes in species richness should be less variable on exactly relocated plots, because pseudo-turnover inflates temporal changes on approximately relocated plots. Results Temporal changes in species richness were not more variable and temporal changes in species composition and compositional heterogeneity were not higher on approximately relocated plots. Moreover, the frequency of individual species changed similarly on both plot types. Main conclusions The resurvey of historical vegetation plots is robust to uncertainty in original plot location and, when done properly, provides reliable evidence of decadal changes in plant communities. This provides important background for other resurvey studies and opens up the possibility for large-scale assessments of plant community change. PMID:28503083

  12. 137Cs profiles in erosion plots with different soil cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Cassol, E.A.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cesium-137 methodology has been successfully used to assess soil erosion. Seven erosion plots were sampled to determine the 137 Cs profile and to assess the erosion rates. Cesium-137 profile for native pasture plot showed an exponential decline below 5 cm depth, with little 137 Cs activity in the superficial layer (0-5 cm). Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation plot in conventional tillage showed a uniform distribution with depth. For this plot, the soil loss occurs more in middle than upper and lower level. Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation and wheat-maize rotation plots in no-tillage showed a similar result to the native pasture, with a minimum soil loss in the superficial layer. Cesium-137 profile for bare soil and cultivated pasture plots are similar, with a soil erosion rate of 229 t ha -1 year -1 . In the plots with a conventional tillage a greater soil loss occur in middle than upper and lower level. In no-tillage cultivation plots occurs soil loss in lower level, but no sign of soil loss neither gain in the upper level is observed. Cesium-137 methodology is a good tool to assess soil erosion and the 137 Cs profile gives a possibility to understand the soil erosion behavior in erosion plots. (author)

  13. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to classify TOF, to estimate above-ground TOF phytomass and the carbon content ... eral, trees outside forests (TOF) mean the trees ..... have been used to stratify the area, based on the ... The optimum plot size and num- .... population centres.

  14. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  15. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  16. Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, Eddy; Kruijt, Bart; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, Rik

    2018-02-01

    Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

  17. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  18. Monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known, that monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was carried out during period 1994-2002 at test areas (Experimental field, Balapan, Degelen). In this paper the peculiarities of vegetation cover of these test areas are observed. Thus, vegetation cover of Experimental field ground in the epicentre is completely destroyed. At present there are different stages of zonal steppe communities rehabilitation: in zones with γ-irradiation 11000-14000 μR/h the revegetation is not found; on the plots with γ-irradiation 8200-10000 μR/h rare species of Artemisia frigida are found; aggregation of plant (managed from 6000-7000 μR/h is observed; At the γ-irradiation 80-200 μR/h rarefied groups of bunch grass communities similar to the zonal steppe are formed and zonal bunch grass communities developed with 18-25 μR/h. Vegetation cover of Degelen hill tops and near-mouth ground in the results of underground nuclear expulsions are completely destroyed. Here there are three main kinds of vegetation: very stony gallery areas don't almost overgrow; at technogen tops near galleries the single plants, rare field groups and unclosed micro-phyto-biocenoses of weed and adventive species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia dracunculus, Laxctuca serriola, Chorispora sibirica etc.). On the Balapan are the revegetation is limited by high radiation pollution rate. Here cenose rehabilitation is presented by Artemisia marshalliana, Spita sareptana, Festuca valresiaca). In their paper florostic and phyrocoenitic diversity of STS's flora transformation is studied. Pattern distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and vegetation cover is represented

  19. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  20. The 2002 RPA Plot Summary database users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; W. Brad Smith

    2004-01-01

    Describes the structure of the RPA 2002 Plot Summary database and provides information on generating estimates of forest statistics from these data. The RPA 2002 Plot Summary database provides a consistent framework for storing forest inventory data across all ownerships across the entire United States. The data represents the best available data as of October 2001....

  1. Selection of Plot Remeasurement in an Annual Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Hans T. Schreuder; Dave Heinzen

    2000-01-01

    A plot selection approach is proposed based on experience from the Annual Forest Inventory System (AFIS) in the Aspen-Birch Unit of northestern Minnesota. The emphasisis on a mixture of strategies. Although the Agricultural Act of 1998 requires that a fixed 20 percent of plots be measured each year in each state, sooner or later we will need to vary the scheme to...

  2. Effects of plot size on forest-type algorithm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program utilizes an algorithm to consistently determine the forest type for forested conditions on sample plots. Forest type is determined from tree size and species information. Thus, the accuracy of results is often dependent on the number of trees present, which is highly correlated with plot area. This research examines the...

  3. Myth Structure and Media Fiction Plot: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, James D.

    Based on the general research of Joseph Campbell in adventure plots from mythology, the author explores the simplified monomyth plots currently in frequent use in mass media programing. The close relationship of media fiction to mythic stories is established through the analysis of more than 25 stories resulting from media broadcasting. The media…

  4. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  5. Plotting of bathythermograph transect data on a printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James B.; McLain, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A program for plotting bathythermograph transect data on a computer (IBM 1130) printer is available from the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Temperature values are printed in positions proportional to their depths and distances from shore. Contour lines are drawn manually through the plotted points.

  6. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  7. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  8. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  9. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  10. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  11. The SCEC Broadband Platform: Open-Source Software for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Goulet, C. A.; Maechling, P. J.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is a carefully integrated collection of open-source scientific software programs that can simulate broadband (0-100 Hz) ground motions for earthquakes at regional scales. The BBP can run earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to simulate ground motions for well-observed historical earthquakes and to quantify how well the simulated broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms. The BBP can also run simulations for hypothetical earthquakes. In this case, users input an earthquake location and magnitude description, a list of station locations, and a 1D velocity model for the region of interest, and the BBP software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. The BBP scientific software modules implement kinematic rupture generation, low- and high-frequency seismogram synthesis using wave propagation through 1D layered velocity structures, several ground motion intensity measure calculations, and various ground motion goodness-of-fit tools. These modules are integrated into a software system that provides user-defined, repeatable, calculation of ground-motion seismograms, using multiple alternative ground motion simulation methods, and software utilities to generate tables, plots, and maps. The BBP has been developed over the last five years in a collaborative project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and SCEC scientific software developers. The SCEC BBP software released in 2016 can be compiled and run on recent Linux and Mac OS X systems with GNU compilers. It includes five simulation methods, seven simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, and the ability to compare simulation results against empirical ground motion models (aka GMPEs). The latest version includes updated ground motion simulation methods, a suite of new validation metrics and a simplified command line user interface.

  12. Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo, Abel; Baker, Timothy R.; Lewis, Simon L.; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Carlos A.; Gloor, Manuel; ter Steege, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075217120; Meir, Patrick; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf; Bonal, Damien; Brown, Sandra; Brown, Foster I.; Ceron, Carlos E.; Chama Moscoso, Victor; Chave, Jerome; Comiskey, James A.; Cornejo, Fernando; Corrales Medina, Massiel; Da Costa, Lola; Costa, Flavia R. C.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Domingues, Tomas F.; Erwin, Terry L.; Frederickson, Todd; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Levis, Carolina; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, William F.; Magnusson, William E.; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Mendoza Polo, Irina; Mishra, Piyush; Nascimento, Marcelo T.; Neill, David; Nunez Vargas, Mario P.; Palacios, Walter A.; Parada, Alexander; Pardo Molina, Guido; Pena-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel; Peres, Carlos A.; Prieto, Adriana; Poorter, Lourens; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Restrepo Correa, Zorayda; Roopsind, Anand; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Schietti, Juliana; Silveira, Marcos; de Souza, Priscila F.; Steininger, Marc K.; Stropp, Juliana; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van Andel, Tinde R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205284868; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Vieira, Simone; Vilanova-Torre, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Zartman, Charles E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L.; Cruz, A.P.; Cuenca, W.P.; Espejo, J.E.; Ferreira, L.; Germaine, A.; Penuela, M.C.; Silva, N.; Valenzuela Gamarra, L.

    Aim The accurate mapping of forest carbon stocks is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle, for assessing emissions from deforestation, and for rational land-use planning. Remote sensing (RS) is currently the key tool for this purpose, but RS does not estimate vegetation biomass

  13. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  14. Soil Erosion and runoff response to plant-cover strips on semiarid slopes (SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Raya, A.; Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Francia-Martinez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Over a four-year period (1997-2000), soil loss and surface-runoff patterns were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different plant-cover strips (thyme, barley and lentils) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada (Lanjaron) in south-eastern Spain. The erosion plots (580 m

  15. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  16. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  17. An Excel Macro to Plot the HFE-Diagram to Identify Sea Water Intrusion Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Sánchez San Román, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) is a multirectangular diagram, which is a useful tool in the interpretation of sea water intrusion processes. This method note describes a simple method for generating an HFE-D plot using the spreadsheet software package, Microsoft Excel. The code was applied to groundwater from the alluvial coastal plain of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy), which is characterized by a complex salinization process in which sea water mixes with sulfate or bicarbonate recharge water. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  18. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Warren, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  19. Rainfall-runoff-soil and nutrient loss relationships for plot size areas of bhetagad watershed in Central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, B. P.; Verma, P. K.; Joshi, B. K.; Kothyari, U. C.

    2004-06-01

    The Bhetagad watershed in Kumaon Hills of Central Himalaya represents for hydro-meteorological conditions of the middle mountains over the Hindu Kush Himalayas. This study was conducted to assess the runoff, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different prominent land uses in the Bhetagad watershed of Central Himalayas. Four experimental natural plots each of 20 m length and 5 m width were delineated on four most common land covers viz, pine forests, tea plantation, rainfed agricultural and degraded lands. Monthly values of runoff, soil loss and nutrient loss, for four successive years (1998-2001), from these land uses were quantified following standard methodologies. The annual runoff in these plots ranged between 51 and 3593 m 3/ha while the annual soil loss varied between 0.06 and 5.47 tonnes/ha during the entire study period. The loss of organic matter was found to be maximum in plot having pine forest followed by plot having tea plantation as the land cover. Annual loss of total N (6.24 kg/ha), total P (3.88 kg/ha) and total K (5.98 kg/ha),per unit loss of soil (tonnes/ha), was maximum from the plot having rainfed agricultural crop as the land cover. The loss of total N ranged between 0.30 and 21.27 kg/ha, total P ranged between 0.14 and 9.42 kg/ha, total K ranged from 0.12 to 11.31 kg/ha whereas organic matter loss varied between 3.65 and 255.16 kg/ha, from different experimental plots. The findings will lead towards devising better conservation/management options for mountain land use systems.

  20. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  1. How much information is contained in a recurrence plot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Marco; Romano, M. Carmen; Kurths, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Recurrence plots have recently been recognized as a powerful tool for the analysis of data. Not only the visualization of structures of the time series but also the possibility to estimate invariants from them and the possibility to analyze non-stationary data sets are remarkable. However, the question of how much information is encoded in such a two-dimensional and binary representation has not been discussed so far. In this Letter we show that - under some conditions - it is possible to reconstruct an attractor from the recurrence plot, at least topologically. This means that all relevant dynamical information is contained in the plot

  2. True versus perturbed forest inventory plot locations for modeling: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is widely used for timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, true plot locations are not revealed; the plot coordinates are manipulated to obscure the location of field plots and thereby preserve plot integrity. The influence of perturbed plot...

  3. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  4. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  5. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  6. Effect of plant cover on presence of Black Francolin (Francolinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species, percentage of species presence and dominant plant cover height on francolin presence. Sampling was.

  7. SCALPLO, Plotting of Flux Output from SCALE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, A.; De Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SCALPLO is a plot program, designed to plot flux, power and spectrum information. Data exchange between SCALE modules and SCALPLO is via CCCC-interface files. As not all modules can produce these files, there are special routines supplied with SCALPLO that can produce CCCC-like files. These routines can be included in the code and for XSDRPM, CITATION, ANISN and DOT, the place to include these routines is supplied. 2 - Method of solution: SCALPLO consists of two sections. Firstly the pre-processor, which selects and reads the required data. Secondly the plot section which produces the plot on the selected output device. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SCALPLO requires DISSPLA version 11.0 or higher. The choice of output device depends on the devices installed

  8. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  9. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-02-21

    Feb 21, 1996 ... pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was signifi- ... sal and cooperative breeding in pale chanting goshawk families. ...... fortunes in the white-fronted bee-eater.

  10. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    r oo 09N Cml* Iw pim c rphkase MAd sAOl; Its D1 O r STHE UNIVERSITY OF MIS .. PHYSICAL ACOUSIS E _AC SGRO1PP tJ,, IPARTMENTO Ul1STIC__RSE C.ND AST•OP...its C LINIlINr Thl VALUES Ott Xfl-EL To NIt LobE,- THAN X%;P.I’ C THIS 1AUCE VEi4SiIh IS A P"’DIFJCA?1OP1 O’? PANGVZ# MAT HAhG.U3v c THE SYSTIh’ of

  11. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  12. arXiv Laura++ : a Dalitz plot fitter

    CERN Document Server

    Back, John; Harrison, Paul; Latham, Thomas; O'Hanlon, Daniel; Qian, Wenbin; del Amo Sanchez, Pablo; Craik, Daniel; Ilic, Jelena; Otalora Goicochea, Juan; Puccio, Eugenia; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Whitehead, Mark

    The Dalitz plot analysis technique has become an increasingly important method in heavy flavour physics. The Laura++ fitter has been developed as a flexible tool that can be used for Dalitz plot analyses in different experimental environments. Explicitly designed for three-body decays of heavy-flavoured mesons to spinless final state particles, it is optimised in order to describe all possible resonant or nonresonant contributions, and to accommodate possible CP violation effects.

  13. The Effect of Plot Size on Some Pratylenchus Penetrans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pratylenchus penetrans counts obtained from a rose field, sampled sequentially by decreasing the plot sizes were computed to obtain the respective sample means, variance and k-value of the negative binomial distribution. Plots 21 m x 80 m, 3.6 m x 3.6 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m were sampled for the nematode. It is reported ...

  14. WebPlotDigitizer, a polyvalent and free software to extract spectra from old astronomical publications: application to ultraviolet spectropolarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Rohatgi, A.; Charlot, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution, we present WebPlotDigitizer, a polyvalent and free software developed to facilitate easy and accurate data extraction from a variety of plot types. We describe the numerous features of this numerical tool and present its relevance when applied to astrophysical archival research. We exploit WebPlotDigitizer to extract ultraviolet spectropolarimetric spectra from old publications that used the Hubble Space Telescope, Lick Observatory 3 m Shane telescope and Astro-2 mission to observe the Seyfert-2 AGN NGC 1068. By doing so, we compile all the existing ultraviolet polarimetric data on NGC 1068 to prepare the ground for further investigations with the future high-resolution spectropolarimeter POLLUX on-board of the proposed Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) NASA mission.

  15. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  16. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genome U-Plot: a whole genome visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitatzes, Athanasios; Johnson, Sarah H; Smadbeck, James B; Vasmatzis, George

    2018-05-15

    The ability to produce and analyze whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from samples with structural variations (SV) generated the need to visualize such abnormalities in simplified plots. Conventional two-dimensional representations of WGS data frequently use either circular or linear layouts. There are several diverse advantages regarding both these representations, but their major disadvantage is that they do not use the two-dimensional space very efficiently. We propose a layout, termed the Genome U-Plot, which spreads the chromosomes on a two-dimensional surface and essentially quadruples the spatial resolution. We present the Genome U-Plot for producing clear and intuitive graphs that allows researchers to generate novel insights and hypotheses by visualizing SVs such as deletions, amplifications, and chromoanagenesis events. The main features of the Genome U-Plot are its layered layout, its high spatial resolution and its improved aesthetic qualities. We compare conventional visualization schemas with the Genome U-Plot using visualization metrics such as number of line crossings and crossing angle resolution measures. Based on our metrics, we improve the readability of the resulting graph by at least 2-fold, making apparent important features and making it easy to identify important genomic changes. A whole genome visualization tool with high spatial resolution and improved aesthetic qualities. An implementation and documentation of the Genome U-Plot is publicly available at https://github.com/gaitat/GenomeUPlot. vasmatzis.george@mayo.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  19. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  20. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  1. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  2. Experimental Study of Soil Organic Matter Loss From Cultivated Field Plots In The Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, B.; Huon, S.; Velasquez, F.; Vallès, V.; Girardin A, C.; Mariotti, A. B.

    The question of discriminating sources of organic matter in suspended particles of stream flows can be addressed by using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and stable isotope (13C, 15N) measurements when constant fluxes of organic matter supply can be assumed. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic matter release during soil erosion and on the temporal stability of its isotopic signature. In this study, we have monitored soil organic carbon loss and water runoff using natural rainfall events on three experimental field plots with different vegetation cover (bare soil, maize and coffee fields), set up on natural slopes of a tropical mountainous watershed in NW Venezuela (09°13'32'' ­ 09°10'00''N, 70°13'49'' ­ 70°18'34''W). Runoff and soil loss are markedly superior for the bare field plot than for the coffee field plot: by a factor 15 ­ 36, respectively, for the five-month experiment, and by a factor 30 ­ 120, respectively, during a single rainfall event experiment. Since runoff and soil organic matter loss are closely linked during most of the flow (at the time scales of this study), TOC concentration in suspended matter is constant. Furthermore, stable isotope compositions reflect those of top-soil organic matter from which they originate.

  3. Development of biochemical properties in anthropic soil (the study at Třinec–Jahodná plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Marosz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the anthropic soils formed at the sludge bed “Třinec-Jahodná”. The sludge bed came from a long-time depositing of fly-ash and slag layers. Therefore, the anthropic soil properties obtained their features by both a character of layered substrate and a management of the local land reclamation. The paper presented deals with the rate of an intensity of biological and biochemical soil processes in charge of the fulfilment of plant nourishment demands, and the time viewpoints focusing on the local soil development. The set of enzymatic and biological measurements were chosen for treatments of soil bodies sampled throughout 2007–2008. The study plots inside the sludge bed and the control plot were sampled; the properties of particular horizons were studied. The results proved that the twenty-year-development of soil bodies made the proper conditions for plant nutrition. The positive statement, nevertheless, is directly linked to the presence of trees and shrubs. The vegetation seems to be one of the very crucial factors for a status of the site and maintenance of soil productivity: it affects temperature amplitudes, sensitivity to erosion, a redistribution of soil water, and a humic compounds accumulation. The statistical analyses showed significantly differing results on the study plots with a shorter development and a lower rate of vegetational cover.

  4. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  5. CPdock: the complementarity plot for docking of proteins: implementing multi-dielectric continuum electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar

    2017-12-07

    The complementarity plot (CP) is an established validation tool for protein structures, applicable to both globular proteins (folding) as well as protein-protein complexes (binding). It computes the shape and electrostatic complementarities (S m , E m ) for amino acid side-chains buried within the protein interior or interface and plots them in a two-dimensional plot having knowledge-based probabilistic quality estimates for the residues as well as for the whole structure. The current report essentially presents an upgraded version of the plot with the implementation of the advanced multi-dielectric functionality (as in Delphi version 6.2 or higher) in the computation of electrostatic complementarity to make the validation tool physico-chemically more realistic. The two methods (single- and multi-dielectric) agree decently in their resultant E m values, and hence, provisions for both methods have been kept in the software suite. So to speak, the global electrostatic balance within a well-folded protein and/or a well-packed interface seems only marginally perturbed by the choice of different internal dielectric values. However, both from theoretical as well as practical grounds, the more advanced multi-dielectric version of the plot is certainly recommended for potentially producing more reliable results. The report also presents a new methodology and a variant plot, namely CP dock , based on the same principles of complementarity specifically designed to be used in the docking of proteins. The efficacy of the method to discriminate between good and bad docked protein complexes has been tested on a recent state-of-the-art docking benchmark. The results unambiguously indicate that CP dock can indeed be effective in the initial screening phase of a docking scoring pipeline before going into more sophisticated and computationally expensive scoring functions. CP dock has been made available at https://github.com/nemo8130/CPdock . Graphical Abstract An example showing

  6. Green leaf phenology at Landsat resolution: scaling from the plot to satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. I.; Mustard, J. F.; Vadeboncour, M.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the large number of in situ, plot-level phenological measurements and satellite-derived phenological studies, there has been little success to date in merging these records temporally or spatially. In particular, while most phenological patterns and trends derived from satellites appear realistic and coherent, they may not reflect spatial and temporal patterns at the plot level. An obvious explanation is the drastic scale difference from plot-level to most satellite observations. In this research, we bridge this scale gap through higher resolution satellite records (Landsat) and quantify the accuracy of satellite-derived metrics with direct field measurements. We compiled fifty-seven Landsat scenes from southern New England (P12 R51) from 1984 to 2002. Green vegetation areal abundance for each scene was derived from spectral mixture analysis and a single set of endmembers. The leaf area signal was fit with a logistic-growth simulating sigmoid curve to derive phenological markers (half-maximum leaf-onset and offset). Spring leaf-onset dates in homogenous stands of deciduous forests displayed significant and persistent local variability. The local variability was validated with multiple springtime ground observations (r2 = 0.91). The highest degree of verified small-scale variation occurred where contiguous forests displayed leaf-onset gradients of 10-14 days over short distances (example, our results indicate that deciduous forests in the Providence, RI metropolitan area leaf out 5-7 days earlier than comparable rural areas. In preliminary work, we validated the Landsat-derived metrics with similar analyses of MODIS and AVHRR, and demonstrate that aggregating diverse local phenologies into coarse grids may convolute interpretations. Despite these complications, the platform-independent curve-fit methodology may be extended across platforms and field data. The methodologically consistent approach, in tandem with Landsat data, allows us to effectively scale

  7. Rain concentration and sheltering effect of solar panels on cultivated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamri, Yassin; Cheviron, Bruno; Mange, Annabelle; Dejean, Cyril; Liron, François; Belaud, Gilles

    2018-02-01

    Agrivoltaism is the association of agricultural and photovoltaic energy production on the same land area, coping with the increasing pressure on land use and water resources while delivering clean and renewable energy. However, the solar panels located above the cultivated plots also have a seemingly yes unexplored effect on rain redistribution, sheltering large parts of the plot but redirecting concentrated fluxes on a few locations. The spatial heterogeneity in water amounts observed on the ground is high in the general case; its dynamical patterns are directly attributable to the mobile panels through their geometrical characteristics (dimensions, height, coverage percentage) and the strategies selected to rotate them around their support tube. A coefficient of variation is used to measure this spatial heterogeneity and to compare it with the coefficient of uniformity that classically describes the efficiency of irrigation systems. A rain redistribution model (AVrain) was derived from literature elements and theoretical grounds and then validated from experiments in both field and controlled conditions. AVrain simulates the effective rain amounts on the plot from a few forcing data (rainfall, wind velocity and direction) and thus allows real-time strategies that consist in operating the panels so as to limit the rain interception mainly responsible for the spatial heterogeneities. Such avoidance strategies resulted in a sharp decrease in the coefficient of variation, e.g. 0.22 vs. 2.13 for panels held flat during one of the monitored rain events, which is a fairly good uniformity score for irrigation specialists. Finally, the water amounts predicted by AVrain were used as inputs to Hydrus-2D for a brief exploratory study on the impact of the presence of solar panels on rain redistribution at shallow depths within soils: similar, more diffuse patterns were simulated and were coherent with field measurements.

  8. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  9. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  10. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  11. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  12. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  13. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  14. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on poten...

  15. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Sangwook; Jeon, Moongu

    2009-12-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter-beat intervals by way of Poincare plot. We tried to design an

  16. Integrating Remote Sensing and Field Data to Monitor Changes in Vegetative Cover on a Multipurpose Range Complex and Adjacent Training Lands at Camp Grayling, Michigan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tweddale, Scott

    2001-01-01

    .... Remote sensing and field surveys were used to determine vegetative cover. In the field, vegetative cover data were collected on systematically allocated plots during the peak of the growing season in 1997...

  17. Online plot services for paleomagnetism and rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    In paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, a lot of types of original plots are used for obtained data from measurements. Many researchers in paleomagnetism often use not only general-purpose plotting programs such as Microsoft Excel but also single-purpose tools. A large benefit of using the latter tools is that we can make a beautiful figure for our own data. However, those programs require specific environment for their operation such as type of hardware and platform, type of operation system and its version, libraries for execution and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to share the result and graphics among the collaborators who use different environments on their PCs. Thus, one of the best solution is likely a program operated on popular environment. The most popular is web environment as we all know. Almost all current operating systems have web browsers as standard and all people use them regularly. Now we provide a web-based service plotting paleomagnetic results easily.We develop original programs with a command-line user interface (non-GUI), and we prepared web pages for input of the simple measured data and options and a wrapper script which transfers the entered values to the program. The results, analyzed values and plotted graphs from the program are shown in the HTML page and downloadable. Our plot services are provided in http://mage-p.org/mageplot/. In this talk, we introduce our program and service and discuss the philosophy and efficiency of these services.

  18. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  19. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  20. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......-PLOT work cases. In conclusion, the report presents a number of suggestions regarding the improvement of the two learning tools, which from a theoretical perspective will enhance the persuasive potential, and which can be taken into consideration in WP4 and 5....

  1. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  2. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Pashaei; Mirjalil Akrami; Mirjalil Akrami

    2013-01-01

     Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of âTehran-e- Makhufâ and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from pl...

  3. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  4. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  5. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  6. Managing data from remeasured plots: An evaluation of existing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne; Michael D. Sweet

    1992-01-01

    Proper management of the valuable data from remeasured (or permanent) forest growth plots with data base management systems (DBMS) can greatly add to their utility. Twelve desired features for such a system (activities that facilitate the storage, accuracy, and use of the data for analysis) are described and used to evaluate the 36 systems found by a survey conducted...

  7. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...

  8. Omitted Variable Sensitivity Analysis with the Annotated Love Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ben B.; Fredrickson, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to make sensitivity analysis accessible not only to empirical researchers but also to the various stakeholders for whom educational evaluations are conducted. To do this it derives anchors for the omitted variable (OV)-program participation association intrinsically, using the Love plot to present a wide range of…

  9. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  10. Relative Efficiency of Split-plot Design (SPD) to Randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.7 No. 1 June .... effects. They concluded that the proposed efficiency measures provide feasible solutions for .... Fm = d.f for the whole-plot treatment; Fb= d.f for the ...

  11. Process Waste Assessment for the Plotting and Digitizing Support Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-04-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Plotting and Digitizing Support Laboratory, located in Building 913, Room 157. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility

  12. Origin of nonlinearities in the Bagley plots of thermotropic copolyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldenaers, P.; Vermant, J.; Mewis, J.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the nonlinearity observed in Bagley plots of thermotropic copolyesters has been investigated experimentally. With the aid of a two-piston slit rheometer the dependence of the viscosity on the hydrostatic pressure has been determined directly. This dependence only accounts for part of

  13. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian distri...

  14. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  15. Geopolitical location and plot in The Night Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    The Night Manager. Three perspectives are tested in combining the analysis of location with the development of the plot: the general concepts of universal and real geography; the idea of being located inside or outside a given context; and the associated notion of centre-periphery opposition. A geopolitical...

  16. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  17. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  18. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  19. Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and Sprout Studies of Cocoyam ( Colocasia [Schott] and Xanthosoma [Schott], Araceae) Collected in Edo State, ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Government Areas (LGA) in Edo state and describe them based on leaf count and sprout

  20. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  1. SEGY to ASCII Conversion and Plotting Program 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION SEGY has long been a standard format for storing seismic data and header information. Almost every seismic processing package can read and write seismic data in SEGY format. In the data processing world, however, ASCII format is the 'universal' standard format. Very few general-purpose plotting or computation programs will accept data in SEGY format. The software presented in this report, referred to as SEGY to ASCII (SAC), converts seismic data written in SEGY format (Barry et al., 1975) to an ASCII data file, and then creates a postscript file of the seismic data using a general plotting package (GMT, Wessel and Smith, 1995). The resulting postscript file may be plotted by any standard postscript plotting program. There are two versions of SAC: one version for plotting a SEGY file that contains a single gather, such as a stacked CDP or migrated section, and a second version for plotting multiple gathers from a SEGY file containing more than one gather, such as a collection of shot gathers. Note that if a SEGY file has multiple gathers, then each gather must have the same number of traces per gather, and each trace must have the same sample interval and number of samples per trace. SAC will read several common standards of SEGY data, including SEGY files with sample values written in either IBM or IEEE floating-point format. In addition, utility programs are present to convert non-standard Seismic Unix (.sux) SEGY files and PASSCAL (.rsy) SEGY files to standard SEGY files. SAC allows complete user control over all plotting parameters including label size and font, tick mark intervals, trace scaling, and the inclusion of a title and descriptive text. SAC shell scripts create a postscript image of the seismic data in vector rather than bitmap format, using GMT's pswiggle command. Although this can produce a very large postscript file, the image quality is generally superior to that of a bitmap image, and commercial programs such as Adobe Illustrator

  2. The effect of different tillage and cover crops on soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices (di...... that P improved soil quality compared to H and D, especially when combined with cover crop. We also conclude that D may benefit from cover crop to yield better soil friability and hence soil quality.......This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices...... (direct drilling (D), harrowing (H) to a depth of 8 cm and ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (P)) as main plot. The soil was cropped with cover crop (+CC) or left without cover crop (-CC) as split plot treatments in the main plots with different tillage treatments. We assessed topsoil structural quality...

  3. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  4. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  5. Vegetation and overburden cover on phosphogypsum: Effects on radon emission, runoff water quality, and plant uptake of fluoride and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.G. [Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Bartow, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer production, and more than 700 million metric tons have accumulated on 2,500 ha in Florida. Field research was conducted to compare the benefits of capping phosphogypsum with overburden (up to 15 cm in depth) from mined sites versus treatment of the phosphogypsum with minimal amendments. After four growing seasons, vegetation cover was excellent (no bare ground) on plots amended with dolomitic limestone or capped with overburden. However, more species became established with an overburden cap. Fluoride uptake by bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) was high when grown directly on phosphogypsum (895 mg kg{sup -1} in leaf tissue) and was reduced slightly by a 15 cm overburden cap (670 mg kg{sup -1}). Unexpectedly, radium ({sup 226}Ra) uptake in bermudagrass grown directly on phosphogypsum (0.6 pCi g{sup -1}) was less than when grown on the overburden cap (1.8 pCi g{sup -1}). The presence of grass cut the radon ({sup 222}Rn) efflux from phosphogypsum in half (from 24 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 11 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), while 15 cm of overburden, in addition to grass cover, halved it again (down to 5 pCi m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Vegetation cover on phosphogypsum resulted in a 30-fold decrease in electrical conductivity and a 5-fold decrease in the fluoride concentration of surface runoff water. Runoff water quality from vegetated plots was equally good with or without a 15 cm overburden cap on top of the phosphogypsum.

  6. Sediment yield control in vineyards covered with cereal. Effect of tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out about the use of plant cover treatment to avoid land degradation in a hillside rainfed vineyard in Madrid under Mediterranean semiarid climate. Three treatments were tested: traditional tillage (lab) soil covered by Brachypodium distrachyon (bra) with self-sowing, soil covered by Scale cereale (sec) mown in Spring. Three erosion plots per treatment were placed in the middle of the strips and 2 simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot in autumn, before and after the tillage. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  8. Improved 2-D resistivity imaging of features in covered karst terrain with arrays of implanted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, H. G.; Kruse, S. E.; Harro, D.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    28-electrode arrays with electrodes 2-5 meters apart, and the deep arrays buried at 4-8 meters depth. Ground penetrating radar surveys, SPT borings and coring data provide selected 'ground truthing'. The case studies show that inclusion of the deep electrode array permits karst features such as undulations at the top of limestone and raveling zones within surficial sediments to be imaged. These features are not accessible from surface arrays with equivalent surface footprints. The method also has better resolution at depth at the ends of the lines, where surface arrays are typically plotted with a trapezoidal truncation due to poor resolution at the lower corners of the profile.

  9. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  10. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  11. Development of SVAT model for computing water and energy balance of the forest intensive monitoring plots on Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2009-06-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere- Transfer) model that was developed to analyze the different water and energy balance components of the Forest Intensive monitoring plots (FIP) on Olkiluoto Island. The Olkiluoto SVAT model divides above ground vegetation in two layers: overstorey (trees) and understorey. Hydrological processes that are quantified in the SVAT model of forest stands include precipitation, interception, evaporation, transpiration, snow accumulation and melt, soil and ground water movement, overland flow, horizontal subsurface flow and flow to forest ditches. In this report outlines for simplifying the existing SVAT model to a computational tool that can be used in biosphere modeling for long-term safety purposes are also given. The functioning of forest ecosystems on Olkiluoto Island is studied in Forest Intensive monitoring Plots (FIP): FIP4 (Scots pine forest), FIP10 (Norway spruce forest) and FIP11 (young Norway spruce/birch forest). Within the forest intensive monitoring plots (FIP4, 10 and 11) stand meteorological measurements are recorded once an hour. The parameters are air temperature, minimum and maximum temperature inside the crown layer and above the canopy, radiation, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture content, soil temperature and sap flow measurements (May 2007- June 2008). Measured versus computed cumulative stand throughfall were in good agreement with each other indicating that the SVAT model can be calibrated to reproduce very well the measured throughfall rates. Estimated stem flow was around 10% of precipitation for the Scots pine forest (FIP4), around 4 % for Norway spruce forest (FIP10) and about 3 % for young Norway spruce/birch forest (FIP11). For FIP4 the computed interception values were approximately 3-4 % bigger than the measured values but SVAT model predicted the yearly variation very well. For FIP10 average computed value was around 1 % smaller than the

  12. Effect of removal of hesperis matronalis (Dame's rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Grundel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plant species differ in their effects on indigenous vegetation as evidenced by research evaluating community response to their removal. We used a removal approach to quantify the response of a mesic woodland to the removal versus retention of an invasive plant, Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) from paired treatment plots over 3 y. Cover of H. matronalis did not differ between control and treatment plots prior to removal, declined in the removal plots and remained significantly lower in cover compared to the control plots. Removal did not significantly affect species richness and species diversity (evenness, Shannon and Simpson) at the plot scale, but did result in increased species richness overall in the removal plots in the last sampling year when compared to control plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis indicated a significant compositional change in the spring plant composition of plots over the 3 y, reflecting an increase in exotic woody species. Exotic woody plants, especially Rosa multiflora and Euonymus alatus, increased in cover in response to H. matronalis removal. In the 3 y, neither native nor exotic forbs, nor native woody plants responded to the removal of H. matronalis in a statistically significant manner. The increasing cover of woody invasive plants in response to the removal of H. matronalis has important management implications for restoration of degraded communities.

  13. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake's ground motion is a function of the earthquake's magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical ampersand Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties

  15. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  16. Limited carbon storage in soil and litter of experimental forest plots under increased atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Lichter, J.

    2001-01-01

    The current rise in atmospheric CO 2 concentration is thought to be mitigated in part by carbon sequestration within forest ecosystems, where carbon can be stored in vegetation or soils. The storage of carbon in soils is determined by the fraction that is sequestered in persistent organic materials, such as humus. In experimental forest plots of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) exposed to high CO 2 concentrations, nearly half of the carbon uptake is allocated to short-lived tissues, largely foliage. These tissues fall to the ground and decompose, normally contributing only a small portion of their carbon content to refractory soil humic materials. Such findings call into question the role of soils as long-term carbon sinks, and show the need for a better understanding of carbon cycling in forest soils. Here we report a significant accumulation of carbon in the litter layer of experimental forest plots after three years of growth at increased CO 2 concentrations (565 μ l 1 ). But fast turnover times of organic carbon in the litter layer (of about three years) appear to constrain the potential size of this carbon sink. Given the observation that carbon accumulation in the deeper mineral soil layers was absent, we suggest that significant, long-term net carbon sequestration in forest soils is unlikely. (author)

  17. A foundation of ecology rediscovered: 100 years of succession on the William S. Cooper plots in Glacier Bay, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian; Bisbing, Sarah; Krapek, John; Wright, Glenn

    2017-06-01

    Understanding plant community succession is one of the original pursuits of ecology, forming some of the earliest theoretical frameworks in the field. Much of this was built on the long-term research of William S. Cooper, who established a permanent plot network in Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1916. This study now represents the longest-running primary succession plot network in the world. Permanent plots are useful for their ability to follow mechanistic change through time without assumptions inherent in space-for-time (chronosequence) designs. After 100-yr, these plots show surprising variety in species composition, soil characteristics (carbon, nitrogen, depth), and percent cover, attributable to variation in initial vegetation establishment first noted by Cooper in the 1916-1923 time period, partially driven by dispersal limitations. There has been almost a complete community composition replacement over the century and general species richness increase, but the effective number of species has declined significantly due to dominance of Salix species which established 100-yr prior (the only remaining species from the original cohort). Where Salix dominates, there is no establishment of "later" successional species like Picea. Plots nearer the entrance to Glacier Bay, and thus closer to potential seed sources after the most recent glaciation, have had consistently higher species richness for 100 yr. Age of plots is the best predictor of soil N content and C:N ratio, though plots still dominated by Salix had lower overall N; soil accumulation was more associated with dominant species. This highlights the importance of contingency and dispersal in community development. The 100-yr record of these plots, including species composition, spatial relationships, cover, and observed interactions between species provides a powerful view of long-term primary succession. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools...... as an: ‚Internal report for project use containing an empirically-based assessment of existing systems and their potential in terms of learning and persuasion. This will be used as a discussion document by the consortium.‛ To meet the requirements of this deliverable, this documents presents analysis......, in particular the notions of persuasive design and constructive alignment. Whilst the report provides a persuasive design perspective on the technologies related to Euro PLOT, it must be stressed that if the document is to function as a basis for further discussion within the consortium, the partners...

  19. The Chymistry of "The Learned Dr Plot" (1640-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, there were developing norms of openness in the presentation of scientific knowledge that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among chymists, particularly practitioners of chrysopoeia, or the transmutation of metals. This chapter analyzes how Dr. Robert Plot, the first professor of chymistry at Oxford, negotiated these boundaries within an institutional context. I first delineate his chymical and experimental practice, which incorporated procedures from medieval alchemical sources, particularly the Lullian corpus, as well as more novel practices from seventeenth-century chymistry. Then, I analyze how personal and institutional ambitions and economic considerations shaped to what extent Plot negotiated the boundaries between secrecy and the public dissemination of chymical knowledge.

  20. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  1. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  2. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  3. A user's guide of a plotting program PLTJOINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Sato, Wakaei; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Mori, Takamasa

    1988-02-01

    A plotting program PLTJOINT is able to plot various types of input and output data from neutronics calculations with two dimensional coordinates. These data include cross sections, neutron flux or spectrum, reaction rate distribution and auxiliary data. These are read from the input and output files of the JOINT system and the transport code system using double differential form cross section, and from arbitrary BCD input file. General purpose option is also available. Much care is taken in lettering such as types of characters (italic, Greek letters and characters), super and subscript of alphabet and numeral. Users can design their own characters by using a program IGDRASIL. Most of input data can be read in free format. The code has been programed so flexibly that new functions can be easily added to. (author)

  4. [Murderers in white coats--the physicians' plot against Stalin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B

    1997-12-10

    During the Moscow trials in 1936-38 several doctors were sentenced for participating in the murders of party leaders. As others who were accused, the doctors willingly confessed to crimes they could not possibly have committed. A second doctors' plot took place in the autumn of 1952. This time nine doctors, six of them Jews, were arrested for the attempted murder of political leaders. Only the unexpected death of Josef Stalin prevented a new wave of terror. With the single exception of Genrikh Grigorjevitsj Jagoda (1891-1938), head of the NKVD (KGB's predecessor), all those sentenced under the Moscow process are now rehabilitated. The participants of the second doctors' plot were rehabilitated immediately after Stalin's death.

  5. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  6. Zipper plot: visualizing transcriptional activity of genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Cobos, Francisco; Anckaert, Jasper; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Everaert, Celine; Rombaut, Dries; Vandesompele, Jo; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter

    2017-05-02

    Reconstructing transcript models from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and establishing these as independent transcriptional units can be a challenging task. Current state-of-the-art tools for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) annotation are mainly based on evolutionary constraints, which may result in false negatives due to the overall limited conservation of lncRNAs. To tackle this problem we have developed the Zipper plot, a novel visualization and analysis method that enables users to simultaneously interrogate thousands of human putative transcription start sites (TSSs) in relation to various features that are indicative for transcriptional activity. These include publicly available CAGE-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing and DNase-sequencing datasets. Our method only requires three tab-separated fields (chromosome, genomic coordinate of the TSS and strand) as input and generates a report that includes a detailed summary table, a Zipper plot and several statistics derived from this plot. Using the Zipper plot, we found evidence of transcription for a set of well-characterized lncRNAs and observed that fewer mono-exonic lncRNAs have CAGE peaks overlapping with their TSSs compared to multi-exonic lncRNAs. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we found more than one hundred cases where junction reads connected protein-coding gene exons with a downstream mono-exonic lncRNA, revealing the need for a careful evaluation of lncRNA 5'-boundaries. Our method is implemented using the statistical programming language R and is freely available as a webtool.

  7. A Bayesian CUSUM plot: Diagnosing quality of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosthøj, Steen; Jacobsen, Rikke-Line

    2017-12-01

    To present a CUSUM plot based on Bayesian diagnostic reasoning displaying evidence in favour of "healthy" rather than "sick" quality of treatment (QOT), and to demonstrate a technique using Kaplan-Meier survival curves permitting application to case series with ongoing follow-up. For a case series with known final outcomes: Consider each case a diagnostic test of good versus poor QOT (expected vs. increased failure rates), determine the likelihood ratio (LR) of the observed outcome, convert LR to weight taking log to base 2, and add up weights sequentially in a plot showing how many times odds in favour of good QOT have been doubled. For a series with observed survival times and an expected survival curve: Divide the curve into time intervals, determine "healthy" and specify "sick" risks of failure in each interval, construct a "sick" survival curve, determine the LR of survival or failure at the given observation times, convert to weights, and add up. The Bayesian plot was applied retrospectively to 39 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with completed follow-up, using Nordic collaborative results as reference, showing equal odds between good and poor QOT. In the ongoing treatment trial, with 22 of 37 children still at risk for event, QOT has been monitored with average survival curves as reference, odds so far favoring good QOT 2:1. QOT in small patient series can be assessed with a Bayesian CUSUM plot, retrospectively when all treatment outcomes are known, but also in ongoing series with unfinished follow-up. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Fisher.py: Fisher Matrix Manipulation and Confidence Contour Plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Fisher.py allows you to combine constraints from multiple experiments (e.g., weak lensing + supernovae) and add priors (e.g., a flat universe) simply and easily. Calculate parameter uncertainties and plot confidence ellipses. Fisher matrix expectations for several experiments are included as calculated by myself (time delays) and the Dark Energy Task Force (WL/SN/BAO/CL/CMB), or provide your own.

  9. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Weyers; K. A. Spokas

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with ...

  10. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  11. Comparison of monthly nighttime cloud fraction products from MODIS and AIRS and ground-based camera over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud detection nowadays is primarily achieved by the utilization of various sensors aboard satellites. These include MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra, and AIRS with products that include nighttime cloud fraction. Ground-based instruments are, however, only secondary to these satellites when it comes to cloud detection. Nonetheless, these ground-based instruments (e.g., LIDARs, ceilometers, and sky-cameras) offer significant datasets about a particular region's cloud cover values. For nighttime operations of cloud detection instruments, satellite-based instruments are more reliably and prominently used than ground-based ones. Therefore if a ground-based instrument for nighttime operations is operated, it ought to produce reliable scientific datasets. The objective of this study is to do a comparison between the results of a nighttime ground-based instrument (sky-camera) and that of MODIS Aqua and MODIS Terra. A Canon Powershot A2300 is placed ontop of Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E) and is configured to take images of the night sky at 5min intervals. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted to grayscale format. Thresholding technique is used to screen pixels with cloud and pixels without clouds. If the pixel value is greater than 17, it is considered as a cloud; otherwise, a noncloud (Gacal et al., 2016). This algorithm is applied to the data gathered from Oct 2015 to Oct 2016. A scatter plot between satellite cloud fraction in the area covering the area 14.2877N, 120.9869E, 14.7711N and 121.4539E and ground cloud cover is graphed to find the monthly correlation. During wet season (June - November), the satellite nighttime cloud fraction vs ground measured cloud cover produce an acceptable R2 (Aqua= 0.74, Terra= 0.71, AIRS= 0.76). However, during dry season, poor R2 values are obtained (AIRS= 0.39, Aqua & Terra = 0.01). The high correlation during wet season can be attributed to a high probability that the camera and satellite see the same clouds

  12. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and 137 Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. - Highlights: • Fine soil erosion showed large impact on radiocaesium wash-off. • Exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and eroded soil. • Radiocaesium concentration in the discharged soil was depending on land use

  13. The value of building plots in Italy - pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some analysis on dynamics of building plots value in Italy. This is an important subject, since the study of changes in plots value in space and time enables the evaluation of urban rent, which is essential for a fair and effective planning. The analysis confirm past hypothesis which are well known to real estate market operators. The first resulting fact is that the changes in building plots value are concurrent to those in real estate value and the increase occurring in the last years is in relative terms higher than the past one. This seems to confirm that, during real estate market expansion, most of the increase of buildings’ value is attributable to the land rent. The second observation is about value dynamics over time: it has been observed that, during an expansion in demand, the value significantly increases in central areas, much more than in peripheral ones; this means that absolute rent arising from shortage in urban areas is higher than the differential rent created through urban expansion in peripheral areas. Finally, it was highlighted that the factors affecting the value in building areas play different roles, depending on their location relative to the urban centre, identifying differently structured market segments.

  14. Diffusional falsification of kinetic constants on Lineweaver-Burk plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Y S; Chang, H N

    1983-11-07

    The effect of mass transfer resistances on the Lineweaver-Burk plots in immobilized enzyme systems has been investigated numerically and with analytical approximate solutions. While Hamilton, Gardner & Colton (1974) studied the effect of internal diffusion resistances in planar geometry, our study was extended to the combined effect of internal and external diffusion in cylindrical and spherical geometries as well. The variation of Lineweaver-Burk plots with respect to the geometries was minimized by modifying the Thiele modulus and the Biot number with the shape factor. Especially for a small Biot number all the three Lineweaver-Burk plots fell on a single line. As was discussed by Hamilton et al. (1974), the curvature of the line for large external diffusion resistances was small enough to be assumed linear, which was confirmed from the two approximate solutions for large and small substrate concentrations. Two methods for obtaining intrinsic kinetic constants were proposed: First, we obtained both maximum reaction rate and Michaelis constant by fitting experimental data to a straight line where external diffusion resistance was relatively large, and second, we obtained Michaelis constant from apparent Michaelis constant from the figure in case we knew maximum reaction rate a priori.

  15. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  16. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  17. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  19. Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based, Long-slit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996-12-08

    Dec 8, 1996 ... Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based,. Long-slit .... Figure 1 plots spectra from the 2-D array, after instrumental calibration and before correction for ..... which would merit attention and a better understanding.

  20. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    OpenAIRE

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and ...

  1. Winter cover crops as a best management practice for reducing nitrogen leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, W. F.; Scarborough, R. W.; Chirnside, A. E. M.

    1998-10-01

    The role of rye as a winter cover crop to reduce nitrate leaching was investigated over a three-year period on a loamy sand soil. A cover crop was planted after corn in the early fall and killed in late March or early April the following spring. No-tillage and conventional tillage systems were compared on large plots with irrigated corn. A replicated randomized block design experiment was conducted on small plots to evaluate a rye cover crop under no-tillage and conventional tillage and with commercial fertilizer, poultry manure and composted poultry manure as nitrogen fertilizer sources. Nitrogen uptake by the cover crop along with nitrate concentrations in groundwater and the soil profile (0-150 cm) were measured on the large plots. Soil nitrate concentrations and nitrogen uptake by the cover crop were measured on the small plots. There was no significant difference in nitrate concentrations in the groundwater or soil profile with and without a cover crop in either no-tillage or conventional tillage. Annual amounts of nitrate-N leached to the water-table varied from 136.0 to 190.1 kg/ha in 1989 and from 82.4 to 116.2 kg/ha in 1991. Nitrate leaching rates were somewhat lower with a cover crop in 1989, but not in 1990. There was no statistically significant difference in corn grain yields between the cover crop and non-cover crop treatments. The planting date and adequate rainfall are very important in maximizing nitrogen uptake in the fall with a rye cover crop. On the Delmarva Peninsula, the cover crop should probably be planted by October 1 to maximize nitrogen uptake rates in the fall. On loamy sand soils, rye winter cover crops cannot be counted on as a best management practice for reducing nitrate leaching in the Mid-Atlantic states.

  2. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as

  3. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  4. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  5. Decadal changes in tundra land cover on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Macias-Fauria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Yamal-Nenets Okrug in Russia has experienced significant changes in land use and climate in recent decades. Average year-round air temperatures have increased ca. 2°C since the 1970's, with much - but not all - of the warming taking place in winter. In association with ongoing summer warming, the annual growth of erect deciduous shrubs has been accelerating while growing season seasonality has diminished, characterized by shifts in the spatial patterns of key phenological parameters. We prepared LANDSAT-derived land cover classifications for 1988 and 2014 using change detection analysis, supported by extensive ground truthing bolstered with data from Very High-Resolution (VHR) imagery (e.g. Quickbird-2, Worldview-2/3). Research was conducted within summer reindeer pastures utilized by the Yarsalinksi sovhoz, whose animals are collectively owned, as well as many privately-owned herds. The area represents bioclimatic Subzone D of the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map and covers about 8500 km2. This is a key subzone for several reasons: (1) it includes Bovanenkovo, the first and largest gas deposit on Yamal to be developed; (2) it is a zone of extremely active periglacial processes (e.g. active layer detachment slides, lake drainage and recent methane-mediated craters); and (3) it is characterized by steadily increasing growth of tall willow shrubs (Salix spp.), which comprise an important source of fodder by reindeer migrating through the area in summer. These results are unique as our dataset: (1) covers sizable inland regions lying entirely within the Russian tundra zone; (2) derives from extensive ground truthing; and (3) treats all plant taxonomic groups (vascular, bryophytes, lichens) at the plot scale. Here we present the first such classifications, based on LANDSAT images from 1988 and 2014. We identify 16 classes ranging from bare ground and drained lakes, anthropogenic disturbances, through several wetland types, to various dwarf and erect tundra shrub

  6. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  7. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions ...

  8. Considerations in Forest Growth Estimation Between Two Measurements of Mapped Forest Inventory Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Several aspects of the enhanced Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program?s national plot design complicate change estimation. The design incorporates up to three separate plot sizes (microplot, subplot, and macroplot) to sample trees of different sizes. Because multiple plot sizes are involved, change estimators designed for polyareal plot sampling, such as those...

  9. Plot and Personification in “Tehran-e- Makhuf“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pashaei

    Full Text Available Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he approaches to story

  10. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjalil Akrami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.  The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.  Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he

  11. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pashaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.  The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.  Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European

  12. PET kinetic analysis --pitfalls and a solution for the Logan plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Shidahara, Miho; Ikoma, Yoko; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The Logan plot is a widely used algorithm for the quantitative analysis of neuroreceptors using PET because it is easy to use and simple to implement. The Logan plot is also suitable for receptor imaging because its algorithm is fast. However, use of the Logan plot, and interpretation of the formed receptor images should be regarded with caution, because noise in PET data causes bias in the Logan plot estimates. In this paper, we describe the basic concept of the Logan plot in detail and introduce three algorithms for the Logan plot. By comparing these algorithms, we demonstrate the pitfalls of the Logan plot and discuss the solution.

  13. Utilization of residual nitrogen (15N) from cover crop and urea by corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edson Cabral da; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Buzetti, Salatier; Veloso, Marcos Emanuel da Costa

    2006-01-01

    The majority of N from mineral fertilizers and cover crops is usually not used by the very next corn crop, but can be absorbed by follow-up crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of residual nitrogen from urea, sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) labeled with 15 N, applied to no-tillage corn in the previous growing season, in a Red Latosol of the Cerrado. The study was conducted in an experimental farm of the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, in Selviria county (MS), Brazil, in different areas. The experiment had a randomized complete block design, with 15 treatments and four replications. Treatments were applied to corn crop in the 2001/02 and 2003/04 growing seasons. They were distributed in a 3 x 5 factorial layout, representing the combination of three cover crops: sunnhemp, millet and spontaneous vegetation (fallow) and five N rates (as urea): 0, 30, 80, 130, and 180 kg ha-1 of N. After corn harvest, the two areas were followed in the dry season and were followed by corn crop in the 2002/03 (experiment 1) and 2003/04 (experiment 2) growing seasons, using the same fertilizer rate on all plots to distinguish the residual effect of N sources. The average use of residual N from the millet and sunnhemp residues (above-ground part) by corn crop was less than 3.5 and 3 %, respectively, of the initial amount. The corn uptake of residual N from urea increased in a quadratic manner in experiment 1 and linearly in experiment Two as a response to the applied N rates, and the recover was below 3 %. The cover crop type did not affect the use of residual N of urea by corn, and vice-versa. (author)

  14. Improving LiDAR Biomass Model Uncertainty through Non-Destructive Allometry and Plot-level 3D Reconstruction with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Future NASA and ESA satellite missions plan to better quantify global carbon through detailed observations of forest structure, but ultimately rely on uncertain ground measurement approaches for calibration and validation. A significant amount of the uncertainty in estimating plot-level biomass can be attributed to inadequate and unrepresentative allometric relationships used to convert plot-level tree measurements to estimates of aboveground biomass. These allometric equations are known to have high errors and biases, particularly in carbon rich forests because they were calibrated with small and often biased samples of destructively harvested trees. To overcome this issue, a non-destructive methodology for estimating tree and plot-level biomass has been proposed through the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). We investigated the potential for using TLS as a ground validation approach in LiDAR-based biomass mapping though virtual plot-level tree volume reconstruction and biomass estimation. Plot-level biomass estimates were compared on the Virginia-based Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute's SIGEO forest with full 3D reconstruction, TLS allometry, and Jenkins et al. (2003) allometry. On average, full 3D reconstruction ultimately provided the lowest uncertainty estimate of plot-level biomass (9.6%), followed by TLS allometry (16.9%) and the national equations (20.2%). TLS offered modest improvements to the airborne LiDAR empirical models, reducing RMSE from 16.2% to 14%. Our findings suggest TLS plot acquisitions and non-destructive allometry can play a vital role for reducing uncertainty in calibration and validation data for biomass mapping in the upcoming NASA and ESA missions.

  15. Observations on the influence of vine covering by means of a transparent plastic sheet on berry ripening and wine quality (Saint-Emilion, 1995 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Leeuwen

    1998-09-01

    On the covered plots, yields were higher. In 1996, on BT, the vines carried more bunches, the bunches carried more berries and berry weight was higher. The control vines were significantly more affected by Botrytis compared to BS ; BT showed almost no rot. Berries on the covered plots showed a tendancy of having more sugar and total phenolics, and less malic acid. Separate microvinifications were done with 50 kg of grapes from each plot. Wine from BT was preferred over BS. Wine from the control plot was the least appreciated.

  16. How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no

  17. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  18. Manual transportation within the plot and physical damages to bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Mário Jorge Maia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The manual transportation of banana bunches within plots provokes physical damages to fruits compromising their quality. To assess the influence of the distance banana bunches travel on the shoulders of harvesters within the plot, on the incidence of physical damages present on the peel of fruits of the Nanicão cultivar, two experiments were carried out in the Vale do Ribeira region (SP, in sites with slope < 1%. Each experiment divided the plot in different distance bands, two of which were included in this study: one located far away from the collection roads (30-50 m and 80-100 m distance bands and another in an intermediate position (70-80 m and 130-150 m distance bands. For each distance band, six banana bunches of 36 mm gauged fruits were randomly sampled. Four banana hands were cut from the middle region of each bunch and ten fruits were assessed per hand, totaling 240 fruits per treatment. Bunches were harvested at the same maturity degree and those served as control were not transported. A total of 1440 fruits was assessed in the two experiments. The physical damages on the fruit surface were graded on a scale with 6 divisions: 0-0.25 cm²; 0.25-0.5 cm²; 0.5-1.0 cm²; 1.0-1.5 cm²; 1.5-2.0 cm²; 2.0-2.5 cm². The bunches transported on the shoulders of harvesters on distances over 70 m suffered increased (P < 0.01 damaged area. Most damages presented areas up to 0.5 cm².

  19. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  20. Correlation analysis of respiratory signals by using parallel coordinate plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the bonds and the relationships between the respiratory signals, i.e. the airflow, the mouth pressure, the relative temperature and the relative humidity during breathing may provide the improvement on the measurement methods of respiratory mechanics and sensor designs or the exploration of the several possible applications in the analysis of respiratory disorders. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to propose a new combination of methods in order to determine the relationship between respiratory signals as a multidimensional data. In order to reveal the coupling between the processes two very different methods were used: the well-known statistical correlation analysis (i.e. Pearson's correlation and cross-correlation coefficient) and parallel coordinate plots (PCPs). Curve bundling with the number intersections for the correlation analysis, Least Mean Square Time Delay Estimator (LMS-TDE) for the point delay detection and visual metrics for the recognition of the visual structures were proposed and utilized in PCP. The number of intersections was increased when the correlation coefficient changed from high positive to high negative correlation between the respiratory signals, especially if whole breath was processed. LMS-TDE coefficients plotted in PCP indicated well-matched point delay results to the findings in the correlation analysis. Visual inspection of PCB by visual metrics showed range, dispersions, entropy comparisons and linear and sinusoidal-like relationships between the respiratory signals. It is demonstrated that the basic correlation analysis together with the parallel coordinate plots perceptually motivates the visual metrics in the display and thus can be considered as an aid to the user analysis by providing meaningful views of the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical composition of precipitation in adjacent forest and open plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madgwick, H A.I.; Ovington, J D

    1959-01-01

    The chemical composition of the precipitation in three open plots and under thirteen different forest canopies is compared for a 2-year period at an experimental forest in south-east England. The average contents of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the precipitation in the open are 19, 3, 11, and less than 4 kg./ha./annum respectively, compared with 33, 24, 24, and 10 under the forest canopies. Only very small quantities of phosphorus were present in the precipitation. The data are discussed with particular reference to the nutrient cycles of forest stands, the removal of nutrients by logging, and the maintenance of soil fertility.

  2. FLP: a field line plotting code for bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer code was developed to aid in the design of bundle divertors. The code can handle discrete toroidal field coils and various divertor coil configurations. All coils must be composed of straight line segments. The code runs on the PDP-10 and displays plots of the configuration, field lines, and field ripple. It automatically chooses the coil currents to connect the separatrix produced by the divertor to the outer edge of the plasma and calculates the required coil cross sections. Several divertor designs are illustrated to show how the code works

  3. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  5. TUMULI, ROADS AND PLOTS. DECODING THE MONUMENTAL FUNERARY SPACE OF THE 4TH-3RD CENTURIES BC KALLATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ștefan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focusses on the monumental elements of the 4th-3rd centuries BC cemeteries of Kallatis: the use of large tumuli, the implementation of a systematized network of funerary plots, the extent of the burial grounds, the discovery of a series of built chamber tombs under tumuli with elements of decorated architecture, including mural paintings and exceptional presence of a statue topping a tumulus. The detection and morphological characterisation of archaeological features and the recovering of the funerary landscapes’ spatial layout were based on historiographic study, remote-sensing and geophysical investigations.

  6. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  7. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  8. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  9. Computational Drafting of Plot Structures for Russian Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervás, Pablo

    The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.

  10. PLOTNFIT.4TH, Data Plotting and Curve Fitting by Polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTnFIT is used for plotting and analyzing data by fitting nth degree polynomials of basis functions to the data interactively and printing graphs of the data and the polynomial functions. It can be used to generate linear, semi-log, and log-log graphs and can automatically scale the coordinate axes to suit the data. Multiple data sets may be plotted on a single graph. An auxiliary program, READ1ST, is included which produces an on-line summary of the information contained in the PLOTnFIT reference report. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTnFIT uses the least squares method to calculate the coefficients of nth-degree (up to 10. degree) polynomials of 11 selected basis functions such that each polynomial fits the data in a least squares sense. The procedure incorporated in the code uses a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials to avoid 'i11-conditioning' and to perform the curve fitting task with single-precision arithmetic. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 225 data points per job (or graph) including all data sets 8 data sets (or tasks) per job (or graph)

  11. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  12. TREDRA, Minimal Cut Sets Fault Tree Plot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREDRA is a computer program for drafting report-quality fault trees. The input to TREDRA is similar to input for standard computer programs that find minimal cut sets from fault trees. Output includes fault tree plots containing all standard fault tree logic and event symbols, gate and event labels, and an output description for each event in the fault tree. TREDRA contains the following features: a variety of program options that allow flexibility in the program output; capability for automatic pagination of the output fault tree, when necessary; input groups which allow labeling of gates, events, and their output descriptions; a symbol library which includes standard fault tree symbols plus several less frequently used symbols; user control of character size and overall plot size; and extensive input error checking and diagnostic oriented output. 2 - Method of solution: Fault trees are generated by user-supplied control parameters and a coded description of the fault tree structure consisting of the name of each gate, the gate type, the number of inputs to the gate, and the names of these inputs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: TREDRA can produce fault trees with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 56 levels. The width of each level may range from 3 to 37. A total of 50 transfers is allowed during pagination

  13. 2016 Inspection and Annual Site Status Report for the Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murl, Jeffrey [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site was inspected on May 17, 2016. The site, located within Cook County forest preserve that is open to the public, was found to be in good condition with one exception. Erosion on top of the grass-covered mound at Plot M continues to be a concern as presented in previous inspections. Ruts form in the soil on top of Plot M as a result of bike traffic using the open field as a pass thru between established bike trails within the forest preserve. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) who is contracted directly from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has filled in the ruts with top soil and reseeding remains an ongoing process. Reseeded areas from 2015 are progressing nicely. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. In 2015, ANL plugged and abandoned 8 of 25 monitoring wells (BH41, BH51, BH52, BH54, DH9, DH10, DH13, and DH17). The 17 groundwater monitoring wells remaining at the site were inspected to confirm that they were locked and in good condition. Preliminary environmental monitoring results for 2015 are provided in a draft report titled Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2015, prepared by ANL. The report also contains results of an independent analysis conducted by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency on some of the samples collected by ANL in 2015. The draft report states that the results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the impact of radioactivity at Site A/Plot M is very low and does not endanger the health of those living in the area or visiting the site. The ANL monitoring report will be made available to the public on the DOE Office of Legacy Management public website when it is issued as final. A new county forest preserve campsite opened in 2015 at Bull Frog Lake, which is east of Plot M. Hiking trails connect Bull Frog Lake with Site A/Plot M. The site might receive more traffic from forest preserve visitors now that this new campsite is opened.

  14. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  15. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  16. Sampling and Mapping Soil Erosion Cover Factor for Fort Richardson, Alaska. Integrating Stratification and an Up-Scaling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    When a ground and vegetation cover factor related to soil erosion is mapped with the aid of remotely sensed data, a cost-efficient sample design to collect ground data and obtain an accurate map is required...

  17. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  18. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  20. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  1. Hydrological Processes Simulation at Plot Scale Using The Smap Model In The Semiarid | Simulação de processos hidrológicos na escala de lotes usando o modelo Smap em semi-árido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iug Lopes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation cover plays an important role on overland flow generation and erosion, directly impacting infiltration and soil water storage. The objective of this study was to investigate hydrological processes and soil moisture dynamics through conceptual modelling in intensively monitored experimental plots under natural rainfall with different soil cover conditions, in the Brazilian semiarid. Soil moisture was monthly monitored using a CPN 503 DR Neutron Probe device. Calibration curves previously defined were adopted for moisture assessment. Four experimental soil cover treatment were established: Cactus “Palma” barriers (PB; mulching (MC; Bare soil (BS and natural vegetation cover (NC. Nash-Sutcliffe (ENS coefficient and PBIAS index were adopted to assess hydrological processes analysis. The SMAP model successfully predicted the flow and humidity of the experimental plots for the natural cover and Mulching coverage, with a global ENS index of over 0.877. Scenarios of changes in soil cover have dramatically affected the modeling of water resources in the plots. The present study was important to improve the understanding and distinct hydrological processes relevance under different cover conditions in experimental plots in the semiarid.

  2. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  3. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  4. The potential of UAS imagery for soil mapping at the agricultural plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Michelin, Joël; Becu, Maxime; Cissé, Moustapha; Hadjar, Dalila; Vaudour, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Soil mapping is expensive and time consuming. Airborne and satellite remote sensing data have already been used to predict some soil properties but now Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) allow to do many images acquisitions in various field conditions in favour of developing methods for better prediction models construction. This study propose an operational method for spatial prediction of soil properties (organic carbon, clay) at the scale of the agricultural plot by using UAS imagery. An agricultural plot of 28 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was studied from March to May 2016. An area of 3.6 ha was delimited within the plot and a total of 16 flights were completed. The UAS platforms used were the eBee fixed wing provided by Sensefly® flying at an altitude from 60m to 130m and the iris+ 3DR® Quadcopter (from 30m to 100m). Two multispectral visible near-infrared cameras were used: the AirInov® MultiSPEC 4C® and the Micasense® RedEdge®. 42 ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the 3.6 ha plot. A centimetric Trimble Geo 7x DGPS was used to determine precise GCP positions. On each GCP the soil horizons were described and the top soil were sampled for standard physico-chemical analysis. Ground spectral measurements with a Spectral Evolution® SR-3500 spectroradiometer were made synchronously with the drone flights. 22 additional GCP were placed around the 3.6 ha area in order to realize a precise georeferencing. The multispectral mosaics were calculated using the Agisoft Photoscan® software and all mapping processings were done with the ESRI ArcGIS® 10.3 software. The soil properties were estimated by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the laboratory analyses and the multispectral information of the UAS images, with the PLS package of the R software. The objective was to establish a model that would achieve an acceptable prediction quality using minimum number of points. For this, we tested 5 models with a decreasing

  5. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  6. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  7. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussa, Khalil O. [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Fischer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fischer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10{sup −8}mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  8. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussa, Khalil O.; Mousa, Marwan S.; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10 −8 mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  9. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Khalil O; Mousa, Marwan S; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials-such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)-screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10(-8) mbar when baked at up to ∼180 °C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in particular

  10. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  11. Data acquisition considerations for Terrestrial Laser Scanning of forest plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Phil; Lau Sarmiento, Alvaro; Disney, Mathias; Calders, Kim; Burt, Andrew; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J.; Bartholomeus, Harm; Brede, Benjamin; Herold, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The poor constraint of forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) is responsible, in part, for large uncertainties in modelling future climate scenarios. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) can be used to derive unbiased and non-destructive estimates of tree structure and volume and can, therefore, be used to

  12. Correlation plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. A generalized interface allows the user to perform a wide variety of machine physics experiments without the need for specialized software. It has been used extensively during SLC commissioning and operation. The user may step one or two independent parameters such as magnet or feedback setpoints while measuring or calculating up to 160 others. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system as well as a variety of derived parameters such as beam size or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided for data analysis. A software-callable interface is also provided. Applications based on this facility are used to phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size at the interaction point and maintain beam collisions. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. MAPLE-II. A program for plotting fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.; Van Den Muyzenberg, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The MAPLE II code is an improved version of the MAPLE program for plotting fault trees. MAPLE II has added features which make it a versatile tool for drawing large and complex logic trees. The code is developed as part of a package for computer aided fault tree construction and analysis in which it is integrated and used as a documentation tool. However the MAPLE II code can be used as a separate program which uses as input a structure function of a tree and a description of the events and gates which make up the tree. This report includes a short description of the code and of its features. Moreover it contains the how-to-use and some indications for implementing the code and for adapting it to different graphics systems

  14. Histogram plots and cutoff energies for nuclear discrete levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgya, T.; Molnar, G.; Fazekas, B.; Oestoer, J.

    1997-05-01

    Discrete level schemes for 1277 nuclei, from 6 Li through 251 Es, extracted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File were analyzed. Cutoff energies (U max ), indicating the upper limit of level scheme completeness, were deduced from the inspection of histograms of the cumulative number of levels. Parameters of the constant-temperature level density formula (nuclear temperature T and energy shift U 0 ) were obtained by means of the least square fit of the formula to the known levels below cutoff energy. The results are tabulated for all 1277 nuclei allowing for an easy and reliable application of the constant-temperature level density approach. A complete set of cumulative plots of discrete levels is also provided. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1991-11-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback setpoints, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. READING COLONIZATION IN CONRAD'S TRANS-RACIAL LOVE PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lilyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance

  17. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sachez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback set points, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. (author)

  18. Studies on halogen quenching through the Stern-Volmer plot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, Makoto; Ishikawa, Hiroaki.

    1978-01-01

    The quenching effect for halogenated benzenes, methanes and ethanes have been investigated. The halogen quenching was accurately measured using the internal conversion electrons emitted from 113 Sn-sup(113m)In. From the quenching constants determined by the Stern-Volmer plots with respect to various halogen quenchers, the following results have been obtained. (1) The quenching constants increase with the number of halogen substituents, so as linearly in halogenated benzenes and exponentially in halogenated methanes and ethanes. Even the isomers of halogenides have different quenching constants. (2) There is a linearity between logarithm of the quenching constant and a polarographic half-wave reduction potential. (3) Electron excitation provides larger quenching constants than UV excitation for halogenated methanes. Based on these results, the mechanism of halogen quenching have been discussed in connection with the exciplex formation. (auth.)

  19. Finding the plot in South African reading education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that we have lost the plot in South African reading education. To find it, we need to move beyond the predominant mode of reading as oral performance, where the emphasis is on accuracy and pronunciation, to reading as comprehension of meaning in text. While reading research in South Africa has been conducted mainly in school contexts, this case study is of a school and Adult Basic Education and Training Centre in a rural KwaZulu-Natal community near Pietermaritzburg. It found that an oratorical approach to reading dominated in both settings. It suggests that developing the way in which teachers understand the teaching of reading and transforming the teaching practices of those who teach as they were taught in the education system of the apartheid era are key to improving the teaching of reading.

  20. Paired split-plot designs of multireader multicase studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Gong, Qi; Gallas, Brandon D

    2018-07-01

    The widely used multireader multicase ROC study design for comparing imaging modalities is the fully crossed (FC) design: every reader reads every case of both modalities. We investigate paired split-plot (PSP) designs that may allow for reduced cost and increased flexibility compared with the FC design. In the PSP design, case images from two modalities are read by the same readers, thereby the readings are paired across modalities. However, within each modality, not every reader reads every case. Instead, both the readers and the cases are partitioned into a fixed number of groups and each group of readers reads its own group of cases-a split-plot design. Using a [Formula: see text]-statistic based variance analysis for AUC (i.e., area under the ROC curve), we show analytically that precision can be gained by the PSP design as compared with the FC design with the same number of readers and readings. Equivalently, we show that the PSP design can achieve the same statistical power as the FC design with a reduced number of readings. The trade-off for the increased precision in the PSP design is the cost of collecting a larger number of truth-verified patient cases than the FC design. This means that one can trade-off between different sources of cost and choose a least burdensome design. We provide a validation study to show the iMRMC software can be reliably used for analyzing data from both FC and PSP designs. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of the PSP design with a reader study comparing full-field digital mammography with screen-film mammography.

  1. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  2. Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicated...... two-level factorial and fractional factorial split-plot (FSP and FFSP) designs. The missing observations, which can either be from the same whole plot, from different whole plots, or comprise entire whole plots, are estimated by equating to zero a number of specific contrast columns equal...... to the number of the missing observations. These estimates are inserted into the design table and the estimates for the remaining effects (or alias chains of effects as the case with FFSP designs) are plotted on two half-normal plots: one for the whole-plot effects and the other for the subplot effects...

  3. Fitting diameter distribution models to data from forest inventories with concentric plot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Nanos

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights:We designed a new method to fit the Weibull distribution to forest inventory data from concentric plots that achieves high accuracy and precision in parameter estimates regardless of the within-plot spatial tree pattern.

  4. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrological response and sediment production under different land cover in abandoned farmland fields in a Mediterranean mountain environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Lasanta, T.; Regüés, D.; Lana-Renault, N.; Cerdà, A.

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in plots on three types of land cover (scrubland, grassland and rock fragment). Infiltration rates were similar for all three land cover types. Sediment concentrations and sediment detachments were moderate-to-low. The results confirm moderate

  6. A comparison of stratification effectiveness between the National Land Cover Data set and photointerpretation in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Dunham; Dale Weyermann; Dale Azuma

    2002-01-01

    Stratifications developed from National Land Cover Data (NLCD) and from photointerpretation (PI) were tested for effectiveness in reducing sampling error associated with estimates of timberland area and volume from FIA plots in western Oregon. Strata were created from NLCD through the aggregation of cover classes and the creation of 'edge' strata by...

  7. Variable Selection Strategies for Small-area Estimation Using FIA Plots and Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Rachel Riemann; James Westfall; Mike Hoppus

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a network of tens of thousands of georeferenced forest inventory plots distributed across the United States. Data collected on these plots include direct measurements of tree diameter and height and other variables. We present a technique by which FIA plot data and coregistered...

  8. Multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using GGE bi-plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five new white yam genotypes were evaluated in different locations of major yam producing areas; Umudike, Nsukka, Ubiaja, Abuja and Katsina-Ala, to test the performance and stability of these genotypes across the environments using GGE bi-plot software. The GGE bi-plot generated several graphic bi-plots which ...

  9. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  10. 9 CFR 108.7 - Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.7 Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends. Three copies of all plot plans, blueprints, and legends, including revisions, shall be submitted to Animal and Plant...

  11. The Use of Plackett-Burman Designs to Construct Split Plot Designs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulahci, M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When some factors are hard to change and others are relatively easier, split-plot experiments are often an economic alternative to fully randomized designs. Split-plot experiments, with their structure of subplot arrays imbedded within whole-plot arrays, have a tendency to become large,

  12. 9 CFR 108.6 - Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of plot plans, blueprints... FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.6 Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends... changes affecting the workflow are to be made. The licensee shall: (a) Prepare revised plot plans...

  13. 9 CFR 108.2 - Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plot plans, blueprints, and legends... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.2 Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required. Each applicant for an establishment license shall prepare a plot plan showing all buildings for each particular land...

  14. An ecoinformatics application for forest dynamics plot data management and sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau-Chin Lin; Abd Rahman Kassim; Kristin Vanderbilt; Donald Henshaw; Eda C. Melendez-Colom; John H. Porter; Kaoru Niiyama; Tsutomu Yagihashi; Sek Aun Tan; Sheng-Shan Lu; Chi-Wen Hsiao; Li-Wan Chang; Meei-Ru. Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Several forest dynamics plot research projects in the East-Asia Pacific region of the International Long-Term Ecological Research network actively collect long-term data, and some of these large plots are members of the Center for Tropical Forest Science network. The wealth of forest plot data presents challenges in information management to researchers. In order to...

  15. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  16. Effects of field plot size on prediction accuracy of aboveground biomass in airborne laser scanning-assisted inventories in tropical rain forests of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauya, Ernest William; Hansen, Endre Hofstad; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsås, Ole Martin; Malimbwi, Rogers Ernest; Næsset, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has recently emerged as a promising tool to acquire auxiliary information for improving aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation in sample-based forest inventories. Under design-based and model-assisted inferential frameworks, the estimation relies on a model that relates the auxiliary ALS metrics to AGB estimated on ground plots. The size of the field plots has been identified as one source of model uncertainty because of the so-called boundary effects which increases with decreasing plot size. Recent research in tropical forests has aimed to quantify the boundary effects on model prediction accuracy, but evidence of the consequences for the final AGB estimates is lacking. In this study we analyzed the effect of field plot size on model prediction accuracy and its implication when used in a model-assisted inferential framework. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model improved as the plot size increased. The adjusted R 2 increased from 0.35 to 0.74 while the relative root mean square error decreased from 63.6 to 29.2%. Indicators of boundary effects were identified and confirmed to have significant effects on the model residuals. Variance estimates of model-assisted mean AGB relative to corresponding variance estimates of pure field-based AGB, decreased with increasing plot size in the range from 200 to 3000 m 2 . The variance ratio of field-based estimates relative to model-assisted variance ranged from 1.7 to 7.7. This study showed that the relative improvement in precision of AGB estimation when increasing field-plot size, was greater for an ALS-assisted inventory compared to that of a pure field-based inventory.

  17. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use/cover map for 2010 was reconstructed by analyzing 2001 image, validated and/or reconstructed by ground truthing, use of secondary data and key ... The severe loss of woodlot outside the protected area not only poses a potential threat to the protected forest but also calls for intervention measures if efforts to ...

  18. Cover plants with potential use for crop-livestock integrated systems in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose concentrations in the decomposition process of cover plant residues with potential use in no-tillage with corn, for crop-livestock integrated system, in the Cerrado region. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cerrados, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil in a split plot experimental design. The plots were represented by the plant species and the subplots by harvesting times, with three replicates. The cover plants Urochloa ruziziensis, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus, Sorghum bicolor were evaluated together with spontaneous plants in the fallow. Cover plants with lower lignin concentrations and, consequently, higher residue decomposition such as C. brasiliensis and U. ruziziensis promoted higher corn yield. High concentrations of lignin inhibit plant residue decomposition and this is favorable for the soil cover. Lower concentrations of lignin result in accelerated plant decomposition, more efficient nutrient cycling, and higher corn yield.

  19. Competitive responses of seedlings and understory plants in longleaf pine woodlands: separating canopy influences above and below ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Pecot; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Barry Moser; J. Kevin Hiers

    2007-01-01

    A trenching study was used to investigate above- and below-ground competition in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) woodland. Trenched and nontrenched plots were replicated in the woodland matrix, at gap edges, and in gap centers representing a range of overstory stocking. One-half of each plot received a herbicide treatment to remove the...

  20. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  1. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, C K; Abdullah, K; MatJafri, M Z; Lim, H S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  2. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  3. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  4. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  5. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  6. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  7. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  8. Overstory Structure and Surface Cover Dynamics in the Decade Following the Hayman Fire, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Fornwalt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2002 Hayman Fire burned with mixed-severity across a 400-ha dry conifer study site in Colorado, USA, where overstory tree and surface cover attributes had been recently measured on 20 0.1-ha permanent plots. We remeasured these plots repeatedly during the first post-fire decade to examine how the attributes changed through time and whether changes were influenced by fire severity. We found that most attributes were temporally dynamic and that fire severity shaped their dynamics. For example, low-severity plots experienced a modest reduction in live overstory density due to both immediate and delayed tree mortality, and no change in live overstory basal area through time; in contrast, high-severity plots experienced an immediate and total loss of live overstory density and basal area. Large snag density in low-severity plots did not vary temporally because snag recruitment balanced snag loss; however, in high-severity plots large snag density increased markedly immediately post-fire and then declined by about half by post-fire year ten as snags fell. Mineral soil cover increased modestly immediately post-fire in low-severity plots and substantially immediately post-fire in high-severity plots, but changed little in ensuing years for either severity class. By incorporating pre-fire and repeatedly-measured post-fire data for a range of severities, our study uniquely contributes to the current understanding of wildfire effects in dry conifer forests and should be of interest to managers, researchers, and others.

  9. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  10. The imprint of exile through the plot of the narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dutrénit Bielous

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exile is a circumstance different from other migrations, although it resembles them in the possible insertion or alienation from the receiving society. It is with no a doubt a forced migration process which is always accompanied by an idea and an imaginary: the disappearrance of the conditions that forced to exile and thus, the return.Although it is not possible to generalize, because there is no one single experience of exile and the subjectivities that compose it are diverse, it undoubtedly produces a sensation of alienation, which can lead to the rejection of the cultural norms of society; it is part of a process of “being in one place, but thinking about another.” However, as exile is prolonged, the experience of adaptation for the different generations involved becomes diversified, communication vessels develop, feelings of inclusion, of adaptation, of attachment with the social and cultural environment that the place of refuge offered.The present text builds on testimonies of Uruguayans exiled in Mexico who have returned to their country. In their narrative, the meanings that relate to the subjective perspective that provoked the “return” to their country of origin as being viable and a palpable event are perceived. In summary, an incursion through the testimonial plot explains to what extent the return is a recovery of the space of identity longed for and the subsequent abandonment of the foreign space, in other words, it adds to the perspective of identity as a dynamic and relational construction.

  11. Stereophysicochemical variability plots highlight conserved antigenic areas in Flaviviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaviviruses, which include Dengue (DV and West Nile (WN, mutate in response to immune system pressure. Identifying escape mutants, variant progeny that replicate in the presence of neutralizing antibodies, is a common way to identify functionally important residues of viral proteins. However, the mutations typically occur at variable positions on the viral surface that are not essential for viral replication. Methods are needed to determine the true targets of the neutralizing antibodies. Results Stereophysicochemical variability plots (SVPs, 3-D images of protein structures colored according to variability, as determined by our PCPMer program, were used to visualize residues conserved in their physical chemical properties (PCPs near escape mutant positions. The analysis showed 1 that escape mutations in the flavivirus envelope protein are variable residues by our criteria and 2 two escape mutants found at the same position in many flaviviruses sit above clusters of conserved residues from different regions of the linear sequence. Conservation patterns in T-cell epitopes in the NS3- protease suggest a similar mechanism of immune system evasion. Conclusion The SVPs add another dimension to structurally defining the binding sites of neutralizing antibodies. They provide a useful aid for determining antigenically important regions and designing vaccines.

  12. Comparison of Three Plot Selection Methods for Estimating Change in Temporally Variable, Spatially Clustered Populations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US). Environment, Fish and Wildlife

    2001-07-01

    Monitoring population numbers is important for assessing trends and meeting various legislative mandates. However, sampling across time introduces a temporal aspect to survey design in addition to the spatial one. For instance, a sample that is initially representative may lose this attribute if there is a shift in numbers and/or spatial distribution in the underlying population that is not reflected in later sampled plots. Plot selection methods that account for this temporal variability will produce the best trend estimates. Consequently, I used simulation to compare bias and relative precision of estimates of population change among stratified and unstratified sampling designs based on permanent, temporary, and partial replacement plots under varying levels of spatial clustering, density, and temporal shifting of populations. Permanent plots produced more precise estimates of change than temporary plots across all factors. Further, permanent plots performed better than partial replacement plots except for high density (5 and 10 individuals per plot) and 25% - 50% shifts in the population. Stratified designs always produced less precise estimates of population change for all three plot selection methods, and often produced biased change estimates and greatly inflated variance estimates under sampling with partial replacement. Hence, stratification that remains fixed across time should be avoided when monitoring populations that are likely to exhibit large changes in numbers and/or spatial distribution during the study period. Key words: bias; change estimation; monitoring; permanent plots; relative precision; sampling with partial replacement; temporary plots.

  13. SplicePlot: a utility for visualizing splicing quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric; Nance, Tracy; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    RNA sequencing has provided unprecedented resolution of alternative splicing and splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL). However, there are few tools available for visualizing the genotype-dependent effects of splicing at a population level. SplicePlot is a simple command line utility that produces intuitive visualization of sQTLs and their effects. SplicePlot takes mapped RNA sequencing reads in BAM format and genotype data in VCF format as input and outputs publication-quality Sashimi plots, hive plots and structure plots, enabling better investigation and understanding of the role of genetics on alternative splicing and transcript structure. Source code and detailed documentation are available at http://montgomerylab.stanford.edu/spliceplot/index.html under Resources and at Github. SplicePlot is implemented in Python and is supported on Linux and Mac OS. A VirtualBox virtual machine running Ubuntu with SplicePlot already installed is also available.

  14. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  15. A comparison of two sampling approaches for assessing the urban forest canopy cover from aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar Zennure; Pete Bettinger; Krista Merry; Jacek Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2016-01-01

    Two different sampling approaches for estimating urban tree canopy cover were applied to two medium-sized cities in the United States, in conjunction with two freely available remotely sensed imagery products. A random point-based sampling approach, which involved 1000 sample points, was compared against a plot/grid sampling (cluster sampling) approach that involved a...

  16. Image-based change estimation for land cover and land use monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy Webb; C. Kenneth Brewer; Nicholas Daniels; Chris Maderia; Randy Hamilton; Mark Finco; Kevin A. Megown; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    The Image-based Change Estimation (ICE) project resulted from the need to provide estimates and information for land cover and land use change over large areas. The procedure uses Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot locations interpreted using two different dates of imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). In order to determine a suitable...

  17. Impact of Vegetative Cover on Runoff and Soil Erosion at Hillslope Scale in Lanjaron, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Francia-Martinez, J.R.; Martinez-Raya, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period (1997¿2000) were studied in erosion plots from three hillslopes under different vegetative covers (Rosmarinus officinalis, Triticum aestivum and natural-spontaneous vegetation) in Lanjaron (Alpujarras) on the south flank of the Sierra

  18. Effects of cover crops incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on N2O and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, T. P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; DuPont, J.; Somenahally, A. C.; Rocateli, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we measured N2O and CO2 fluxes from plots planted to hairy vetch (winter cover crop) and broadleaf vetch (spring cover crop) as N sources for the following crabgrass (summer forage crop) in El Reno, Oklahoma, USA. Comparisons also included 0 and 60 kg ha-1 mineral N fertilizer supplied as dry urea. No significant N2O fluxes were observed during rapid growing periods of cover crops (March-April, 2017), however, large fluxes were observed after hairy vetch incorporation. Immediately after the hairy vetch biomass incorporation, large rainfall events were recorded. The fluxes subsided gradually with drying soil condition but were enhanced after every consecutive rainfall events. A rainfall induced flux measuring up to 8.2 kg N2O ha-1 day-1 was observed after 26 days of biomass incorporation. In total, 29 kg N2O ha-1 (18 kg N ha-1) was emitted within a month after biomass incorporation from hairy vetch plots. Growth of broadleaf vetch was poor and N2O fluxes were also lower. Similarly, plots fertilized with 60 kg N ha-1 had significant fluxes of N2O but the magnitude was much lower than the hairy vetch plots. Dynamics of N2O and CO fluxes correlated strongly. The results thus indicated that although cover crops may provide many environmental/agronomic benefits such as N fixation, soil carbon built-up, weed suppression and erosion control, high N2O emissions may dwarf these benefits.

  19. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  20. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gurbir Singh; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard

    2018-01-01

    In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphor...

  1. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  2. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  3. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  4. Legal Consequences Of The Notarial Certification Of Transactions With The Land Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Lukina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the legal consequences of the notarial certification with the land plots at the present stage are researched. Author considers purposes of the notarial certification as a key to increasing evidentiary force of the notarial act. Within a researched topic a draft of the Federal Law "On the notaries and notarial activity in Russian Federation" is analyzed. Author marks out that the certifying procedure has to giving to the notarial acts the legality presumptions and the reliability presumption. Special attention is paid to the analyses of the question of changes in the procedure of the state registration of rights for real estate and actions with it from February 1, 2014. For example the idea of refusal from legal examination of documents received for state registration under the notary certified contracts, which is directed on the avoidance of the public subject’s functions duplication during their activity conduct, rendering assistance in concern to the definition of their area of responsibility is discussed. Author emphasizes that state registration of rights for real estate and actions with it isn't capable to replace the notarial certificate of actions with land real estate as notary carries out those functions which the state registration can't execute, covering that stage of legal relationship emergence, that isn’t affected by the state registration.

  5. A spatial econometric analysis of land-use change with land cover trends data: an application to the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a plot-level spatial econometric land-use model and estimates it with U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends (LCT) geographic information system panel data for the western halves of the states of Oregon and Washington. The discrete-choice framework we use models plot-scale choices of the three dominant land uses in this region: forest, agriculture...

  6. Model-independent plot of dynamic PET data facilitates data interpretation and model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Ole Lajord

    2012-02-21

    When testing new PET radiotracers or new applications of existing tracers, the blood-tissue exchange and the metabolism need to be examined. However, conventional plots of measured time-activity curves from dynamic PET do not reveal the inherent kinetic information. A novel model-independent volume-influx plot (vi-plot) was developed and validated. The new vi-plot shows the time course of the instantaneous distribution volume and the instantaneous influx rate. The vi-plot visualises physiological information that facilitates model selection and it reveals when a quasi-steady state is reached, which is a prerequisite for the use of the graphical analyses by Logan and Gjedde-Patlak. Both axes of the vi-plot have direct physiological interpretation, and the plot shows kinetic parameter in close agreement with estimates obtained by non-linear kinetic modelling. The vi-plot is equally useful for analyses of PET data based on a plasma input function or a reference region input function. The vi-plot is a model-independent and informative plot for data exploration that facilitates the selection of an appropriate method for data analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THERAPIE - THErmix-RAps-Plot-InterfacE. A graphic software for representation of THERMIX-2D results with the interactive plot program RAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duensing, P.; Jahn, W.; Rehm, W.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of safety analyses for gas-cooled high temperature reactor power plants requires efficient plot codes for the evaluation and representation of computer results. The report describes the coupling between the thermodynamic simulation code THERMIX and the graphic plot code RAPS via the interface program THERAPIE. Especially the structure and the handling of the interface program are explained as well as the dialogue with the plot code. Further options of the colour graphic system are demonstrated for the representation of temperature distributions in components of HTR concepts (HTR-500). (orig.) [de

  8. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  9. [Effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic disease in demonstration plot of Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xian-bin; Mao, De-qiang; Feng, Lian-gui; Wang, Yu-lin; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Chun-hua; Lü, Xiao-yan; Li, Hong; Xia, Yi-yin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic diseases in demonstration plot of Chongqing. Residents were enrolled through multi-stage stratified random sampling method from 17 districts or counties which had successfully established demonstration plots and 21 districts or counties which had not established demonstration plots (non-demonstration plot for short) yet on May, 2012. Questionnaire was designed to survey awareness of health knowledge, health behaviors and utilization of health supportive tools. The results were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. We investigated 15 108 residents, 6156 of which were in demonstration plot and others (8951) were not. The findings revealed the percentage of the people who were aware the national action of health lifestyle in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot were 44.4% (2734/6157) and 40.2% (3598/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the hypertension risk of too much sodium were 72.4% (4458/6156) and 67.5% (6042/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the cardinal vascular disease (CVD) risk of obesity and overweight were 77.2% (4753/6157) and 69.6% (6230/8951), respectively. About the residents' health behaviors in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot, the utilization rates of salt restriction scoop or pot were 23.5% (1447/6157) and 17.9% (1602/8951), and the utilization rates of oil restriction pot were 16.7% (1028/6157) and 11.8% (1064/8951), respectively. Totally, 33 of the 37 indexes were shown higher in demonstration plot than that in non-demonstration plot (P plot was more effective, and the remarkable improvement of health knowledge and behaviors level had been achieved in demonstration plot.

  10. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  11. User Guide for the Plotting Software for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Weapons Analysis Tools Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-02

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plotting Software for the Nuclear Weapons Analysis Tools is a Java™ application based upon the open source library JFreeChart. The software provides a capability for plotting data on graphs with a rich variety of display options while allowing the viewer interaction via graph manipulation and scaling to best view the data. The graph types include XY plots, Date XY plots, Bar plots and Histogram plots.

  12. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  13. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  14. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  15. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  16. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  17. Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wenjin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed

  18. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  19. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  20. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    ), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  1. On the impact of snow cover on daytime pollution dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Hildebrand, P.; Rogers, F. A.; Cramer, J.; Schanot, A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the impact of snow cover on daytime pollutant dispersion conditions is made by using conceptual, scaling, and observational analyses. For uniform snow cover and synoptically unperturbed sunny conditions, observations indicate a considerate suppression of the surface sensible heat flux, the turbulence, and the development of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) when compared to snow-free conditions. However, under conditions of non-uniform snow cover, as in urban areas, or associated with vegetated areas or bare ground patches, a milder effect on pollutant dispersion conditions would be expected. Observed concentrations of atmospheric particles within the ABL, and surface pollutant concentrations in urban areas, reflect the impact of snow cover on the modification of ABL characteristics.

  2. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  3. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  4. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  5. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  6. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  8. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  9. The effect of human factors (cutting, burning and uprooting on experimental heatland plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, L.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration response after prescribed burning, cutting and uprooting in experimental heatland plots dominated by Erica autralis subsp. aragonensis, was studied. The highest percentage cover of annual species was observed two years after the treatment. From that moment the therophytes tended to decrease and were replaced by perennial species natural to the community. The temporal heterogeneity calculated shows the greatest changes in the initial stages. Regeneration was by an autosuccession process, slower in the case of the uprooted plots due to the greatest impact.

    [fr] On étudie la réponse de la régénération après brûlage, coupe et l'arrachage dans les parcelles expérimentales de bruyère avec dominance de E. australis subsp. aragonensis. On observe un plus grand pourcentage de couverture d'espèces annuelles après deux ans de traitements. À partir de ce moment, les therophytes diminuent, et sont remplacées par des espèces pérennes, propres de la communauté. Grâce au calcul de l'hétérogénéité temporelle, on met en évidence les changements les plus importants lors des les premières étapes. La régénération se produit par un processus d'autosuccession, avec une récupération plus lente, car l'arrachage a été très drastique.
    [es] Se estudia la respuesta de regeneración tras quema, corta y arranque en parcelas experimentales de brezal, con dominio de E. australis subsp. aragonensis (L. Se observa el mayor porcentaje de cobertura de especies anuales a los dos años de los tratamientos. A partir de ese momento, las terófitas tienden a disminuir, siendo sustituidas por especies perennes, propias de la comunidad. Mediante el cálculo de la heterogeneidad temporal se ponen de manifiesto los mayores cambios en las etapas iniciales. La regeneración se produce por un proceso de autosucesión, siendo el arranque más drástico por tanto muestra de una recuperación m

  10. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  11. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswata Kartawinata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available KARTAWINATA, KUSWATA; SAMSOEDIN, ISMAYADI; HERIYANTO, M. AND AFRIASTINI, J. J. 2004. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 145 – 157. The results of the inventory of trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm shows that 184 species in 41 families, represented by 583 individuals with the total basal areas of 40.56 m² occurred in the one-hectare plot sampled. Together with the saplings and shrubs the number of species was 240 belonging to 47 families. The forest is richer in tree species than other lowland forests in North Sumatra, but poorer than those in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Dipterocarps constituted 18.42 % of total species with basal area of 18.99 m² or 46.82 % of the total basal area in the plot. The most prominent species was Shorea gibbosa. Hopea nigra, reported to be rare in Bangka and Belitung, occurred here as one of the ten leading species. The species-area curve shows that a considerable number of additional species was encountered more or less steadily up to one hectare and there was no indication of levelling off. A simulated profile diagram shows the forest may be stratified into five layers: (1 emergent layer, (2 upper canopy, (3 middle canopy, (4 lower canopy and (5 ground canopy. Dipterocarps were leading species in the emergent layer, upper canopy and middle canopy. Only 82 species were regenerating as represented by their presence in the sapling stage ranging from 5 to 50 plants/hectare. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. f. dominated the section which seemed to be previously occupied by gaps.

  12. Experimental strategies in carrying out VCU for tobacco crop I: plot design and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F H R B; Ramalho, M A P; Pulcinelli, C E; Bruzi, A T

    2013-09-19

    We aimed to establish standards for tobacco Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU) in Brazil. We obtained information regarding the size and design of plots of two varietal groups of tobacco (Virginia and Burley). Ten inbred lines of each varietal group were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot contained 42 plants with six rows of seven columns each. For each experiment plant, considering the position of the respective plant in the plot (row and column) as a reference, cured leaf weight (g/plant), total sugar content (%), and total alkaloid content (%) were determined. The maximum curvature of the variations in coefficients was estimated. Trials with the number of plants per plot ranging from 2 to 41 were simulated. The use of a border was not justified because the interactions between inbred lines x position in the plots were never significant, showing that the behavior of the inbred lines coincided with the different positions. The plant performance varied according to the column position in the plot. To lessen the effect of this factor, the use of plots with more than one row is recommended. Experimental precision, evaluated by the CV%, increased with an increase in plot size; nevertheless, the maximum curvature of the variation coefficient method showed no expressive increase in precision if the number of plants was greater than seven. The result in identification of the best inbred line, in terms of the size of each plot, coincided with the maximum curvature method.

  13. A drawback and an improvement of the classical Weibull probability plot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.

    2014-01-01

    The classical Weibull Probability Paper (WPP) plot has been widely used to identify a model for fitting a given dataset. It is based on a match between the WPP plots of the model and data in shape. This paper carries out an analysis for the Weibull transformations that create the WPP plot and shows that the shape of the WPP plot of the data randomly generated from a distribution model can be significantly different from the shape of the WPP plot of the model due to the high non-linearity of the Weibull transformations. As such, choosing model based on the shape of the WPP plot of data can be unreliable. A cdf-based weighted least squares method is proposed to improve the parameter estimation accuracy; and an improved WPP plot is suggested to avoid the drawback of the classical WPP plot. The appropriateness and usefulness of the proposed estimation method and probability plot are illustrated by simulation and real-world examples

  14. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  15. 488-D Ash Basin Vegetative Cover Treatibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Don; Blake, John; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon-Jun; Czapka, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The 488-D Ash Basin is an unlined containment basin that received ash and coal reject material from the operation of a powerhouse at the USDOE's Savannah River Site, SC. They pyretic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage (AD), which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatens biota in down gradient wetlands. Establishment of a vegetative cover was examined as a remedial alternative for reducing AD generation within this system by enhanced utilization of rainwater and subsequent non-point source water pollution control. The low nutrient content, high acidity, and high salinity of the basin material, however, was deleterious to plant survivability. As such, studies to identify suitable plant species and potential adaptations, and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and/or chemical stabilization were needed. A randomized block design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five duplicated surface amendments (treatments) was developed. One hundred inoculated pine trees were planted on each plot. Herbaceous species were also planted on half of the plots in duplicated 1-m2 beds. After two growing seasons, deep ripping, subsurface amendments and surface covers were shown to be essential for the successful establishment of vegetation on the basin. This is the final report of the study.

  16. Hydrologic studies of multilayered landfill covers for closure of waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martin, C.E.; Martinez, J.L.; Schofield, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing engineered barriers. These field experiments were performed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15 and 25%. Field measurements of seepage, precipitation, interflow, runoff, and soil water content were collected in each of the 16 plots representing four slopes each with four cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier. A seepage collection system was installed beneath each cover design to evaluate the influence of slope length on seepage using a series of four metal pans filled with medium gravel that were placed end-to-end in the bottom of each field plot. An automated waterflow datalogging system was used to collect hourly seepage, interflow and runoff data and consisted of 100 100-liter tanks, each of which was equipped with an ultrasonic liquid-level sensor and a motor-operated ball valve used to drain the tank. Soil water content was routinely monitored every six hours at each of 212 locations throughout the 16 plots with time domain reflectrometry (TDR) techniques using an automated and multiplexed measurement system

  17. Coastal regime shifts: rapid responses of coastal wetlands to changes in mangrove cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Weaver, Carolyn; Charles, Sean P; Whitt, Ashley; Dastidar, Sayantani; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fuentes, Jose D; Kominoski, John S; Armitage, Anna R; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    Global changes are causing broad-scale shifts in vegetation communities worldwide, including coastal habitats where the borders between mangroves and salt marsh are in flux. Coastal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services of high economic value, but the consequences of variation in mangrove cover are poorly known. We experimentally manipulated mangrove cover in large plots to test a set of linked hypotheses regarding the effects of changes in mangrove cover. We found that changes in mangrove cover had strong effects on microclimate, plant community, sediment accretion, soil organic content, and bird abundance within 2 yr. At higher mangrove cover, wind speed declined and light interception by vegetation increased. Air and soil temperatures had hump-shaped relationships with mangrove cover. The cover of salt marsh plants decreased at higher mangrove cover. Wrack cover, the distance that wrack was distributed from the water's edge, and sediment accretion decreased at higher mangrove cover. Soil organic content increased with mangrove cover. Wading bird abundance decreased at higher mangrove cover. Many of these relationships were non-linear, with the greatest effects when mangrove cover varied from zero to intermediate values, and lesser effects when mangrove cover varied from intermediate to high values. Temporal and spatial variation in measured variables often peaked at intermediate mangrove cover, with ecological consequences that are largely unexplored. Because different processes varied in different ways with mangrove cover, the "optimum" cover of mangroves from a societal point of view will depend on which ecosystem services are most desired. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  19. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  20. The role of forest type in the variability of DOC in atmospheric deposition at forest plots in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisci, S; Rogora, M; Marchetto, A; Dichiaro, F

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was studied in atmospheric deposition samples collected on a weekly basis in 2005-2009 at 10 forest plots in Italy. The plots covered a wide range of geographical attributes and were representative of the main forest types in Italy. Both spatial and temporal variations in DOC concentrations and fluxes are discussed, with the aim of identifying the main factors affecting DOC variability. DOC concentration increased from bulk to throughfall and stemflow water samples at all sites, as an effect of leaching from leaves and branches, going from 0.7-1.7 mg C L(-1) in bulk samples to 1.8-15.8 mg C L(-1) in throughfall and 4.2-10.7 mg C L(-1) in stemflow, with striking differences among the various plots. Low concentrations were found in runoff (0.5-2.0 mg C L(-1)), showing that the export of DOC via running waters was limited. The seasonality of DOC in throughfall samples was evident, with the highest concentration in summer when biological activity is at a maximum, and minima in winter due to limited DOC production and leaching. Statistical analysis revealed that DOC had a close relationship with organic and total nitrogen, and with nutrient ions, and a negative correlation with precipitation amount. Forest type proved to be a major factor affecting DOC variability: concentration and, to a lesser extent, fluxes were lower in stands dominated by deciduous species. The character of evergreens, and the size and shape of their leaves and needles, which regulate the interception mechanism of dry deposition, are mainly responsible for this.