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Sample records for ground cover management

  1. MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GROUND COVER CLUMPINESS: SCALING FROM FIELD TO SENTINEL-2 COVER ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the development of cover data and derived products based on remotely sensed fractional cover information and field data across Australia, and these cover data sets are now used for quantifying and monitoring grazing land condition. The availability of a dense time-series of nearly 30 years of cover data to describe the spatial and temporal patterns in landscape changes over time can help with monitoring the effectiveness of grazing land management practice change. With the advent of higher spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the Copernicus Sentinel 2 series of satellites, we can look beyond reporting purely on cover amount and more closely at the operational monitoring and reporting on spatial arrangement of cover and its links with land condition. We collected high spatial resolution cover transects at 20 cm intervals over the Wambiana grazing trials in the Burdekin catchment in Queensland, Australia. Spatial variance analysis was used to determine the cover autocorrelation at various support intervals. Coincident Sentinel-2 imagery was collected and processed over all the sites providing imagery to link with the field data. We show that the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of cover are important indicators of grazing land condition for both productivity and water quality outcomes. The metrics and products derived from this research will assist land managers to prioritize investment and practice change strategies for long term sustainability and improved water quality, particularly in the Great Barrier Reef catchments.

  2. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  3. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  4. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  5. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  6. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  7. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  8. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  9. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  10. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  11. Ground cover in old-growth forests of the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; George R. Parker; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    1997-01-01

    Differences in ground cover (percent cover of litter, percent cover of vegetation and litter weight) in old-growth forests across this region are not well understood. We initiated a long-term study in a three-state region to enhance knowledge in this area. We present baseline results for ground cover and compare these data across productivity regions. Thirty 0.25-ac (0...

  12. Distributed Modelling of Stormflow Generation: Assessing the Effect of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, B.; Sidle, R. C.; Roth, C. H.; Bartley, R.; Wilkinson, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of grazing management and land cover changes on surface hydrology is important for water resources and land management. A distributed hydrological modelling platform, wflow, (that was developed as part of Deltares's OpenStreams project) is used to assess the effect of land management practices on runoff generation processes. The model was applied to Weany Creek, a small catchment (13.6 km2) of the Burdekin Basin, North Australia, which is being studied to understand sources of sediment and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef. Satellite and drone-based ground cover data, high resolution topography from LiDAR, soil properties, and distributed rainfall data were used to parameterise the model. Wflow was used to predict total runoff, peak runoff, time of rise, and lag time for several events of varying magnitudes and antecedent moisture conditions. A nested approach was employed to calibrate the model by using recorded flow hydrographs at three scales: (1) a hillslope sub-catchment: (2) a gullied sub-catchment; and the 13.6 km2 catchment outlet. Model performance was evaluated by comparing observed and predicted stormflow hydrograph attributes using the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency metric. By using a nested approach, spatiotemporal patterns of overland flow occurrence across the catchment can also be evaluated. The results show that a process-based distributed model can be calibrated to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of runoff generation processes, to help identify dominant processes which may be addressed by land management to improve rainfall retention. The model will be used to assess the effects of ground cover changes due to management practices in grazed lands on storm runoff.

  13. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  14. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  15. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  16. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  17. Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete cast in place four span deck of a concrete bridge near Roanoke, Texas, was recently completed. Due to possible construction errors, it was suspected that the concrete covers in the deck did not conform to drawings and specifications. A full scale non-destructive evaluation of the concrete covers was carried out using ground penetrating radar (GPR equipment. Cover values were determined from the radargram generated from the scan. The estimated covers were plotted on contour maps. Migration data can substitute the drilling based ground truth data without compromising the concrete cover estimations, except for areas with very high cover values. Areas with high water content may result in inaccurate concrete dielectric constants. Based on the results, significant retrofitting of the bridge deck, such as additional overlay, was recommended.

  18. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  19. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa

    Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one

  20. Mapping ground cover using hyperspectral remote sensing after the 2003 Simi and Old wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire effects on the ground surface are indicative of the potential for post-fire watershed erosion response. Areas with remaining organic ground cover will likely experience less erosion than areas of complete ground cover combustion or exposed mineral soil. The Simi and Old fires burned ~67,000 ha in southern California in 2003. Burn severity indices calculated...

  1. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  2. Accuracy assessment of the vegetation continuous field tree cover product using 3954 ground plots in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. White; J. D. Shaw; R. D. Ramsey

    2005-01-01

    An accuracy assessment of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation continuous field (VCF) tree cover product using two independent ground-based tree cover databases was conducted. Ground data included 1176 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots for Arizona and 2778 Southwest Regional GAP (SWReGAP) plots for Utah and western Colorado....

  3. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  4. University management nurse: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamylla Santos da Cunha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. Method: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups. Results: there were three categories emerged that shaped the phenomenon: Articulating complex collectives through university management for the qualified training of new nurses. The categories included: a conditions, defined by perceiving the commitment to the collective, previous experiences, and training for health management, as motivations to be a teacher manager; b actions/interactions, delimited by Knowing and recognizing, in practice, the university management process, limits and possibilities in the coordination of complex collective subjects; and, c consequences, such as Improving teaching work and taking responsibility for university education. Conclusion: the nurses teaching managers to explain university management as a set of individual and collective actions that, articulated in a complex social environment, promote conditions for the training of critical and reflexive nurses with the demands of society.

  5. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  6. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Lambot, Sé bastien; Dimitrov, Marin; Weihermü ller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn

  7. Topsoil and fertilizer effects on ground cover growth on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Canopy cover and above ground biomass of herbaceous species was measured in four studies for five years (1989-1993) in southeastern Ohio; on Central Ohio Coal Company's Muskingum Mine, 5 km South of Cumberland. Three studies compared graded cast overburden, standard graded topsoil (30 cm depth), and ripped topsoil. The fourth study lacked the ripped topsoil treatment. In 1987 two studies were seeded with both a standard and a modified mixture of grass and legume species, and two studies used the modified mix only. A nitrogen rate study used 45, 90 or 135 kg/ha of N applied on two occasions, and a phosphorus fertilizer study used rock phosphate amendment at 0, 1120, or 2240 kg/ha and triple superphosphate amendment at 0, 280, or 560 kg/ha. Based on one clipping per year, overall average biomass (Mg/ha dry weight) was slightly greater on standard topsoil (3.34), and ripped topsoil (3.30) than on cast overburden (3.09). Biomass did not differ significantly (p=0.05) on standard topsoil versus cast overburden for 15 of 19 comparisons. Legume biomass (Mg/ha, measured for 3 or 4 years) averaged 0.84 on standard topsoil, 0.75 on ripped topsoil, and 1.16 on cast overburden. In three studies, legume biomass was 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 1993. Nitrogen fertilizer increased ground cover only in the year when fertilizer was applied. Phosphorus fertilizer treatments had no significant effects. Ground cover showed no signs of deterioration during the last measurements in 1993. Observations in 1995 indicated dense canopy cover on all soil surfaces with substantial invasion by goldenrods (Solidago spp.) only on topsoils. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  9. Intrusion of soil covered uranium mill tailings by whitetail prairie dogs and Richardson's ground squirrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the reclamation of uranium mill tailings is the long-term isolation of the matrial from the biosphere. Fossorial and semi-fossorial species represent a potentially disruptive influence as a result of their burrowing habits. The potential for intrusion was investigated with respect to two sciurids, the whitetail prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Populations of prairie dogs were established on a control area, lacking a tailings layer, and two experimental areas, underlain by a waste layer, in southeastern Wyoming. Weekly measurements of prairie dog mound surface activities were conducted to demonstrate penetration, or lack thereof, of the tailings layer. Additionally, the impact of burrowing upon radon flux was determined. Limited penetration of the waste layer was noted after which frequency of inhabitance of the intruding burrow system declined. No significant changes in radon flux were detected. In another experiment, it was found that Richardson's ground squirrels burrowed to less extreme depths when confronted by mill tailings. Additional work at an inactive tailings pile in western Colorado revealed repeated intrusion through a shallow cover, and subsequent transport of radioactive material to the ground surface by prairie dogs. Radon flux from burrow entrances was significantly greater than that from undisturbed ground. Data suggested that textural and pH properties of tailings material may act to discourage repeated intrusion at some sites. 58 references

  10. Grau de cobertura do solo e dinâmica da vegetação em olivais de sequeiro com a introdução de herbicidas Ground cover and dynamic of weeds after the introduction of herbicides as soil management system in a rainfed olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    herbicides as soil management strategies in a rainfed olive orchard. The field experiment was carried out in Mirandela, NE Portugal. The soil management treatments included: conventional tillage; post-emergence herbicide (glyphosate; and post-emergence plus residual herbicide (diuron+glyphosate+terb utilazine. The ground cover percentage and the botanical composition of vegetation were monitored since 2002 to 2007 from the point-quadrat method. Both the herbicide formulations killed efficiently the vegetation in a single annual application. The ground cover percentages in conventional tillage, prior to the first tillage event, varied between 50 to 80 % beneath the trees and between 30 to 60 % in the open space. The ground cover percentages in April, in the treatment of glyphosate, were in the range of 60 to 90 % and 40 to 50 % beneath the trees and between rows, respectively. In the residual herbicide plot the ground cover percentages were always very low. The soil of the glyphosate plot was covered with vegetation over all the year. In au-tumn/spring the soil was covered with green weeds and in the summer with a mulching of the dead material. In the glyphosate plot the dynamic of species was high. One year after the first application of herbicide, Ornithopus compressus appeared as the most abundant species. Thereafter, acquired relevance species with short growing cycles which seeds mature before April (e.g. Mibora minima, Logfia gallica and other that produce a high number of seeds easily spread by wind (e.g. Hypochaeris radicata, Conyza canadensis and which seeds proceeded from surrounding untilled fields and rural-tracks or from individual plants that escaped to the herbicide control.

  11. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  12. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Weiya; Wang Tiantian; Yang Shuhua; Zhao Ying; Ge Hong; Chen Lin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60 Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  13. Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S.

    2010-11-01

    It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in Rd that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the “void” nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their “dual” solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper

  14. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  15. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  17. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu Babu, P.; Eapen, S.

    2012-01-01

    residual mill tailings apart from containing residual radionuclides do have the capacity to support good plant growth. Several species like Rhynchosia minima, Rhynchosia, Thysanolaena maxima, Mucuna pruriens, Desmanthus virgatus, Desmodium gangeticum, Clitoria tematea, Chrysopogon fulvus and Indigofera trita were found to be quite suitable for planting on mill tailings as ground cover while a few others that registered poor growth and/or biomass perhaps can be grown in combination with other species. On the contrary a few species viz., Bothriochloa pertusa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum caudatum were found to be unsuitable as they could not survive in mill tailings. A combination of several plant species tested in this study coupled with a few agronomic practices can be tried on mill tailings in Jaduguda as an appropriate vegetative cover. (author)

  18. Cover Crop Species and Management Influence Predatory Arthropods and Predation in an Organically Managed, Reduced-Tillage Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2018-04-05

    Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.

  19. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  20. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  1. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  2. A design for a ground-based data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  3. Feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction in table grape vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Cob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction (GCF at remote, unattended sites. Photographical techniques were used for measuring GCF (GCFref at a table grape vineyard grown under a net. Daily pyranometer-driven GCF estimates (GCFpyr were obtained from solar radiation measurements above and below the canopy. For GCFpyr computation, solar radiation was averaged for two hours around solar noon (midday periods and for daylight periods (8:00 to 18:00 Universal Time Coordinated. GCFpyr and GCFref (daylight periods showed a good agreement: mean estimation error, 0.000; root mean square error, 0.113; index of agreement, 0.967. The high GCF attained, the large measurement range for GCF and the presence of the net above the table grape were the likely reasons for the good performance of GCFpyr in this crop despite the short number of pyranometers used. Further research is required to develop more appropriate calibration equations of GCFpyr and for a more detailed evaluation of using a short number of pyranometers to estimate GCF.

  4. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  5. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author).

  6. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  7. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  8. ITIL Based Service Level Management if SLAs Cover Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Feglar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Current level of information technology creates new perspectives for more IT service oriented market. Quality of these services requires slightly different approach then was applied for products including software. No IT services are delivered and supported in risk free environment. Risks would be considered consistently with IT services quality gaps from Service Level Management (SLM perspective. SLM is one of ITIL modules that are widely used within the IT service industry. We identified some weaknesses in how SLM is developed in ITIL environment if service level agreement (SLA has cover Security. We argue that in such cases Architecture modeling and risk assessment approach let us effectively control analytical effort that relates to risks identification and understanding. Risk driven countermeasures designed in a next step (Risk treatment have significant impact to the SLM especially from responsibility perspective. To demonstrate SLM's importance in real practice we analyze SLA synthesize process in CCI (Cyber Critical Infrastructure environment.

  9. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  10. Management of the science ground segment for the Euclid mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, Andrea; Hoar, John; Pasian, Fabio; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Dabin, Christophe; Gregorio, Anna; Mansutti, Oriana; Sauvage, Marc; Vuerli, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is an ESA mission aimed at understanding the nature of dark energy and dark matter by using simultaneously two probes (weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations). The mission will observe galaxies and clusters of galaxies out to z 2, in a wide extra-galactic survey covering 15000 deg2, plus a deep survey covering an area of 40 deg². The payload is composed of two instruments, an imager in the visible domain (VIS) and an imager-spectrometer (NISP) covering the near-infrared. The launch is planned in Q4 of 2020. The elements of the Euclid Science Ground Segment (SGS) are the Science Operations Centre (SOC) operated by ESA and nine Science Data Centres (SDCs) in charge of data processing, provided by the Euclid Consortium (EC), formed by over 110 institutes spread in 15 countries. SOC and the EC started several years ago a tight collaboration in order to design and develop a single, cost-efficient and truly integrated SGS. The distributed nature, the size of the data set, and the needed accuracy of the results are the main challenges expected in the design and implementation of the SGS. In particular, the huge volume of data (not only Euclid data but also ground based data) to be processed in the SDCs will require distributed storage to avoid data migration across SDCs. This paper describes the management challenges that the Euclid SGS is facing while dealing with such complexity. The main aspect is related to the organisation of a geographically distributed software development team. In principle algorithms and code is developed in a large number of institutes, while data is actually processed at fewer centers (the national SDCs) where the operational computational infrastructures are maintained. The software produced for data handling, processing and analysis is built within a common development environment defined by the SGS System Team, common to SOC and ECSGS, which has already been active for several years. The code is built incrementally through

  11. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  12. Evaluating remotely sensed plant count accuracy with differing unmanned aircraft system altitudes, physical canopy separations, and ground covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Josue Nahun; Robbins, James; Saraswat, Dharmendra; She, Ying; Ehsani, Reza

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flight altitude and canopy separation of container-grown Fire Chief™ arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) on counting accuracy. Images were taken at 6, 12, and 22 m above the ground using unmanned aircraft systems. Plants were spaced to achieve three canopy separation treatments: 5 cm between canopy edges, canopy edges touching, and 5 cm of canopy edge overlap. Plants were placed on two different ground covers: black fabric and gravel. A counting algorithm was trained using Feature Analyst®. Total counting error, false positives, and unidentified plants were reported for images analyzed. In general, total counting error was smaller when plants were fully separated. The effect of ground cover on counting accuracy varied with the counting algorithm. Total counting error for plants placed on gravel (-8) was larger than for those on a black fabric (-2), however, false positive counts were similar for black fabric (6) and gravel (6). Nevertheless, output images of plants placed on gravel did not show a negative effect due to the ground cover but was impacted by differences in image spatial resolution.

  13. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  14. Management of construction cost contingency covering upside and downside risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Adel Eldosouky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many contractors are of the opinion that adding contingency funds to the tender price of a project may lead to loss of the tender. This research is a trial to put an end to this incorrect opinion. A more mature attitude to risk would recognize that contingency exists to be spent in order to avoid or minimize threats and to exploit or maximize opportunities. This research proposes an approach for determination and monitoring of Cost Contingency Reserve (CCR for a project. Control of CCR is interfaced with Earned Value Management. Application to a real project is carried out. Post-mitigation simulations show that value of CCR is 2.88% of project cost but there is a potential saving due to opportunities. The project is monitored after eight months from its assumed start date with one assumed emergent risk. The final results are as follows: CCR is enough to cover project current and residual threats and the contractor has a considerable amount of money that will be transferred to his margin at project closure assuming the project will not be exposed to additional emergent risks. A contractor can balance project upside risks and its downsides to increase his chance to win tender of the project.

  15. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and

  16. Water availability forecasting for Naryn River using ground-based and satellite snow cover data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Kalashnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of river nourishment in arid regions of Central Asia is the melting of seasonal snow accu‑ mulated in mountains during the cold period. In this study, we analyzed data on seasonal snow cover by ground‑based observations from Kyrgyzhydromet network, as well as from MODIS satellite imagery for the period of 2000–2015. This information was used to compile the forecast methods of water availability of snow‑ice and ice‑snow fed rivers for the vegetation period. The Naryn river basin was chosen as a study area which is the main tributary of Syrdarya River and belongs to the Aral Sea basin. The representative mete‑ orological stations with ground‑based observations of snow cover were identified and regression analysis between mean discharge for the vegetation period and number of snow covered days, maximum snow depth based on in‑situ data as well as snow cover area based on MODIS images was conducted. Based on this infor‑ mation, equations are derived for seasonal water availability forecasting using multiple linear regression anal‑ ysis. Proposed equations have high correlation coefficients (R = 0.89÷0.92 and  and fore‑ casting accuracy. The methodology was implemented in Kyrgyzhydromet and is used for forecasting of water availability in Naryn basin and water inflow into Toktogul Reservoir.

  17. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m 2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  18. Evaluating rapid ground sampling and scaling estimated plant cover using UAV imagery up to Landsat for mapping arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Paradis, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The small stature and spectral diversity of arctic plant taxa presents challenges in mapping arctic vegetation. Mapping vegetation at the appropriate scale is needed to visualize effects of disturbance, directional vegetation change or mapping of specific plant groups for other applications (eg. habitat mapping). Fine spatial grain of remotely sensed data (ca. 10 cm pixels) is often necessary to resolve patches of many arctic plant groups, such as bryophytes and lichens. These groups are also spectrally different from mineral, litter and vascular plants. We sought to explore method to generate high-resolution spatial and spectral data to explore better mapping methods for arctic vegetation. We sampled ground vegetation at seven sites north or west of tree-line in Alaska, four north of Fairbanks and three northwest of Bethel, respectively. At each site, we estimated cover of plant functional types in 1m2 quadrats spaced approximately every 10 m along a 100 m long transect. Each quadrat was also scanned using a field spectroradiometer (PSR+ Spectral Evolution, 400-2500 nm range) and photographed from multiple perspectives. We then flew our small UAV with a RGB camera over the transect and at least 50 m on either side collecting on imagery of the plot, which were used to generate a image mosaic and digital surface model of the plot. We compare plant functional group cover ocular estimated in situ to post-hoc estimation, either automated or using a human observer, using the quadrat photos. We also compare interpolated lichen cover from UAV scenes to estimated lichen cover using a statistical models using Landsat data, with focus on lichens. Light and yellow lichens are discernable in the UAV imagery but certain lichens, especially dark colored lichens or those with spectral signatures similar to graminoid litter, present challenges. Future efforts will focus on integrating UAV-upscaled ground cover estimates to hyperspectral sensors (eg. AVIRIS ng) for better combined

  19. UV hazard on Italian Apennines under different shading and ground cover conditions during peak tourist seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Daniele; Carreras, Giulia; Sabatini, Francesco; Zipoli, Gaetano

    2006-12-01

    In solar UV irradiance monitoring and forecasting services UV information is generally expressed in terms of its effect on erythema and referred to horizontal surface. In this work we define the UV radiative regime, in terms of biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBE) for skin and eye, under full sun and shaded conditions, over a mountainous tourist area of central Italy by means of two all-day measurements (summer and early spring) with different ground albedo (grass and snow cover respectively). UV irradiance was monitored on tilted surfaces (the most frequent for people standing and walking). Results show the significant contribution of ground albedo and sun position in determining the incident UVBE irradiance. On early spring days the UVBE irradiance measured on horizontal surface was much lower than on tilted ones; the opposite condition was observed in summer. The highest UVBE irradiance values, in particular conditions of sun elevation and ground cover, were reached in periods different from the summer both in full sun and shaded condition.

  20. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  1. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  2. Effect of management on rangeland phytomass, cover and condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similarity of management effects on rangeland condition and forage provision across major dryland biomes. Taking a macro-ecological perspective, we analysed if management effects differed between South Africa's central grassland and ...

  3. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  4. Methodological Grounds of Managing Innovation Development of Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Naidiuk V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification and further development of methodological grounds of managing the innovation development of restaurants. Based on the data of the critical analysis of existing scientific views on interpretation of the essence of the "managing innovation development of an enterprise" notion, the article conducts clarification of this definition. In the result of the study the article builds up a cause-effect diagram of solution of the problem of ensuring efficien...

  5. Web Application Software for Ground Operations Planning Database (GOPDb) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Clifton; Kallner, Shawn; Gernand, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Web application facilitates collaborative development of the ground operations planning document. This will reduce costs and development time for new programs by incorporating the data governance, access control, and revision tracking of the ground operations planning data. Ground Operations Planning requires the creation and maintenance of detailed timelines and documentation. The GOPDb Web application was created using state-of-the-art Web 2.0 technologies, and was deployed as SaaS (Software as a Service), with an emphasis on data governance and security needs. Application access is managed using two-factor authentication, with data write permissions tied to user roles and responsibilities. Multiple instances of the application can be deployed on a Web server to meet the robust needs for multiple, future programs with minimal additional cost. This innovation features high availability and scalability, with no additional software that needs to be bought or installed. For data governance and security (data quality, management, business process management, and risk management for data handling), the software uses NAMS. No local copy/cloning of data is permitted. Data change log/tracking is addressed, as well as collaboration, work flow, and process standardization. The software provides on-line documentation and detailed Web-based help. There are multiple ways that this software can be deployed on a Web server to meet ground operations planning needs for future programs. The software could be used to support commercial crew ground operations planning, as well as commercial payload/satellite ground operations planning. The application source code and database schema are owned by NASA.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 'COVER STORY': A STUDY IN lAND MANAGEMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group was concerned with soil ero- sion and the associated effect upon the vegetation cover. The first s~ge of the project was to est- ablish exactly which aspects of soil erosion should be studied. The following points were initially considered: soil types and characteristics different grasses and their carrying capacity.

  8. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  9. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  10. Biological and microbiological attributes in Oxisol managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of winter cover crops and fertilization with nitrogen to the soil can have an effect on their biological and microbiological attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and microbiological attributes in soil under different winter cover crops and nitrogen doses. The experiment was conducted at the Frederico Westphalen-RS campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM in a Rhodic Hapludox soil. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement (2 x 10: 10 winter cover crops systems (Fallow [control], black oats, white oats, ryegrass, forage turnip, vetch, white lupine; black oat + forage turnip; black oat + vetch and black oat + vetch + fodder turnip, and two nitrogen rates in the form of urea applied in successive crops of beans common and maize, with four replications. We assessed the biological attributes (Margalef’s richness, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity and abundance of organisms and microbiological (carbon and nitrogen microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient of the soil. The fallow with wild species and white lupine showed greater Simpson’s dominance and abundance of organisms due to the increase in the number of individuals of the order Collembola. Vetch improved the biological attributes of the soil with increase in Collembola abundance and diversity of organisms of soil fauna. The application of nitrogen favored the microbial biomass carbon and reduced the metabolic quotient.

  11. An early-killed rye cover crop has potential for weed management in edamame

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential role of fall-seeded cover crops for weed management in edamame is unknown. Field experiments were conducted over three edamame growing seasons to test the following objectives: 1) determine the extent to which cover crop residue management systems influence edamame emergence while sele...

  12. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  13. Correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability in Alexandria City (Egypt) using time series SAR interferometry and optical Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, T.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Kourkouli, P.; Perrou, T.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2017-10-01

    The main scope of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability over Alexandria city, Egypt. Two different datasets for generating ground deformation and land cover maps were used. Hence, two different approaches were followed, a PSI approach for surface displacement mapping and a supervised classification algorithm for land cover/use mapping. The interferometric results show a gradual qualitative and quantitative differentiation of ground deformation from East to West of Alexandria government. We selected three regions of interest, in order to compare the obtained interferometric results with the different land cover types. The ground deformation may be resulted due to different geomorphic and geologic factors encompassing the proximity to the active deltaic plain of the Nile River, the expansion of the urban network within arid regions of recent deposits, the urban density increase, and finally the combination of the above mentioned parameters.

  14. Covering Ground: Movement Patterns and Random Walk Behavior in Aquilonastra anomala Sea Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-10-01

    The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.

  15. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Wilderness management dilemmas: fertile ground for wilderness management research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; William E. Hammitt

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, wilderness managers must choose between the objective of wildness (“untrammeled” wilderness) and the objectives of naturalness and solitude. This dilemma has surfaced with awareness of the pervasiveness of human influence in wilderness and that regulation is often the only way to maintain outstanding opportunities for solitude. Should we trammel...

  17. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  18. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies showed that if mixed populations of annual weeds grow with the sunflower, for every 10% increase in weed biomass, seed yield would decrease by 13% (Van Gessel & Renner, 2000. In addition to control weeds using herbicides multi-stage spraying is required. In organic farming systems mulch is used to control weeds, protection, fertility and improve soil quality (Glab & Kulig, 2008; Kuchaki et al., 2001. Surface mulches from cover crops suppress weed growth by reducing light levels at the soil surface, thereby slowing photosynthesis. In return, these conditions reduce seed germination and act as a physical barrier to seedling emergence and growth (Teasdale et al., 2007. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station, as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 1390-1391. The first factor was considered four types of cover crops including winter rye (Secale cereal, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and control (no cover crop, no weeding.The second factor was mulch management at two levels (living mulch and dead mulch and the third factor was two planting dates for cover crops (synchronous with sunflower planting and 45 days after sunflower planting. Sunflower seeding performed manually on 23 May on the ridges with 50 cm row distance and spacing between plants was 25 cm in depth of 5 cm. Cover crops seeds, rye, barley and wheat, were planted between rows of sunflower. Due to the low density of weeds in study field, complete weeding and sampling of weeds in one session was performed (60 days after planting date sunflower. Statistical analysis of data performed using SAS software and mean comparison performed using Duncan's test with probability level of 5% and 1%. Diagrams drawn using Excel (Version 8.2. Results and Discussion\t: Density and dry weight of Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L

  19. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  1. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  2. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  3. The managed clearing: An overlooked land-cover type in urbanizing regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Marguerite; Gray, Josh; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2018-01-01

    Urban ecosystem assessments increasingly rely on widely available map products, such as the U.S. Geological Service (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and datasets that use generic classification schemes to detect and model large-scale impacts of land-cover change. However, utilizing existing map products or schemes without identifying relevant urban class types such as semi-natural, yet managed land areas that account for differences in ecological functions due to their pervious surfaces may severely constrain assessments. To address this gap, we introduce the managed clearings land-cover type–semi-natural, vegetated land surfaces with varying degrees of management practices–for urbanizing landscapes. We explore the extent to which managed clearings are common and spatially distributed in three rapidly urbanizing areas of the Charlanta megaregion, USA. We visually interpreted and mapped fine-scale land cover with special attention to managed clearings using 2012 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) images within 150 randomly selected 1-km2 blocks in the cities of Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh, and compared our maps with National Land Cover Database (NLCD) data. We estimated the abundance of managed clearings relative to other land use and land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in the NLCD that are similar to managed clearings. Our study reveals that managed clearings are the most common land cover type in these cities, covering 28% of the total sampled land area– 6.2% higher than the total area of impervious surfaces. Managed clearings, when combined with forest cover, constitutes 69% of pervious surfaces in the sampled region. We observed variability in area estimates of managed clearings between the NAIP-derived and NLCD data. This suggests using high-resolution remote sensing imagery (e.g., NAIP) instead of modifying NLCD data for improved representation of spatial heterogeneity and

  4. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  5. Methodological Grounds of Managing Innovation Development of Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidiuk V. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification and further development of methodological grounds of managing the innovation development of restaurants. Based on the data of the critical analysis of existing scientific views on interpretation of the essence of the “managing innovation development of an enterprise” notion, the article conducts clarification of this definition. In the result of the study the article builds up a cause-effect diagram of solution of the problem of ensuring efficient management of the innovation development of a restaurant. The article develops a conceptual scheme of development and realisation of the strategy of innovation development in a restaurant. It experimentally confirms the hypothesis of availability of a very strong density of the feedback between resistance to innovation changes and a variable share of qualified personnel that is capable of permanent development (learning and generation of new ideas, in restaurants and builds a model of dependency between them. The prospects of further studies in this direction could become scientific studies directed at development of methodical approaches to identification of the level of innovation potential and assessment of efficiency of managing innovation development of different (by type, class, size, etc. restaurants. The obtained data could also be used for development of a new or improvement of the existing tools of strategic management of innovation development at the micro-level.

  6. Theoretical Grounds of Enterprise Anti-crisis Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berest Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in specification and deepening of the essence and theoretical grounds of the enterprise anti-crisis financial management (EAFM. The article analyses and generalises literature, devoted to anti-crisis management problems, marks out and characterises main structural elements of the enterprise anti-crisis financial management: goal, task, object and subject. It shows that tasks of the enterprise anti-crisis financial management should show its essence in the context of preventive, stabilising and anti-crisis components. The article groups and clarifies the concept of functions and principles of the enterprise anti-crisis financial management. It marks basic, specific and integration functions and provides their description. It also marks out and characterises individual principles, which identify the EAFM process, justify development and realisation of anti-crisis solutions and measures and also characterise EAFM organisation at an enterprise. Prospects of further developments in this direction are overview, analysis and improvement of methodical instruments of realisation of the specified EAFM tasks on the basis of the considered theoretical aspects.

  7. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  8. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  9. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  10. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  11. Integrated management system - ground for the global performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Filho, Jorge Amorim

    2000-01-01

    Organizations working in the pursuit of a sustainable development must create and continuously update their management systems, in order to achieve harmonic and lasting global results, capable of satisfying partners and clients in short and long terms. Such an improvement can be obtained by integrating preexisting classic management models, applicable to organizations of all types and scales. The implementation of this unique resulting system obeys systematic steps of planning, development, checking and correction, aiming to continuously improve the management. It is in fact a very challenging process because it demands changing people minds, increasing the amount of work and learning of new skills. Though hard-working, such implementation is encouraged both by perceiving the necessity to attain the strategic objectives and by seeing that there are some requisites not yet fully covered by the present system. Finally, this improved management system results in a better global performance, recorded under four angles: financial, increased client satisfaction, better internal processes and continuous learning, driving the organization to be more competitive and successful in the future. (author)

  12. Winter cover crops as a best management practice for reducing nitrogen leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, W. F.; Scarborough, R. W.; Chirnside, A. E. M.

    1998-10-01

    The role of rye as a winter cover crop to reduce nitrate leaching was investigated over a three-year period on a loamy sand soil. A cover crop was planted after corn in the early fall and killed in late March or early April the following spring. No-tillage and conventional tillage systems were compared on large plots with irrigated corn. A replicated randomized block design experiment was conducted on small plots to evaluate a rye cover crop under no-tillage and conventional tillage and with commercial fertilizer, poultry manure and composted poultry manure as nitrogen fertilizer sources. Nitrogen uptake by the cover crop along with nitrate concentrations in groundwater and the soil profile (0-150 cm) were measured on the large plots. Soil nitrate concentrations and nitrogen uptake by the cover crop were measured on the small plots. There was no significant difference in nitrate concentrations in the groundwater or soil profile with and without a cover crop in either no-tillage or conventional tillage. Annual amounts of nitrate-N leached to the water-table varied from 136.0 to 190.1 kg/ha in 1989 and from 82.4 to 116.2 kg/ha in 1991. Nitrate leaching rates were somewhat lower with a cover crop in 1989, but not in 1990. There was no statistically significant difference in corn grain yields between the cover crop and non-cover crop treatments. The planting date and adequate rainfall are very important in maximizing nitrogen uptake in the fall with a rye cover crop. On the Delmarva Peninsula, the cover crop should probably be planted by October 1 to maximize nitrogen uptake rates in the fall. On loamy sand soils, rye winter cover crops cannot be counted on as a best management practice for reducing nitrate leaching in the Mid-Atlantic states.

  13. Stratifying FIA Ground Plots Using A 3-Year Old MRLC Forest Cover Map and Current TM Derived Variables Selected By "Decision Tree" Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Hoppus; Stan Arner; Andrew Lister

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in variance for estimates of forest area and volume in the state of Connecticut was accomplished by stratifying FIA ground plots using raw, transformed and classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A US Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization (MRLC) vegetation cover map for Connecticut was used to produce a forest/non-...

  14. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet (ft)) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area

  15. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  16. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  17. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  18. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  19. Land management and land-cover change have impacts of similar magnitude on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jammet, Mathilde; Stoy, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to land cover (LCC) remain common, but continuing land scarcity promotes the widespread intensification of land management changes (LMC) to better satisfy societal demand for food, fibre, fuel and shelter1. The biophysical effects of LCC on surface climate are largely unders...

  20. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  1. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  2. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  3. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  4. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  5. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  6. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    cover crop management had lower N2O fluxes than soils that did not have a cover crop. Results from this study concluded that it is important to allow crop residues to return to the soil as they help to improve soil quality indicators. The presence of cover crops also will contribute to the improvement of these indicators once established and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  8. Measurement of NO2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants using gas NO2 labelled 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, Nizar; Wungkar, Marietje; Gunawan, Andi; Gandanegara, Soertini; Suharsono, Heny

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the NO 2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants. 32 species of trees, 64 speceis of shrubs and 13 species of ground cover plants were exposed to 3 ppm (v / v) N- 15 O 2 in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. Experiment consisted of 2 replicates. The environment conditions in the chamber were set at 30 o C, 1000 lux, and initial relative humidity 60 %. After gas treatment, plants parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, than dried in 70 o C for 48 hours and then weighed. After weighing, those plants parts were ground to a pine powder. After kjendhal digestion, N total content of plants were analyzed by distillation method. 15 N content of plant samples were analyzed by emission spectrometer ( Yasco, N-151). The amount of N-15 absorbed by plant was the total content of 15 N in the whole plants ( leaves, stem and root ) per gram dry weight of leaves. The amount of 15 N absorbed by plants varied among investigated plants. 15 N sorption of trees are in the range 0.28 - 68.31μg/g. The sorption of shrubs and ground cover plants varied in 1.97 - 100.02 μg/g and 2.38 - 24.06μg/g, respectively. According to the amount of 15 N sorption , the plants were divided into 3 groups of sorption level, high ( > 30.0μg/g), moderate ( 15 - 30 μg/g ), and low sorption level ( 15 μg/g). Results showed that among of 32 investigated trees, 64 shrubs and 13 ground cover plant, 4 species of trees and 13 species of shrubs performed a high sorption level and no one of ground cover plants performed a high sorption level. The species of trees and 15 species of shrubs that mention above are recommended to use as an element of landscape which to be functioned to reduce NO 2 atmospheric pollutant

  9. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  10. Ecological weed management by cover cropping : effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cover crops grown in the period between two main crops have potential as an important component of a system-oriented ecological weed management strategy. In late summer and autumn, the cover crop can suppress growth and seed production of weeds, whereas the incorporation of cover crop residues in

  11. Soil management system in hazelnut groves (Corylus sp. versus the presence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nietupski Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining biodiversity as well as taking advantage of the natural environment’s resistance are the key elements which should be considered when designing integrated plans for the protection of hazelnut groves. An effort has been made in this study to analyse the impact of different soil cultivation methods in hazelnut groves, on the species composition and number of individuals in carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Another aim was to determine which method of inter-row soil management had the least negative effect on assemblages of these beetles. Because of the type of habitat, the xerothermic species characteristic for southeastern Europe, i.e. Calathus ambiguus, Poecilus lepidus, Harpalus calceatus, and H. griseus, were the most numerous. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured individuals implied that the optimal soil tillage system in young hazelnut groves is when soil is kept fallow with machines or chemicals, or when soil is covered with manure. The least favourable practice for the appearance of ground beetles of the Carabidae family is the use of polypropylene fabric, bark or sawdust, to cover soil

  12. Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-García, Laura B.; Korthals, Gerard; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Deyn, de Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil

  13. [Complications and the management of fully covered retrievable metal stent placement in benign tracheal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-yu; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, Guang-li; Liang, Xi-hong; Wang, Zhen-chang; Ma, Jian-zhong; Wu, Guang-zhong; Zhang, Xiao-ping

    2012-11-01

    To study complications and the management of the use of covered retrievable expandable metallic stents in the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Fully covered retrievable metal stents were placed in 21 patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Stent-related complications and the management were reviewed and analysed. Twenty-eight fully covered retrievable metallic stents were successfully placed fluoroscopically in 21 patients. Stents were removed 4 - 12 months [mean (5.5 ± 2.2) mouths] after placement in all patients. Stent-related complications included granulation tissue (n = 18), stent migration (n = 4), stent expectoration (n = 2), halitosis (n = 8), mucous retention (n = 21) and mucus plugging (n = 1). Granulation tissue was removed with a carbon dioxide laser in 2 patients. Stents were replaced for 2 times and 3 times respectively in 2 patients after stent migration and stent expectoration. An additional stent was placed in 2 patients after stent migration. Symptom of halitosis was relieved after prolonged course of systemic antibiotics treatment in 8 patients. Symptom of mucous retention was relieved with nebulized saline and N-acetylcysteine saline inhalation. Mucous plug was expelled after severe coughing after suctioning using an aspirator in one patient. There were statistically significant differences in stricture diameter, rank of tachypnea and pulmonary function (FEV(1)) in all 21 patients before stent insertion and after stents removal. No patient has experienced recurrence during the follow-up period of 1 - 36 months [mean (23.2 ± 8.0) months]. Fully covered retrievable metallic stent may be a safe and effective in benign tracheal stenosis. Stent-related complications may be effectively managed.

  14. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gurbir Singh; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard

    2018-01-01

    In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphor...

  15. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  16. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice.

  17. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  18. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Weihermller, Lutz; McCabe, Matthew; Moghadas, Davood; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sbastien

    2015-01-01

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  19. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  20. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  1. The Elephant in The Ground: Managing Oil and Sovereign Wealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.; van der Ploeg, F.; Wills, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important developments in international finance and resource economics in the past twenty years is the rapid and widespread emergence of the $6 trillion sovereign wealth fund industry. Oil exporters typically ignore below-ground assets when allocating these funds, and ignore

  2. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  3. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  4. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  5. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  6. Active condensation of the atmospheric moisture as a self-irrigation mechanism for the ground-covering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted at the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban (Utch-Dere, Sochi pretty much allow to explain the abnormally high drought resistance of Liriope graminifolia Lour. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.-Gawl., plants that naturally grow mostly in sufficient humidity. Quite low temperatures of the leaves’ surface allow to effectively condense the atmospheric moisture and to direct it along the leaf blade to the ground. The accumulation of condensation water leads to self-irrigation, a mechanism that ensures survival of plants in case of insufficient natural precipitation in the form of rain or fog. Combined with xeromorphic leaves with a thick cuticle and thick branch roots with fusiform bulb-shaped swellings, allowing to store water, makes the named plants extremely resistant to stress factors such as prolonged summer droughts accompanied by high daytime temperatures.

  7. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  9. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  10. 41 CFR 102-192.155 - What should our agency-wide mail management policy statement cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should our agency-wide mail management policy statement cover? 102-192.155 Section 102-192.155 Public Contracts and... REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Other Agency Responsibilities § 102-192.155 What...

  11. Soil water repellency and ground cover effects on infiltration in response to prescribed burning of steeply-sloped sagebrush hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland managers and scientists are in need of predictive tools to accurately simulate post-fire hydrologic responses and provide hydrologic risk assessment. Rangeland hydrologic modeling has advanced in recent years; however, model advancements have largely been associated with data from gently ...

  12. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities

  13. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  14. Optimizing continuous cover management of boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross- and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross- and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14% higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  15. Socially Grounded Analysis of Knowledge Management Systems and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, R.S.S.; Perini, A.; Dignum, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the struggle to survive and compete in face of constant technological changes and unstable business environments, organizations recognize knowledge as its most valuable asset. Consequently, these organizations often invest on Knowledge Management (KM), seeking to enhance their internal processes

  16. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  17. Drainage water management combined with cover crop enhances reduction of soil phosphorus loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T; Wang, Y T

    2017-05-15

    Integrating multiple practices for mitigation of phosphorus (P) loss from soils may enhance the reduction efficiency, but this has not been studied as much as individual ones. A four-year study was conducted to determine the effects of cover crop (CC) (CC vs. no CC, NCC) and drainage water management (DWM) (controlled drainage with sub-irrigation, CDS, vs. regular free tile drainage, RFD) and their interaction on P loss through both surface runoff (SR) and tile drainage (TD) water in a clay loam soil of the Lake Erie region. Cover crop reduced SR flow volume by 32% relative to NCC, regardless of DWM treatment. In contrast, CC increased TD flow volume by 57 and 9.4% with CDS and RFD, respectively, compared to the corresponding DWM treatment with NCC. The total (SR+TD) field water discharge volumes were comparable amongst all the treatments. Cover crop reduced flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of particulate P (PP) by 26% and total P (TP) by 12% in SR, while it didn't affect the FWM dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentration, regardless of DWM treatments. Compared with RFD, CDS reduced FWM DRP concentration in TD water by 19%, while CC reduced FWM PP and TP concentrations in TD by 21 and 17%, respectively. Total (SR+TD) soil TP loss was the least with CDS-CC followed by RFD-CC, CDS-NCC, and RFD-NCC. Compared with RFD-NCC, currently popular practice in the region, total TP loss was reduced by 23% with CDS-CC. The CDS-CC system can be an effective practice to ultimately mitigate soil P loading to water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical assistance contractor management plan: Surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the general management structure of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This team is a partnership of four major private subcontractors, which teamed together, are striving to be the leader in environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling operations. It will provide a pool of experts in various aspects of the technologies necessary to accomplish this goal, available to DOE to deal with mission concerns. The report expands on goals from TAC's mission statement, which include management concerns, environment, safety, and health, quality, technical support, communications, and personnel

  19. Technical assistance contractor management plan: Surface and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the general management structure of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This team is a partnership of four major private subcontractors, which teamed together, are striving to be the leader in environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling operations. It will provide a pool of experts in various aspects of the technologies necessary to accomplish this goal, available to DOE to deal with mission concerns. The report expands on goals from TAC`s mission statement, which include management concerns, environment, safety, and health, quality, technical support, communications, and personnel.

  20. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  1. Distributed cluster management techniques for unattended ground sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Magdi A.; Stelzig, Chad A.; Bevington, James E.; Minor, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    Smart Sensor Networks are becoming important target detection and tracking tools. The challenging problems in such networks include the sensor fusion, data management and communication schemes. This work discusses techniques used to distribute sensor management and multi-target tracking responsibilities across an ad hoc, self-healing cluster of sensor nodes. Although miniaturized computing resources possess the ability to host complex tracking and data fusion algorithms, there still exist inherent bandwidth constraints on the RF channel. Therefore, special attention is placed on the reduction of node-to-node communications within the cluster by minimizing unsolicited messaging, and distributing the sensor fusion and tracking tasks onto local portions of the network. Several challenging problems are addressed in this work including track initialization and conflict resolution, track ownership handling, and communication control optimization. Emphasis is also placed on increasing the overall robustness of the sensor cluster through independent decision capabilities on all sensor nodes. Track initiation is performed using collaborative sensing within a neighborhood of sensor nodes, allowing each node to independently determine if initial track ownership should be assumed. This autonomous track initiation prevents the formation of duplicate tracks while eliminating the need for a central "management" node to assign tracking responsibilities. Track update is performed as an ownership node requests sensor reports from neighboring nodes based on track error covariance and the neighboring nodes geo-positional location. Track ownership is periodically recomputed using propagated track states to determine which sensing node provides the desired coverage characteristics. High fidelity multi-target simulation results are presented, indicating the distribution of sensor management and tracking capabilities to not only reduce communication bandwidth consumption, but to also

  2. Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: grounds for optimism in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke, which has considerable disease burden in "non-white" ethnic groups where the population-attributable risks of elevated blood pressure are very high. Since the treatment of ICH remains largely supportive and expectant, nihilism and the early withdrawal of active therapy influence management decisions in clinical practice. However, approaches to management are now better defined on the basis of evidence that both survival and speed (and degree) of recovery are critically dependent on the location, size, and degree of expansion and extension into the intraventricular system of the haematoma of the ICH. Although no medical treatment has been shown to improve outcome in ICH, several promising avenues have emerged that include haemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Conversely, there is continued controversy over the role of evacuation of the haematoma of ICH via open craniotomy. Despite being an established practice for several decades, and having undergone evaluation in multiple randomised trials, there is uncertainty over which patients have the most to gain from an intervention with clear procedural risk. Minimally invasive surgery via local anaesthetic applied drill-puncture of the cranium and infusion of a thrombolytic agent is an attractive option for patients requiring critical management of the haematoma, not just in low resource settings but arguably also in specialist centres of western countries. With several ongoing clinical trials nearing completion, these treatments could enter routine practice within the next few years, further justifying the urgency of "time is brain" and that active management within well-organized, comprehensive acute stroke care units includes patients with ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  4. Cropland management dynamics as a driver of forest cover change in European Russia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.; McCarty, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The European part of Russia spans over 40% of the European subcontinent and comprises most of Europe's temperate and boreal forests. The region has undergone a socio-economic transition during the last two decades that has resulted in radical changes in land management. Large-scale agriculture land abandonment caused massive afforestation in the Central and Northern parts of the region (Alcantara et al. 2012). Afforestation of former croplands is currently not included in the official forestry statistical reports (Potapov et al. 2012), but is likely to have major impacts on regional carbon budgets (Kuemmerle et al. 2009). We employed a complete archive of Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery and automatic data processing algorithm to create regional time-sequential image composites and multi-temporal metrics for 1985-2012. Spectral metrics were used as independent variables to map forest cover and change with help of supervised machine learning algorithms and trend analysis. Forest cover loss was attributed to fires, harvesting, and wind/disease dynamics, while forest cover gain was disaggregated into reforestation and afforestation using pre-1990 TM imagery as baseline data. Special attention was paid to agricultural abandonment. Fire events of the last decade have been further characterized by ignition place, time, and burning intensity using MODIS fire detection data. Change detection products have been validated using field data collected during summer 2012 and 2013 and high resolution imagery. Massive arable land abandonment caused forest area increase within Central agricultural regions. While total logging area decreased after the USSR breakdown, logging and other forms of clearing increased within the Central and Western parts of the region. Gross forest gain and loss were nearly balanced within region; however, the most populated regions of European Russia featured the highest rate of net forest cover loss during the last decade. The annual burned forest area as

  5. Opportunizing: A classic grounded theory study on business and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólavur Christiansen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Opportunizing emerged as the core variable of this classic GT study on business and management. Opportunizing is the recurrent main concern that businesses have to continually resolve, and it explains how companies recurrently create, identify, seize or exploit situations to maintain their growth or survival. Opportunizing is the recurrent creation and re-creation of opportunities in business. Opportunizing is basically what business managers do and do all the time. The problematic nature of opportunizing is resolved by a core social process ofopportunizing and its attached sub-processes that account for change over time and for the variations of the problematic nature of its resolution.Opportunizing has five main facets. These are conditional befriending (confidence building & modifying behavior,prospecting (e.g. information gaining, weighing up (information appraisal & decision-making, moment capturing (quick intervention for seizing strategic opportunities, andconfiguration matching (adjusting the business organization to abet the other activities of opportunizing.On a more abstract level, opportunizing has three more organizational facets: the physically boundary-less, the valuehierarchical, and the physically bounded. The first of these called perpetual opportunizing. This emerges from the conjunction of conditional befriending and prospecting. The second facet is called triggering opportunizing. It arises from the coming together of weighing up and moment capturing. The final facet is called spasmodic opportunizing. This happens when moment capturing and configuration matching unite.

  6. [Quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor in USLE and RUSLE models by using remote sensing data: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Guang; Li, Sheng; Ren, Hua-Dong; Yao, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zi-Jie

    2012-06-01

    Soil loss prediction models such as universal soil loss equation (USLE) and its revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) are the useful tools for risk assessment of soil erosion and planning of soil conservation at regional scale. To make a rational estimation of vegetation cover and management factor, the most important parameters in USLE or RUSLE, is particularly important for the accurate prediction of soil erosion. The traditional estimation based on field survey and measurement is time-consuming, laborious, and costly, and cannot rapidly extract the vegetation cover and management factor at macro-scale. In recent years, the development of remote sensing technology has provided both data and methods for the estimation of vegetation cover and management factor over broad geographic areas. This paper summarized the research findings on the quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor by using remote sensing data, and analyzed the advantages and the disadvantages of various methods, aimed to provide reference for the further research and quantitative estimation of vegetation cover and management factor at large scale.

  7. "(Un)covering" in the Classroom: Managing Stigma beyond the Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branfman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    While many instructors closet stigmatized identities, others "downplay" them--a tactic that sociologist Erving Goffman terms "covering." What are the personal, ethical, and pedagogical costs of covering? What are the gains? How can feminist university instructors cover stigmatized identities without fueling oppressive…

  8. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  9. Vegetation cover change detection and assessment in arid environment using multi-temporal remote sensing images and ecosystem management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman Aly, Anwar; Mosa Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul; Shahwan Sallam, Abdulazeam; Al-Wabel, Mohammad Ibrahim; Shayaa Al-Shayaa, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation cover (VC) change detection is essential for a better understanding of the interactions and interrelationships between humans and their ecosystem. Remote sensing (RS) technology is one of the most beneficial tools to study spatial and temporal changes of VC. A case study has been conducted in the agro-ecosystem (AE) of Al-Kharj, in the center of Saudi Arabia. Characteristics and dynamics of total VC changes during a period of 26 years (1987-2013) were investigated. A multi-temporal set of images was processed using Landsat images from Landsat4 TM 1987, Landsat7 ETM+2000, and Landsat8 to investigate the drivers responsible for the total VC pattern and changes, which are linked to both natural and social processes. The analyses of the three satellite images concluded that the surface area of the total VC increased by 107.4 % between 1987 and 2000 and decreased by 27.5 % between years 2000 and 2013. The field study, review of secondary data, and community problem diagnosis using the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) method suggested that the drivers for this change are the deterioration and salinization of both soil and water resources. Ground truth data indicated that the deteriorated soils in the eastern part of the Al-Kharj AE are frequently subjected to sand dune encroachment, while the southwestern part is frequently subjected to soil and groundwater salinization. The groundwater in the western part of the ecosystem is highly saline, with a salinity ≥ 6 dS m-1. The ecosystem management approach applied in this study can be used to alike AE worldwide.

  10. Mangrove Carbon Stocks and Ecosystem Cover Dynamics in Southwest Madagascar and the Implications for Local Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Benson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous ecosystem services mangroves provide, carbon storage is gaining particular attention for its potential role in climate change mitigation strategies. Madagascar contains 2% of the world’s mangroves, over 20% of which is estimated to have been deforested through charcoal production, timber extraction and agricultural development. This study presents a carbon stock assessment of the mangroves in Helodrano Fagnemotse in southwest Madagascar alongside an analysis of mangrove land-cover change from 2002 to 2014. Similar to other mangrove ecosystems in East Africa, higher stature, closed-canopy mangroves in southwest Madagascar were estimated to contain 454.92 (±26.58 Mg·C·ha−1. Although the mangrove extent in this area is relatively small (1500 ha, these mangroves are of critical importance to local communities and anthropogenic pressures on coastal resources in the area are increasing. This was evident in both field observations and remote sensing analysis, which indicated an overall net loss of 3.18% between 2002 and 2014. Further dynamics analysis highlighted widespread transitions of dense, higher stature mangroves to more sparse mangrove areas indicating extensive degradation. Harnessing the value that the carbon stored within these mangroves holds on the voluntary carbon market could generate revenue to support and incentivise locally-led sustainable mangrove management, improve livelihoods and alleviate anthropogenic pressures.

  11. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  12. Employees' and Managers' Accounts of Interactive Workplace Learning: A Grounded Theory of "Complex Integrative Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory…

  13. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs

  14. Spatial Data Mining for Estimating Cover Management Factor of Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Lin, T. C.; Chiang, S. H.; Chen, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used mathematical model that describes long-term soil erosion processes. Among the six different soil erosion risk factors of USLE, the cover-management factor (C-factor) is related to land-cover/land-use. The value of C-factor ranges from 0.001 to 1, so it alone might cause a thousandfold difference in a soil erosion analysis using USLE. The traditional methods for the estimation of USLE C-factor include in situ experiments, soil physical parameter models, USLE look-up tables with land use maps, and regression models between vegetation indices and C-factors. However, these methods are either difficult or too expensive to implement in large areas. In addition, the values of C-factor obtained using these methods can not be updated frequently, either. To address this issue, this research developed a spatial data mining approach to estimate the values of C-factor with assorted spatial datasets for a multi-temporal (2004 to 2008) annual soil loss analysis of a reservoir watershed in northern Taiwan. The idea is to establish the relationship between the USLE C-factor and spatial data consisting of vegetation indices and texture features extracted from satellite images, soil and geology attributes, digital elevation model, road and river distribution etc. A decision tree classifier was used to rank influential conditional attributes in the preliminary data mining. Then, factor simplification and separation were considered to optimize the model and the random forest classifier was used to analyze 9 simplified factor groups. Experimental results indicate that the overall accuracy of the data mining model is about 79% with a kappa value of 0.76. The estimated soil erosion amounts in 2004-2008 according to the data mining results are about 50.39 - 74.57 ton/ha-year after applying the sediment delivery ratio and correction coefficient. Comparing with estimations calculated with C-factors from look-up tables, the soil erosion

  15. Quality Improvement of Ground Works Process with the Use of Chosen Lean Management Tools - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Paslawski, Jerzy; Wysocki, Bartosz

    2017-12-01

    Ground works are one of the first processes connected with erecting structures. Based on ground conditions like the type of soil or level of underground water different types and solutions for foundations are designed. Foundations are the base for the buildings, and their proper design and execution is the key for the long and faultless use of the whole construction and might influence on the future costs of the eventual repairs (especially when ground water level is high, and there is no proper water insulation made). Article presents the introduction of chosen Lean Management tools for quality improvement of the process of ground works based on the analysis made on the construction site of vehicle control station located in Poznan, Poland. Processes assessment is made from different perspectives taking into account that 3 main groups of workers were directly involved in the process: blue collar-workers, site manager and site engineers. What is more comparison is made on the 3 points of view to the problems that might occur during this type of works, with details analysis on the causes of such situation? Authors presents also the change of approach of workers directly involved in the mentioned processes regarding introduction of Lean Management methodology, which illustrates the problem of scepticism for new ideas of the people used to perform works and actions in traditional way. Using Lean Management philosophy in construction is a good idea to streamline processes in company, get rid of constantly recurring problems, and in this way improve the productivity and quality of executed activities. Performed analysis showed that different groups of people have very different idea and opinion on the problems connected with executing the same process - ground works and only having full picture of the situation (especially in construction processes) management can take proper problems-preventing actions that consequently can influence on the amount of waste generated on

  16. Temporary placement of covered self-expandable metallic stents in the management of benign biliary strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Shinpei; Tomita, Eiichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-05-01

    Currently, endoscopic intervention is widely attempted as the first-line treatment of benign biliary strictures because of its convenience and low morbidity. Plastic tube stents (PS) are usually used for such treatment; however, covered self-expandable metallic stents (C-SEMS) are becoming more commonly used at some institutions. The temporary placement of C-SEMS may lead to better outcomes because of their larger diameter and, therefore, better dilation of the stricture, especially in refractory cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the temporary placement of C-SEMS in the management of benign biliary strictures. We retrospectively reviewed our endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) database (May 1996 to December 2010), and extracted the data of patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for benign biliary strictures. Then, the follow-up data from patient charts were reviewed to determine the long-term outcomes of those procedures. All patients (n = 56) initially had a PS placed, with or without balloon dilation. However, C-SEMS placement was later attempted in 12 patients because the stricture was refractory to placement of the PS. During their follow-up periods, two patients died of unrelated diseases after 15 and 17 months, and another two still had the C-SEMS in place after 9 and 50 months. In the remaining eight patients, the C-SEMS was removed after a median placement period of 6 months (range, 2-15). Seven patients in this group have not experienced a recurrence at a median follow-up time of 48 months. However, in one patient, stenosis did recur 8 months after the C-SEMS was removed. Temporary placement of C-SEMS can be a treatment option for benign biliary strictures, especially in refractory cases. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  18. Land-cover composition, water resources and land management in the watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Tania del M. Lopez-Marrero

    2014-01-01

    An important element of the wise use of water-related ecosystem services provided by El Yunque National Forest, located in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico, is the facilitation of a clear understanding about the composition of land cover and its relation to water resources at different scales of analysis, management, and decision making. In this study...

  19. Improvement of ground water management and protection through the use of isotope and Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2009-01-01

    To establish nuclear techniques for the study and management of water resources including technology transfer; to develop a national strategy for the use of isotope techniques in water management and development studies; to develop a water mangement framework; to solve problems related to water shortage, overexploitation, management and rapid quality deterioration; to evaluate the sources, recharge rates and renewal of ground water reservoires; to resolve the problems of mixed aquifers, the quantity of mixing and the exchange reactions between groundwater reservoirs and their matrix; to strengthen the role of the CNRS within national instituions and water authorities. (author)

  20. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  2. A comparison of ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae in conventionally and ecologically managed alfalfa fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kolařík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2007-2011, the occurrence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae was studied using emergence traps in two differently managed alfalfa fields in the Czech Republic - a conventional and an ecological production system. In total, 784 specimens of ground beetles representing 58 species were trapped in these two alfalfa fields in South Moravia. A slightly higher number of specimens were trapped in the conventionally managed than in the ecological alfalfa stand (404 vs 380, respectively. In the conventionally managed alfalfa stand, the number of species was also higher than in the ecological stand (45 vs 40, respectively. With the exception of 2007 and 2009, Simpson’s indices of diversity were higher in the conventional stand than in the ecological in all study years. Shannon’s index was higher in the conventional alfalfa field in 2008, 2009, and 2011. Regarding distribution, species classified into group E (i.e., those without special demands on the type and quality of their habitat dominated in both types of management throughout the experimental period. The incidence of species classified into group R (i.e., those with narrow ecological amplitude was very low; i.e., only four species. These ground beetle species are included in the Red List of Threatened Species of the Czech Republic, and all of them (i.e. Acupalpus suturalis, Calosoma auropunctatum, Cicindela germanica and Ophonus cribricollis are listed as vulnerable.

  3. Inducing Water Productivity from Snow Cover for Sustainable Water Management in Ibrahim River Basin, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish , Talal; SHABAN , Amin; Portoghese , Ivan; Vurro , Michele; Khadra , Roula; Saqallah , Sagedah; Drapeau , Laurent; Gascoin , Simon; Amacha , Nabil

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to explore the effects and linkages between snow cover areas, distribution, probability and measured water discharge along east Mediterranean coastal watershed using moderate-resolution satellite images (MODIS-Terra). The Nahr Ibrahim River is a typical Lebanese watershed with an area of 326 km2 stretching between the sea and mountainous terrain to the east. The largest snow cover often exists in January-February with snow-free conditions betwe...

  4. A proposal for soil cover and management factor (C) for RUSLE in vineyards with different soil management across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Alfonso; Biddoccu, Marcella; Guzman, Gema; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation RUSLE (Dabney et al., 2012) is commonly used to estimate rates of soil erosion caused by rainfall and its associated overland flow on cropland and many other disturbed and undisturbed lands. Several studies have been focused on the evaluation of erosion risk in vineyards across Europe, which has four countries, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, among the world's top ten vine growers. Other European countries, such as Romania, Greece, Austria, Serbia and Hungary, also have significant surface devoted to vineyards (FAO, 2014). However, literature shows a wide variability among C factors from different sources (Auerswald and Schwab, 1999; Kouli et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Pacheco et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016) that complicates their interpretation and use outside the area where they were developed. Gómez et al. (2016) presented a simplified erosion prediction model based on RUSLE, ORUSCAL, to demonstrate the possibility to calibrate RUSLE for a broad range of management conditions in vineyards with limited datasets. This approach have already been pursued successfully in olives (Gómez et al. 2003, Vanwalleghem et al., 2011). This communication reports the results of an evaluation of the calibration strategies and model predictions of ORUSCAL using a long-term experiment dataset (Bidoccu et al., 2016) in a vineyard in Northern Italy, and its implementation to develop soil cover and management factors (C) in three different soil, climate and management conditions across Europe: Southern Spain, Northern Italy and Austria. The communication, furthermore, explores and discusses of the application of the ORUSCAL model to additional vineyards areas in France and Romania in the context of the Vinedivers project (www.vinedivers.eu). Keywords: vineyard, erosion, soil management, RUSLE, model. References Auerswald K., Schwab, S. 1999. Erosion risk (C factor) of different viticultural practices. Vitic. Enol. Sci.54

  5. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loss in stream water from a no-till corn-soybean rotation planted with winter cover crops cereal rye (Secale cereale and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa in non-tile drained paired watersheds in Illinois, USA. The paired watersheds are under mixed land use (agriculture, forest, and pasture. The control watershed had 27 ha of row-crop agriculture, and the treatment watershed had 42 ha of row crop agriculture with cover crop treatment (CC-treatment. During a 4-year calibration period, 42 storm events were collected and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs for each storm event were calculated for total suspended solids (TSS, nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonia-N (NH4-N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP, and total discharge. Predictive regression equations developed from the calibration period were used for calculating TSS, NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP losses of surface runoff for the CC-treatment watershed. The treatment period consisted of total 18 storm events, seven of which were collected during the cereal rye, eight in the hairy vetch cover crop season and three during cash crop season. Cover crops reduced TSS and discharge by 33% and 34%, respectively in the CC-treatment watershed during the treatment period. However, surprisingly, EMCs for NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP did not decrease. Stream discharge from the paired-watersheds will continue to be monitored to determine if the current water quality results hold or new patterns emerge.

  6. Women's self-management of chronic illnesses in the context of caregiving: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Mercedes; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Uncover how women self-manage their own chronic illness while taking care of a dependent relative. International policies place special emphasis in promoting interventions addressed to control, prevent and care for people with chronic health conditions. Self-management is a crucial part of this care. Caregivers are more prone to have chronic illness than non-caregivers. They are confronted with dilemmas about taking care of themselves while taking care of their dependent relative and the rest of their families. Caregivers articulate strategies to enable them to focus their energy on caring. Qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. Thirty-nine women caregivers with a chronic illness participated in the study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were carried out between April 2010-December 2011. Data were analysed using grounded theory procedures. Self-management helps women caregivers with a chronic illness to balance the demands of their own illness and those of the dependent relative. They self-manage their illness by self-regulating the treatment, by regulating their strength and by controlling their emotions. Women caregivers integrate effectively and creatively the management of their chronic illnesses within the complexities of family care. This renders their health needs invisible and reaffirms them as capable caregivers. Identifying self-management strategies of women caregivers allow health professionals to acknowledge and reinforce effective self-care measures and to deter those that are ineffective and lessen their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. How patients with gout become engaged in disease management: a constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howren, Alyssa; Cox, Susan M; Shojania, Kam; Rai, Sharan K; Choi, Hyon K; De Vera, Mary A

    2018-06-01

    Prior qualitative research on gout has focused primarily on barriers to disease management. Our objective was to use patients' perspectives to construct an explanatory framework to understand how patients become engaged in the management of their gout. We recruited a sample of individuals with gout who were participating in a proof-of-concept study of an eHealth-supported collaborative care model for gout involving rheumatology, pharmacy, and dietetics. Semistructured interviews were used. We analyzed transcripts using principles of constructivist grounded theory involving initial coding, focused coding and categorizing, and theoretical coding. Twelve participants with gout (ten males, two females; mean age, 66.5 ± 13.3 years) were interviewed. The analysis resulted in the construction of three themes as well as a framework describing the dynamically linked themes on (1) processing the diagnosis and management of gout, (2) supporting management of gout, and (3) interfering with management of gout. In this framework, patients with gout transition between each theme in the process of becoming engaged in the management of their gout and may represent potential opportunities for healthcare intervention. Findings derived from this study show that becoming engaged in gout management is a dynamic process whereby patients with gout experience factors that interfere with gout management, process their disease and its management, and develop the practical and perceptual skills necessary to manage their gout. By understanding this process, healthcare providers can identify points to adapt care delivery and thereby improve health outcomes.

  8. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  9. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  10. Expectations for managing contaminated ground and groundwater: developing a common view of NDA and regulators - 16252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The management of contaminated ground and groundwater is a notable contributor to dealing with the challenge we face in cleaning up the legacy of the UK's civil nuclear industry in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner. To facilitate this mission, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Environmental Regulators and Safety Regulators are working together to develop common expectations for the management of contaminated ground and groundwater arising on and extending off nuclear licensed sites in the UK. The aims of this work are to: - set out shared expectations for land quality management, explaining any differing expectations where consensus is difficult; - interpret expectations to ensure they are clear and implementable, facilitating planning of programmes and deliverables; - provide a framework for dialogue against which progress in land quality management can be mapped; - promote positive action to manage land quality in a proportionate and sustainable manner to achieve consistent standards; and, - identify whether areas of the regulatory framework or NDA contractual requirements warrant review and propose improvements for consideration, as appropriate. This paper outlines the process currently ongoing to identify the best way of achieving these aims in a manner that avoids compromising the respective statutory obligations, duties and functions of each party. (author)

  11. Construction management at the SP-100 ground engineering system test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, G.P.; Wilson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Contractors under the U.S. Department of Energy management have implemented a comprehensive approach to the management of design and construction of the complex facility modifications at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site on the Hanford Reservation. The SP-100 Test Site employs a multi-organizational integrated management approach with clearly defined responsibilities to assure success. This approach allows for thorough planning and analysis before the project kick off, thus minimizing the number and magnitude of problems which arise during the course of the project. When combined with a comprehensive cost and schedule/project management reporting system the problems which do occur are recognized early enough to assure timely intervention and resolution

  12. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  13. Covered Biodegradable Stent: New Therapeutic Option for the Management of Esophageal Perforation or Anastomotic Leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Černá, Marie; Köcher, Martin; Válek, Vlastimil; Aujeský, René; Neoral, Čestmír; Andrašina, Tomáš; Pánek, Jiří; Mahathmakanthi, Shankari

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate our experience with the treatment of postoperative anastomotic leaks and benign esophageal perforations with covered biodegradable stents. Materials and Methods: From 2008 to 2010, we treated five men with either an anastomotic leak or benign esophageal perforation by implanting of covered biodegradable Ella-BD stents. The average age of the patients was 60 (range, 38–74) years. Postoperative anastomotic leaks were treated in four patients (1 after esophagectomy, 1 after resection of diverticulum, 2 after gastrectomy). In one patient, perforation occurred as a complication of the treatment of an esophageal rupture (which occurred during a balloon dilatation of benign stenosis) with a metallic stent. Results: Seven covered biodegradable stents were implanted in five patients. Primary technical success was 100%. Clinical success (leak sealing) was achieved in four of the five patients (80%). Stent migration occurred in three patients. In two of these patients, the leak had been sealed by the time of stent migration, therefore no reintervention was necessary. In one patient an additional stent had to be implanted. Conclusion: The use of biodegradable covered stents for the treatment of anastomotic leaks or esophageal perforations is technically feasible and safe. The initial results are promising; however, larger number of patients will be required to evaluate the capability of these biodegradable stents in the future. The use of biodegradable material for coverage of the stent is essential.

  14. Ground beetles as indicators of past management of old-growth forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Old-growth forests are terrestrial ecosystems with the highest level of biodiversity and the main environments for the study of conservation and dynamics of the forest system. In Mediterranean Europe, two millennia of human exploitation deeply altered the structural complexity of the native forests. Some animal groups, including insects, may be used as a proxy of such changes. In this paper we explored the possible effects of forest management on the functional diversity (species traits of carabid beetle communities. Three old-growth forests of the Sila National Park were sampled by pitfall traps set up in pure beech, beech-silver fir and Calabrian black pine forests. In each forest, five managed vs. five unmanaged stands were considered. Managed sites were exploited until the sixties of the past century and then left unmanaged. More than 6000 carabid specimens belonging to 23 species were collected. The functional diversity in carabid groups is influenced by forest management especially in beech and beech-silver fir stands. Body size, specialized predators, endemic species and forest species were negatively affected by stand management. On the contrary, omnivorous ground beetles populations (or species with a high dispersal power (macropterous and large geographic distribution were positively influenced by stand management. In pine forests the old-growth community seems less sensitive to past management and more affected by soil evolution. Soil erosion and disturbance may reduce species diversity of ground beetles. Anyway, the composition of the carabid community shows that 50-60 years of forest restoration are enough for the reconstruction of a fairly diverse assemblage reflecting a “subclimax” situation.

  15. Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), prominently carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and halocarbons, have risen from fossil-fuel combustion, deforestation, agriculture, and industry. There is currently heated national and international debate about the consequences of such increasing concentrations of GHGs on the Earth's climate, and, ultimately, on life and society in the world as we know it. This paper reviews (i) long-term patterns of climate change, secular climatic variability, and predicted population growth and their relation to water resources management, and, specifically, to ground water resources management, (ii) means available for mitigating and adapting to trends of climatic change and climatic variability and their impacts on ground water resources. Long-term (that is, over hundreds of millions of years), global-scale, climatic fluctuations are compared with more recent (in the Holocene) patterns of the global and regional climates to shed light on the meaning of rising mean surface temperature over the last century or so, especially in regions whose historical hydroclimatic records exhibit large inter-annual variability. One example of regional ground water resources response to global warming and population growth is presented.

  16. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  17. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-07-17

    Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. SSE software test management STM capability: Using STM in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of a series discussing configuration management (CM) topics for Space Station ground systems software development. It provides a description of the Software Support Environment (SSE)-developed Software Test Management (STM) capability, and discusses the possible use of this capability for management of developed software during testing performed on target platforms. This is intended to supplement the formal documentation of STM provided by the SEE Project. How STM can be used to integrate contractor CM and formal CM for software before delivery to operations is described. STM provides a level of control that is flexible enough to support integration and debugging, but sufficiently rigorous to insure the integrity of the testing process.

  19. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  20. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  1. Covering your face on Facebook.Managing identity through untagging and deletion

    OpenAIRE

    Strano, Michele; Wattei, Jill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the ways in which Facebook users manage their online identities through untagging and deleting photos to make sure images are interpreted in a desirable way. Using data collected from an online survey and thirty in-depth interviews with American adult Facebook users, the authors argue that identity management can best be understood as the combination of constructive and destructive practices through which users control not only their self-presentation (p...

  2. On the appropriateness of public participation in Integrated Water Resources Management: some grounded insights from the Levant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ker Rault, P.A.; Jeffrey, P.

    2008-01-01

    Although public participation in the service of Integrated Water Resources Management had aroused much attention as a practice, little is known about stakeholders’ understandings of and expectations towards the process. Using a grounded approach we develop an interpretive methodological framework

  3. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm - Local Search Method for Ground-Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water management problems commonly are formulated as a mixed-integer, non-linear programming problem (MINLP). Relying only on conventional gradient-search methods to solve the management problem is computationally fast; however, the methods may become trapped in a local optimum. Global-optimization schemes can identify the global optimum, but the convergence is very slow when the optimal solution approaches the global optimum. In this study, we developed a hybrid optimization scheme, which includes a genetic algorithm and a gradient-search method, to solve the MINLP. The genetic algorithm identifies a near- optimal solution, and the gradient search uses the near optimum to identify the global optimum. Our methodology is applied to a conjunctive-use project in the Warren ground-water basin, California. Hi- Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-manager in the basin, plans to construct a wastewater treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the ground-water system. The treated wastewater instead will recharge the ground-water basin via percolation ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy, subject to State regulations (e.g. minimum distances and travel times). HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies that control ground-water levels, meet regulations, and identify new production-well locations. As formulated, the MINLP objective is to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including pump capacities, available recharge water, water-supply demand, water-level constraints, and potential new-well locations. The methodology was demonstrated by an enumerative search of the entire feasible solution and comparing the optimum solution with results from the branch-and-bound algorithm. The results also indicate that the hybrid method identifies the global optimum within an affordable computation time. Sensitivity analyses, which include testing different recharge-rate scenarios, pond

  4. Land and Forest Management by Land Use/ Land Cover Analysis and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS are the most effective tools in spatial data analysis. Natural resources like land, forest and water, these techniques have proved a valuable source of information generation as well as in the management and planning purposes. This study aims to suggest possible land and forest management strategies in Chakia tahsil based on land use and land cover analysis and the changing pattern observed during the last ten years. The population of Chakia tahsil is mainly rural in nature. The study has revealed that the northern part of the region, which offers for the settlement and all the agricultural practices constitutes nearly 23.48% and is a dead level plain, whereas the southern part, which constitute nearly 76.6% of the region is characterized by plateau and is covered with forest. The southern plateau rises abruptly from the northern alluvial plain with a number of escarpments. The contour line of 100 m mainly demarcates the boundary between plateau and plain. The plateau zone is deeply dissected and highly rugged terrain. The resultant topography comprises of a number of mesas and isolated hillocks showing elevation differences from 150 m to 385 m above mean sea level. Being rugged terrain in the southern part, nowadays human encroachment are taking place for more land for the cultivation. The changes were well observed in the land use and land cover in the study region. A large part of fallow land and open forest were converted into cultivated land.

  5. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  6. Explaining of chronic pain management process in older people: A grounded theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Manouchehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Materials and Method: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.

  7. Explaining of chronic pain management process in older people: A grounded theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Shirazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Methods: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.

  8. Weed-cover versus weed-removal management in olive orchards: influence on the carbon balance at the ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2016-04-01

    value of NEE (26 and 23 g C m-2). Regarding the annual balance, significant differences were found in NEE between both treatments. The weed cover treatment showed 1.6 times higher annual net C assimilation (-132 g C m-2) than the weed removal treatment (-83 g C m-2). These results highlight the importance of sustainable management practices in agriculture to strengthen the behavior of cropping systems as C sinks.

  9. Integration of land use and land cover inventories for landscape management and planning in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallustio, Lorenzo; Munafò, Michele; Riitano, Nicola; Lasserre, Bruno; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There are both semantic and technical differences between land use (LU) and land cover (LC) measurements. In cartographic approaches, these differences are often neglected, giving rise to a hybrid classification. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding and characterization of the two classification schemes using a comparison that allows maximization of the informative power of both. The analysis was carried out in the Molise region (Central Italy) using sample information from the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The sampling points were classified with a visual interpretation of aerial photographs for both LU and LC in order to estimate surfaces and assess the changes that occurred between 2000 and 2012. The results underscore the polarization of land use and land cover changes resulting from the following: (a) recolonization of natural surfaces, (b) strong dynamisms between the LC classes in the natural and semi-natural domain and (c) urban sprawl on the lower hills and plains. Most of the observed transitions are attributable to decreases in croplands, natural grasslands and pastures, owing to agricultural abandonment. The results demonstrate that a comparison between LU and LC estimates and their changes provides an understanding of the causes of misalignment between the two criteria. Such information may be useful for planning policies in both natural and semi-natural contexts as well as in urban areas.

  10. Managing effective and efficient hub operations : a study of ground time management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunita, Theresia

    2009-01-01

    This Logistics Design Project was carried out at KLM Aircraft Services (AS), from February 2008 - April 2009. The project focuses on ideal description of KLM operational controls for daily executions at the hub and within the AS processes. The daily execution at the hub is managed by the Hub Control

  11. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, Gregory B.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-11-01

    Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implementation of BMPs in a distributed manner (multi-BMP treatment trains located on the landscape and integrated with urban design), but little catchment-scale performance of these systems have been reported to date. Here, stream hydrologic data (March, 2011-September, 2012) are evaluated in four catchments located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: one utilizing distributed stormwater BMPs, two utilizing centralized stormwater BMPs, and a forested catchment serving as a reference. Among urban catchments with similar land cover, geology and BMP design standards (i.e. 100-year event), but contrasting placement of stormwater BMPs, distributed BMPs resulted in: significantly greater estimated baseflow, a higher minimum precipitation threshold for stream response and maximum discharge increases, better maximum discharge control for small precipitation events, and reduced runoff volume during an extreme (1000-year) precipitation event compared to centralized BMPs. For all catchments, greater forest land cover and less impervious cover appeared to be more important drivers than stormwater BMP spatial pattern, and caused lower total, stormflow, and baseflow runoff volume; lower maximum discharge during typical precipitation events; and lower runoff volume during an extreme precipitation event. Analysis of hydrologic field data in this study suggests that both the spatial distribution of stormwater BMPs and land cover are important for management of urban stormwater runoff. In particular, catchment-wide application of distributed BMPs improved stream hydrology compared to centralized BMPs, but not enough to fully replicate forested

  12. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John V.; Noe, Gregory B.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implementation of BMPs in a distributed manner (multi-BMP treatment trains located on the landscape and integrated with urban design), but little catchment-scale performance of these systems have been reported to date. Here, stream hydrologic data (March, 2011–September, 2012) are evaluated in four catchments located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: one utilizing distributed stormwater BMPs, two utilizing centralized stormwater BMPs, and a forested catchment serving as a reference. Among urban catchments with similar land cover, geology and BMP design standards (i.e. 100-year event), but contrasting placement of stormwater BMPs, distributed BMPs resulted in: significantly greater estimated baseflow, a higher minimum precipitation threshold for stream response and maximum discharge increases, better maximum discharge control for small precipitation events, and reduced runoff volume during an extreme (1000-year) precipitation event compared to centralized BMPs. For all catchments, greater forest land cover and less impervious cover appeared to be more important drivers than stormwater BMP spatial pattern, and caused lower total, stormflow, and baseflow runoff volume; lower maximum discharge during typical precipitation events; and lower runoff volume during an extreme precipitation event. Analysis of hydrologic field data in this study suggests that both the spatial distribution of stormwater BMPs and land cover are important for management of urban stormwater runoff. In particular, catchment-wide application of distributed BMPs improved stream hydrology compared to centralized BMPs, but not enough to fully replicate forested

  13. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  14. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  15. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  16. Managing a big ground-based astronomy project: the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary H.

    2008-07-01

    TMT is a big science project and its scale is greater than previous ground-based optical/infrared telescope projects. This paper will describe the ideal "linear" project and how the TMT project departs from that ideal. The paper will describe the needed adaptations to successfully manage real world complexities. The progression from science requirements to a reference design, the development of a product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and an organization that parallels the WBS, the implementation of system engineering, requirements definition and the progression through Conceptual Design to Preliminary Design will be summarized. The development of a detailed cost estimate structured by the WBS, and the methodology of risk analysis to estimate contingency fund requirements will be summarized. Designing the project schedule defines the construction plan and, together with the cost model, provides the basis for executing the project guided by an earned value performance measurement system.

  17. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  18. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  19. Historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover in and around Prince Albert National Park: land management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Arlt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Saskatchewan, boreal woodland caribou population declines have been documented in the 1940s and again in the 1980s. Although both declines led to a ban in sport hunting, a recovery was only seen in the 1950s and was attributed to wolf control and hunting closure. Recent studies suggest that this time, the population may not be increasing. In order to contribute to the conservation efforts, historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover types in the Prince Albert Greater Ecosystem (PAGE, Saskatchewan, were documented for the period of 1960s to the present. To examine changes in caribou distribution, survey observations, incidental sightings and telemetry data were collated. To quantify landscape changes, land cover maps were created for 1966 and 2006 using current and historic forest resources inventories, fire, logging, and roads data. Results indicate that woodland caribou are still found throughout the study area although their distribution has changed and their use of the National Park is greatly limited. Results of transition prob¬abilities and landscape composition analyses on the 1966 and 2006 land cover maps revealed an aging landscape for both the National Park and provincial crown land portions of the PAGE. In addition, increased logging and the development of extensive road and trail networks on provincial crown land produced significant landscape fragmentation for woodland caribou and reduced functional attributes of habitat patches. Understanding historical landscape changes will assist with ongoing provincial and federal recovery efforts for boreal caribou, forest management planning activities, and landscape restoration efforts within and beyond the Park boundaries.

  20. An Upscaling Method for Cover-Management Factor and Its Application in the Loess Plateau of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cover-management factor (C-factor is important for studying soil erosion. In addition, it is important to use sampling plot data to estimate the regional C-factor when assessing erosion and soil conservation. Here, the loess hill and gully region in Ansai County, China, was studied to determine a method for computing the C-factor. This C-factor is used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE at a regional scale. After upscaling the slope-scale computational equation, the C-factor for Ansai County was calculated by using the soil loss ratio, precipitation and land use/cover type. The multi-year mean C-factor for Ansai County was 0.36. The C-factor values were greater in the eastern region of the county than in the western region. In addition, the lowest C-factor values were found in the southern region of the county near its southern border. These spatial differences were consistent with the spatial distribution of the soil loess ratios across areas with different land uses. Additional research is needed to determine the effects of seasonal vegetation growth changes on the C-factor, and the C-factor upscaling uncertainties at a regional scale.

  1. An upscaling method for cover-management factor and its application in the loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwu; Fu, Bojie; Qiu, Yang

    2013-10-09

    The cover-management factor (C-factor) is important for studying soil erosion. In addition, it is important to use sampling plot data to estimate the regional C-factor when assessing erosion and soil conservation. Here, the loess hill and gully region in Ansai County, China, was studied to determine a method for computing the C-factor. This C-factor is used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) at a regional scale. After upscaling the slope-scale computational equation, the C-factor for Ansai County was calculated by using the soil loss ratio, precipitation and land use/cover type. The multi-year mean C-factor for Ansai County was 0.36. The C-factor values were greater in the eastern region of the county than in the western region. In addition, the lowest C-factor values were found in the southern region of the county near its southern border. These spatial differences were consistent with the spatial distribution of the soil loess ratios across areas with different land uses. Additional research is needed to determine the effects of seasonal vegetation growth changes on the C-factor, and the C-factor upscaling uncertainties at a regional scale.

  2. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  3. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  4. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  6. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  7. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  9. Scientific or rule-of-thumb techniques of ground-water management--Which will prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles Lee

    1969-01-01

    Emphasis in ground-water development, once directed largely to quantitatively minor (but sociologically vital) service of human and stock needs, is shifting: aquifers are treated as possible regulating reservoirs managed conjunctively with surface water. Too, emphasis on reducing stream pollution is stimulating interest in aquifers as possible waste-storage media. Such management of aquifers requires vast amounts of data plus a much better understanding of aquifer-system behavior than now exists. Implicit in this deficiency of knowledge is a need for much new research, lest aquifers be managed according to ineffective rule-of-thumb standards, or even abandoned as unmanageable. The geohydrologist's task is to define both internal and boundary characteristics of aquifer systems. Stratigraphy is a primary determinant of these characteristics, but stratigraphically minor features may make aquifers transcend stratigraphic boundaries. For example, a structurally insignificant fracture may carry more water than a major fault; a minor stratigraphic discontinuity may be a major hydrologic boundary. Hence, there is a need for ways of defining aquifer boundaries and quantifying aquifer and confining-bed characteristics that are very different from ordinary stratigraphic techniques. Among critical needs are techniques for measuring crossbed permeability; for extrapolating and interpolating point data on direction and magnitude of permeability in defining aquifer geometry; and for accurately measuring geochemical properties of water and aquifer material, and interpreting those measurements in terms of source of water, rate of movement, and waste-sorbing capacities of aquifers and of confining beds--in general, techniques adequate for predicting aquifer response to imposed forces whether static, hydraulic, thermal, or chemical. Only when such predictions can be made routinely can aquifer characteristics be inserted into a master model that incorporates both the hydrologic and

  10. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Setting Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). Participants 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Results Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from ‘dealing with comorbidity’ through ‘having difficult patients’ to ‘confronting a hopeless disease’. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label ‘difficult’ exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with ‘a hopeless disease’ due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Conclusions Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations

  11. Smoke Management: Toward a Data Base to Validate PB-Piedmont - Numerical Simulation of Smoke on the Ground at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    1999-01-01

    The use of fire for controlled burning to meet objectives for silviculture or for ecosystem management carries the risk of liability for smoke. Near-ground smoke can degrade air quality, reduce visibility, aggravate health problems, and create a general nuisance. At night, smoke can locally limit visibility over roadways creating serious hazards to transportation. PB-...

  12. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  13. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  14. Investigation and Analysis on Ground Cover Plants Resources of Urban Green Space in Hunan%湖南城市园林绿地地被植物资源调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖姣娣

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出湖南省优良乡土地被植物,采用现场实地调查与查询相关文献资料的方式对湖南省典型城市园林绿地地被植物种类及利用形式进行研究。结果表明:湖南省共有地被植物243种,隶属77科177属,其中低矮灌木类地被植物87种、草本类地被植物103种、矮竹类地被植物10种、藤本地被植物33种、蕨类地被植物8种,主要以花坛、花境、色带、绿篱的形式应用在城市公共空间,疏林、密林、园林道路边界,坡地、水岸、建筑及围墙周边。%In order to screen native ground cover plants of Hunan province ,species and application form of typi-cal groundcover plants of urban greenspace were investigated by field investigation and consulting relevant lit-eratures .The results showed that there were 243 species of ground cover plants in Hunan province ,which be-longed to 77 families and 177 genus ,including 87 species of low bush ,103 species of herb ,10 species of bam-boo ,33 species of liana and 8 species of fern .They were applied in urban public space ,open forest ,dense forest , garden road boundary ,slope ,water-front and surrounding ground of buildings and walls with the form of flower bed ,flower border ,ribbon and hedge .

  15. The management-retrieval code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Ma Lizhen

    1994-01-01

    The management code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state (MCC) is used for displaying the basic information on the MCC sub-library on the screen, and retrieving the required data. The MCC data file contains the data of 4800 nuclides ranging from Z 0, A = 1 to Z = 122, A = 318. The MCC sub-library has been set up at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC), and has been used to provide the atomic masses and characteristic constants of nuclear ground states for the nuclear model calculation, nuclear data evaluations and other fields

  16. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  17. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  18. Multi-criteria decision analysis with probabilistic risk assessment for the management of contaminated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadam, Ibrahim M.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental decision analysis in subsurface contamination scenarios is performed using cost-benefit analysis. In this paper, we discuss some of the limitations associated with cost-benefit analysis, especially its definition of risk, its definition of cost of risk, and its poor ability to communicate risk-related information. This paper presents an integrated approach for management of contaminated ground water resources using health risk assessment and economic analysis through a multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology introduces several important concepts and definitions in decision analysis related to subsurface contamination. These are the trade-off between population risk and individual risk, the trade-off between the residual risk and the cost of risk reduction, and cost-effectiveness as a justification for remediation. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates probabilistic health risk assessment into a comprehensive, yet simple, cost-based multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology focuses on developing decision criteria that provide insight into the common questions of the decision-maker that involve a number of remedial alternatives. The paper then explores three potential approaches for alternative ranking, a structured explicit decision analysis, a heuristic approach of importance of the order of criteria, and a fuzzy logic approach based on fuzzy dominance and similarity analysis. Using formal alternative ranking procedures, the methodology seeks to present a structured decision analysis framework that can be applied consistently across many different and complex remediation settings. A simple numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results showed the importance of using an integrated approach for decision-making considering both costs and risks. Future work should focus on the application of the methodology to a variety of complex field conditions to

  19. Common ground: an investigation of environmental management alcohol prevention initiatives in a college community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark D; Dejong, William; Fairlie, Anne M; Lawson, Doreen; Lavigne, Andrea M; Cohen, Fran

    2009-07-01

    This article presents an evaluation of Common Ground, a media campaign-supported prevention program featuring increased enforcement, decreased alcohol access, and other environmental management initiatives targeting college student drinking. Phase 1 of the media campaign addressed student resistance to environmentally focused prevention by reporting majority student support for alcohol policy and enforcement initiatives. Phase 2 informed students about state laws, university policies, and environmental initiatives. We conducted student telephone surveys, with samples stratified by gender and year in school, for 4 consecutive years at the intervention campus and 3 years at a comparison campus. We did a series of one-way between-subjects analyses of variance and analyses of covariance, followed by tests of linear trend and planned comparisons. Targeted outcomes included perceptions of enforcement and alcohol availability, alcohol use, and alcohol-impaired driving. We examined archived police reports for student incidents, primarily those resulting from loud parties. There were increases at the intervention campus in students' awareness of formal alcohol-control efforts and perceptions of the alcohol environment, likelihood of apprehension for underage drinking, consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, and responsible alcohol service practices. There were decreases in the perceived likelihood of other students' negative behavior at off-campus parties. Police-reported incidents decreased over time; however, perceived consequences for off-campus parties decreased. No changes were observed for difficulty finding an off-campus party, self-reported alcohol use, or alcohol-impaired driving. The intervention successfully altered perceptions of alcohol enforcement, alcohol access, and the local alcohol environment. This study provides important preliminary information to researchers and practitioners engaged in collaborative prevention efforts in campus communities.

  20. Argon Plasma Coagulation Combined with Covered Stent Placement for Management of Tracheobronchial Stenoses/occlusions as well as Esophagorespiratory Fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu WANG

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is a complex problem and difficult treatment for tracheobronchial stenoses/occlusions involving in carina. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of argon plasma coagulation (APC and bifurcated covered Z-type stents (CZTS placement for the treatment of tracheobronchus stenoses and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF. Methods Thirty-two cases with airway disorders were retrospectively reviewed for the treatment of APC and CZTS placement. Under the bronchoscopic guidance, APC was first given in patients with airway stenoses, then CZTS was placed under the fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance either with airway stenoses or ERF. Results APC was first given in 19 patients with airway stenoses. Airway structures were significantly improved after APC procedure (57.4%-72.1% before APC vs 12.8%-25.8% after APC. Thirty-two CZTS were technically successfully placed in 30 out of 32 cases involving in carinal bifurcation. After APC and stent placement, short breath index was significantly reduced and karnofsky physical score (KPS increased obviously. The endobronchial defects were successfully palliated with bifurcated CZTS placed under fluoroscopy and flexible bronchoscopy in 12 out of 13 patients with ERFs. There is no bleeding introprocedure. Mucous retention was very common in all types of the stents less than 2 weeks after stenting, which required debridement by bronchoscopy and could be prevented by normal saline solution nebulizations. Granuloma developed at the ends of stents after 1 month of stenting which all of them were treated successfully with APC and CO2 cryosurgery. Conclusion Utilization of APC and retrieval bifurcated CZTS placement is a simple and safe protocol for the management of airway complex stenoses involving the tracheal carina and ERF.

  1. Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Guillermo; Abalos, Diego; García-Marco, Sonia; Quemada, Miguel; Alonso-Ayuso, María; Cárdenas, Laura M.; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Vallejo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Agronomical and environmental benefits are associated with replacing winter fallow by cover crops (CCs). Yet, the effect of this practice on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remains poorly understood. In this context, a field experiment was carried out under Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effect of replacing the traditional winter fallow (F) by vetch (Vicia sativa L.; V) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; B) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the intercrop and the maize (Zea mays L.) cropping period. The maize was fertilized following integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) criteria. Maize nitrogen (N) uptake, soil mineral N concentrations, soil temperature and moisture, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and GHG fluxes were measured during the experiment. Our management (adjusted N synthetic rates due to ISFM) and pedo-climatic conditions resulted in low cumulative N2O emissions (0.57 to 0.75 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), yield-scaled N2O emissions (3-6 g N2O-N kg aboveground N uptake-1) and N surplus (31 to 56 kg N ha-1) for all treatments. Although CCs increased N2O emissions during the intercrop period compared to F (1.6 and 2.6 times in B and V, respectively), the ISFM resulted in similar cumulative emissions for the CCs and F at the end of the maize cropping period. The higher C : N ratio of the B residue led to a greater proportion of N2O losses from the synthetic fertilizer in these plots when compared to V. No significant differences were observed in CH4 and CO2 fluxes at the end of the experiment. This study shows that the use of both legume and nonlegume CCs combined with ISFM could provide, in addition to the advantages reported in previous studies, an opportunity to maximize agronomic efficiency (lowering synthetic N requirements for the subsequent cash crop) without increasing cumulative or yield-scaled N2O losses.

  2. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  3. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  4. Corrective Measures Study Modeling Results for the Southwest Plume - Burial Ground Complex/Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater modeling scenarios were performed to support the Corrective Measures Study and Interim Action Plan for the southwest plume of the Burial Ground Complex/Mixed Waste Management Facility. The modeling scenarios were designed to provide data for an economic analysis of alternatives, and subsequently evaluate the effectiveness of the selected remedial technologies for tritium reduction to Fourmile Branch. Modeling scenarios assessed include no action, vertical barriers, pump, treat, and reinject; and vertical recirculation wells

  5. "Hit the ground running": perspectives of new nurses and nurse managers on role transition and integration of new graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Care, W Dean; McKenzie, Jo-Ann Lapointe; Guse, Lorna; Currie, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The workplace for new graduates must be a constructive learning environment to facilitate their development. Nurse managers need new graduates who can "hit the ground running." Conflict between the needs of new nurses and the realities of the workplace often creates role confusion and tension in new graduates and threatens employers' ability to retain them. As part of a larger study that examined the effectiveness of a new strategy on new nurse retention and workplace integration, we conducted focus groups with new nurses and nurse managers. This paper discusses the perspectives of new nurses on their role transition from graduates to practising professionals and the perspectives of nurse managers on the workplace integration of new nurses. The thematic findings integrate new nurses' perspectives on their needs during role transition with the perspectives of nurse managers in meeting those needs. The discussion includes strategies to facilitate successful transition and integration of new nurses into the workplace within the context of recruitment and retention.

  6. The 'wayfinding' experience of family carers who learn to manage technical health procedures at home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2017-12-01

    With more care taking place in the home, family carers play an important role in supporting patients. Some family carers undertake technical health procedures generally managed by health professionals in hospital settings (e.g. managing a tracheostomy or enteral feeding). To explore how family carers learn to manage technical health procedures in order to help health professionals better understand and support this process. A grounded theory study using data from interviews with 26 New Zealand family carers who managed technical health procedures including nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, stoma care, urinary catheterisation, tracheostomy management, intravenous therapy, diabetes management and complex wound dressings. Most (20 participants) were caring for their child and the remaining six for their spouse, parent or grandparent. Following grounded theory methods, each interview was coded soon after completion. Additional data were compared with existing material, and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was developed. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The core concept of 'wayfinding' indicates that the learning process for family carers is active, individualised and multi-influenced, developing over time as a response to lived experience. Health professional support was concentrated on the initial phase of carers' training, reducing and becoming more reactive as carers took responsibility for day-to-day management. Wayfinding involves self-navigation by carers, in contrast to patient navigator models which provide continuing professional assistance to patients receiving cancer or chronic care services. Wayfinding by carers raises questions about how carers should be best supported in their initial and ongoing learning as the management of these procedures changes over time. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Covered versus Uncovered Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Managing Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjin; Li, Tong; Sun, Ping; Yu, Qihong; Wang, Kun; Chang, Weilong; Song, Zifang; Zheng, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMSs) to treat objective jaundice caused by an unresectable malignant tumor. We performed a comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to May 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CSEMSs and UCSEMSs to treat malignant distal biliary obstruction were included. The analysis included 1417 patients enrolled in 14 trials. We did not detect significant differences between the UCSEMS group and the CSEMS group in terms of cumulative stent patency (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-4.53; p = 0.93, I2 = 0%), patient survival (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.05-10.87; p = 0.85, I2 = 0%), overall stent dysfunction (relative ratio (RR) 0.85, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.57-1.25; p = 0.83, I2 = 63%), the overall complication rate (RR 1.26, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 0.94-1.68; p = 0.12, I2 = 0%) or the change in serum bilirubin (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.13, IV fixed, 95% CI 0.56-0.3; p = 0.55, I2 = 0%). However, we did detect a significant difference in the main causes of stent dysfunction between the two groups. In particular, the CSEMS group exhibited a lower rate of tumor ingrowth (RR 0.25, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.12-0.52; p = 0.002, I2 = 40%) but a higher rate of tumor overgrowth (RR 1.76, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04, I2 = 0%). Patients with CSEMSs also exhibited a higher migration rate (RR 9.33, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 2.54-34.24; p = 0.008, I2 = 0%) and a higher rate of sludge formation (RR 2.47, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.36-4.50; p = 0.003, I2 = 0%). Our meta-analysis indicates that there is no significant difference in primary stent patency and stent dysfunction between CSEMSs and UCSEMSs during the period from primary stent insertion to primary stent dysfunction or patient death. However, when taking further management for occluded stents into consideration, CSEMSs is a better choice for patients with malignant biliary

  8. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  9. Exploring the linkage between spontaneous grass cover biodiversity and soil degradation in two olive orchard microcatchments with contrasting environmental and management conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, European Commission). However, to date there are few studies assessing the environmental quality considering such covers. In this study, we measured biodiversity indices for spontaneous grass cover in two olive orchards with contrasting site conditions and management regimes in order to evaluate the potential for biodiversity metrics to serve as an indicator of soil degradation. In addition, the differences and temporal variability of biodiversity indicators and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analysed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and photographs in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency of life forms, diversity and modified Shannon and Pielou indices. Sorensen's index showed strong differences in species composition for the grass covers in the two olive orchard catchments, which are probably linked to the different site conditions. The catchment (CN) with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation) and most intense management presented the highest biodiversity indices as well as the highest soil losses (over 10 t ha-1). In absolute terms, the diversity indices of vegetation were reasonably high for agricultural systems in both catchments, despite the fact that management activities usually severely limit the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  12. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  13. Energy efficiency for establishment and management of cover crops; Eficiencia energetica na implantacao e manejo de plantas de cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, R.; Gamero, C.A.; Boller, W.

    2000-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the energy balance involved in the establishment and management of cover crops and also to determine specific heating seeds and biomass of different species of cover crops. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg) and lupinus (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were grown in a randomized block design, in twelve replicates. Oat showed higher energy production as compared to lupinus, while higher specific heat were determined for forage radish seeds and also for lupinus and oat biomass. While fuel and fertilizers were the most important energy inputs for the establishment and management of oat and forage radish, seeds and fuel were the most used energy input for lupinus. (author)

  14. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  15. What is the potential of cropland albedo management in the fight against global warming? A case study based on the use of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Dominique; Pique, Gaétan; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceamanos, Xavier; Ceschia, Eric

    2018-04-01

    Land cover management in agricultural areas is a powerful tool that could play a role in the mitigation of climate change and the counterbalance of global warming. First, we attempted to quantify the radiative forcing that would increase the surface albedo of croplands in Europe following the inclusion of cover crops during the fallow period. This is possible since the albedo of bare soil in many areas of Europe is lower than the albedo of vegetation. By using satellite data, we demonstrated that the introduction of cover crops into the crop rotation during the fallow period would increase the albedo over 4.17% of Europe’s surface. According to our study, the effect resulting from this increase in the albedo of the croplands would be equivalent to a mitigation of 3.16 MtCO2-eq.year‑1 over a 100 year time horizon. This is equivalent to a mitigation potential per surface unit (m2) of introduced cover crop over Europe of 15.91 gCO2-eq.year‑1.m‑2. This value, obtained at the European scale, is consistent with previous estimates. We show that this mitigation potential could be increased by 27% if the cover crop is maintained for a longer period than 3 months and reduced by 28% in the case of no irrigation. In the second part of this work, based on recent studies estimating the impact of cover crops on soil carbon sequestration and the use of fertilizer, we added the albedo effect to those estimates, and we argued that, by considering areas favourable to their introduction, cover crops in Europe could mitigate human-induced agricultural greenhouse gas emissions by up to 7% per year, using 2011 as a reference. The impact of the albedo change per year would be between 10% and 13% of this total impact. The countries showing the greatest mitigation potentials are France, Bulgaria, Romania, and Germany.

  16. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  17. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Dugway Proving Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-29

    niches, particulary the lacustrine environment of the Great Basin (Baumhoff and Heizer 1965, Butler 1978, Heizer and Krieger 1956, Heizer and Harper...power that would capture the animals souls, rendering them docile and stupid (Steward 1970:34). Other large game was present, but were not numerous...uni versity. Baum, Bernard. 1947. Dugway Proving Ground. Aberdeen: U.S. Army Chemical Corps.* Bailmhoff, W.A. and R.F. Heizer . 1965. Postglacial

  18. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  19. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT AND SOIL CONSERVATION OF KORAYAR WATERSHED THROUGH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Balakrishnan; Dr. Ilanthirayan

    2017-01-01

    Watershed management is often seen as a potential engine for agricultural growth and development in fragile and marginal rain-fed areas India. Enhanced livelihood opportunities for watershed community through investment in their assets and improvements in income and productivity are the leading objective of the programme, as mentioned in the guidelines for watershed management programme (WMP) in India. Watershed management may be defined as an integrated approach of greenery for a better env...

  20. Routines and rituals: a grounded theory of the pain management of drug users in acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, May; Lyons, Imogen; Watt, Debbie; Ewing, Elspeth; Croft, Jeanette; Smith, Marion; Tocher, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study reviewed the perceptions and strategies of drug users and nurses with regard to pain management in acute care settings. Drug users present unique challenges in acute care settings with pain management noted to be at best suboptimal, at worst non-existent. Little is known about why and specifically how therapeutic effectiveness is compromised. Qualitative: constructivist grounded theory. A constructivist grounded theory approach incorporating a constant comparative method of data collection and analysis was applied. The data corpus comprised interviews with drug users (n = 11) and five focus groups (n = 22) of nurses and recovering drug users. Moral relativism as the core category both represents the phenomenon and explains the basic social process. Nurses and drug users struggle with moral relativism when addressing the issue of pain management in the acute care setting. Drug users lay claim to expectations of compassionate care and moralise via narration. Paradoxically, nurses report that the caring ideal and mutuality of caring are diminished. Drug users' individual sensitivities, anxieties and felt stigma in conjunction with opioid-induced hyperalgesia complicate the processes. Nurses' and hospitals' organisational routines challenge drug user rituals and vice versa leading both protagonists to become disaffected. Consequently, key clinical issues such as preventing withdrawal and managing pain are left unaddressed and therapeutic effectiveness is compromised. This study provides a robust account of nurses' and drug users' struggle with pain management in the acute care setting. Quick technological fixes such as urine screens, checklists or the transient effects of (cognitive-based) education (or training) are not the answer. This study highlights the need for nurses to engage meaningfully with this perceptibly 'difficult' group of patients. The key aspects likely to contribute to problematic interactions with this patient cohort are outlined so that

  1. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  2. Effects of vegetation management by mowing on ground-dwelling arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Schaffers, A.P.; Sykora, K.V.

    2010-01-01

    Species-rich grasslands are rare in the Netherlands and need consistent vegetation management to retain their characteristic biodiversity. Roadside verges are important refuges for grassland plants since the mowing management no longer aims at traffic safety only but also strives for botanical

  3. The field-tested and grounded technological rule as product of mode 2 management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The relevance problem of academic management research in organization and management is an old and thorny one. Recent discussions on this issue have resulted in proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge production in our field. These discussions focused mainly on the process of research itself and less

  4. Land Use/Cover Change in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin over 2000-2011 and Its Implications for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Lu, Ling; Li, Xin; Wang, Jianhua; Guo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is a typical arid inland river basin in northwestern China. From the 1960s to the 1990s, the downstream flow in the HRB declined as a result of large, artificial changes in the distribution of water and land and a lack of effective water resource management. Consequently, the ecosystems of the lower reaches of the basin substantially deteriorated. To restore these degraded ecosystems, the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) was initiated by the Chinese government in 2000. The project led to agricultural and ecological changes in the middle reaches of the basin. In this study, we present three datasets of land use/cover in the middle reaches of the HRB derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ images in 2000, 2007 and 2011. We used these data to investigate changes in land use/cover between 2000 and 2011 and the implications for sustainable water resource management. The results show that the most significant land use/cover change in the middle reaches of the HRB was the continuous expansion of farmland for economic interests. From 2000 to 2011, the farmland area increased by 12.01%. The farmland expansion increased the water resource stress; thus, groundwater was over-extracted and the ecosystem was degraded in particular areas. Both consequences are negative and potentially threaten the sustainability of the middle reaches of the HRB and the entire river basin. Local governments should therefore improve the management of water resources, particularly groundwater management, and should strictly control farmland reclamation. Then, water resources could be ecologically and socioeconomically sustained, and the balance between upstream and downstream water demands could be ensured. The results of this study can also serve as a reference for the sustainable management of water resources in other arid inland river basins. PMID:26115484

  5. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  6. Progress toward the development of a ground-water velocity model for the radioactive waste management facility, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina: Quarterly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizek, R.R.; Root, R.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the status and results of work performed to develop a numerical groundwater velocity model for the radioactive waste management facility at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Work dealt with developing a hydrologic budget for the McQueen Branch drainage basin. Two hydrologic budgets were developed, covering two periods of time. The first period was from November 1, 1982 to May 19, 1984; the second period was from March 1, 1983 to March 31, 1984. Total precipitation for this period was 52.48 inches, all as rainfall. Water levels measured in wells in the basin quarterly, monthly, and continuously showed basically the same response over the period of the study. Maximum fluctuation of water levels of wells in the basin was five to seven feet during the study. Stream discharge measurements in McQueen Branch showed base flow varying between 1.5 and 5.7 cfs. Lowest base flow occurred during the summer, when evapotranspiration was greatest. Some impact of daily ground-water evapotranspiration from the Branch floodplain was seen in continuous stream records. These daily effects peaked in magnitude during the summer, disappeared during winter, and gradually returned during spring. Underflow past the Branch gauging station out of the basin was determined to be negligible. Leakage downward through the Green Clay is difficult to determine but is believed to be small, based on the overall results of the budget study

  7. Land Resource Management as the Ground for Mining Area Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovitskiy, Aleksander; Brel, Olga; Nikulin, Nikolai; Nastavko, Ekaterina; Meser, Tatayna

    2017-11-01

    It is established that the problem of sustainable development of Kuzbass cities is their being tied to a single production and income from other sources is not considered. Therefore, their economy is underdeveloped, depends entirely on one city-forming enterprise (singleindustry city), which causes response to the slightest changes in the economic situation. In Kuzbass, all cities, except Kemerovo, are monodependent, including Kiselevsk, which economy mainly consists of coal mining enterprises. In the circumstances, there is a need to develop a set of measures for management the urban land, primarily aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Kiselevsk city. The development of principles and management mechanism of the urban territory land fund determines its effectiveness. Establishing the dependence of rational use of land resources and sustainable development characterizes a new level of information interaction between sciences (land management and economy). Practical use of this theory is to overcome the mono-urban development of mining cities, taking into account effective subsoil management.

  8. Regaining the High Ground: The Challenges of Perception Management in National Strategy and Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martemucci, Matteo G

    2007-01-01

    .... With the rise in global terrorist networks and a precipitous decline in world opinion of America's foreign policy, Perception Management is more critical now than at any time in America's history...

  9. Utilize target motion to cover clinical target volume (ctv) - a novel and practical treatment planning approach to manage respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianyue; Ajlouni, Munther; Kong Fengming; Ryu, Samuel; Chetty, Indrin J.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To use probability density function (PDF) to model motion effects and incorporate this information into treatment planning for lung cancers. Material and methods: PDFs were calculated from the respiratory motion traces of 10 patients. Motion effects were evaluated by convolving static dose distributions with various PDFs. Based on a differential dose prescription with relatively lower dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) than to the gross tumor volume (GTV), two approaches were proposed to incorporate PDFs into treatment planning. The first approach uses the GTV-based internal target volume (ITV) as the planning target volume (PTV) to ensure full dose to the GTV, and utilizes the motion-induced dose gradient to cover the CTV. The second approach employs an inhomogeneous static dose distribution within a minimized PTV to best match the prescription dose gradient. Results: Motion effects on dose distributions were minimal in the anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral directions: a 10-mm motion only induced about 3% of dose reduction in the peripheral target region. The motion effect was remarkable in the cranial-caudal direction. It varied with the motion amplitude, but tended to be similar for various respiratory patterns. For the first approach, a 10-15 mm motion would adequately cover the CTV (presumed to be 60-70% of the GTV dose) without employing the CTV in planning. For motions 15-mm. An example of inhomogeneous static dose distribution in a reduced PTV was given, and it showed significant dose reduction in the normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose gradient can be utilized to cover the CTV and minimize the lung dose without the need for more sophisticated technologies

  10. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  11. Managing the consultation with patients with medically unexplained symptoms: a grounded theory study of supervisors and registrars in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Louise

    2014-12-05

    Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) commonly present in general practice. They often experience significant disability and have difficulty accessing appropriate care. Many feel frustrated and helpless. Doctors also describe feeling frustrated and helpless when managing these patients. These shared negative feelings can have a detrimental effect on the therapeutic relationship and on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore how novice and experienced GPs manage patients with MUS and how these skills are taught and learned in GP training. A constructivist grounded theory study with 24 general practice registrars and supervisors in GP training practices across Australia. Registrars lacked a framework for managing patients with MUS. Some described negative feelings towards patients that were uncomfortable and confronting. Registrars also were uncertain about their clinical role: where their professional responsibilities began and ended. Supervisors utilised a range of strategies to address the practical, interpersonal and therapeutic challenges associated with the care of these patients. Negative feelings and a lack of diagnostic language and frameworks may prevent registrars from managing these patients effectively. Some of these negative feelings, such as frustration, shame and helplessness, are shared between doctors and patients. Registrars need assistance to identify and manage these difficult feelings so that consultations are more effective. The care of these patients also raises issues of professional identity, roles and responsibilities. Supervisors can assist their registrars by proactively sharing models of the consultation, strategies for managing their own feelings and frustrations, and ways of understanding and managing the therapeutic relationship in this difficult area of practice.

  12. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  13. Graphics-based site information management at Hanford TRU burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project described in this paper is to demonstrate the use of integrated computer graphics and data base techniques in managing nuclear waste facilities. The graphics-based site information management system (SIMS) combines a three-dimensional graphic model of the facility with databases which describe the facility's components and waste inventory. The SIMS can create graphic visualizations of any site data. The SIMS described here is being used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) as part of its transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval program at the Hanford Reservation. It is being used to manage an inventory of over 38,000 containers, to validate records, and to help visualize conceptual designs of waste retrieval operations

  14. Graphics-based site information management at Hanford TRU burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the project described in this paper is to demonstrate the use of integrated computer graphics and database techniques in managing nuclear waste facilities. The graphics-based site information management system (SIMS) combines a three- dimensional graphic model of the facility with databases which describe the facility's components and waste inventory. The SIMS can create graphic visualization of any site data. The SIMS described here is being used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) as part of its transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval program at the Hanford Reservation. It is being used to manage an inventory of over 38,000 containers, to validate records, and to help visualize conceptual designs of waste retrieval operations

  15. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  17. Single stage management of Gustilo type III A/B tibia fractures: Fixed with nail & covered with fasciocutaneous flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Nambi

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Multidisciplinary management of severe lower limb trauma is important and provides good outcomes. Intramedullary nailing and immediate flap fixation can achieve early bone union and good soft tissue coverage, leading to good outcomes in patient with Grade III A & B tibia fractures.

  18. Achieving sustainable ground-water management by using GIS-integrated simulation tools: the EU H2020 FREEWAT platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; De Filippis, Giovanna; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura; Toegl, Anja; Cannata, Massimiliano; Neumann, Jakob; Vazquez-Sune, Enric; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-04-01

    In order to achieve sustainable and participated ground-water management, innovative software built on the integration of numerical models within GIS software is a perfect candidate to provide a full characterization of quantitative and qualitative aspects of ground- and surface-water resources maintaining the time and spatial dimension. The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015) aims at simplifying the application of EU water-related Directives through an open-source and public-domain, GIS-integrated simulation platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform allows to simulate the whole hydrological cycle, coupling the power of GIS geo-processing and post-processing tools in spatial data analysis with that of process-based simulation models. This results in a modeling environment where large spatial datasets can be stored, managed and visualized and where several simulation codes (mainly belonging to the USGS MODFLOW family) are integrated to simulate multiple hydrological, hydrochemical or economic processes. So far, the FREEWAT platform is a large plugin for the QGIS GIS desktop software and it integrates the following capabilities: • the AkvaGIS module allows to produce plots and statistics for the analysis and interpretation of hydrochemical and hydrogeological data; • the Observation Analysis Tool, to facilitate the import, analysis and visualization of time-series data and the use of these data to support model construction and calibration; • groundwater flow simulation in the saturated and unsaturated zones may be simulated using MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005); • multi-species advective-dispersive transport in the saturated zone can be simulated using MT3DMS (Zheng & Wang, 1999); the possibility to simulate viscosity- and density-dependent flows is further accomplished through SEAWAT (Langevin et al., 2007); • sustainable

  19. It`s slim with a plain green cover: Australia`s management plan for polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, P.D. [Sustainable Solutions Pty Ltd/Australian Conservation Foundation, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In November 1995, the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC, the Council of State and National Environment Ministers) adopted a National Management Plan for PCBs. This was a significant milestone in the very long saga of Australian efforts to develop public policy and management structures for dealing with persistent organochlorine wastes. The author was part of a four-person consultation panel that carried out a public involvement program to assist and inform the process of developing the National Management Plan. The program involved, among other things, visiting every state and territory of Australia at least twice. This paper describes the development and delivery of the public involvement program, including ongoing interactions with Governments. The latter is often a complex (and many would say an unduly complex) matter in the federal system, where primary responsibility for waste management resides in the individual state/territory jurisdictions. The paper also attempts to draw lessons from the process. While some participants learned and acted upon some of these lessons quite early in the process, other participants (particularly governments) took longer to realize their importance and thus took longer to refrain from actions that might be regarded as not keeping faith with the activities they had set in process. Finally, the lessons learned here are contrasted with those drawn by participants in the process that led to the establishment and expansion of the Swan Hills facility in Alberta. While the outcomes of the Australian and Albertan processes appear to be very different, a number of the essential lessons to be drawn from the two processes are virtually identical. 13 refs.

  20. Managing socio-institutional enclosure: A grounded theory of caregivers' attentiveness in hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Klaartje; Baart, Andries

    2016-06-01

    Caregivers' attentiveness is vital for healthcare quality, yet existing research lacks a specific definition and neglects its different forms and aspects. This paper presents a qualitative, grounded theory of attentiveness in hospital oncology care. Our data show nine types of attentiveness. We answer the question why a caregiver practices one type of attentiveness in a certain situation, and not another type. First, it appears to be of crucial importance whether attentiveness is essential for giving care in the opinion of the caregiver. Second, the focus of attention is essential. Care given by doctors and nurses is always ambivalent; on the one hand, it concerns the body, and on the other hand, it involves the person whom that body belongs to. What is the caregiver (mainly) focused on? The significance of socio-institutional enclosure emerged as a key theme within the findings. Socio-institutional enclosure concerns the space a caregiver may or may not experience to break free from the preponderant institutional orientation towards the physical body of the patient. At the intersection of the influence of socio-institutional enclosure and the substance of the caregivers' concepts of care, three cultures are found that comprise the different types of attentiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  2. Management of malignant biliary obstruction: Technical and clinical results using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene fluorinated ethylene propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered metallic stent after 6-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Orgera, Gianluigi; Bezzi, Mario; Rossi, Plinio; Allegritti, Massimiliano; Passariello, Roberto [University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-fluorinated ethylene-propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered metallic stent in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. Eighty consecutive patients with malignant common bile duct strictures were treated by placement of 83 covered metallic stents. The stent-graft consists of an inner ePTFE/FEP lining and an outer supporting structure of nitinol wire. Clinical evaluation, assessment of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels were analyzed before biliary drainage, before stent-graft placement and during the follow-up period at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Technical success was obtained in all cases. After a mean follow-up of 6.9{+-}4.63 months, the 30-day mortality rate was 14.2%. Survival rates were 40% and 20.2% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Stent-graft patency rates were 95.5%, 92.6% and 85.7% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Complications occurred in five patients (6.4%); among these, acute cholecystitis was observed in three patients (3.8%). A stent-graft occlusion rate of 9% was observed. The percentage of patients undergoing lifetime palliation (91%) and the midterm patency rate suggest that placement of this ePTFE/FEP-covered stent-graft is safe and highly effective in achieving biliary drainage in patients with malignant strictures of the common bile duct. (orig.)

  3. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  4. [Certification, on-the-ground experience of a manager and his team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Catherine; Guillouët, Sonia; Havin, Marie-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    The certification assessment is an important stage in the life of a healthcare facility. However, instilling a quality culture within a team to lead it towards performance is a long-term endeavour. This cannot work without the existence of a partnership between the paramedical and medical teams, nor without the support of the hospital led by senior quality managers. The challenge is to not limit the quality culture to the certification assessment, which aims to highlight the areas in which the institution conforms and those in which it is failing, but rather to adopt a continuous improvement approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  6. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: I. Soil-Inversion, High-Residue Cover Crops and Herbicide Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. The main plots were two soil-inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. The subplots were three cover crop treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye and winter fallow; and sub subplots were four herbicide regimes: preemergence (PRE alone, postemergence (POST alone, PRE + POST and a no herbicide check (None. The PRE herbicide regime consisted of a single application of pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1. The POST herbicide regime consisted of a single application of glufosinate at 0.60 kg ai ha−1 plus S-metolachlor at 0.54 kg ai ha−1 and the PRE + POST regime combined the prior two components. At 2 weeks after planting (WAP cotton, Palmer amaranth densities, both BR and WR, were reduced ≥90% following all cover crop treatments in the IT. In the NIT, crimson clover reduced Palmer amaranth densities >65% and 50% compared to winter fallow and cereal rye covers, respectively. At 6 WAP, the PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes in both IT and NIT reduced BR and WR Palmer amaranth densities >96% over the three years. Additionally, the BR density was reduced ≥59% in no-herbicide (None following either cereal rye or crimson clover when compared to no-herbicide in the winter fallow. In IT, PRE, POST and PRE + POST herbicide regimes controlled Palmer amaranth >95% 6 WAP. In NIT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥79% in PRE and ≥95% in PRE + POST herbicide regimes over three years. POST herbicide regime following NIT was not very consistent. Averaged across three years, Palmer amaranth controlled ≥94% in PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes regardless of cover crop. Herbicide regime effect on cotton yield was highly significant; the maximum cotton yield was

  7. Creating Space Plasma from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0179 CREATING SPACE PLASMA FROM THE GROUND Herbert C Carlson UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY Final Report 05/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05/14/2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 08/14/2012-05/14/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Creating space plasma from...Report (2016) Creating Space Plasma from the Ground Grant FA9550-11-1-0236 AFOSR Program Manager Dr. Kent Miller PI: Herbert C. Carlson Center for

  8. USE OF COVERED SELF-EXPANDABLE NITINOL STENT FOR ANASTOMOTIC BILIARY STRUCTURE MANAGEMENT AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: THE FIRST EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kornilov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study focuses on the first experience with self-expandable stents, analysis of its efficacy and safety in the treatment of anastomotic strictures after liver transplantation. Materials and methods. There’re 136 liver transplantations performed from 2004 till 2012. To correct anastomotic strictures we’ve used only the self-expandable coated nitinol stent. We performed stenting in 7 recipient. Result. In 131 liver transplant recipients incidence of biliary strictures has been 5.3%. All of 5 patients have been managed by retrograde or antegrade way. Conclusion. Our first experience demonstrate efficacy and safety of the used tecniques up to 24 months. The analysis of more long-term results is required. 

  9. Remote sensing and GIS for land use/cover mapping and integrated land management: case from the middle Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. B.; Kumar, Dilip

    2012-06-01

    In India, land resources have reached a critical stage due to the rapidly growing population. This challenge requires an integrated approach toward harnessing land resources, while taking into account the vulnerable environmental conditions. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) based technologies may be applied to an area in order to generate a sustainable development plan that is optimally suited to the terrain and to the productive potential of the local resources. The present study area is a part of the middle Ganga plain, known as Son-Karamnasa interfluve, in India. Alternative land use systems and the integration of livestock enterprises with the agricultural system have been suggested for land resources management. The objective of this paper is to prepare a land resource development plan in order to increase the productivity of land for sustainable development. The present study will contribute necessary input for policy makers to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the region.

  10. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  11. Changes of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in relation to land use/cover management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Moghimian, Negar; Bayranvand, Mohammad; Alberti, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Conversions of land use/cover are associated with changes in soil properties and biogeochemical cycling, with implications for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and trace gas fluxes. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of different land uses (Alnus subcordata plantation, Taxodium distichum plantation, agriculture, and deforested areas) on soil features and on the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at local scale, this study was carried out in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Sixteen samples per land use, from the top 10 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, water content, pH, organic C, total N, microbial biomass of C and N, and earthworm density/biomass were determined. In addition, the seasonal changes in the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored over a year. Our results indicated that the different land uses were different in terms of soil properties and GHG fluxes. Even though the amount of the GHG varied widely during the year, the highest CO2 and CH4 fluxes (0.32 mg CO2 m(-2) day(-1) and 0.11 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were recorded in the deforested areas. N2O flux was higher in Alnus plantation (0.18 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and deforested areas (0.17 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) than at agriculture site (0.05 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and Taxodium plantation (0.03 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)). This study demonstrated strong impacts of land use change on soil-atmosphere trace gas exchanges and provides useful observational constraints for top-down and bottom-up biogeochemistry models.

  12. Changes in forest cover in the Foresta della Lama (Casentino Forests National Park from Karl Siemon’s and Anton Seeland’s 1837 forest management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazzano E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest estates with a long history of forest management plans are quite rare in Italy. In such cases, the analysis of historical documents combined with the use of GIS technology, can provide useful information on the evolution of forest cover and silvicultural and management techniques. Based on two unpublished documents by Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland dating back to 1837 and 1850, an archive of historical maps for the Lama Forest (Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park was created using GIS techniques. This archive outlines the evolution of the Lama Forest over the last 170 years. Particular attention was given to silver fir plantations, which have strongly characterized silviculture and local economics in the Foreste Casentinesi area. The results of our analysis show that changes in different historical periods have been caused both by silvicultural interventions prescribed by the management plans and by external causes such as changes in forest property or war periods, which have markedly influenced forest area and stand characteristics. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that the work of Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland, carried out between 1835 and 1837, is the oldest forest management plan for an Italian forest. It is interesting to note that the aim of the plan, i.e., a regulated (or “normal” even-aged forest, and the way the plan was laid out, typical of classic forest management originated in Germany at the end of the XVIIIth century, served as model for the forest management plans drawn out by the Florence Forestry School almost until the end of the XXth century.

  13. Safety assessment for the above ground storage of Cadmium Safety and Control Rods at the Solid Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Site is changing from radioisotope production to waste management and environmental restoration. As such, Reactor Engineering has recently developed a plan to transfer the safety and control rods from the C, K, L, and P reactor disassembly basin areas to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads for long-term, retrievable storage. The TRU pads are located within the Solid Waste Management Facilities at the Savannah River Site. An Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Safety Evaluation has been performed for the proposed disassembly basin operations phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project. The USQ screening identified a required change to the authorization basis; however, the Proposed Activity does not involve a positive USQ Safety Evaluation. A Hazard Assessment for the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project determined that the above-ground storage of the cadmium rods results in no change in hazard level at the TRU pads. A Safety Assessment that specifically addresses the storage (at the TRU pads) phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project has been performed. Results of the Safety Assessment support the conclusion that a positive USQ is not involved as a result of the Proposed Activity

  14. Impacts of historic and projected land-cover, land-use, and land-management change on carbon and water fluxes: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lawrence, P.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human land-use activities have resulted in large changes to the Earth surface, with resulting implications for climate. In the future, land-use activities are likely to intensify to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and energy. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) aims to further advance understanding of the broad question of impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) as well as more detailed science questions to get at process-level attribution, uncertainty, and data requirements in more depth and sophistication than possible in a multi-model context to date. LUMIP is multi-faceted and aims to advance our understanding of land-use change from several perspectives. In particular, LUMIP includes a factorial set of land-only simulations that differ from each other with respect to the specific treatment of land use or land management (e.g., irrigation active or not, crop fertilization active or not, wood harvest on or not), or in terms of prescribed climate. This factorial series of experiments serves several purposes and is designed to provide a detailed assessment of how the specification of land-cover change and land management affects the carbon, water, and energy cycle response to land-use change. The potential analyses that are possible through this set of experiments are vast. For example, comparing a control experiment with all land management active to an experiment with no irrigation allows a multi-model assessment of whether or not the increasing use of irrigation during the 20th century is likely to have significantly altered trends of regional water and energy fluxes (and therefore climate) and/or crop yield and carbon fluxes in agricultural regions. Here, we will present preliminary results from the factorial set of experiments utilizing the Community Land Model (CLM5). The analyses presented here will help guide multi-model analyses once the full set of LUMIP simulations are available.

  15. Myanmar in Contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy – Strengthening Common Ground, Managing Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This assessment first briefly examines recent features of China’s approach to foreign affairs, and then examines in greater detail features in China’s approach to relations with its neighbours, especially in Southeast Asia. It does so in order to discern prevailing patterns in Chinese foreign relations and to determine in the review of salient recent China–Myanmar developments in the concluding section how China’s approach to Myanmar compares with Chinese relations with other regional countries and more broadly. The assessment shows that the strengths and weaknesses of China’s recent relations with Myanmar are more or less consistent with the strengths and weaknesses of China’s broader approach to Southeast Asia and international affairs more generally. On the one hand, China’s approach to Myanmar, like its approach to most of the states around its periphery, has witnessed significant advances and growing interdependence in the post-Cold War period. On the other hand, mutual suspicions stemming from negative historical experiences and salient differences require attentive management by Chinese officials and appear unlikely to fade soon.

  16. Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using UV-LED electron photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; Al-Majed, Mohammed; DeBra, Daniel; Byer, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit.

  17. Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using UV-LED electron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; DeBra, Daniel; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Al-Majed, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit. (paper)

  18. Comparison of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with covered stent and ballon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in managing isolated gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lee, Kristen A.; Sauk, Steven; Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Although a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is commonly placed to manage isolated gastric varices, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has also been used. We compare the long-term outcomes from these procedures based on our institutional experience. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with isolated gastric varices who underwent either TIPS with a covered stent or BRTO between January 2000 and July 2013. We identified 52 consecutive patients, 27 who had received TIPS with a covered stent and 25 who had received BRTO. We compared procedural complications, re-bleeding rates, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. There were no significant differences in procedural complications between patients who underwent TIPS (7%) and those who underwent BRTO (12%) (p = 0.57). There were also no statistically significant differences in re-bleeding rates from gastric varices between the two groups (TIPS, 7% [2/27]; BRTO, 8% [2/25]; p = 0.94) or in developing new ascites following either procedure (TIPS, 4%; BRTO, 4%; p = 0.96); significantly more patients who underwent TIPS developed hepatic encephalopathy (22%) than did those who underwent BRTO (0%, p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in mean survival between the two groups (TIPS, 30 months; BRTO, 24 months; p = 0.16); median survival for the patients who received TIPS was 16.6 months, and for those who underwent BRTO, it was 26.6 months. BRTO is an effective method of treating isolated gastric varices with similar outcomes and complication rates to those of TIPS with a covered stent but with a lower rate of hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  20. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography for the safety management of a cultural heritage site: Miletos Ilyas Bey Mosque (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Detection and assessment of structural damage affecting foundation robustness is of significant relevance for the safety management of cultural heritage sites. In this framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is worth consideration owing to its capability of providing high resolution and detailed information about the inner status of a structure, without involving significant invasive actions and ensuring a fast survey. On the other hand, the effectiveness of a GPR diagnostic survey can be impaired by the low interpretability of the raw data radargrams; thus huge interest is currently focused on the development of advanced and application-oriented data processing strategies. In this paper, a data processing chain based on the combined use of the commercial REFLEXW program and a microwave tomography approach is presented. An assessment of the achievable imaging capabilities is provided by processing measurements collected during a survey at the Great Mosque of Ilyas Bey (Ilyas Bey Mosque), one of the most important cultural heritages in ancient Miletos-Iona in Söke-Aydin city (Turkey). (paper)

  1. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Intrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System: An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC, where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  2. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Bardi, Federica; Fanti, Riccardo; Gigli, Giovanni; Fidolini, Francesco; Casagli, Nicola; Costanzo, Sandra; Raffo, Antonio; Di Massa, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Versace, Pasquale

    2017-10-01

    A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System): An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC), where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar) and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  3. Charter on ground-water management as adopted by the Economic Commission for Europe at its forty-fourth session (1989) by decision E (44)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground water - as a natural resource with both ecological and economic value is of vital importance for sustaining life, health and the integrity of ecosystems. This resource is, however, increasingly threatened by over-use and insidious long-term effects of pollution. Pollution comes from both point sources and diffuse sources. Potential risks or actual impacts could permanently impair underground water resources, with far-reaching and unpredictable implications for present and future generations. Action is urgently needed. The Charter on Ground-water Management provides policy measures for such action. The Charter on Ground-water Management gives broad support to ECE member Governments in their common endeavors to protect ground water by providing planners and decision-makers with appropriate policy instruments. Publication of the Charter is intended to heighten public awareness of the need for concerted action to protect ground water. The Commission has recommended that member Governments apply the provisions of the Charter when formulating, adopting and implementing water-related policies and strategies at both national and international levels

  4. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  5. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  6. [Effect of ground mulch managements on soil bacterial community structure and diversity in the non-irrigated apple orchard in Weibei Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuexing; Wen, Xiaoxia; Sun, Yulin; Zhang, Junli; Lin, Xiaoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2015-07-04

    We studied the changes in soil bacterial communities induced by ground mulch managements at different apple growth periods. We adopted the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments to determine soil bacterial community structure and diversity. Soil bacterial community structure with different ground mulch managements were significantly different. Both the mulch management strategies and apple growth periods affected the predominant groups and their abundance in soil bacterial communities. Grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments had higher bacterial diversity and richness than the control at young fruit period and fruit expanding period, whereas film mulch treatment had no significant difference compared with the control. During mature period, bacterial diversity in the control reached its maximum, which may be ascribed to the rapid growth and reproduction of the r-selection bacteria. The clustering and detrended correspondence analysis revealed that differences in soil bacterial communities were closely correlated to apple growth periods and ground mulch managements. Soil samples from the grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments clustered together while those mulched with plastic film treatment were similar to the control. The most abundant phylum in soil bacterial community was Proteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes. Some other phyla were also detected, such as Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. Mulching with plant (Grass/Cornstalk) had great effects on soil bacterial community structure and enhanced the diversity while film mulch management had no significant effects.

  7. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying previously unknown locations of waste

  8. Management of pancreatic collections with a novel endoscopically placed fully covered self-expandable metal stent: a national experience (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Sujievvan; Efthymiou, Marios; Kaffes, Arthur; Chen, John Wei; Kwan, Vu; Murray, Michael; Williams, David; Nguyen, Nam Quoc; Tam, William; Welch, Christine; Chong, Andre; Gupta, Saurabh; Devereaux, Ben; Tagkalidis, Peter; Parker, Frank; Vaughan, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Recent medical literature on novel lumen-apposing stents for the treatment of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) is limited by small numbers, solo operators, and single-center experience. To evaluate a recently developed lumen-apposing, fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in the management of PFCs. Retrospective case series. Thirteen tertiary and private health care centers across Australia. Forty-seven patients (median age 51 years) who underwent endoscopic management of PFCs. Insertion of FCSEMS after PFC puncture under EUS guidance. A subgroup of 9 patients underwent direct endoscopic necrosectomy. Technical and clinical success rate, adverse event rate. The technical success rate was 53 of 54 patients (98.1%), and the initial clinical success rate was 36 of 47 (76.6%), which was sustained for more than 6 months in 34 of 36 (94.4%). Early adverse events included 4 cases (7.4%) of stent migration during direct endoscopic necrosectomy, 4 cases (7.4%) of sepsis, 1 case (1.9%) of bleeding, and 1 case (1.9%) of stent migration into the fistula tract. Late adverse events were 6 (11.1%) spontaneous stent migrations, 3 (5.6%) recurrent stent occlusions, 3 (5.6%) tissue ingrowth/overgrowth, and 2 (3.7%) bleeding into PFC. The majority of stents inserted (48 of 54, 88.9%) and removed (31 of 35, 88.6%) in our study were described by the operator as superior to pigtail stents with regard to ease of use. Retrospective study. Although FCSEMSs are technically easier to insert and remove compared with traditional pigtail stents, there are significant limitations to the widespread use of FCSEMSs in the management of PFCs. These include cost, adverse events, and lower-than-expected resolution rates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the ma...

  10. Plantas de cobertura, manejo da palhada e produtividade da mamoneira no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, straw mulch management and castor bean yield in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Ferrari Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de cobertura que apresentem elevada produção de fitomassa e reciclagem de nutrientes são essenciais para maximizar a produtividade das culturas em sucessão, no sistema plantio direto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produção de massa de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelo guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan e o milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado, e o efeito do manejo mecânico da palhada na produtividade da mamoneira de safrinha, na fase de implantação do sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado em um Nitossolo Vermelho, em Botucatu, SP. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três coberturas vegetais (guandu-anão, milheto e o cultivo consorciado das duas espécies e as subparcelas pela ausência ou presença do manejo mecânico da palhada com triturador horizontal, 20 dias após o manejo químico. O milheto solteiro produziu maior quantidade de massa de matéria seca (14.040 kg ha-1, apresentou maiores concentrações de K e Mg e acumulou maiores quantidades de macronutrientes na parte aérea. A mamoneira apresentou maior produtividade de grãos em sucessão ao consórcio guandu-anão + milheto. A produtividade de grãos da mamoneira foi maior na ausência do manejo mecânico da palhada.Cover crops that have high phytomass production and nutrient cycling are essential to maximize the crop yields in succession under no-tillage system. This study aimed to evaluate dry matter production and nutrients accumulation by pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, in sole crop and intercropped, and the effect of straw mulch mechanical management on out-of-season castor bean performance, in no-tillage system establishment. The experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Nitisol, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. A randomized blocks design, in a split-plot scheme, with four replications

  11. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  12. Information Technology Management: Select Controls for the Information Security of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truex, Kathryn M; Lamar, Karen J; Leighton, George A; Woodruff, Courtney E; Brunetti, Tina N; Russell, Dawn M

    2006-01-01

    ... to the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network should read this report to reduce the risk of interruption, misuse, modification, and unauthorized access to information in the system...

  13. Conceptualising the management of packaging within new product development:a grounded investigation in the UK fast moving consumer goods industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simms, Chris; Trott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this study is to: (i) contribute to existing models of new product development (NPD), and provide new understanding of how a new product’s packaging is managed and integrated into the NPD process of fast moving consumer goods firms; and (ii) build on prior research suggesting that firms lack a pipeline of new packaging innovations by uncovering the factors that influence this pipeline issue. Design/methodology/approach- A grounded theory methodology was adopted. Resear...

  14. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section 633.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the...

  15. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  16. Management of ground water and evolving hydrogeologic studies in New Jersey : a heavily urbanized and industrialized state in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    New Jersey is the most densely populated and one of the most industrialized states in the United States. An abundance of freshwater and proximity to major northeastern metropolitan centers has facilitated this development. Pumpage of freshwater from all aquifers in the State in 1980 was 730 million gallons per day (2.76 million cubic meters per day).Management and efficient development of the ground-water resources of the State are the responsibility of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Laws have been enacted and updated by the State legislature to manage water allocation and to control the disposal of hazardous wastes. Present resource management is guided by the New Jersey Water-Supply Master Plan of 1981. Funding for management activities is partially derived from the sale of state-approved bonds.Effective planning and regional management require accurate and up-to-date hydrologic information and analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Geological Survey, is conducting three intensive ground-water studies involving the collection and interpretation of hydrologic data to meet the urgent water-management needs of New Jersey. These studies are part of a long-term cooperative program and are funded through the Water-Supply Bond Act of 1981. They began in 1983 and are scheduled to be completed in 1988.The project areas are situated in the New Jersey part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in and near Atlantic City, Camden, and South River. They range in size from 400 to 1,200 mil (1,040 to 3,120 km2). The studies are designed to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the local ground-water systems. The results of these studies will enable the State to address more effectively major problems in these areas such as declining water levels, overpumping, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water contamination resulting from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes.Specific objectives of these studies by the U

  17. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations.

  18. Desempenho operacional de semeadura-adubadora em diferentes manejos da cobertura e da velocidade Operational performance of seeder in different forward speed and winter cover crop management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Furlani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora no sistema plantio direto. Os fatores estudados foram três manejos das culturas de cobertura, selecionados em função do tamanho de fragmentos da vegetação, triturador de palhas (palha totalmente triturada, roçadora (palha parcialmente picada e rolo-facas (palha acamada, combinados com três velocidades do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora, sendo 4,0; 5,0 e 6,0 km h-1. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com nove tratamentos e oito repetições, totalizando 72 observações. Para comparar os tratamentos, avaliaram-se a capacidade de campo operacional, a força de tração e a potência na barra, o consumo horário e por área, e a patinagem dos rodados do trator. O desempenho da semeadora-adubadora não foi influenciado pelos três manejos na cultura de cobertura vegetal. O aumento da velocidade provocou diminuição da força de tração, sendo o inverso para a capacidade de campo operacional e a potência na barra. O consumo horário de combustível aumentou com a velocidade, enquanto o operacional diminuiu.The present work aimed to evaluate the seeder performance in the direct sowing system. The studied factors were three cover crop managements, chosen according to the size of the vegetation fragment, such as straw (straw totally triturated, weeder (straw partially chopped and knife-rolls (straw practically entire, combined with three speeds of the seeder, being 4.0; 5.0 and 6.0 km h-1. The experimental outlining was carried out in casual blocks in factorial scheme 3 x 3, with nine treatments and eight repetitions, totalizing 72 observations. In the course of the experiment the following variants were evaluated: effective field capacity, force and power in the bar, hourly and area consumption of fuel and tractor’s pulleys sliding. The data reached were tabulated and submitted to factorial variant

  19. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  20. Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Smith, Richard F; Bettiga, Larry

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, x Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

  1. A Grounded Theory of Behavior Management Strategy Selection, Implementation, and Perceived Effectiveness Reported by First-Year Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie B.; Igo, L. Brent

    2010-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. When confronting mild student…

  2. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Some Other Invertebrates from the Managed Nature Reserves "Dolna Topchiya" and "Balabana" (Lower Valley of the River of Tundzha, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the "Balabana" and "Dolna Topchiya" managed nature reserves is studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. The area of study is interesting from a biological point of view, as the Tundzha River constitutes a corridor of penetration of southern and thermophilic elements. On the other hand, the specifics of the territory predetermine the presence of many typically forest and some mountain species, as well as a lot of inhabitants of open biotopes, in particular – steppe forms. During the study, altogether 2041 specimens of carabid beetles belonging to 88 species are captured, as well as 76 other invertebrate species, some of which are with a conservation significance – new, endemic, rare, protected or endangered. Forty-six carabid species are reported for the first time for the Sakar-Tundzha region. Ground beetles are characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging and the life forms they refer to.

  3. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree; E. Gregory McPherson; Susan M. Sisinni; Esther R. Kirkmann; Jack C. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of city tree cover can aid in urban vegetation planning, management, and research by revealing characteristics of vegetation across a city. Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California, to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two important factors that affect the amount of urban tree cover are the natural environment and land...

  4. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  5. Ground facility for information reception, processing, dissemination and scientific instruments management setup in the CORONAS-PHOTON space project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.

  6. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  7. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  8. A grounded exploration of the dimensions of managerial capability: A preliminary study of top Australian pharmacist owner-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Australian community pharmacies are experiencing challenges, including government prescription pricing reform and a dramatically increasing competitive environment. Enacting appropriate responsive actions requires capable pharmacy managers. 'Capability' implies managing effectively in the present, but with unknown or emerging contexts and with new problems. A conceptual understanding of managerial capability as practiced by pharmacist owner-managers is unavailable in the literature. This research aimed to address the question: How can we understand managerial capability in relation to effective community pharmacy management? The study's objective was to develop preliminary theoretical departure points for continuing research responding to the research question. The objective was approached by exploring how 5 top Australian pharmacy owner-managers accomplish the management of their businesses in a changing business environment. Qualitative research methods were employed to develop a social process perspective of how the managers enact their management practices. In-depth semi-structured life-world interviews were undertaken as the major method of data collection. Interview text thematic analysis was carried out identifying rich conceptual properties and dimensions, which 'dimensionalized' 3 key integrated categories. The findings show how the managers are immersed in their business, managerial and personal practices in a holistic and relational manner. Managerial processes, reported through three conceptual categories, their properties and dimensions, reveal the highly situational nature of the reality the managers were experiencing, including their need to express their personal/professional identity. The properties and dimensions of the category 'learning generatively' in particular, reveal how the pharmacy owner-managers shape their business activities and their emerging context as time passes. The preliminary interpretive view of managerial capability describes

  9. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators′ response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinós, Gema P.; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed. PMID:29351549

  10. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators' response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Esteban; Loureiro, Íñigo; Farinós, Gema P; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed.

  11. Mycorrhiza formation and nutrient concentration in leeks (¤Allium porrum¤) in relation to previous crop and cover crop management on high P soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.N.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved integration of mycorrhizas may increase the sustainability in plant production. Two strategies for increasing the soil inoculum potential of mycorrhizal fungi were investigated in field experiments with leeks: Pre-cropping with mycorrhizal main crops and pre-establishment of mycorrhizal......, increased the colonization of leek roots by mycorrhizal fungi. During early growth stages, this increase was 45-95% relative to no cover crop. However, cover cropping did not significantly increase nutrient concentration or growth. These variables were not influenced by the time of cover crop incorporation...... or tillage treatments. Differences in colonization, nutrient uptake and plant growth diminished during the growing period and at the final harvest date, the effects on plant production disappeared. High soil P level or high soil inoculum level was most likely responsible for the limited response of increased...

  12. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  13. An Analysis of Overstory Tree Canopy Cover in Sites Occupied by Native and Introduced Cottontails in the Northeastern United States with Recommendations for Habitat Management for New England Cottontail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Buffum

    Full Text Available The New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis is a high conservation priority in the Northeastern United States and has been listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. Loss of early successional habitat is the most common explanation for the decline of the species, which is considered to require habitat with dense low vegetation and limited overstory tree canopy. Federal and state wildlife agencies actively encourage landowners to create this habitat type by clearcutting blocks of forest. However, there are recent indications that the species also occupies sites with moderate overstory tree canopy cover. This is important because many landowners have negative views about clearcutting and are more willing to adopt silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory trees. Furthermore, it is possible that clearcuts with no overstory canopy cover may attract the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus, an introduced species with an expanding range. The objective of our study was to provide guidance for future efforts to create habitat that would be more favorable for New England cottontail than eastern cottontail in areas where the two species are sympatric. We analyzed canopy cover at 336 cottontail locations in five states using maximum entropy modelling and other statistical methods. We found that New England cottontail occupied sites with a mean overstory tree canopy cover of 58% (SE±1.36, and was less likely than eastern cottontail to occupy sites with lower overstory canopy cover and more likely to occupy sites with higher overstory canopy cover. Our findings suggest that silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory canopy cover may be appropriate for creating habitat for New England cottontail. We believe that our results will help inform critical management decisions for the conservation of New England cottontail, and that our methodology can be applied to analyses of habitat use of other critical wildlife

  14. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  15. Intentional partnering: a grounded theory study on developing effective partnerships among nurse and physician managers as they co-lead in an evolving healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Christina; Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Purden, Margaret; Lamothe, Lise; Ezer, Héléne; McVey, Lynne

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the process of how nurse and physician managers in formalized dyads work together to address clinical management issues in the surgical division of one hospital setting. Nurse and physician managers are uniquely positioned to co-lead and transform healthcare delivery. However, little is known about how this management dyad functions in the healthcare setting. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to investigate the process of how nurse and physician managers work together in formalized dyads in an urban Canadian university affiliated teaching hospital. Data collection occurred from September 2013-August 2014. Data included participant observation (n = 142 hours) and intensive interviews (n = 36) with nurse-physician manager dyads (12 nurses, 9 physicians) collected in a surgical department. Theoretical sampling was used to elaborate on properties of emerging concepts and categories. A substantive theory on 'intentional partnering' was generated. Nurses' and physicians' professional agendas, which included their interests and purposes for working with each other served as the starting point of 'intentional partnering'. The theory explains how nurse and physician managers align their professional agendas through the processes of 'accepting mutual necessity', 'daring to risk (together)' and 'constructing a shared responsibility'. Being credible, earning trust and safeguarding respect were fundamental to communicating effectively. Intentional partnering elucidates the relational components of working together and the strategizing that occurs as each partner deliberates on what he or she is willing to accept, risk and put into place to reap the benefits of collaborating. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  17. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  19. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  1. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Fractional Cover of Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation in the Otindag Sandy Land Using GF-1 Wide-Field View Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosong Li; Guoxiong Zheng; Jinying Wang; Cuicui Ji; Bin Sun; Zhihai Gao

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) are important ground cover types for desertification monitoring and land management. Hyperspectral remote sensing has been proven effective for separating NPV from bare soil, but few studies determined fractional cover of PV (fpv) and NPV (fnpv) using multispectral information. The purpose of this study is to evaluate several spectral unmixing approaches for retrieval of fpv and fnpv in the Otindag Sandy Land using GF-1 wi...

  2. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  3. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  4. Managing multi-architect collaborative design: case study of design competition for Ground Zero in New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the PhD research by the author that responds to the need of an innovative approach to manage collaborative design in the conceptual design phase of a multi-architect building project. The research studied recent multi-architect building projects in the Netherlands,

  5. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  6. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow and evaluation of water-management alternatives in the upper Charles River basin, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Walter, Donald A.; Eggleston, John R.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of drinking water for towns in the upper Charles River Basin, an area of 105 square miles in eastern Massachusetts that is undergoing rapid growth. The stratified-glacial aquifers in the basin are high yield, but also are thin, discontinuous, and in close hydraulic connection with streams, ponds, and wetlands. Water withdrawals averaged 10.1 million gallons per day in 1989?98 and are likely to increase in response to rapid growth. These withdrawals deplete streamflow and lower pond levels. A study was conducted to develop tools for evaluating water-management alternatives at the regional scale in the basin. Geologic and hydrologic data were compiled and collected to characterize the ground- and surface-water systems. Numerical flow modeling techniques were applied to evaluate the effects of increased withdrawals and altered recharge on ground-water levels, pond levels, and stream base flow. Simulation-optimization methods also were applied to test their efficacy for management of multiple water-supply and water-resource needs. Steady-state and transient ground-water-flow models were developed using the numerical modeling code MODFLOW-2000. The models were calibrated to 1989?98 average annual conditions of water withdrawals, water levels, and stream base flow. Model recharge rates were varied spatially, by land use, surficial geology, and septic-tank return flow. Recharge was changed during model calibration by means of parameter-estimation techniques to better match the estimated average annual base flow; area-weighted rates averaged 22.5 inches per year for the basin. Water withdrawals accounted for about 7 percent of total simulated flows through the stream-aquifer system and were about equal in magnitude to model-calculated rates of ground-water evapotranspiration from wetlands and ponds in aquifer areas. Water withdrawals as percentages of total flow varied spatially and temporally within an average year; maximum values were

  8. Fifth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring, and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book presents papers on technology in ground water sampling, monitoring, and remediation and geophysical techniques. The section on monitoring and remediation covers monitoring case studies, monitoring waste disposal sites, petroleum recovery, techniques in aquifer remediation, mathematical analysis of remedial techniques, vacuum extraction, bioremediation, and monitoring techniques. The section on sampling covers measurement variability, microbial sampling, vadose zone sampling, sampling with hydraulic probes, unusual sampling problems and equipment, and data management. A section on geophysics covers geophysics and site characterization, and geophysics and mining. The focus is on hazardous organic compounds. Individual articles are abstracted separately

  9. Ground Testing and Flight Demonstration of Charge Management of Insulated Test Masses Using UV LED Electron Photoemission

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; AlRashed, Abdullah; Nassban, Badr Al; Suwaidan, Badr Al; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin

    2016-01-01

    The UV LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses that is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag free sensors. Accelerometers and drag free sensors were and remain at the core of geodesy, aeronomy, and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational science experiments and gravitational wave observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on G...

  10. No consistent effect of plant species richness on resistance to simulated climate change for above- or below-ground processes in managed grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Carsten F; von Riedmatten, Lars; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-06-17

    Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture). We manipulated spring warming using open-top chambers and summer drought using rain-out shelters for 4 weeks. Measurements of species richness, above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations showed significant but inconsistent differences among regions, managements and manipulations. We detected a three-way interaction between species richness, management and region, indicating that our study design was sensitive enough to detect even intricate effects. We could not detect a pervasive effect of species richness on biomass differences between treatments and controls, indicating that a combination of spring warming and summer drought effects on grassland systems are not consistently moderated by species richness. We attribute this to the relatively high number of species even at low richness levels, which already provides the complementarity required for positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. A review of the literature also indicates that climate manipulations largely fail to show richness-buffering, while natural experiments do, suggesting that such manipulations are milder than reality or incur treatment artefacts.

  11. Exploring the perception of aid organizations' staff about factors affecting management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeli, Javad; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2017-07-01

    Traffic incidents are of main health issues all around the world and cause countless deaths, heavy casualties, and considerable tangible and intangible damage. In this regard, mass casualty traffic incidents are worthy of special attention as, in addition to all losses and damage, they create challenges in the way of providing health services to the victims. The present study is an attempt to explore the challenges and facilitators in management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran. This qualitative grounded theory study was carried out with participation of 14 purposively selected experienced managers, paramedics and staff of aid organizations in different provinces of Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to develop the theory. The transcribed interviews were analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Despite the recent and relatively good improvements in facilities and management procedure of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran, several problems such as lack of coordination, lack of centralized and integrated command system, large number of organizations participating in operations, duplicate attempts and parallel operations carried out by different organizations, intervention of lay people, and cultural factors halt provision of effective health services to the victims. It is necessary to improve the theoretical and practical knowledge of the relief personnel and paramedics, provide public with education about first aid and improve driving culture, prohibit laypeople from intervening in aid operations, and increase quality and quantity of aid facilities.

  12. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  13. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  14. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  15. Survivability enhancement study for C/sup 3/I/BM (communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management) ground segments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-30

    This study involves a concept developed by the Fairchild Space Company which is directly applicable to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Program as well as other national security programs requiring reliable, secure and survivable telecommunications systems. The overall objective of this study program was to determine the feasibility of combining and integrating long-lived, compact, autonomous isotope power sources with fiber optic and other types of ground segments of the SDI communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management (C/sup 3/I/BM) system in order to significantly enhance the survivability of those critical systems, especially against the potential threats of electromagnetic pulse(s) (EMP) resulting from high altitude nuclear weapon explosion(s). 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. ‘Engage me in taking care of my heart’: a grounded theory study on patient–cardiologist relationship in the hospital management of heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Lombardi, Federico; Bosio, A Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective In approaching the study and practice of heart failure (HF) management, authors recognise that the patient–doctor relationship has a central role in engaging patients in their care. This study aims at identifying the features and the levers of HF patient engagement and suggestions for orienting clinical encounters. Design Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 22 in-depth interviews (13 patients with HF, 5 physicians and 4 caregivers). Data were collected and analysed using open, axial and selective coding procedures according to the grounded theory principles. Settings All interviews were conducted in an office in a university hospital located in a metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. Participants The data comprised a total of 22 patient, hospital cardiologist and caregiver interviews. Patients aged ≥18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class of II or III were eligible to take part. Patients were recruited primarily through their referral cardiologist. Results The HF patient engagement process develops in four main phases that are characterised by different patients’ emotional, cognitive and behavioural dynamics that contribute to shape the process of a patient's meaning making towards health and illness regarding their care. The emerging model illustrates that HF patient engagement entails a meaning-making process enacted by the patient after the critical event. This implies patients’ ability to give sense to their care experience and to their disease, symptomatology and treatments, and their changes along their illness course. Doctors are recognised as crucial in fostering patients’ engagement along all the phases of the process as they contribute to providing patients with self-continuity and give new meaning to their illness experience. Conclusions This study identifies the core experiential domains and the main levers involved in driving patients with HF to effectively engage in their disease management. The

  17. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  18. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  19. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  20. Beliefs and Attitudes Associated with ERP Adoption Behaviours: A Grounded Theory Study from IT Manager and End-user Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunthari, Santipat; Hasan, Helen

    (1998, p. 121) defines an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system as an enterprise system that promises seamless integration of all information flowing through a company, including financial and accounting information, human resource information, supply chain information, customer information. ERP systems came on the scene in the early 1990s as a response to the proliferation of standalone business applications to service these separate information needs in most large organisations. Enterprise wide projects, such as data warehousing, requiring integrated approaches to organisational operations and information management were inhibited through a proliferation of incompatible off-the-shelf packages, in-house developments and aging legacy systems.

  1. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  2. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Christian; Miccichè, Salvatore; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2017-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i) in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii) in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  3. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bongiorno

    Full Text Available We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  4. Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear power plants meteorological surveillance in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Calpini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological surveillance of the four nuclear power plants in Switzerland is of first importance in a densely populated area such as the Swiss Plateau. The project "Centrales Nucléaires et Météorologie" CN-MET aimed at providing a new security tool based on one hand on the development of a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The latter is providing essential nowcasting information in case of a radioactive release from a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. On the other hand, the model input over the Swiss Plateau is generated by a dedicated network of surface and upper air observations including remote sensing instruments (wind profilers and temperature/humidity passive microwave radiometers. This network is built upon three main sites ideally located for measuring the inflow/outflow and central conditions of the main wind field in the planetary boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau, as well as a number of surface automatic weather stations (AWS. The network data are assimilated in real-time into the fine grid NWP model using a rapid update cycle of eight runs per day (one forecast every three hours. This high resolution NWP model has replaced the former security tool based on in situ observations (in particular one meteorological mast at each of the power plants and a local dispersion model. It is used to forecast the dynamics of the atmosphere in the planetary boundary layer (typically the first 4 km above ground layer and over a time scale of 24 h. This tool provides at any time (e.g. starting at the initial time of a nuclear power plant release the best picture of the 24-h evolution of the air mass over the Swiss Plateau and furthermore generates the input data (in the form of simulated values substituting in situ observations required for the local dispersion model used at each of the nuclear power plants locations. This paper is presenting the concept and two validation studies as well as the results of an

  5. Management of a complicated pulmonary fistula caused by lung cancer using a fibrin glue-soaked polyglycolic acid sheet covered with an intercostal muscle flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniwa, Tomohiro; Kaneda, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yukihito

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary fistulas caused by tumours are very fragile and difficult to suture directly. It is impossible to close pulmonary fistulas with tissue sealants when massive air leakage occurs in the low pressure of the respiratory tract. A 73-year-old man with a pneumothorax caused by lung cancer had suffered a persistent massive air leakage for more than one month. We used a fibrin glue-soaked polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet for sealing the complicated fistula. In addition, the visceral pleura of the fistula was wrapped with the pedicle of an intercostal muscle (ICM) flap to prevent massive air leakage. The pneumothorax did not reappear after surgery. Thus, a fibrin glue-soaked PGA sheet covered with an ICM flap was effective for sealing an intractable air-leaking fistula caused by lung cancer.

  6. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-02-21

    Feb 21, 1996 ... pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was signifi- ... sal and cooperative breeding in pale chanting goshawk families. ...... fortunes in the white-fronted bee-eater.

  7. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    r oo 09N Cml* Iw pim c rphkase MAd sAOl; Its D1 O r STHE UNIVERSITY OF MIS .. PHYSICAL ACOUSIS E _AC SGRO1PP tJ,, IPARTMENTO Ul1STIC__RSE C.ND AST•OP...its C LINIlINr Thl VALUES Ott Xfl-EL To NIt LobE,- THAN X%;P.I’ C THIS 1AUCE VEi4SiIh IS A P"’DIFJCA?1OP1 O’? PANGVZ# MAT HAhG.U3v c THE SYSTIh’ of

  8. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  9. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  10. Cover crop management in the weed control and productive performance in cornManejo de plantas de cobertura no controle de plantas daninhas e desempenho produtivo da cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar espécies vegetais com potencial alelopático, associados às práticas de manejo e ao uso de herbicida nicosulfuron, no controle de plantas daninhas e nos componentes de produtividade da cultura do milho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi composto por três fatores: espécies de cobertura, manejo das coberturas e aplicação ou não de herbicida nicosulfuron em pós-emergência. As variáveis avaliadas foram: número de plantas daninhas, número de fileiras de grãos, número de grãos por fileira, número de grãos por espiga e produtividade de grãos de milho. A cobertura de azevém, em geral, reduz o número de plantas daninhas emergidas e favorece o desempenho produtivo do milho. O manejo das plantas de cobertura com roçada e retirada da palha reduz a produtividade do milho. A maior produtividade do milho, foi observada com a aplicação de nicosulfuron em pós-emergência, independente da cultura de cobertura ou do manejo adotado. The objective of the study was evaluate the allelopathy of cover species, associated to management practices and use of nicosulfuron herbicide on the productive performance of corn. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments were: cover species, cover management and application or not of post-emergence herbicide. The variables evaluated were: number of weeds, number of rows kernels, number of kernels rows, number of kernels ear and grain yield of corn. Lolium multiflorum, reduced the number of emerged weeds and provides the best results in productive performance. The management simulated grazing, does not favor the yield of corn. The application of nicosulfuron in post-emergence, along with the allelopathic activity increases the productive performance of corn, regardless of cover crop or soil management.

  11. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  12. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  13. Outcomes of the Use of Fully Covered Esophageal Self-Expandable Stent in the Management of Colorectal Anastomotic Strictures and Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Colorectal anastomotic leak or stricture is a dreaded complication leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The novel use of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS in the management of postoperative colorectal anastomotic leaks or strictures can avoid surgical reintervention. Methods. Retrospective study with particular attention to the indications, operative or postoperative complications, and clinical outcomes of SEMS placement for patients with either a colorectal anastomotic stricture or leak. Results. Eight patients had SEMS (WallFlex stent for the management of postoperative colorectal anastomotic leak or stricture. Five had a colorectal anastomotic stricture and 3 had a colorectal anastomotic leak. Complete resolution of the anastomotic stricture or leak was achieved in all patients. Three had recurrence of the anastomotic stricture on 3-month flexible sigmoidoscopy follow-up after the initial stent was removed. Two of these patients had a stricture that was technically too difficult to place another stent. Stent migration was noted in 2 patients, one at day 3 and the other at day 14 after stent placement that required a larger 23 mm stent to be placed. Conclusions. The use of SEMS in the management of colorectal anastomotic leaks or strictures is feasible and is associated with high technical and clinical success rate.

  14. Reforms from the Ground Up: A Review of Community-Based Forest Management in Tropical Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tole, Lise

    2010-06-01

    After an initial burst of enthusiasm in the 1990s, community-based forest management (CBFM) is increasingly being viewed with a critical eye. Evidence suggests that many programs have failed to promote their stated objectives of sustainability, efficiency, equity, democratic participation and poverty reduction. A large volume of academic literature now exists on CBFM, examining both the success and failure of such initiatives in a wide variety of countries. Through analysis of key themes, concepts and issues in CBFM, this article provides a review of CBFM initiatives in tropical developing countries for policymakers, practitioners and planners wishing to gain an understanding of this wide-ranging, interdisciplinary academic literature. The article identifies key institutions and incentives that appear to significantly affect the success or failure of CBFM initiatives. In particular, it reports that consideration of institutional and socioeconomic factors along with personal characteristics of key stakeholders such as beliefs, attitudes, financial resources and skills are important determinants of CBFM outcomes. However, local incentive structures also appear to be important. There is increasing recognition in the literature of the need to consider the conditions under which local politicians entrusted with carrying out CBFM initiatives will deem it worthwhile to invest their scarce time and resources on environmental governance.

  15. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  16. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  17. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2018-01-01

    Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the

  18. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  19. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  20. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  1. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  2. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  3. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  4. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  5. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  6. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  7. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  8. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  9. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  10. 'Engage me in taking care of my heart': a grounded theory study on patient-cardiologist relationship in the hospital management of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Lombardi, Federico; Bosio, A Claudio

    2015-03-16

    In approaching the study and practice of heart failure (HF) management, authors recognise that the patient-doctor relationship has a central role in engaging patients in their care. This study aims at identifying the features and the levers of HF patient engagement and suggestions for orienting clinical encounters. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 22 in-depth interviews (13 patients with HF, 5 physicians and 4 caregivers). Data were collected and analysed using open, axial and selective coding procedures according to the grounded theory principles. All interviews were conducted in an office in a university hospital located in a metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. The data comprised a total of 22 patient, hospital cardiologist and caregiver interviews. Patients aged ≥18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class of II or III were eligible to take part. Patients were recruited primarily through their referral cardiologist. The HF patient engagement process develops in four main phases that are characterised by different patients' emotional, cognitive and behavioural dynamics that contribute to shape the process of a patient's meaning making towards health and illness regarding their care. The emerging model illustrates that HF patient engagement entails a meaning-making process enacted by the patient after the critical event. This implies patients' ability to give sense to their care experience and to their disease, symptomatology and treatments, and their changes along their illness course. Doctors are recognised as crucial in fostering patients' engagement along all the phases of the process as they contribute to providing patients with self-continuity and give new meaning to their illness experience. This study identifies the core experiential domains and the main levers involved in driving patients with HF to effectively engage in their disease management. The model emerging from this study may help clinicians think in a fresh

  11. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  13. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Linking snake habitat use to nest predation risk in grassland birds: the dangers of shrub cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Page E; Jackrel, Sara L; With, Kimberly A

    2010-03-01

    Extremes in rangeland management, varying from too-frequent fire and intensive grazing to the suppression of both, threaten rangeland ecosystems worldwide. Intensive fire and grazing denude and homogenize vegetation whereas their suppression increases woody cover. Although habitat loss is implicated in grassland bird declines, degradation through intensive management or neglect also decreases breeding habitat and may reduce nesting success through increased rates of nest predation. Snakes are important nest predators, but little is known about how habitat use in snakes relates to predation risk for grassland birds nesting within tallgrass prairie subjected to different grazing and fire frequencies. We evaluated nest survival in the context of habitat used by nesting songbirds and two bird-eating snakes, the eastern yellowbelly racer Coluber constrictor flaviventris and Great Plains ratsnake Pantherophis emoryi. Daily nest survival rates decreased with increasing shrub cover and decreasing vegetation height, which characterize grasslands that have been neglected or intensively managed, respectively. Discriminant function analysis revealed that snake habitats were characterized by higher shrub cover, whereas successful nests were more likely to occur in areas with tall grass and forbs but reduced shrub cover. Because snakes often use shrub habitat, birds nesting in areas with increased shrub cover may be at higher risk of nest predation by snakes in addition to other predators known to use shrub habitat (e.g., mid-sized carnivores and avian predators). Depredated nests also occurred outside the discriminant space of the snakes, indicating that other predators (e.g., ground squirrels Spermophilus spp. and bullsnakes Pituophis catenifer) may be important in areas with denuded cover. Targeted removal of shrubs may increase nest success by minimizing the activity of nest predators attracted to shrub cover.

  15. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  16. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  17. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  18. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  19. Impacts of changes in groundwater recharge on the isotopic composition and geochemistry of seasonally ice-covered lakes: insights for sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth; Gibson, John; Noret, Aurélie

    2017-11-01

    Lakes are under increasing pressure due to widespread anthropogenic impacts related to rapid development and population growth. Accordingly, many lakes are currently undergoing a systematic decline in water quality. Recent studies have highlighted that global warming and the subsequent changes in water use may further exacerbate eutrophication in lakes. Lake evolution depends strongly on hydrologic balance, and therefore on groundwater connectivity. Groundwater also influences the sensitivity of lacustrine ecosystems to climate and environmental changes, and governs their resilience. Improved characterization of groundwater exchange with lakes is needed today for lake preservation, lake restoration, and sustainable management of lake water quality into the future. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to determine if the future evolution of the climate, the population, and the recharge could modify the geochemistry of lakes (mainly isotopic signature and quality via phosphorous load) and if the isotopic monitoring of lakes could be an efficient tool to highlight the variability of the water budget and quality. Small groundwater-connected lakes were chosen to simulate changes in water balance and water quality expected under future climate change scenarios, namely representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Contemporary baseline conditions, including isotope mass balance and geochemical characteristics, were determined through an intensive field-based research program prior to the simulations. Results highlight that future lake geochemistry and isotopic composition trends will depend on four main parameters: location (and therefore climate conditions), lake catchment size (which impacts the intensity of the flux change), lake volume (which impacts the range of variation), and lake G index (i.e., the percentage of groundwater that makes up total lake inflows), the latter being the dominant control on water balance conditions, as revealed by

  20. Impacts of changes in groundwater recharge on the isotopic composition and geochemistry of seasonally ice-covered lakes: insights for sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arnoux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are under increasing pressure due to widespread anthropogenic impacts related to rapid development and population growth. Accordingly, many lakes are currently undergoing a systematic decline in water quality. Recent studies have highlighted that global warming and the subsequent changes in water use may further exacerbate eutrophication in lakes. Lake evolution depends strongly on hydrologic balance, and therefore on groundwater connectivity. Groundwater also influences the sensitivity of lacustrine ecosystems to climate and environmental changes, and governs their resilience. Improved characterization of groundwater exchange with lakes is needed today for lake preservation, lake restoration, and sustainable management of lake water quality into the future. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to determine if the future evolution of the climate, the population, and the recharge could modify the geochemistry of lakes (mainly isotopic signature and quality via phosphorous load and if the isotopic monitoring of lakes could be an efficient tool to highlight the variability of the water budget and quality. Small groundwater-connected lakes were chosen to simulate changes in water balance and water quality expected under future climate change scenarios, namely representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Contemporary baseline conditions, including isotope mass balance and geochemical characteristics, were determined through an intensive field-based research program prior to the simulations. Results highlight that future lake geochemistry and isotopic composition trends will depend on four main parameters: location (and therefore climate conditions, lake catchment size (which impacts the intensity of the flux change, lake volume (which impacts the range of variation, and lake G index (i.e., the percentage of groundwater that makes up total lake inflows, the latter being the dominant control on water balance conditions, as

  1. Satellite and ground-based analysis of the effects on vegetation of continuous SO2 degassing at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) and its application to hazard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, R.; van Manen, S. M.; Burson, B.; Carn, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Turrialba is an active stratovolcano located 35 km northeast of San Jose, Costa Rica's capital city and socioeconomic hub. After over 100 years of quiescence Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 progressively increasing its degassing and seismic activity, showing continuous gas emissions since 2007. Intermittent phreatic explosions with ash emissions that have reached the capital have occurred since 2010. This activity has resulted in the temporary evacuation of two villages, closure of the National Park that comprises the summit region of the volcano and devastation of the local ecosystem. We combined a variety of satellite-based time series with ground-based measurements of ambient gas concentrations, element deposition and surveys of species richness to enable a comprehensive assessment of SO2 emissions and changes in vegetation. Satellite-based time-series were obtained from Landsat ETM+, Terra ASTER, Terra/Aqua MODIS and Aura OMI, with some of the data dating back to 2000. From 2007-2010 we observed emissions of SO2 and loss of vegetation healthiness (i.e. decrease of EVI2) downwind of the vents. From 2010 onwards these stabilized, but we observe an apparent decrease in agriculture. Other multi-temporal products, such as the ALOS PALSAR FNF data, confirm our observations. The exposure to the volcanic plume resulted in high soil acidity and significant uptake of certain heavy metals by vegetation; in contrast other elements are leached from the soil as a result of the acid deposition. These factors are likely to be responsible for decreased species richness and physiological damage observed at Turrialba. Our study shows ecological impacts, in terms of soil characteristics, vegetation composition and diversity and physiological damage of vegetation, which all correlate to fumigation by Turrialba's plume. Analyzing and relating the remote observations to conditions and impacts on the ground provides a better understanding of volcanic degassing, its impacts on

  2. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  3. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  4. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  5. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  6. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  7. 'Sustaining Place' - a grounded theory of how informal carers of people with dementia manage alterations to relationships within their social worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise; McCarron, Mary; Higgins, Agnes; McCallion, Philip

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a theory explaining the processes used by informal carers of people with dementia to mange alterations to their, and people with dementias' relationships with and places within their social worlds. Informal carers provide the majority of care to people with dementia. A great deal of international informal dementia care research is available, much of which elucidates the content, impacts and consequences of the informal caring role and the coping mechanisms that carers use. However, the socially situated experiences and processes integral to informal caring in dementia have not yet been robustly accounted for. A classic grounded theory approach was used as it is designed for research enquiries that aim to generate theory illustrating social patterns of action used to address an identified problem. Thirty interviews were conducted with 31 participants between 2006-2008. The theory was conceptualised from the data using the concurrent methods of theoretical sampling, constant comparative analysis, memo writing and theoretical sensitivity. Informal carers' main concern was identified as 'Living on the fringes', which was stimulated by dementia-related stigma and living a different life. The theory of 'Sustaining Place' explains the social pattern of actions employed by informal carers to manage this problem on behalf of themselves and the person with dementia. The theory of 'Sustaining Place' identifies an imperative for nurses, other formal carers and society to engage in actions to support and enable social connectedness, social inclusion and citizenship for informal carers and people with dementia. 'Sustaining Place' facilitates enhanced understanding of the complex and socially situated nature of informal dementia care through its portrayal of informal carers as social agents and can be used to guide nurses to better support those who live with dementia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  9. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  10. Soil parameter retrieval under vegetation cover using SAR polarimetery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdhuber, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Soil conditions under vegetation cover and their spatial and temporal variations from point to catchment scale are crucial for understanding hydrological processes within the vadose zone, for managing irrigation and consequently maximizing yield by precision farming. Soil moisture and soil roughness are the key parameters that characterize the soil status. In order to monitor their spatial and temporal variability on large scales, remote sensing techniques are required. Therefore the determination of soil parameters under vegetation cover was approached in this thesis by means of (multi-angular) polarimetric SAR acquisitions at a longer wavelength (L-band, {lambda}{sub c}=23cm). In this thesis, the penetration capabilities of L-band are combined with newly developed (multi-angular) polarimetric decomposition techniques to separate the different scattering contributions, which are occurring in vegetation and on ground. Subsequently the ground components are inverted to estimate the soil characteristics. The novel (multi-angular) polarimetric decomposition techniques for soil parameter retrieval are physically-based, computationally inexpensive and can be solved analytically without any a priori knowledge. Therefore they can be applied without test site calibration directly to agricultural areas. The developed algorithms are validated with fully polarimetric SAR data acquired by the airborne E-SAR sensor of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for three different study areas in Germany. The achieved results reveal inversion rates up to 99% for the soil moisture and soil roughness retrieval in agricultural areas. However, in forested areas the inversion rate drops significantly for most of the algorithms, because the inversion in forests is invalid for the applied scattering models at L-band. The validation against simultaneously acquired field measurements indicates an estimation accuracy (root mean square error) of 5-10vol.% for the soil moisture (range of in situ

  11. Manejo de nitrogênio no milho sob plantio direto com diferentes plantas de cobertura, em Latossolo Vermelho Nitrogen management in corn under no-tillage with different cover crops in a Rhodic Hapludox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Cabral da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir a melhor dose e época de aplicação, e a eficiência de utilização do N, utilizando-se uréia marcada com 15N, pelo milho cultivado sob plantio direto, em sucessão à crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, ao milheto (Pennisetum americanum e à vegetação espontânea (pousio, em um Latossolo Vermelho no Cerrado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 24 tratamentos e quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial incompleto, 3x3x2 + 6: três doses de N (80, 130 e 180 kg ha-1; três sistemas de cobertura do solo (crotalária, milheto e pousio; duas épocas de aplicação do N (estádio quatro ou oito folhas; e seis tratamentos adicionais (três sem aplicação de N e três que receberam 30 kg ha-1 de N na semeadura. O cultivo do milho em sucessão à crotalária proporciona maior quantidade na planta e aproveitamento pela planta do N proveniente do fertilizante e maior produtividade de grãos. A aplicação do N ao milho com quatro folhas proporciona maior produtividade de grãos, comparada à aplicação com oito folhas, quando em sucessão ao milheto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the best rate and time for N application, and N utilization using urea-15N, by corn crop grown under no-tillage system, in succession to sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., millet (Pennisetum americanum and to the spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground, in a Rhodic Hapludox soil in Cerrrado. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with 24 treatments and four replications, in an incomplete factorial 3x3x2 + 6: three N rates (80, 130 and 180 kg ha-1 N; three preceding cover crops (sun hemp, millet and fallow ground; two N application time (four leaves or eight leaves stage; and six additional treatments (three without N application and three that received 30 kg ha-1 N at seeding. The corn grown in succession to sun hemp provided higher amount of N derived from fertilizer, N utilization efficiency

  12. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  13. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  14. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  15. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  16. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... habits. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces at home, work or school, especially when someone is ill. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food. ...

  17. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... 49.86% of the land cover has been converted to other land uses, ... management information system and policies that will ensure sustainable management of fragile ...... growth in agricultural output such as food and fiber.

  18. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  19. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  20. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  1. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  2. Atributos biológicos do solo sob influência da cobertura vegetal e do sistema de manejo Soil biological attributes influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozaniel Batista da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Valente bean cultivar, under irrigation, was cultivated. Sowing was performed on June 16, 2005 and the harvest on September 19, 2005. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0-10 cm, in November 2004 (before cover crops planting, June 2005 (before dry bean planting and July 2005 (at dry bean flowering. Evaluations of basal respiration, carbon and nitrogen of microbial biomass, microbial/organic carbon ratio, microbial/total nitrogen ratio and metabolic quotient were performed. Soil biological attributes were influenced by cover crops, soil management and sampling time.

  3. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  4. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    ancillary data such as census statistics and published literature are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. For example, the scalar statistics can show the spatial extent of change per cover type with time, as well as the land-cover transformations from one land-cover type to another type occurring with time. Field data of the sample blocks include direct measurements of land cover, particularly ground-survey data collected for training and validation of image classifications (Loveland and others, 2002). The field experience allows for additional observations of the character and condition of the landscape, assistance in sample block interpretation, ground truthing of Landsat imagery, and helps determine the driving forces of change identified in an ecoregion. Management and maintenance of field data, beyond initial use for training and validation of image classifications, is important as improved methods for image classification are developed, and as present-day data become part of the historical legacy for which studies of land-cover change in the future will depend (Loveland and others, 2002). The results illustrate that there is no single profile of land-cover change; instead, there is significant geographic variability that results from land uses within ecoregions continuously adapting to the resource potential created by various environmental, technological, and socioeconomic factors.

  5. Soil macrofauna in cover crops of figs grown under organic management Macrofauna edáfica sob coberturas do solo no cultivo de figo sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy de Oliveira Merlim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in organic management through their effects on soil organic decomposition, nutrient mineralization, and amelioration of the soil's physical properties. This work evaluates the density and diversity of the soil macrofauna under types of cover plants in areas cultivated with Ficus carica L. under organic management. The soil macrofauna was collected in 0.25 × 0.25 m areas, down to a soil depth of 0.3 m, and at the surface layer. The treatments consisted of bahiagrass living mulch (Paspalum notatum, siratro living mulch (Macroptilium atropurpureum, and bahiagrass mulch. The highest macrofauna density and the lowest diversity were observed in bahiagrass, of which 80% were represented by ants, thus characterizing the soil under this cover crop as showing the lowest functional diversity and quality.A fauna do solo tem papel importante em sistemas orgânicos, através dos seus efeitos na decomposição da matéria orgânica, mineralização de nutrientes e condicionamento físico do solo. Este trabalho avaliou a densidade e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica sob tipos de cobertura do solo em áreas cultivadas com Ficus carica L. sob manejo orgânico do solo. A macrofauna foi coletada em áreas de 0,25 × 0,25 m e amostraram-se as camadas de material vegetal e solo até a profundidade de 0,3 m, nos meses de março e setembro de 2001. Os tratamentos constaram de cobertura viva com grama batatais (Paspalum notatum, cobertura viva de siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum e cobertura morta formada por palha de grama batatais. A mais alta densidade da macrofauna e a mais baixa diversidade foi observada em grama batatais, sendo mais de 80% dessa fauna de formigas, o que caracteriza o solo sob influência desta cobertura como o de mais baixa diversidade funcional e qualidade, comparado às outras coberturas.

  6. [Application of optical flow dynamic texture in land use/cover change detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Gong, Yi-Long; Zhang, Yi; Duan, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, a novel change detection approach for high resolution remote sensing images is proposed based on the optical flow dynamic texture (OFDT), which could achieve the land use & land cover change information automatically with a dynamic description of ground-object changes. This paper describes the ground-object gradual change process from the principle using optical flow theory, which breaks the ground-object sudden change hypothesis in remote sensing change detection methods in the past. As the steps of this method are simple, it could be integrated in the systems and software such as Land Resource Management and Urban Planning software that needs to find ground-object changes. This method takes into account the temporal dimension feature between remote sensing images, which provides a richer set of information for remote sensing change detection, thereby improving the status that most of the change detection methods are mainly dependent on the spatial dimension information. In this article, optical flow dynamic texture is the basic reflection of changes, and it is used in high resolution remote sensing image support vector machine post-classification change detection, combined with spectral information. The texture in the temporal dimension which is considered in this article has a smaller amount of data than most of the textures in the spatial dimensions. The highly automated texture computing has only one parameter to set, which could relax the onerous manual evaluation present status. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated with the 2011 and 2012 QuickBird datasets covering Duerbert Mongolian Autonomous County of Daqing City, China. Then, the effects of different optical flow smooth coefficient and the impact on the description of the ground-object changes in the method are deeply analyzed: The experiment result is satisfactory, with an 87.29% overall accuracy and an 0.850 7 Kappa index, and the method achieves better

  7. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both Medicare...

  8. A non-randomized study in consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks who were managed endoscopically with the use of multiple plastic stents or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canena, Jorge; Liberato, Manuel; Meireles, Liliane; Marques, Inês; Romão, Carlos; Coutinho, António Pereira; Neves, Beatriz Costa; Veiga, Pedro Mota

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic management of postcholecystectomy biliary leaks is widely accepted as the treatment of choice. However, refractory biliary leaks after a combination of biliary sphincterotomy and the placement of a large-bore (10F) plastic stent can occur, and the optimal rescue endotherapy for this situation is unclear. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the use of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) with the placement of multiple plastic stents (MPS) for the treatment of postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks. Prospective study. Two tertiary-care referral academic centers and one general district hospital. Forty consecutive patients with refractory biliary leaks who underwent endoscopic management. Temporary placement of MPS (n = 20) or FCSEMSs (n = 20). Clinical outcomes of endotherapy as well as the technical success, adverse events, need for reinterventions, and prognostic factors for clinical success. Endotherapy was possible in all patients. After endotherapy, closure of the leak was accomplished in 13 patients (65%) who received MPS and in 20 patients (100%) who received FCSEMSs (P = .004). The Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) leak-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 patient populations (χ(2) [1] = 8.30; P stents (P = .024), a plastic stent diameter <20F (P = .006), and a high-grade biliary leak (P = .015) were shown to be significant predictors of treatment failure with MPS. The 7 patients in whom placement of MPS failed were retreated with FCSEMSs, resulting in closure of the leaks in all cases. Non-randomized design. In our series, the results of the temporary placement of FCSEMSs for postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks were superior to those from the use of MPS. A randomized study is needed to confirm our results before further recommendations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Land cover controls on summer discharge and runoff solution chemistry of semi-arid urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRecharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.

  10. Integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques for change detection of the land use and land cover (LULC) for soil management in the southern Port Said region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed Abd El Rehim Abd El Aziz

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of land use/land cover (LULC) changes in southern Port Said region area is very important for the planner of managements, governmental and non-governmental organizations, decision makers and the scientific community. This information is essential for planning and implementing policies to optimize the use of natural resources and accommodate development whilst minimizing the impact on the environment. To monitor these changes in the study area, two sets of satellite images (Landsat TM-5 and ETM+7) data were used with Path/Row (175/38) in date 1986 and 2006, respectively. The Landsat TM and ETM data are useful for this type of study due to its high spatial resolution, spectral resolution and low repetitive acquisition (16 days). A postclassification technique is used in this study based on hybrid classification (Unsupervised and Supervised). Each method used was assessed, and checked in field. Eight to Twelve LULC classes are recognized and mapping produced. The soils in southern Port Said area were classification in two orders for soil taxonomic units, which are Entisols and Aridisols and four sub-orders classes. The study land was evaluated into five classes from non suitable (N) to very highly suitable (S1) for some crops in the southern region of Port Said studied soils, with assess the nature of future change following construction of the international coastal road which crosses near to the study area.

  11. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  12. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna.

  13. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  14. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  15. Manejos de cobertura, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação sobre a semeadura direta da cultura do milho Covering management, furrowing mechanisms and working speed over direct seeding of corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Trogello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A palhada de cobertura residual representa o grande diferencial do sistema de semeadura direta, propiciando melhorias nas condições biológicas, químicas e físicas do solo, em contrapartida esta matéria seca residual pode implicar em dificuldades no processo de semeadura, necessitando por vezes de um manejo deste resíduo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade da cultura do milho submetido a diferentes métodos de manejo de palhada, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, composto por 16 tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 64 unidades experimentais. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro manejos de palhada (palha gradeada, rolada, triturada e dessecada, dois mecanismos sulcadores (disco duplo e haste sulcadora e duas velocidades de semeadura (4,5 e 7,0 km h-1. Avaliou-se a profundidade de deposição de sementes, área de solo mobilizada, uniformidade de distribuição de sementes, estande inicial de plantas, número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira, massa de mil grãos e produtividade da cultura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e havendo diferenças significativas, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. A velocidade de operação de 7,0 km h-1 apresentou valores de espaçamentos falhos e duplos mais elevados. Os tratamentos empregados não influenciaram os componentes de rendimento da cultura, bem como não se observou diferenças significativas para a produtividade média da cultura de milho.The stubble covering left over represents the biggest difference of the direct seeding cultivation, providing improvement on biological, chemical and physical soil conditions. Nevertheless, the dry matter remaining may difficult the seeding process, demanding additional management of covering. The aim of

  16. Manejos de cobertura, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação sobre a semeadura direta da cultura do milho Covering management, furrowing mechanisms and working speed over direct seeding of corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Trogello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A palhada de cobertura residual representa o grande diferencial do sistema de semeadura direta, propiciando melhorias nas condições biológicas, químicas e físicas do solo, em contrapartida esta matéria seca residual pode implicar em dificuldades no processo de semeadura, necessitando por vezes de um manejo deste resíduo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade da cultura do milho submetido a diferentes métodos de manejo de palhada, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, composto por 16 tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 64 unidades experimentais. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro manejos de palhada (palha gradeada, rolada, triturada e dessecada, dois mecanismos sulcadores (disco duplo e haste sulcadora e duas velocidades de semeadura (4,5 e 7,0 km h-1. Avaliou-se a profundidade de deposição de sementes, área de solo mobilizada, uniformidade de distribuição de sementes, estande inicial de plantas, número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira, massa de mil grãos e produtividade da cultura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e havendo diferenças significativas, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. A velocidade de operação de 7,0 km h-1 apresentou valores de espaçamentos falhos e duplos mais elevados. Os tratamentos empregados não influenciaram os componentes de rendimento da cultura, bem como não se observou diferenças significativas para a produtividade média da cultura de milho.The stubble covering left over represents the biggest difference of the direct seeding cultivation, providing improvement on biological, chemical and physical soil conditions. Nevertheless, the dry matter remaining may difficult the seeding process, demanding additional management of covering. The aim of

  17. Citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse, well-established and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, C.; Molla, O.; Vanaclocha, P.; Monton, H.; Melic, A.; Castanera, P.; Urbaneja, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ground-dwelling spider assemblages comprise one of the most representative predatory groups to be found in many crops. There is some evidence of the role that ground-dwelling spiders play in controlling certain citrus pests; however, there are almost no studies about the abundance and composition of this predatory group in citrus orchards. A three-year survey conducted using pitfall traps in three citrus orchards in Eastern Spain yielded more than five-thousand ground-dwelling spiders belonging to more than 50 species and 20 families. Wandering families such as Lycosidae, Gnaphosidae and Zodariidae were the most numerous in terms of captures. The generalist predator Pardosa cribata Simon (Araneae: Lycosidae) was the most common species, representing a quarter of all captures, followed by Zodarion cesari Pekar. (Araneae: Zodariidae) and Trachyzelotes fuscipes (Koch) (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Spiders were active throughout the year with a peak population in summer. The species abundance data for the three spider assemblages sampled fitted a log normal statistical model which is consistent with a well-established community. The presence of a cover crop provided higher abundance of alternative prey and consequently higher abundance and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. This work demonstrates that the citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna, which is also active throughout the year. A challenge for future studies will be to establish conservation management strategies for these predators, that will improve biological control of those citrus pests that inhabit or spend part of their life cycle on the orchard floor. (Author) 49 refs.

  18. Sampling and Mapping Soil Erosion Cover Factor for Fort Richardson, Alaska. Integrating Stratification and an Up-Scaling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    When a ground and vegetation cover factor related to soil erosion is mapped with the aid of remotely sensed data, a cost-efficient sample design to collect ground data and obtain an accurate map is required...

  19. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  20. Linear disturbances on discontinuous permafrost: implications for thaw-induced changes to land cover and drainage patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Tyler J; Quinton, William L; Baltzer, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, linear disturbances such as winter roads and seismic lines severely alter the hydrology, ecology, and ground thermal regime. Continued resource exploration in this environment has created a need to better understand the processes causing permafrost thaw and concomitant changes to the terrain and ground cover, in order to efficiently reduce the environmental impact of future exploration through the development of best management practices. In a peatland 50 km south of Fort Simpson, NWT, permafrost thaw and the resulting ground surface subsidence have produced water-logged linear disturbances that appear not to be regenerating permafrost, and in many cases have altered the land cover type to resemble that of a wetland bog or fen. Subsidence alters the hydrology of plateaus, developing a fill and spill drainage pattern that allows some disturbances to be hydrologically connected with adjacent wetlands via surface flow paths during periods of high water availability. The degree of initial disturbance is an important control on the extent of permafrost thaw and thus the overall potential recovery of the linear disturbance. Low impact techniques that minimize ground surface disturbance and maintain original surface topography by eliminating windrows are needed to minimize the impact of these linear disturbances. (letter)

  1. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  2. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  3. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  4. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  5. Monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known, that monitoring of natural revegetation of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was carried out during period 1994-2002 at test areas (Experimental field, Balapan, Degelen). In this paper the peculiarities of vegetation cover of these test areas are observed. Thus, vegetation cover of Experimental field ground in the epicentre is completely destroyed. At present there are different stages of zonal steppe communities rehabilitation: in zones with γ-irradiation 11000-14000 μR/h the revegetation is not found; on the plots with γ-irradiation 8200-10000 μR/h rare species of Artemisia frigida are found; aggregation of plant (managed from 6000-7000 μR/h is observed; At the γ-irradiation 80-200 μR/h rarefied groups of bunch grass communities similar to the zonal steppe are formed and zonal bunch grass communities developed with 18-25 μR/h. Vegetation cover of Degelen hill tops and near-mouth ground in the results of underground nuclear expulsions are completely destroyed. Here there are three main kinds of vegetation: very stony gallery areas don't almost overgrow; at technogen tops near galleries the single plants, rare field groups and unclosed micro-phyto-biocenoses of weed and adventive species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia dracunculus, Laxctuca serriola, Chorispora sibirica etc.). On the Balapan are the revegetation is limited by high radiation pollution rate. Here cenose rehabilitation is presented by Artemisia marshalliana, Spita sareptana, Festuca valresiaca). In their paper florostic and phyrocoenitic diversity of STS's flora transformation is studied. Pattern distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and vegetation cover is represented

  6. Influence of olfactory and visual cover on nest site selection and nest success for grassland-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Dillon T; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Loss, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival. We assessed whether ground-nesting birds select nest sites based on visual and/or olfactory cover. Additionally, we assessed the importance of visual cover and airflow and weather variables associated with olfactory cover in influencing nest survival. In managed grasslands in Oklahoma, USA, we monitored nests of Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ), Eastern Meadowlark ( Sturnella magna ), and Grasshopper Sparrow ( Ammodramus savannarum ) during 2015 and 2016. To assess nest site selection, we compared cover variables between nests and random points. To assess factors influencing nest survival, we used visual cover and olfactory-related measurements (i.e., airflow and weather variables) to model daily nest survival. For nest site selection, nest sites had greater overhead visual cover than random points, but no other significant differences were found. Weather variables hypothesized to influence olfactory detection, specifically precipitation and relative humidity, were the best predictors of and were positively related to daily nest survival. Selection for overhead cover likely contributed to mitigation of thermal extremes and possibly reduced detectability of nests. For daily nest survival, we hypothesize that major nest predators focused on prey other than the monitored species' nests during high moisture conditions, thus increasing nest survival on these

  7. Information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  8. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use/cover map for 2010 was reconstructed by analyzing 2001 image, validated and/or reconstructed by ground truthing, use of secondary data and key ... The severe loss of woodlot outside the protected area not only poses a potential threat to the protected forest but also calls for intervention measures if efforts to ...

  9. Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Forest Cover Change in Teknaf, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehedy Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a targeted campaign of violence by Myanmar military, police, and local militias, more than half a million Rohingya refugees have fled to neighboring Bangladesh since August 2017, joining thousands of others living in overcrowded settlement camps in Teknaf. To accommodate this mass influx of refugees, forestland is razed to build spontaneous settlements, resulting in an enormous threat to wildlife habitats, biodiversity, and entire ecosystems in the region. Although reports indicate that this rapid and vast expansion of refugee camps in Teknaf is causing large scale environmental destruction and degradation of forestlands, no study to date has quantified the camp expansion extent or forest cover loss. Using remotely sensed Sentinel-2A and -2B imagery and a random forest (RF machine learning algorithm with ground observation data, we quantified the territorial expansion of refugee settlements and resulting degradation of the ecological resources surrounding the three largest concentrations of refugee camps—Kutupalong–Balukhali, Nayapara–Leda and Unchiprang—that developed between pre- and post-August of 2017. Employing RF as an image classification approach for this study with a cross-validation technique, we obtained a high overall classification accuracy of 94.53% and 95.14% for 2016 and 2017 land cover maps, respectively, with overall Kappa statistics of 0.93 and 0.94. The producer and user accuracy for forest cover ranged between 92.98–98.21% and 96.49–92.98%, respectively. Results derived from the thematic maps indicate a substantial expansion of refugee settlements in the three refugee camp study sites, with an increase of 175 to 1530 hectares between 2016 and 2017, and a net growth rate of 774%. The greatest camp expansion is observed in the Kutupalong–Balukhali site, growing from 146 ha to 1365 ha with a net increase of 1219 ha (total growth rate of 835% in the same time period. While the refugee camps’ occupancy

  10. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  11. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, C K; Abdullah, K; MatJafri, M Z; Lim, H S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  12. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  13. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  14. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  15. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  16. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  17. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  18. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  19. BOREAS SERM Forest Cover Data of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A condensed forest cover type digital map of Saskatchewan and is a product of the Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management, Forestry Branch-Inventory Unit...

  20. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  1. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  2. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  3. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents for the management of benign biliary conditions Utilización de prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles totalmente recubiertas en procesos biliares benignos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Cano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: biliary self-expanding metal stents (SEMS have the advantage of being inserted undeployed with very small sizes and provide, when fully opened, large diameters for biliary drainage. However, their use in benign conditions has been very limited, mainly because of difficulty in their extraction. We present our initial experience with a fully covered SEMS (Wallflex for the management of benign problems of the bile duct. Patients and methods: in a prospective study, stents of 8 mm in diameter and 4, 6 or 8 cm long were inserted by means of ERCP. These SEMS were chosen when according to medical judgement it was thought that diameters greater than 10 French (3.3 mm were needed for proper biliary drainage. Stents were extracted also endoscopically, several months later when deemed clinically appropriate. Results: twenty biliary SEMS were inserted. Reasons for insertion were: large intrahepatic biliary fistula after hydatid cyst surgery (1, perforation of the papillary area following endoscopic sphincterotomy (2, coaxial insertion to achieve patency in obstructed uncovered stents inserted in benign conditions (3, benign strictures (7, multiple and large common bile duct stones that could not be extracted because of tapering and stricturing of the distal common bile duct (7. In all cases, successful biliary drainage was achieved and there were no complications from insertion. Stents were easily extracted after a mean time of 132 days (36-270 in place. Complete resolution of biliary problems was obtained in 14 patients (70%. Conclusions: in our initial experience, the fully covered Wallflex biliary stent was removed without any complication after being in place in the common bile duct for a mean time of over four months. Therefore, it could be used in the management of benign biliary conditions.Introducción y objetivo: las prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles biliares (PMAB tienen la ventaja de introducirse plegadas con calibres muy

  4. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  5. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  6. Preliminary investigations to assess the usefulness of Be-7 as a radiotracer in soil covered by vegetation [Activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Dercon, Gerd; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mabit, Lionel; Kis-Benedek, Gyula; Ceccatelli, Alessia; Tarjan, Sandor; Blake, William

    2014-01-01

    Different factors may affect the extent of radionuclides’ interception by plants and therewith their inventories in soil covered areas. In particular, there is interest in assessing the impact of the vegetation factor for different soil coverage conditions, when using 7 Be as radiotracer of soil redistribution in cropped farmland. Our results suggest that 7 Be foliar interception of bean plants is likely to affect the radionuclide inventories and their spatial uniformity in covered soil. Reliable results on short-term erosion using 7 Be can be obtained in cropped farmland with limited cover, but only when taking into account the interception factor. The impact of the interception factor is highly dependent on rainfall intensity and duration, crop species and the growing stage of the plants. Further investigations into these variables are required

  7. Preliminary investigations to assess the usefulness of Be-7 as a radiotracer in soil covered by vegetation [Activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dercon, Gerd; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mabit, Lionel [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf (Austria); Kis-Benedek, Gyula; Ceccatelli, Alessia; Tarjan, Sandor [3Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, IAEA Environment Laboratories, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Blake, William [School of Geography, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); others, and

    2014-07-15

    Different factors may affect the extent of radionuclides’ interception by plants and therewith their inventories in soil covered areas. In particular, there is interest in assessing the impact of the vegetation factor for different soil coverage conditions, when using {sup 7}Be as radiotracer of soil redistribution in cropped farmland. Our results suggest that {sup 7}Be foliar interception of bean plants is likely to affect the radionuclide inventories and their spatial uniformity in covered soil. Reliable results on short-term erosion using {sup 7}Be can be obtained in cropped farmland with limited cover, but only when taking into account the interception factor. The impact of the interception factor is highly dependent on rainfall intensity and duration, crop species and the growing stage of the plants. Further investigations into these variables are required.

  8. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  9. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  10. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  11. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  12. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  13. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  14. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  15. Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wenjin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed

  16. On the impact of snow cover on daytime pollution dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Hildebrand, P.; Rogers, F. A.; Cramer, J.; Schanot, A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the impact of snow cover on daytime pollutant dispersion conditions is made by using conceptual, scaling, and observational analyses. For uniform snow cover and synoptically unperturbed sunny conditions, observations indicate a considerate suppression of the surface sensible heat flux, the turbulence, and the development of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) when compared to snow-free conditions. However, under conditions of non-uniform snow cover, as in urban areas, or associated with vegetated areas or bare ground patches, a milder effect on pollutant dispersion conditions would be expected. Observed concentrations of atmospheric particles within the ABL, and surface pollutant concentrations in urban areas, reflect the impact of snow cover on the modification of ABL characteristics.

  17. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  18. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteau, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  19. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  20. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  1. 25 CFR 900.110 - What does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management, and the actual construction of the building or facility in accordance with the construction... construction management services as defined in § 900.113 may be included in a construction contract under this... Construction § 900.110 What does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart establishes requirements for issuing...

  2. A new strategy for snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, S.; Chokmani, K.; De Sève, D.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of Quebec (Eastern Canada). Consequently, evaluating its spatial extent interests the authorities responsible for the management of water resources, especially hydropower companies. The main objective of this study is the development of a snow-cover mapping strategy using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques. Planned to be tested in a near real-time operational mode, this snow-cover mapping strategy has the advantage to provide the probability of a pixel to be snow covered and its uncertainty. Ensemble systems are made of two key components. First, a method is needed to build an ensemble of classifiers that is diverse as much as possible. Second, an approach is required to combine the outputs of individual classifiers that make up the ensemble in such a way that correct decisions are amplified, and incorrect ones are cancelled out. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of ensemble systems to snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data. The chosen classifier is a sequential thresholds algorithm using NOAA-AVHRR data adapted to conditions over Eastern Canada. Its special feature is the use of a combination of six sequential thresholds varying according to the day in the winter season. Two versions of the snow-cover mapping algorithm have been developed: one is specific for autumn (from October 1st to December 31st) and the other for spring (from March 16th to May 31st). In order to build the ensemble based system, different versions of the algorithm are created by varying randomly its parameters. One hundred of the versions are included in the ensemble. The probability of a pixel to be snow, no-snow or cloud covered corresponds to the amount of votes the pixel has been classified as such by all classifiers. The overall performance of ensemble based mapping is compared to the overall performance of the chosen classifier, and also with ground observations at meteorological

  3. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  4. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  5. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  6. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  7. CASA Forest Cover Change Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation and forest fires are global land cover changes that can be caused by both natural and human factors. Although monitoring forest fires in near-real time is critical for operational wildfire management, mapping historical wildfires in a spatially explicit fashion is also important for a number of reasons, including climate change studies (e.g., examining the relationship between rising temperatures and frequency of fires), fuel load management (e.g., deciding when and where to conduct controlled burns), and carbon cycle studies (e.g., quantifying how much CO2 is emitted by fires and for emissions reduction efforts under the United Nations programs for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation -- REDD).

  8. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas

  9. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014-06-24 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0138585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of land cover changes and water quality in the Lake Issaqueena watershed, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, C M; Mikhailova, E A; Post, C J; Hains, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring changes in land cover and the subsequent environmental responses are essential for water quality assessment, natural resource planning, management, and policies. Over the last 75 years, the Lake Issaqueena watershed has experienced a drastic shift in land use. This study was conducted to examine the changes in land cover and the implied changes in land use that have occurred and their environmental, water quality impacts. Aerial photography of the watershed (1951, 1956, 1968, 1977, 1989, 1999, 2005, 2006, and 2009) was analyzed and classified using the geographic information system (GIS) software. Seven land cover classes were defined: evergreen, deciduous, bare ground, pasture/grassland, cultivated, and residential/other development. Water quality data, including sampling depth, water temperature, dissolved oxygen content, fecal coliform levels, inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and turbidity, were obtained from the South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for two stations and analyzed for trends as they relate to land cover change. From 1951 to 2009, the watershed experienced an increase of tree cover and bare ground (+17.4 % evergreen, +62.3 % deciduous, +9.8 % bare ground) and a decrease of pasture/grassland and cultivated land (-42.6 % pasture/grassland and -57.1 % cultivated). From 2005 to 2009, there was an increase of 21.5 % in residential/other development. Sampling depth ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 m. Water temperature fluctuated corresponding to changing air temperatures, and dissolved oxygen content fluctuated as a factor of water temperature. Inorganic nitrogen content was higher from December to April possibly due to application of fertilizers prior to the growing season. Turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria levels remained relatively the same from 1962 to 2005, but a slight decline in pH can be observed at both stations. Prior to 1938, the area consisted of single-crop cotton farms; after 1938, the

  11. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  12. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  13. Analysis of spatio-temporal land cover changes for hydrological impact assessment within the Nyando River Basin of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olang, Luke Omondi; Kundu, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Fürst, Josef

    2011-08-01

    The spatio-temporal changes in the land cover states of the Nyando Basin were investigated for auxiliary hydrological impact assessment. The predominant land cover types whose conversions could influence the hydrological response of the region were selected. Six Landsat images for 1973, 1986, and 2000 were processed to discern the changes based on a methodology that employs a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised classification schemes. The accuracy of the classifications were assessed using reference datasets processed in a GIS with the help of ground-based information obtained through participatory mapping techniques. To assess the possible hydrological effect of the detected changes during storm events, a physically based lumped approach for infiltration loss estimation was employed within five selected sub-basins. The results obtained indicated that forests in the basin declined by 20% while agricultural fields expanded by 16% during the entire period of study. Apparent from the land cover conversion matrices was that the majority of the forest decline was a consequence of agricultural expansion. The model results revealed decreased infiltration amounts by between 6% and 15%. The headwater regions with the vast deforestation were noted to be more vulnerable to the land cover change effects. Despite the haphazard land use patterns and uncertainties related to poor data quality for environmental monitoring and assessment, the study exposed the vast degradation and hence the need for sustainable land use planning for enhanced catchment management purposes.

  14. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 6: Closure and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eight papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: site closure; ground cover; alternate cap designs; performance monitoring of waste trenches; closure options for a mixed waste site; and guidance for environmental monitoring. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  15. Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Frank R. Thompson III

    2011-01-01

    There is a rising concern among natural resource scientists and managers about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early ­successional habitats. There is no concise definition of early successional habitats. However, all have a well developed ground cover or shrub and young tree component, lack a closed, mature tree canopy, and are created or...

  16. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Land Cover Changes in the Simen Mountains National Park, a World Heritage Site in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menale Wondie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The trend of land cover (LC and land cover change (LCC, both in time and space, was investigated at the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP, a World Heritage Site located in northern Ethiopia, between 1984 and 2003 using Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing (RS. The objective of the study was to generate spatially and temporally quantified information on land cover dynamics, providing the basis for policy/decision makers and resource managers to facilitate biodiversity conservation, including wild animals. Two satellite images (Landsat TM of 1984 and Landsat ETM+ of 2003 were acquired and supervised classification was used to categorize LC types. Ground Control Points were obtained in field condition for georeferencing and accuracy assessment. The results showed an increase in the areas of pure forest (Erica species dominated and shrubland but a decrease in the area of agricultural land over the 20 years. The overall accuracy and the Kappa value of classification results were 88 and 85%, respectively. The spatial setting of the LC classes was heterogeneous and resulted from the biophysical nature of SMNP and anthropogenic activities. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the existing LC and LCC in connection with wildlife habitat, conservation and management of SMNP.

  18. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  19. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  20. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  1. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  3. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  4. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  5. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  6. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  7. Novel management strategy for coronary steal syndrome: case report of occlusion of a LIMA graft side branch with a combination of drug-eluting and covered-stent deployment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2009-11-01

    We report a novel percutaneous therapeutic approach to the management of suspected coronary artery steal syndrome resulting from a large side branch of the left internal mammary artery bypass graft, using a combination of coated and drug-eluting stents. We demonstrate the feasibility and long-term efficacy of this strategy in a case report.

  8. 41 CFR 102-192.5 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-192.5 Section 102-192.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT...

  9. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  10. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  11. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  12. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  13. The influence of multi-season imagery on models of canopy cover: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Dennis M. Jacobs; Chris R. King; Ivey C. Elmore

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying tree canopy cover in a spatially explicit fashion is important for broad-scale monitoring of ecosystems and for management of natural resources. Researchers have developed empirical models of tree canopy cover to produce geospatial products. For subpixel models, percent tree canopy cover estimates (derived from fine-scale imagery) serve as the response...

  14. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  15. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  16. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate: coberturas de inverno e herbicidas em pré-semeadura da soja Management of glyphosate resistant Conyza bonariensis: winter cover crops and herbicides in soybean pre-seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis tornou-se a principal planta daninha da cultura da soja no Sul do Brasil, em decorrência da evolução para resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas de inverno e da associação de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja, visando ao controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate. Um experimento foi conduzido em campo, na safra 2010/2011. Os tratamentos foram conduzidos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as coberturas de inverno foram alocadas nas parcelas principais: aveia-preta, nabo, ervilhaca, azevém, trigo e pousio. Nas subparcelas, foram alocados os tratamentos de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja: glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha‑1 e roçada. O nabo foi a espécie de cobertura que produziu o maior volume de massa seca durante o inverno, enquanto a ervilhaca foi a que apresentou maior efeito supressor sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de C. bonariensis. Associações de glyphosate com 2,4-D ou chlorimuron-ethyl, seguidas da aplicação sequencial de paraquat + diuron, causaram maior redução na infestação de C. bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis became the main weed in soybean crop in Southern Brazil, as a consequence of the evolution of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different winter cover crops and the association of burn-down herbicides on the control of glyphosate-resistant C. bonariensis. A field experiment was conducted in the 2010/2011 season. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme, with the winter

  17. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  18. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  19. Braids and coverings selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1989-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course taught by the author at the University of Maryland, USA. The lecture notes have been revised and augmented by examples. The work falls into two strands. The first two chapters develop the elementary theory of Artin Braid groups both geometrically and via homotopy theory, and discuss the link between knot theory and the combinatorics of braid groups through Markov's Theorem. The final two chapters give a detailed investigation of polynomial covering maps, which may be viewed as a homomorphism of the fundamental group of the base space into the Artin braid

  20. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.