WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground cover levels

  1. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  2. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  3. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  4. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  5. Land cover for Ukraine: the harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, M.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; See, L. M.; Bun, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on the development of a land cover map of the Ukraine through harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data. At present there is no land cover map of the Ukraine available that is of sufficient accuracy for use in environmental modeling. The existing remote sensing data are not enough accurate. In this study we compare the territory of the Ukraine from three global remote sensing products (GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000) using a fuzzy logic methodology in order to capture the uncertainty in the classification of land cover. The results for the Ukraine show that GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000 have a fuzzy agreement of 65%. We developed a weighted algorithm for the creation of a land cover map based on an integration of a number of global land cover and remote sensing products including the GLC-2000, GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover, the Vegetation Continuous Fields product, digital map of administrative units and forest account data at the local level. This weighted algorithm is based on the results of comparing these products and an analysis of a dataset of validation points for different land cover types in the Ukraine. We applied this algorithm to generate a forest land cover type map. This raster map contains a forest expectation index that was calculated for each pixel. Forest land was then allocated based on forest statistics at the local level. Areas with a higher forest expectation index were allocated with forest first until the results matched the forest statistics. The result is the first digital map of forest (with a spatial resolution of 300m) for the Ukraine, which consistent with forest and land accounts, remote sensing datasets and GIS products. The forest land was well defined in forest rich areas (i.e. in the northern part of the Ukraine, the Carpathians and the Crimea); well less accurate areas were identified in the steppe due to heterogeneous land cover. Acknowledgements. This research was

  6. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  7. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  8. Law school design blends functionalism, energy conservation. [Earth-covered with ground-cover growing on roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Construction is under way on a new University of Minnesota Law School Building, whose distinctive features include a stepped design on its southern elevation and an earth-covered roof to promote energy conservation. The design is described with emphasis on the library facilities. Energy conservation was a major design factor. The portion of the earth-covered roof will be 15 inches thick planted with low ground-cover vegetation. Overall ..mu.. value of the building envelope will be 0.11. (MCW)

  9. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  10. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  11. Effects of ground cover from branches of arboreal species on weed growth and maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCultivating maize under systems of alley cropping results in improvements to the soil, a reduction in weeds and an increase in yield. Studies using ground cover from tree shoots produce similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on weed growth and maize yield of ground cover made up of 30 t ha-1 (fresh matter of branches from the tree species: neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium(Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.] and sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Two treatment groups (cultivars and weed control were evaluated. The cultivars AG 1041 and AL Bandeirantes were subjected to the following treatments: no hoeing, double hoeing, and ground a cover of branches of the above species when sowing the maize. A randomised block design was used with split lots (cultivars in the lots and ten replications. The cultivars did not differ for green ear or grain yield. Double hoeing was more effective than ground cover at reducing the growth of weeds. However, both weeding and ground cover resulted in similar yields for green ears and grain, which were greater than those obtained with the unweeded maize.

  12. ITIL Based Service Level Management if SLAs Cover Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomas Feglar

    2005-01-01

    .... SLM is one of ITIL modules that are widely used within the IT service industry. We identified some weaknesses in how SLM is developed in ITIL environment if service level agreement (SLA) has cover Security...

  13. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    . GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate

  14. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  15. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya using satellite data and ground measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Negi; A V Kulkarni; B S Semwal

    2009-10-01

    In the present paper,a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas basin,Indian Himalaya using AWiFS (IRS-P6)satellite data.The complexities in the mapping of snow cover in the study area are snow under vegetation,contaminated snow and patchy snow. To overcome these problems,field measurements using spectroradiometer were carried out and reflectance/snow indices trend were studied.By evaluation and validation of different topographic correction models,it was observed that,the normalized difference snow index (NDSI)values remain constant with the variations in slope and aspect and thus NDSI can take care of topography effects.Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to find the suitable mapping technique.The proposed methodology for snow cover mapping uses the NDSI (estimated using planetary re flectance),NIR band reflectance and forest/vegetation cover information.The satellite estimated snow or non-snow pixel information using proposed methodology was validated with the snow cover information collected at three observatory locations and it was found that the algorithm classify all the sample points correctly,once that pixel is cloud free.The snow cover distribution was estimated using one year (2004 –05)cloud free satellite data and good correlation was observed between increase/decrease areal extent of seasonal snow cover and ground observed fresh snowfall and standing snow data.

  16. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  17. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  18. Vegetative cover for low level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, S. Keith (USDA Soil Conservation Service, Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW), hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the soil cover cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation down into the waste material. Turf type grasses are normally used as the principal vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this 5 year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on LLRW sites that can be quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap.The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and Phyllostachys rubromarginata) could be utilized to quickly establish a long lived, low maintenance, final vegetative cover for the waste sites.

  19. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  20. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  1. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  2. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  3. Estimating Cotton Nitrogen Nutrition Status Using Leaf Greenness and Ground Cover Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Melissa Muharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing nitrogen (N status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describes and tests a novel method of utilizing physical characteristics of N-fertilized cotton and combining field spectral measurements made at different spatial scales as an approach to estimate in-season chlorophyll or leaf N content of field-grown cotton. In this study, leaf greenness estimated from spectral measurements made at the individual leaf, canopy and scene levels was combined with percent ground cover to produce three different indices, named TCCLeaf, TCCCanopy, and TCCScene. These indices worked best for estimating leaf N at early flowering, but not for chlorophyll content. Of the three indices, TCCLeaf showed the best ability to estimate leaf N (R2 = 0.89. These results suggest that the use of green and red-edge wavelengths derived at the leaf scale is best for estimating leaf greenness. TCCCanopy had a slightly lower R2 value than TCCLeaf (0.76, suggesting that the utilization of yellow and red-edge wavelengths obtained at the canopy level could be used as an alternative to estimate leaf N in the absence of leaf spectral information. The relationship between TCCScene and leaf N was the lowest (R2 = 0.50, indicating that the estimation of canopy greenness from scene measurements needs improvement. Results from this study confirmed the potential of these indices as efficient methods for estimating in-season leaf N status of cotton.

  4. ITIL Based Service Level Management if SLAs Cover Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Feglar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Current level of information technology creates new perspectives for more IT service oriented market. Quality of these services requires slightly different approach then was applied for products including software. No IT services are delivered and supported in risk free environment. Risks would be considered consistently with IT services quality gaps from Service Level Management (SLM perspective. SLM is one of ITIL modules that are widely used within the IT service industry. We identified some weaknesses in how SLM is developed in ITIL environment if service level agreement (SLA has cover Security. We argue that in such cases Architecture modeling and risk assessment approach let us effectively control analytical effort that relates to risks identification and understanding. Risk driven countermeasures designed in a next step (Risk treatment have significant impact to the SLM especially from responsibility perspective. To demonstrate SLM's importance in real practice we analyze SLA synthesize process in CCI (Cyber Critical Infrastructure environment.

  5. Impact of the variability of the seasonal snow cover on the ground surface regimes in Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    Seasonally snow cover has a great impact on the thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost. Ground temperatures over a year are strongly affected by the timing, duration, thickness, structure and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The purpose of this communication is to characterize the shallow ground thermal regimes, with special reference to the understanding of the influence snow cover in permafrost spatial distribution, in the ice-free areas of the north western part of Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". We have analyzed and ground temperatures as well as snow thickness data in four sites distributed along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2013: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). At each study site, data loggers were installed for the monitoring of air temperatures (at 1.5 m high), ground temperatures (5, 20 and 40 cm depth) and for snow depth (2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 cm) at 4-hour intervals. The winter data suggests the existence of three types of seasonal stages regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: (a) shallow snow cover with intense ground temperatures oscillations; (b) thick snow cover and low variations of soil temperatures; and (c) stability of ground temperatures. Ground thermal conditions are also conditioned by a strong variability. Winter data indicates that Nuevo Incinerador site experiences more often thicker snow cover with higher ground temperatures and absence of ground temperatures oscillations. Collado Ramos and Ohridski show frequent variations of snow cover thickness, alternating between shallow snow cover with high ground temperature fluctuation and thick snow cover and low ground temperature fluctuation. Reina Sofia in all the years has thick snow cover with little variations in soil

  6. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  7. Mechanizing Weakly Ground Termination Proving of Term Rewriting Systems by Structural and Cover-Set Inductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Feng

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents three formal proving methods for generalized weakly ground terminating property, i.e.,weakly terminating property in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system, one with structural induction, one with cover-set induction, and the third without induction, and describes their mechanization based on a meta-computation model for term rewriting systems-dynamic term rewriting calculus. The methods can be applied to non-terminating, nonconfluent and/or non-left-linear term rewriting systems. They can do "forward proving" by applying propositions in the proof, as well as "backward proving" by discovering lemmas during the proof.

  8. Evidence of wintertime CO2 emission from snow-covered grounds in high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方精云; 唐艳鸿KOIZUMI; Hiroshi(Division; of; Plant; Ecology; National; Institute; of; Agro-Environmental; Sciences; Tsukuba; 305; Japan)BEKKU; Yukiko(National; Polar; Institute; Tokyo; 192; Japan)

    1999-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 flux in wintertime arctic ecosystems, CO2 gas was sampled from various snow-covered grounds by using a closed chamber method during the First China Arctic Scientific Expedition from March to May in 1995. The CO2 gas samples were measured by using an infra-red analyzer (IRGA). The results showed that (ⅰ) CO2 emission was detected from all kinds of the snow-covered grounds, which provides direct evidence that the arctic tundra is functioning as a source of atmospheric CO2; (ⅱ) CO2 release was also detected from the permanent ice profile and icecap, and (ⅲ) CO2 evolution from terrestrial ecosystems in higher latitudes increased with an increase of surface temperature in accordance with the exponential function. This indicates a close coincidence with that under normal temperature conditions, and provides a useful method for predicting change in CO2 flux in the arctic ecosystems with the global climate change.

  9. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  10. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  11. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  12. Ground penetrating radar detection of subsnow liquid overflow on ice-covered lakes in interior Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gusmeroli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are abundant throughout the pan-Arctic region. For many of these lakes ice cover lasts for up to two thirds of the year. This frozen cover allows human access to these lakes, which are therefore used for many subsistence and recreational activities, including water harvesting, fishing, and skiing. Safe access to these lakes may be compromised, however, when, after significant snowfall, the weight of the snow acts on the ice and causes liquid water to spill through weak spots and overflow at the snow-ice interface. Since visual detection of subsnow liquid overflow (SLO is almost impossible our understanding on SLO processes is still very limited and geophysical methods that allow SLO detection are desirable. In this study we demonstrate that a commercially available, lightweight 1GHz, ground penetrating radar system can detect and map extent and intensity of SLO. Radar returns from wet snow-ice interfaces are at least twice as much in strength than returns from dry snow-ice interface. The presence of SLO also affects the quality of radar returns from the base of the lake ice. During dry conditions we were able to profile ice thickness of up to 1 m, conversely, we did not retrieve any ice-water returns in areas affected by SLO.

  13. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Wöppelmann, Guy; Garcin, Manuel; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit; Gravelle, Médéric; Lavigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992-2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year-1. Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions.

  14. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  15. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  16. Four-Parameter Scheme for Ground Level of Helium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-Quan; XU Jie; MA Yong; ZHENG Rui-Lun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the ground state wave function of four parameters is developed and the expression of the ground state level is derived for the helium atom when the radial Schrodinger equation of the helium atom is solved.The ground energy is respectively computed by the optimized algorithms of Matlab 7.0 and the Monte Carlo methods.Furthermore, the ground state wave function is obtained. Compared with the experiment value and the value with the variation calculus in reference, the results of this paper show that in the four-parameter scheme, not only the calculations become more simplified and precise, but also the radial wave function of the helium atom meets the space symmetry automatically in ground state.

  17. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  18. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1 GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5–20 years following conversion of production systems, (2 there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3 GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4 GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5 GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  19. Crop Ground Cover Fraction and Canopy Chlorophyll Content Mapping using RapidEye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, E.; Schonert, M.; Lilienthal, H.; Siegmann, B.; Jarmer, T.; Rosso, P.; Weichelt, T.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is a suitable tool for estimating the spatial variability of crop canopy characteristics, such as canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and green ground cover (GGC%), which are often used for crop productivity analysis and site-specific crop management. Empirical relationships exist between different vegetation indices (VI) and CCC and GGC% that allow spatial estimation of canopy characteristics from remote sensing imagery. However, the use of VIs is not suitable for an operational production of CCC and GGC% maps due to the limited transferability of derived empirical relationships to other regions. Thus, the operational value of crop status maps derived from remotely sensed data would be much higher if there was no need for reparametrization of the approach for different situations. This paper reports on the suitability of high-resolution RapidEye data for estimating crop development status of winter wheat over the growing season, and demonstrates two different approaches for mapping CCC and GGC%, which do not rely on empirical relationships. The final CCC map represents relative differences in CCC, which can be quickly calibrated to field specific conditions using SPAD chlorophyll meter readings at a few points. The prediction model is capable of predicting SPAD readings with an average accuracy of 77%. The GGC% map provides absolute values at any point in the field. A high R2 value of 80% was obtained for the relationship between estimated and observed GGC%. The mean absolute error for each of the two acquisition dates was 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  1. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  2. After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Isbell, Lynne A

    2009-03-01

    Here we describe changes in ranging behavior and other activities of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after a wildfire eliminated grass cover in a large area near the study group's home range. Soon after the fire, the vervets ranged farther away from tall trees that provide refuge from mammalian predators, and moved into the burned area where they had never been observed to go before the fire occurred. Visibility at vervet eye-level was 10 times farther in the burned area than in unburned areas. They traveled faster, and adult females spent more time feeding and less time scanning bipedally in the burned area than in the unburned area. The burned area's greater visibility may have lowered the animals' perceived risk of predation there, and may have provided them with an unusual opportunity to eat acacia ants.

  3. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  4. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  5. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  6. The role of snow cover in ground thermal conditions in three sites with contrasted topography in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marc; Salvador, Ferran; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Salvà, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    Snow cover has a high capacity to insulate the soil from the external thermal influences. In regions of high snowfall, such as the summit areas of the highest Iberian mountain ranges, the presence of a thick snow cover may condition the existence or inexistence of permafrost conditions. In order to analyze the impact of the thickness, duration and interannual variability of snow cover on the ground thermal regime in the massif of Sierra Nevada, we have analyzed soil temperatures at a depth of 2 cm for the period 2006-2012 in three sites of contrasting topography as well as air temperatures for the same period: (a) Corral del Veleta (3100 m) in a rock glacier located in the northern Veleta cirque, with high and persistent snow cover. (b) Collado de los Machos (3300 m), in a summit area with relict stone circles, with little snow accumulation due to wind effect. (c) Río Seco (3000 m), in a solifluction lobe located in this southern glacial cirque with moderate snowfall. Considering the air and 2 cm depth soil temperature records, the freezing degree-days were calculated for each year from November to May in order to characterize the role of snow as a thermal insulator of the ground during the cold season (Frauenfeld et al., 2007). In all cases, the highest values of freezing degree-days correspond to years with little snowfall (2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2011-2012), while in years with a thicker snow cover (2008-2009, 2009-2010, 2010-2011) the total freezing degree-days were significantly lower. The accumulation of freezing degree-days is maximum at the wind-exposed site of Collado de los Machos, where the wind redistributes snow and favours the penetration of cold into the ground. The opposite pattern occurs in the Veleta cirque, where most persistent snow cover conditions determine lower accumulated freezing degree-days than in Collado de los Machos and Rio Seco.

  7. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  8. Photoionization of ground and excited levels of P II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoionization cross section (σPI) of P II, (hν + P II → P III + e), from ground and a large number of excited levels are presented. The study includes the resonant structures and the characteristics of the background in photoionization cross sections. The present calculations were carried out in the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method that includes relativistic effects. The autoionizing resonances are delineated with a fine energy mesh to observe the fine structure effects. A singular resonance, formed by the coupling of channels in fine structure but not allowed in LS coupling, is seen at the ionization threshold of photoionization for the ground and many excited levels. The background cross section is seen enhanced compared to smooth decay for the excited levels. Examples are presented to illustrate the enhanced background cross sections at the energies of the core levels, 4P3/2 and 2D3/2, that are allowed for electric dipole transitions by the core ground level 2 P1/2o. In addition strong Seaton or photo-excitation-of-core (PEC) resonances are found in the photoionization of single valence electron excited levels. Calculations used a close coupling wave function expansion that included 18 fine structure levels of core P III from configurations 3s23p, 3s3p2, 3s23d, 3s24s, 3s24p and 3p3. Photoionization cross sections are presented for all 475 fine structure levels of P II found with n ≤ 10 and l ≤ 9. The present results will provide high precision parameters of various applications involving this less studied ion.

  9. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  10. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  11. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michálek Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  12. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  13. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and distribution

  14. The In-Transit Vigilant Covering Tour Problem of Routing Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    15 Figure 2. A classic VRP ...17 Figure 3. Solution for a VRP ........................................................................................18 Figure 4. Solution...of NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ), and Covering Salesman Problem (CSP) etc. We will

  15. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K. [CH2M Hill Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Slate, J.L. [Associated Western Universities Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  17. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Leys, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000-2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition.

  18. Permafrost, Seasonally Frozen Ground, Snow Cover and Vegetation in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Late Quaternary History and the Formation of Sedi- ments in the Marginal and Inland Seas (Pozdnechetvertichnaia Istorlia i Sedimentogenez...rasprostraneniia snezhnogo pokrova na poverkhnosti sushi zemnogo shara). In Geography of Snow Cover (Geo- grafiya Snezhnogo Prokrova). Moscow: Izdat...Papers, 18(3): 198-202. (36-1668) Vigdorchik, M.E. (1980) Arctic Pleistocene History and the Development of Submarine Permafrost. Boulder

  19. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  20. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  1. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo product covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo publicly available product covering a day to be used starting with MISR Release V4.2. (Suggested Usage: This file...

  2. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  3. Detection of 6 November 1997 Ground Level Event by Milagrito

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Solar Energetic Particles from the 6 November 1997 solar flare/CME(coronal mass ejection) with energies exceeding 10 GeV have been detected by Milagrito, a prototype of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory. While particle acceleration beyond 1 GeV at the Sun is well established, few data exist for protons or ions beyond 10 GeV. The Milagro observatory, a ground based water Cherenkov detector designed for observing very high energy gamma ray sources, can also be used to study the Sun. Milagrito, which operated for approximately one year in 1997/98, was sensitive to solar proton and neutron fluxes above ~5- 10 GeV. Milagrito operated in a scaler mode, which was primarily sensitive to muons, low energy photons, and electrons, and the detector operated in a mode sensitive to showers and high zenith angle muons. In its scaler mode, Milagrito registered a rate increase coincident with the 6 November 1997 ground level event observed by Climax and other neutron monitors. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of >...

  4. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  5. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  6. GROUND VIBRATIONS LEVEL CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH THE GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mesec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the results of trial, construction and quarry blasting, carried out in sediment rock deposits, mainly limestone and dolomite, at diff erent locations in the Republic of Croatia. The division of the three test groups was based on the lithology changes and GSI values of the rock units at these locations. The peak particle velocity measurements with 246 recorded events, was conducted during a long period of six years. Based on the results of seismic measurements, the empirical relationships between peak particle velocity and scaled distance were established for each group. In order to establish a useful relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance, simple regression analysis was conducted with the Blastware software program from Instantel. The results of this study can be used to characterize ground vibration levels to the environment, through the geological strength index (GSI.

  7. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  8. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  9. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  11. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck LFI

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Maris, M; Morisset, N; Rohlfs, R; Meharga, M; Binko, P; Turler, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Maino, D; Maggio, G; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meinhold, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Sandri, M; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12019

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the hou...

  12. Comparison of radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, C.; Campos, M.; Mazzilli, B. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radon-222, a decay product of Ra-226, is a natural radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water and air. Radon and its short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is recognized as the second most significant risk for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The World Health Organization established a concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} for radon in air, in order to limit its hazards. The main source of radon exposition indoors comes from Ra-226, a decay product of the U-238 natural series, present in rocks and soils underneath the building and, to a lesser extent, in the building materials. The dynamics of radon production in rocks and soil and its subsequent indoors emanation is quite complex. It is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, meteorological variability, building foundation characteristics and the usual positive differential pressure between the soil and the indoor environment. This is normally sufficient to bring soil gas from the ground into the building. Radon gas can enter a building by several mechanisms, but the most significant ones are diffusion and pressure-driven flow from the ground. Usually, cracks and holes in the floor and walls and gaps around service pipes are the main entrance for the radon gas. Studies indicated that indoor radon concentration present significant variation on the basement, ground floor and upper floors. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors in the city of Sao Paulo. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear- track detectors (CR-39), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period was, at least, three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  14. Study of seasonal snow cover influencing the ground thermal regime on western flank of Da Xing'anling Mountains, northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLi Chang; HuiJun Jin; YanLin Zhang; HaiBin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies relevant to snow cover and permafrost have focused on alpine, arctic, and subarctic areas, there is still a lack of understanding of the influences of seasonal snow cover on the thermal regime of the soils in permafrost regions in the mid-latitudes and boreal regions, such as that on the western flank of the Da Xing'anling (Hinggan) Mountains, northeastern China. This paper gives a detailed analysis on meteorological data series from 2001 to 2010 provided by the Gen'he Weather Station, which is located in a talik of discontinuous permafrost zone and with sparse meadow on the observation field. It is inferred that snow cover is important for the ground thermal regime in the middle Da Xing'anling Mountains. Snow cover of 10-cm in thickness and five to six months in duration (generally November to next March) can reduce the heat loss from the ground to the atmosphere by 28%, and by 71% if the snow depth increases to 36 cm. Moreover, the occurrence of snow cover resulted in mean annual ground surface temperatures 4.7–8.2°C higher than the mean annual air temperatures recorded at the Gen'he Weather Station. The beginning date for stable snow cover establishment (SE date) and the initial snow depth (SDi) also had a great influences on the ground freezing process. Heavy snowfall before ground surface freeze-up could postpone and retard the freezing process in Gen'he. As a result, the duration of ground freezing was shortened by at least 20 days and the maximum depth of frost penetration was as much as 90 cm shallower.

  15. Unmasking the soil cover's disruption by use of a dynamic model of measurement aerospace parameters of ground vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vysotskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The "Introduction" describes topicality and importance of revealing the soil cover's disruption for a wide range of fields. It was shown that spectral brightness and colorimetric parameters of ground vegetation can be used for this task. However, a traditional scheme of data processing for remote sensing requires a long-term observations and can not always be applied, if quick decision-making is necessary or there is lack of information. Such cases require the use of special methods, one of which is a dynamic model developed with authors' participation based on the following basic relationships: (+,- (-, - (+, 0, (-, 0 (0,0. The section "Brief description of a dynamic model" describes the basic principles of dynamic systems used to solve the problem. Using above-mentioned relationships, the dynamics of a system consisting of several components is constructed and its main properties are listed. The main feature of this model is that the identification of structure and parameters of the dynamic system does not required sequential order of observations (as for models based on time series. This feature of the model enables for identifying the system's parameters of dynamics of the natural system to use information from a single picture taken from the spacecraft rather than long-term observations. The section "Materials and Methods" describes specific colorimetric parameters used to analyze the vegetation cover. The section "Obtained results" contains an example of the model's application to a satellite image for detecting the differences in two sites of a field with vegetation. One site is a recultivated area near the liquidated gas-oil well, another site is non-recultivated area at a considerable distance from the well (500-1000 m. The simulation results are described by eight signed graphs (4 graphs for each sites, whose structure allows to identify the system differences between the two cases. The section "Conclusions" summarizes the results of

  16. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  17. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  18. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  19. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Lee H. MacDonald; Robert N. Coats; Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire salvage logging adds another set of environmental effects to recently burned areas, and previous studies have reported varying impacts on vegetation, soil disturbance, and sediment production with limited data on the underlying processes. Our objectives were to determine how: (1) ground-based post-fire logging affects surface cover, soil water repellency,...

  1. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...

  2. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  3. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province during a continuous three-year (2010-2012 investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  4. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  5. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  6. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  7. Synchronized Periodicities of Cosmic Rays, Solar Flares and Ground Level Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Perez-Peraza, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The behaviour changes in galactic cosmic rays before the occurrence of a ground level enhancement may be used as a predictor of ground level enhancements occurrence. In order to go deep into the determination of which is the agent for such connections we study in this work the common periodicities among them and the source of ground level enhancements, namely solar flares. To find the relationships among different indexes in time-frequency space, we use wavelet coherence analysis. Also we used the probability density function in galactic cosmic rays and solar flare, which allowed the finding of a binomial asymmetric distribution and a Beta distribution respectively.

  8. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries process is characterized by the presence of demineralization. Demineralization is caused by organic acids as a result of carbohydrate substrate fermentation. Remineralization is a natural repair process for non-cavitated lesions. Remineralization occurs if there are Ca2+ and PO43- ions in sufficient quantities. Casein-amorphous calcium phosphate phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP is a paste material containing milk protein (casein, that actually contains minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. The casein ability to stabilize calcium phosphate and enhance mineral solubility and bioavailability confers upon CPP potential to be biological delivery vehicles for calcium and phosphate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the calcium levels in tooth enamel after being covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days. Methods: Sample were bovine incisors of 3 year old cows divided into 4 groups, namely group I as control group, group II, III and IV as treatment groups covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day. All of those teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva. Group II was immersed for 3 days, while group III was immersed for 14 days, and group IV was immersed for 28 days. One drop of CPP-ACP was used to cover the entire labial surface of teeth. The measurement of the calcium levels was then conducted by using titration method. All data were analyzed by One- Way ANOVA test with 5% degree of confidence. Results: The results showed significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those groups after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days (p = 0.001. There is also significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those treatment groups and the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: The calcium levels of tooth enamel are increased after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days.Latar belakang: Proses terjadinya karies gigi ditandai oleh adanya demineralisasi

  9. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck-LFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, A.; Frailis, M.; Maris, M.; Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Türler, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Franceschi, E.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Maino, D.; Maggio, G.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the housekeeping parameters of LFI and detect possible anomalies. A telemetry handler system processes the housekeeping and scientific telemetry of LFI, generating timelines for each acquisition chain and each housekeeping parameter. Such timelines represent the main input to the subsequent processing levels of the LFI DPC. A telemetry quick-look system allows the real-time visualization of the LFI scientific and housekeeping data, by also calculating quick statistical functions and fast Fourier transforms. The LFI Level 1 has been designed to support all the mission phases, from the instrument ground tests and calibration to the flight operations, and developed according to the ESA engineering standards.

  10. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  11. Effect of shipping emissions on European ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Ioannis; -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2017-04-01

    Shipping emissions contribution to the global nitrogen oxides emissions is about 15%, affecting ozone formation and the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe suggesting regions where air quality degradation due to shipping emissions dominates against the rest of the anthropogenic source emissions. Ranking the importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone mixing ratio, road transport has the major impact followed by other mobile sources, power generation, and industrial combustion sectors. All other sectors have a minor impact, therefor, our analysis is focused on these four emission categories. Results suggest that shipping emissions seem to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone, while they could partly offset the benefits from the emissions reduction of other mobile sources, power generation and industrial combustion sources, over a great part of the European land.

  12. Country-level net primary production distribution and response to drought and land cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Zhang, Bing; Wu, Chaoyang; Huete, Alfredo R; Gonsamo, Alemu; Lei, Liping; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Liu, Xinjie; Wu, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    Carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can offset emissions and thereby offers an alternative way of achieving the target of reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Net primary production (NPP) is the first step in the sequestration of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This study quantifies moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP from 2000 to 2014 at the country level along with its response to drought and land cover change. Our results indicate that the combined NPP for 53 countries represents >90% of global NPP. From 2000 to 2014, 29 of these 53 countries had increasing NPP trends, most notably the Central African Republic (23gC/m(2)/y). The top three and top 12 countries accounted for 30% and 60% of total global NPP, respectively, whereas the mean national NPP per unit area in the countries with the 12 lowest values was only around ~300gC/m(2)/y - the exception to this was Brazil, which had an NPP of 850gC/m(2)/y. Large areas of Russia, Argentina, Peru and several countries in southeast Asia showed a marked decrease in NPP (~15gC/m(2)/y). About 37% of the NPP decrease was caused by drought while ~55% of NPP variability was attributed to changes in water availability. Land cover change explained about 20% of the NPP variability. Our findings support the idea that government policies should aim primarily to improve water management in drought-afflicted countries; land use/land cover change policy could also be used as an alternative method of increasing NPP.

  13. AN EXPRESSION OF THE SEISMIC INTENSITY LEVEL FOR LONG-PERIOD GROUND MOTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAI, Akira

    2015-01-01

    ... on the instrumental seismic intensity is used. The present study proposes the long-period ground motion scale by using a long-period seismic intensity level with the intermediate characteristics of velocity and displacement...

  14. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  15. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TI-AL-NI SYSTEM COVERING, APPLIED ON THE STEEL GROUND USING ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Murashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the system Ti-Al-Ni covering, received by means of self-distributing high-temperature synthesis, initiated by electron-beam heating, on the basis of steel St3 is investigated.

  16. Trends of six month nighttime ground-based cloud cover values over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ground reflects thermal radiation during nighttime. Clouds reflect this radiation to the ground and cause increase in ambient temperature. In this study, trends of nighttime cloud cover are analyzed using a commercial camera (Canon Powershot A2300) that is operated continuously to capture images of clouds at 5 minute interval. The camera is situated inside a rain-proof box with a glass oculus and is placed on the rooftop of the Manila Observatory building. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted from its native JPEG format to grayscale format. The pixels are then screened for clouds by looking at the values of pixels with and without clouds. In grayscale format, pixels with clouds have greater pixel values than pixels without clouds. Based on the observations, a threshold pixel value of 17 is employed to discern pixels with clouds from pixels without clouds. When moon is present in the image, the grayscale image, which is in 8-bit unsigned integer format, is converted into double format. The moon signals are modelled using a two dimensional Gaussian function and is subtracted from the converted image (Gacal et al, 2016). This effectively removes the moon signals but preserves the cloud signals. This method is applied to the data collected from the months of January, February, March, October, November and December 2015. In Manila, dry months are from November to April. Wet months are from May to October. The trends of nighttime cloud cover values over Manila Observatory are shown in the figure below. Frequency distribution of cloud cover values of the first and last three months of the year show that dry and wet months have higher and lower frequency of low cloud cover values, respectively. The trend also exhibits a decrease of cloud cover from October to December but increases back from January until March. This is exhibited in the decrease in the frequency of cloud cover values in the 20%-100% range from October to December. This can be

  17. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  18. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards with on-going or recent herbicide programs compared with orchards having well-developed ground

  19. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  20. Ground-water levels and directions of flow in Geauga County, Ohio, September 1994, and changes in ground-water levels, 1986-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, M.L.; Lesney, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to determine directions of ground-water flow and to assess differences from 1986 to 1994 in ground-water levels in the glacial deposits and Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. Water levels were measured in 219 wells in Geauga County, Ohio, in September 1994. Water levels measured in January and February 1986 in 88 of the 219 wells were used for comparison. Water-level maps constructed from measurements made in September 1994 to show that ground-water levels in the Pottsville Formation and the glacial deposits generally correspond to the land-surface configuration and that ground water flows from the uplands to adjacent streams and buried valleys. Ground-water flow in the Cuyahoga Group is generally downward from the Pottsville Formation to the Berea Sandstone. Directions of ground-water flow in the Berea Sandstone are toward outcrop areas at the north and east edges of Geauga County and toward sub-crops beneath buried glacial valley deposits in Chardon, Chester, Munson, and Russel Townships and along the west edge of the county. A comparison of water level measurements in 1986 and 1994 indicates that water levels declined in 70 percent of the measured wells and increased in 30 percent. The change in water levels from 1986 to 1994 ranged from an increase of 13.58 feet to a decrease of 29.25 feet. Thirty percent of all water-level changes were less than 1 foot in magnitude. In nearly 80 percent of the wells, water-level changes were within the range of plus or minus 5 feet. Among the wells for which two or more historical measurements were available, the 1994 water levels in 54 percent were outside the range of water-levels observed in previous studies (only 24 percent were greater than 1 foot outside of the previously-observed range). Water-level declines of greater than 10 feet

  1. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  3. Effect of Polythene-covering on Above-ground tuberization and storage roots yield in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of polythene-covering on activation of dormant auxiliary buds on the stem for lateral tuber formation and the resultant effect on total storage roots yield. Three time intervals i.e. 1 day after planting, 30 days after planting and 60 days after planting used as treatment, and uncovered stem used as control. Treatments were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Regardless of the variety, stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting showed the highest effect with respect to storage roots production and yield components tested. However, the effect of stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting in terms of dry mass partitioning to storage roots was the lowest across all the treatments (25.50 to 27.37% of the biomass compared to that of stem covering at day 60 after planting (33.10 to 37.20%. This study opens new perspectives in cassava yield improvement which hitherto has not been exploited.

  4. Monitoring of a debris-covered and avalanche-fed glacier in the Eastern Italian Alps using ground-based SfM-MVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Colucci, Renato R.; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Forte, Emanuele

    2015-04-01

    The Montasio Occidentale glacier is a 0.07 km2 wide, avalanche-fed glacier located at very low-altitude (1860-2050 m a.s.l.) in the Eastern Italian Alps. The glacier is still active and shows a detectable mass transfer from the accumulation area to the lower ablation area, which is covered by a thick debris mantle. Geometric changes and mass balance have been monitored starting in 2010, combining glaciological methods and high-resolution geodetic surveying with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The TLS technique has proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier, but presents several limitations as high costs, high level of specialized training and low portability. On the other hand, the recent improvements in close-range photogrammetric techniques like the Structure from Motion (SfM), combined with dense image matching algorithms as Multi View Stereo (MVS), make them competitive for high quality 3D models production. The purpose of this work was to apply ground-based photogrammetric surveys for the monitoring of the annual mass balance and surface processes of Montasio Occidentale glacier. A consumer-grade SLR camera and the SfM-MVS software PhotoScan were used to detect the changes in the surface topography of the glacier from 2012 to 2014. Different data acquisition settings were tested, in order to optimize the quality and the spatial coverage of the 3D glacier model. The accuracy of the image-based 3D models was estimated in stable areas outside the glacier, using the TLS 3D model as reference. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in 2014, simultaneously to the photogrammetric survey, that was used to compare the snow height estimations obtained by photogrammetry with those obtained by geophysics. The achieved results indicate that the resolution and accuracy of the 3D models generated by the SfM-MVS technique are comparable with those obtained from TLS surveys. Consequently, almost identical volumetric changes

  5. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  6. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  7. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  8. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  9. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 t...

  10. Characteristic of water level changes in river-bed during the 2012 drought in context of ground water levels in a small catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewicz, Michał; Kaznowska, Ewa; Hejduk, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the water level changes in river bed during the 2012 drought, in the context of ground water levels in the catchment. During the growing season , and long- lasting lack of precipitation causes atmospheric drought. Prolonged lack of precipitation causes depletion of water resources in the saturated zone . Groundwater recharge of rivers decreases , and hence streamflow droughts (summer droughts) occur, which is identified as hydrological droughts. In the phase of hydrological drought a much stronger relationship between surface and ground waters is observed. The study area is the Zagożdżonka river. The Zagożdzonka catchment is situated in the strip of the Central Polish Lowlands, in the region where droughts are the most frequent. The basin is the research area of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of WUoLS-SGGW in Warsaw. It is one of the few catchments in Poland, with long-term records of rainfall and runoff occurrences. Hydrometeorological measurements are carried out from July 1962. The catchment area is mainly covered by one Quaternary aquifer . Quaternary layer is composed mostly of Pleistocene sands and gravels, with thickness from 4 to 40 m. Aquifer is at a depth of 1 to 12 m below ground level and is unconfined and fed by direct infiltration of precipitation. The Zagożdżonka river is the main drainage in the local hydrologic cycle. There is a strong relationship between surface waters and occurring in the Quaternary sediments. In the hydrological year 2012 hydrological and atmospheric drought occurred. The duration and deficit of streamflow drought ( defined by with the Q90 % truncation level) in 2012 was three time greater than the average value from the multi-annual period, which influenced the groundwater level fluctuations. Acknowledgment The paper has been prepared with financial support by a grant from National Science Centre

  11. Space Weather and the Ground-Level Solar Proton Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    2012-10-01

    Solar proton events can adversely affect space and ground-based systems. Ground-level events are a subset of solar proton events that have a harder spectrum than average solar proton events and are detectable on Earth's surface by cosmic radiation ionization chambers, muon detectors, and neutron monitors. This paper summarizes the space weather effects associated with ground-level solar proton events during the 23rd solar cycle. These effects include communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations. The major effect of ground-level events that affect manned spacecraft operations is increased radiation exposure. The primary effect on commercial aircraft operations is the loss of high frequency communication and, at extreme polar latitudes, an increase in the radiation exposure above that experienced from the background galactic cosmic radiation. Calculations of the maximum potential aircraft polar route exposure for each ground-level event of the 23rd solar cycle are presented. The space weather effects in October and November 2003 are highlighted together with on-going efforts to utilize cosmic ray neutron monitors to predict high energy solar proton events, thus providing an alert so that system operators can possibly make adjustments to vulnerable spacecraft operations and polar aircraft routes.

  12. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10 / C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  13. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  14. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  15. Powered ankle-foot prosthesis to assist level-ground and stair-descent gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Samuel; Berniker, Max; Herr, Hugh

    2008-05-01

    The human ankle varies impedance and delivers net positive work during the stance period of walking. In contrast, commercially available ankle-foot prostheses are passive during stance, causing many clinical problems for transtibial amputees, including non-symmetric gait patterns, higher gait metabolism, and poorer shock absorption. In this investigation, we develop and evaluate a myoelectric-driven, finite state controller for a powered ankle-foot prosthesis that modulates both impedance and power output during stance. The system employs both sensory inputs measured local to the external prosthesis, and myoelectric inputs measured from residual limb muscles. Using local prosthetic sensing, we first develop two finite state controllers to produce biomimetic movement patterns for level-ground and stair-descent gaits. We then employ myoelectric signals as control commands to manage the transition between these finite state controllers. To transition from level-ground to stairs, the amputee flexes the gastrocnemius muscle, triggering the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex at terminal swing, and initiating the stair-descent state machine algorithm. To transition back to level-ground walking, the amputee flexes the tibialis anterior muscle, triggering the ankle to remain dorsiflexed at terminal swing, and initiating the level-ground state machine algorithm. As a preliminary evaluation of clinical efficacy, we test the device on a transtibial amputee with both the proposed controller and a conventional passive-elastic control. We find that the amputee can robustly transition between the finite state controllers through direct muscle activation, allowing rapid transitioning from level-ground to stair walking patterns. Additionally, we find that the proposed finite state controllers result in a more biomimetic ankle response, producing net propulsive work during level-ground walking and greater shock absorption during stair descent. The results of this study highlight the

  16. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    wells during 1995, 1997, and (or) 1998. Nitrate concentrations in two wells were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in 1998 and in 2001. Ground-water levels were measured during June and July 2002 and during June, July, and August 2003 in 18 monitoring wells. The median change in water level for all 18 wells was a decline of 2.03 feet.

  17. Conversion of Airborne Gamma ray Spectra to Ground Level Air Kerma Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1997-01-01

    A new method for relating airborne gamma-ray spectra to dose rates and kerma rates at ground level is presented. Dependent on flying altitude 50 m to 125 m the method gives correct results for gamma energies above 250 keV respective 350 keV. At lower energies the method underestimate the dose...... or kerma rates; by having a large fraction of the ground level gamma-rays at energies below 350 keV special care should be taken at an interpretation of the results....

  18. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    processes, economic activities and social systems in the coastal zones (Gommes et al., 1997; NOAA Report, 1999; Solomon et al., 2007). Besides the destruction through increased rates of erosion, sea level rise situations increase the risk of inundation... and the classes falling within these regions were extracted. This region is mostly covered by vegetation followed by water and urban areas. All these classes are important and crucial on social aspects. Different land use and land cover classes within the area...

  19. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  20. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  1. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  2. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  3. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Cover Overhang Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-18

    PORFLOW related analyses were performed with a focus on Slit and Engineered Trenches to evaluate the minimum required cover overhang size that would prevent any adverse impact on the ELLWF overall performance. Cover overhang is defined as the lateral distance that a low-infiltration cover extends beyond the edge of the trench unit in any direction. Analyses were carried out for H-3 (short half-life), I-129 (very long half-life), and Sr-90 (moderate half-life with intermediate Kd) at different overhang sizes (5ft, 10ft, 20ft, 50ft, and infinite), cover timing (0yr, 10yr, 20yr, and 30yr), and scenarios (Intact and a limited Dynamic Compaction Case). H-3, I-129 and Sr-90 are representative of nuclides that typically drive the sum-of-fractions for a trench disposal unit.

  4. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  5. TETRA Observation of Gamma Rays at Ground Level Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) -- very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms -- have been detected with satellite instruments. TETRA, an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, twenty-four events with durations 0.02- 4.2 msec have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 msec and 3 miles of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  6. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  7. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models. Sector-

  9. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  10. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  12. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control.

  13. [Pediatric cases in preclinical emergency medicine: critical aspects in the range of missions covered by ground ambulance and air rescue services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechtriemen, T; Masson, R; Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K; Altemeyer, K H

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in structure and severity of pediatric emergencies treated by aeromedical (air rescue) or ground ambulances services. Conclusions for the training of emergency physicians are discussed. In a 3-year study period, a total of 9,274 pediatric emergencies covered by the ADAC air rescue service are compared to 4,344 pediatric patients of ground ambulance services in Saarland. In aeromedical services pediatric emergencies are more frequent (12.9% vs. 6.4%), trauma predominates (59.9% vs. 35.6%) and severe injuries or diseases occur more frequently (30.5% vs. 15.0%). In both groups pediatric emergency cases are concentrated into very few diagnostic groups: more than one third of the cases involving pre-school children is due to convulsions. Respiratory diseases and intoxication are the next most frequent causes and are more common in ground ambulance patients. Head trauma is the most common diagnosis in cases of pediatric trauma, followed by musculoskeletal and thoracoabdominal trauma. All types of severe trauma are more frequent in pediatric patients of the aeromedical services. Training of emergency physicians should include pediatric life support and specific information about frequent pediatric emergency situations. For emergency physicians in aeromedical services, an intensive training in pediatric trauma life support is also necessary.

  14. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  15. Approaches to consider covers and liners in a low-level waste disposal facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Suttora, Linda [USDOE, Office of Environmental Management, Germantown, MD (United States)

    2015-03-17

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several USDOE sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the USEPA in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. One task completed by the working group addressed approaches for considering the performance of covers and liners/leachate collection systems in the context of a performance assessment (PA). A document has been prepared which provides recommendations for a general approach to address covers and liners/leachate collection systems in a PA and how to integrate assessments with defense-in-depth considerations such as design, operations and waste acceptance criteria to address uncertainties. Specific information and references are provided for details needed to address the evolution of individual components of cover and liner/leachate collection systems. This information is then synthesized into recommendations for best practices for cover and liner system design and examples of approaches to address the performance of covers and liners as part of a performance assessment of the disposal system.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-WATER LEVEL BY MODERN NON-DISTRUCTIVE METHODS (GPR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. NICU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ground-water level by modern non-dis¬tructive methods (ground-penetrating radar technology. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is now a well-accepted geophysical technique, which unfortunately in our country its less used. Historically, the development of GPR comes from the use of radio echosounding to determine ice thickness and it was only a short step to enlarge the domain of research such as permafrost, geological investigation (bedrock, sedimentology, environmental assessment and hydrogeophysical studies (under-ground water location, soil water content. The GPR method measures the travel time of electromagnetic impulses in subsurface materials. An impulse radar system radiates repetitive electromagnetic impulses into the soil. A bandwidth antenna is usually placed in close proximity and electromagnetic coupled to the ground surface. It detects and measures the depth of reflecting discontinuities in subsurface soils and other earth materials to within a few centimeters depending of antenna frequency. For over 30 years, GPR has been used extensively for hydropedological investigations. Our research aims to determine the groundwater to estimate the degree of evolution of hydro-geomorphological processes.

  17. Plant species potentially suitable for cover on low-level solid nuclear waste disposal sites: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L.; Parr, P.D.; Taylor, F.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report reviews available literature on soil conditions, hydrology, and climatological data and suggests plant species suitable for covering the low-level nuclear waste disposal areas in the White Oak Creek Watershed within the Oak Ridge Reservation. Literature on naturally invading species and secondary succession, on plant species used for reclamation of coal spoils and roadsides, and on horticultural species is reviewed. The potential of plant species to take up, or mine, the waste through deep rooting is assessed. The effects of vegetation cover on the water balance in a watershed are reviewed. Several conclusions are presented concerning the management of vegetation cover on low-level solid waste disposal areas. 163 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  19. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    CERN Document Server

    Vexiau, R; Aymar, M; Bouloufa-Maafa, N; Dulieu, O

    2015-01-01

    We have calculated the isotropic $C\\_6$ coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state $X^1\\Sigma^+$. We consider the ten species made up of $^7$Li, $^{23}$Na, $^{39}$K, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs. Following our previous work [M.~Lepers \\textit{et.~al.}, Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{88}, 032709 (2013)] we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it i...

  20. Direct Photoassociative Formation of Ultracold KRb Molecules in the Lowest Vibrational Levels of the Ground State

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Jayita; Carollo, Ryan; Bellos, Michael; Eyler, Edward E; Gould, Phillip L; Stwalley, William C

    2012-01-01

    We report continuous direct photoassociative formation of ultracold KRb molecules in the lowest vibrational levels $(v"=0 -10)$ of the electronic ground state $(X ^1\\Sigma^+)$, starting from $^{39}$K and $^{85}$Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The process exploits a newfound resonant coupling between the $2(1), v'=165$ and $4(1), v'=61$ levels, which exhibit an almost equal admixture of the uncoupled eigenstates. The production rate of the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ ($v"$=0) level is estimated to be $5\\times10^3$ molecules/sec.

  1. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  2. Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RDDO for Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles • David A. Lamb, Ph.D. • Computational Reliability and...fictitious load cases is number of design variables X number of static load cases (6 X 24 = 144 for Stryker A-arm). RBDO Flowchart Pre-processor Morpher...Based Geometry Morpher Mesh Finite Element Analysis Durability Sensitivity RBDO /PBDO FE Analysis FE re-analysis for DSA Sensitivity of SIC and Fatigue

  3. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  5. Effects of spatially variable snow cover on thermal regime and hydrology of an Arctic ice wedge polygon landscape identified using ground penetrating radar and LIDAR datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Peterson, J. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Ice wedge polygons are common in Arctic terrains underlain by permafrost. Permafrost degradation could transform low- into high centered polygons, causing profound changes in the hydrologic regime of Arctic lands, which in turn, could affect the energy balance and subsurface biodegradation of organic carbon responsible for greenhouse gas production. Understanding the linkages between microtopography, snow cover, thermal properties, and thaw depth is critical for developing a predictive understanding of terrestrial ecosystems and their feedbacks to climate. In this study, we use high frequency (500-1000 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) data acquired in spring 2012 within the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) study site in Barrow, AK to characterize the spatial variability of snow distribution. We compare it's distribution to microtopography, estimated using LIDAR data, and thaw depth, also estimated using ground penetrating radar collected at different times during the year and simulated over time using mechanistic thermal-hydrologic modeling. The high spatial resolution offered by LIDAR and ground penetrating radar permit detailed investigations of the control of microtopography on snow and thaw layer depth. Results suggest that microtopographical variations are responsible for substantial differences in snow accumulation. In low centered polygons, snow depth can be up to four times greater in the troughs than on the rims. Both modeling and observations suggest that the microtopography-governed snow thickness affects the thermal properties of the subsurface and thus the thaw layer thickness; regions with thicker snowpack generally correspond to regions of greater thaw depth. We conclude that a transition from low- to high centered polygons will not only impact watershed runoff but, since snow accumulation is sensitive to the microtopography, it will also impact snow distribution. In turn, snow distribution affects thaw depth thickness, and the

  6. Ground measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of Arctic snow covered tundra for the validation of satellite remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. P.; Marks, A. A.; Green, P.; Mac Arthur, A.; Fox, N.; King, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface albedo is the hemispherical and wavelength integrated reflectance over the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the solar spectrum. The albedo of Arctic snow can be in excess of 0.8 and it is a critical component in the global radiation budget because it determines the proportion of solar radiation absorbed, and reflected, over a large part of the Earth's surface. We present here our first results of the angularly resolved surface reflectance of Arctic snow at high solar zenith angles (~80°) suitable for the validation of satellite remote sensing products. The hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of Arctic snow covered tundra was measured using the GonioRAdiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS) during a three-week field campaign in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in March/April 2013. The measurements provide one of few existing HDRF datasets at high solar zenith angles for wind-blown Arctic snow covered tundra (conditions typical of the Arctic region), and the first ground-based measure of HDRF at Ny-Ålesund. The HDRF was recorded under clear sky conditions with 10° intervals in view zenith, and 30° intervals in view azimuth, for several typical sites over a wavelength range of 400-1500 nm at 1 nm resolution. Satellite sensors such as MODIS, AVHRR and VIIRS offer a method to monitor the surface albedo with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, snow reflectance is anisotropic and is dependent on view and illumination angle and the wavelength of the incident light. Spaceborne sensors subtend a discrete angle to the target surface and measure radiance over a limited number of narrow spectral bands. Therefore, the derivation of the surface albedo requires accurate knowledge of the surfaces bidirectional reflectance as a function of wavelength. The ultimate accuracy to which satellite sensors are able to measure snow surface properties such as albedo is dependant on the accuracy of the BRDF model, which can only be assessed

  7. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  8. Ground Level Ozone Precursors: Emission Changes in Lithuania 1990–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata DAGILIŪTĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Lithuanian national strategy for sustainable development is aiming to reduce air pollution per GDP unit significantly and to ensure compliance with international commitments in the air pollution sphere. Ground-level ozone (O3 is one of the most important secondary air pollutants, which is assigned to be harmful to environmental and human health and is one of the main problems of air pollution in cities. This paper aims to overview the changes in the emissions of ground level ozone precursors and their ozone forming potential as well as the achieved progress in foreseen goals. During the analysis period (1990 - 2006 emissions of ground-level ozone precursors declined twofold in Lithuania. After transitional decline intensity of ground level ozone precursors also significantly decreased due to advanced technologies, more efficient energy consumption and changes in fuel mix. However, intensity of ground-level ozone precursors in Lithuania was higher compared to the old EU member states on average, therefore much more attention should be given to special air pollution mitigation measures.

  9. Magnetism of Rare-Earth Compounds with Non-Magnetic Crystal-Field Ground Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among rare-earth compounds, there are many materials having non-magnetic crystal-field (CF) ground levels.To understand their magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, we study the effects of the CF levels and the Heisenberg-like coupling on the magnetic process of such a crystalline with mean-field and CF theory. It is found that the material can be magnetically ordered if the Heisenberg exchange is sufficiently strong. Additionally we obtain a condition for initial magnetic ordering, and derive a formula for estimating the Curie temperature if the ordering occurs.

  10. ATOMIC DATA FOR ABSORPTION-LINES FROM THE GROUND-LEVEL AT WAVELENGTHS GREATER-THAN-228-ANGSTROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; BARTHEL, PD; TYTLER, D

    1994-01-01

    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  11. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements of 29 September 1989 and 20 January 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; McCracken, K G

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. This hypothesis, together with other properties of GLEs, is demonstrated graphically in this paper by plotting and comparing the time profiles of GLEs 42 of 29 September 1989 and GLE 69 of 20 January. These two events are respectively the largest examples of gradual and prompt events.

  12. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  13. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  14. An Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation of the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.; McDonald, Brian W.; Wallins, Bruce F.; Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Thomas A.; Brenner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission has been selected by NASA as a Decadal Survey mission, to be launched in 2016. Mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard/ thickness and changes in these variables and to collect measurements over vegetation that will facilitate determination of canopy height, with an accuracy that will allow prediction of future environmental changes and estimation of sea-level rise. The importance of the ICESat-2 project in estimation of biomass and carbon levels has increased substantially, following the recent cancellation of all other planned NASA missions with vegetation-surveying lidars. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: (1) Collection of elevation data by a multi-beam system and (2) application of micropulse lidar (photon counting) technology. A micropulse photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, which result from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of returned points to reflectors of interest including canopy and ground in forested areas. The objective of this paper is to derive and validate an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2-type data. Data are based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar and vary with respect to signal strength, noise levels, photon sampling options and other properties. A mathematical algorithm is developed, using spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that the algorithm works very well and that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with a high accuracy during the ICESat

  15. Sea level and ground water table depth (WTD): A biogeochemical pacemaker for glacial-interglacial cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The role that changes in sea level have on potential carbon-climate feedbacks are discussed as a potential contributing mechanism for terminating glacial periods. Focus will be on coastal wetlands because these systems can be substantially altered by changing sea level and ground water table depth (WTD); in addition to being important moderators of the exchange of nutrients and energy between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. A hypothesis is outlined that describes how the release of carbon from formerly anaerobic wetland soils and sediments can influence climate when sea levels begin to decline. As ground WTD deepens and eventually recedes from the surface, coastal wetland basins may become isolated from their belowground source of water. With their primary source of base flow removed, coastal wetlands likely dried up, promoting decomposition of the carbon compounds buried in their sediments. Depending on the timing of basin isolation and the timing of decomposition, glacial sea level lows could have triggered a relatively large positive carbon feedback on climate warming, just at the time when a new interglacial period is about to begin.

  16. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.

    2000-02-01

    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  17. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  18. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  19. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  20. An analysis of the trend in ground-level ozone using non-homogeneous poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Thomas S.

    This paper provides a method for measuring the long-term trend in the frequency with which ground-level ozone present in the ambient air exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. A major weakness of previous studies that estimate the long-term trend in the very high values of ozone, and therefore the long-term trend in the probability of satisfying the NAAQS for ozone, is their failure to account for the confounding effects of meterological conditions on ozone levels. Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, and frontal passage play an important role in the formation of ground-level ozone. A non-homogenous Poisson process is used to account for the relationship between very high values of ozone and meteorological conditions. This model provides an estimate of the trend in the ozone values after allowing for the effects of meteorological conditions. Therefore, this model provides a means to measure the effectiveness of pollution control programs after accounting for the effects of changing weather conditions. When our approach is applied to data collected at two sites in Houston, TX, we find evidence of a gradual long-term downward trend in the frequency of high values of ozone. The empirical results indicate how possibly misleading results can be obtained if the analysis does not account for changing weather conditions.

  1. The fine structure levels for ground states of negative ions of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure levels for negative ions (anions of nitrogen and phosphorus have been investigated using multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian (MCHF+BP. Nitrogen and phosphorus have half-filled outer shell in ground state 1s22s22p3 4S and 1s22s22p33s23p3 4S, respectively. It has been stated in most works that the negative ion of nitrogen is instable whereas the negative ion of phosphorus is stable. The results obtained have been compared with other works.

  2. System-level view of geospace dynamics: Challenges for high-latitude ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research programs including GEM, CEDAR, GEMSIS, GO Canada, and others are focusing on how geospace works as a system. Coupling sits at the heart of system level dynamics. In all cases, coupling is accomplished via fundamental processes such as reconnection and plasma waves, and can be between regions, energy ranges, species, scales, and energy reservoirs. Three views of geospace are required to attack system level questions. First, we must observe the fundamental processes that accomplish the coupling. This "observatory view" requires in situ measurements by satellite-borne instruments or remote sensing from powerful well-instrumented ground-based observatories organized around, for example, Incoherent Scatter Radars. Second, we need to see how this coupling is controlled and what it accomplishes. This demands quantitative observations of the system elements that are being coupled. This "multi-scale view" is accomplished by networks of ground-based instruments, and by global imaging from space. Third, if we take geospace as a whole, the system is too complicated, so at the top level we need time series of simple quantities such as indices that capture important aspects of the system level dynamics. This requires a "key parameter view" that is typically provided through indices such as AE and DsT. With the launch of MMS, and ongoing missions such as THEMIS, Cluster, Swarm, RBSP, and ePOP, we are entering a-once-in-a-lifetime epoch with a remarkable fleet of satellites probing processes at key regions throughout geospace, so the observatory view is secure. With a few exceptions, our key parameter view provides what we need. The multi-scale view, however, is compromised by space/time scales that are important but under-sampled, combined extent of coverage and resolution that falls short of what we need, and inadequate conjugate observations. In this talk, I present an overview of what we need for taking system level research to its next level, and how

  3. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  4. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  5. Climate Variability and Mangrove Cover Dynamics at Species Level in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumer Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are complex in nature. For monitoring the impact of climate variability in this ecosystem, a multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite. Changes in temperature and rainfall pattern have been suggested as an influential factor responsible for the change in mangrove species composition and spatial distribution. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature, rainfall pattern and dynamics of mangrove species in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, over a 38 year time period from 1977 to 2015. To assess the relationship, a three stage analytical process was employed. Primarily, the trend of temperature and rainfall over the study period were identified using a linear trend model; then, the supervised maximum likelihood classifier technique was employed to classify images recorded by Landsat series and post-classification comparison techniques were used to detect changes at species level. The rate of change of different mangrove species was also estimated in the second stage. Finally, the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangroves at species level was determined using a simple linear regression model. The results show a significant statistical relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangrove species. The trends of change for Heritiera fomes and Sonneratia apelatala show a strong relationship with temperature and rainfall, while Ceriops decandra shows a weak relationship. In contrast, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus mekongensis do not show any significant relationship with temperature and rainfall. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that temperature and rainfall are important climatic factors influencing the dynamics of three major mangrove species viz. H. fomes, S. apelatala and C. decandra in the Sundarbans.

  6. Autocorrelation in ultraviolet radiation measured at ground level using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Filho, Paulo Cavalcante; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Corso, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the autocorrelation among four ultraviolet (UV) radiation data sets obtained at 305 nm, 320 nm, 340 nm, and 380 nm. The data were recorded at ground level at the INPE climate station in Natal, RN, Brazil, which is a site close to the equator. The autocorrelations were computed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to estimate the index α. We found that the ​fluctuations in the UV radiation data were fractal, with scale-free behavior at a DFA index α ≃ 0.7. In addition, we performed a power law spectral analysis, which showed that the power spectrum exhibited a power law behavior with an exponent of β ≃ 0.45. Given that the theoretical result is β = 2 α - 1, these two results are in good agreement. Moreover, the application of the DFA ​method to the UV radiation data required detrending using a polynomial with an order of at least eight, which was related to the complex daily solar radiation curve obtained at ground level in a tropical region. The results indicated that the α exponent of UV radiation is similar to other climatic records such as air temperature, wind, or rain, but not solar activity.

  7. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  9. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  10. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid

    2016-09-01

    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  11. Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation%桃园生草对桃树节肢动物群落多样性与稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杰贤; 万年峰; 季香云; 淡家贵

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1. 48, 1. 84 and 0. 64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon' s diversity, and Pielou' s evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cov-er vegetation were 83. 733±4. 932, 4. 966±0. 110, and 0. 795±0. 014, respectively, being signifi-cantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker' s dominance index was 0. 135±0. 012, being significantly lower than that (0. 184±0. 018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0. 883±0. 123. 1714±0. 683, and 0. 781 ±0. 040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson' s cor-relation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon' s diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the di-versity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp ,Sn/Sp, and S/N.%对种植白三叶草的桃园(生草桃园)和非生草桃园的桃树节肢动物群落进行分析比较.结果表明:生草桃园桃树天敌、中性类群和植食类群数量分别是非生草桃园的1.48、1.84和0.64倍,而节肢动物群落个体总数无显著差异;与非

  12. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  13. Algorithm for Detection of Ground and Canopy Cover in Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar Altimeter Data in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute Christina; McDonald, Brian W.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Wallin, Bruce F.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten; Brenner, Anita; Field, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-2) mission is a decadal survey mission (2016 launch). The mission objectives are to measure land ice elevation, sea ice freeboard, and changes in these variables, as well as to collect measurements over vegetation to facilitate canopy height determination. Two innovative components will characterize the ICESat-2 lidar: 1) collection of elevation data by a multibeam system and 2) application of micropulse lidar (photon-counting) technology. A photon-counting altimeter yields clouds of discrete points, resulting from returns of individual photons, and hence new data analysis techniques are required for elevation determination and association of the returned points to reflectors of interest. The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm that allows detection of ground under dense canopy and identification of ground and canopy levels in simulated ICESat-2 data, based on airborne observations with a Sigma Space micropulse lidar. The mathematical algorithm uses spatial statistical and discrete mathematical concepts, including radial basis functions, density measures, geometrical anisotropy, eigenvectors, and geostatistical classification parameters and hyperparameters. Validation shows that ground and canopy elevation, and hence canopy height, can be expected to be observable with high accuracy by ICESat-2 for all expected beam energies considered for instrument design (93.01%-99.57% correctly selected points for a beam with expected return of 0.93 mean signals per shot (msp), and 72.85%-98.68% for 0.48 msp). The algorithm derived here is generally applicable for elevation determination from photoncounting lidar altimeter data collected over forested areas, land ice, sea ice, and land surfaces, as well as for cloud detection.

  14. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  15. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  16. Effects of ethanolamine, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered alloy 600 and brass corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkatt, A.; Labuda, E.; Wilder, D.M. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Smialowska, S.; Rebak, R.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center; Cherepakhov, G. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Burns, R.J. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2 Station in Buchanan, New York. The tests showed that the introduction of ethanolamine (ETA) and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to a mild decrease in these rates.

  17. Differential evolution algorithm for multi-commodity and multi-level of service hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model's assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE algorithm (upper bound, where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.

  18. Construct validity of RT3 accelerometer: A comparison of level-ground and treadmill walking at self-selected speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hendrick, MPhty

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in accelerometer output when subjects walked on level ground and on a treadmill. We asked 25 nondisabled participants to wear an RT3 triaxial accelerometer (StayHealthy, Inc; Monrovia, California and walk at their "normal" and "brisk" walking speeds for 10 minutes. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from level-ground walking on two occasions 1 week apart. Paired t-tests found a difference in RT3 accelerometer vector magnitude (VM counts/min between the two walking speeds on both surfaces on days 1 and 2 (p 0.05, we found wide limits of agreement between level ground and treadmill walking at both speeds. Measurement and discrimination of walking intensity employing RT3 accelerometer VM counts/min on the treadmill demonstrated reasonable validity and stability over two time points compared with level-ground walking.

  19. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (test identification of sea-level markers in GPR data from microtidal depositional environments. Nielsen and Clemmensen (2009) showed...

  20. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  1. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    OpenAIRE

    Regina A. A.; I. Mohammad Halim Shah

    2010-01-01

    The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model uti...

  3. Modeling of Regional Climate Change Effects on Ground-Level Ozone and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Knowlton, Kim; Carr, Jessie L.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The adverse respiratory effects of ground-level ozone are well-established. Ozone is the air pollutant most consistently projected to increase under future climate change. Purpose To project future pediatric asthma emergency department visits associated with ground-level ozone changes, comparing 1990s to 2020s. Methods This study assessed future numbers of asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years using (1) baseline New York City metropolitan area emergency department rates, (2) a dose–response relationship between ozone levels and pediatric asthma emergency department visits, and (3) projected daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentrations for the 2020s as simulated by a global-to-regional climate change and atmospheric chemistry model. Sensitivity analyses included population projections and ozone precursor changes. This analysis occurred in 2010. Results In this model, climate change could cause an increase in regional summer ozone-related asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years of 7.3% across the New York City metropolitan region by the 2020s. This effect diminished with inclusion of ozone precursor changes. When population growth is included, the projections of morbidity related to ozone are even larger. Conclusions The results of this analysis demonstrate that the use of regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models make possible the projection of local climate change health effects for specific age groups and specific disease outcomes – such as emergency department visits for asthma. Efforts should be made to improve on this type of modeling to inform local and wider-scale climate change mitigation and adaptation policy. PMID:21855738

  4. The pulse shape of cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; Caballero-Lopez, R A

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground-level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. With this hypothesis in mind we study the time profiles of all the available GLEs. The main results are that there is a continuous range from gradual to impulsive, that the fastest risers are concentrated at heliolongitudes that are magnetically well-connected to Earth, and that the shape of the pulse is a powerful indicator of propagation conditions between Sun and Earth. This ranges from relatively quiet to highly disturbed.

  5. Electron and proton acceleration during the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C; Sun, L P; Miroshnichenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 +/- 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 +/- 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active r...

  6. What Are Special About Ground-Level Events? Flares, CMEs, Active Regions And Magnetic Field Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, N V; DeRosa, M L; Nightingale, R W

    2012-01-01

    Ground level events (GLEs) occupy the high-energy end of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. They are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, but we still do not clearly understand the special conditions that produce these rare events. During Solar Cycle 23, a total of 16 GLEs were registered, using ground-based neutron monitor data. We first ask if these GLEs are clearly distinguishable from other SEP events observed from space. Setting aside possible difficulties in identifying all GLEs consistently, we then try to find observables which may unmistakably isolate these GLEs by studying the basic properties of the associated eruptions and the active regions (ARs) that produced them. It is found that neither the magnitudes of the CMEs and flares nor the complexities of the ARs give sufficient conditions for GLEs. It is possible to find CMEs, flares or ARs that are not associated with GLEs but that have more extreme properties than those associated with GLEs. We also try to ev...

  7. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Sherba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global land-use/land-cover (LULC change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC transitions into spatial scales and thematic LULC classes appropriate for use in a regional STSM. For each downscaling approach, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP LULC projections, at the 0.5 × 0.5 cell resolution, were downscaled to seven Level III ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest, United States. RCP transition values at each cell were downscaled based on the proportional distribution between ecoregions of (1 cell area, (2 land-cover composition derived from remotely-sensed imagery, and (3 historic LULC transition values from a LULC history database. Resulting downscaled LULC transition values were aggregated according to their bounding ecoregion and “cross-walked” to relevant LULC classes. Ecoregion-level LULC transition values were applied in a STSM projecting LULC change between 2005 and 2100. While each downscaling methods had advantages and disadvantages, downscaling using the historical land-use history dataset consistently apportioned RCP LULC transitions in agreement with historical observations. Regardless of the downscaling method, some LULC projections remain improbable and require further investigation.

  8. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  9. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  10. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  11. The Investigation of Species and Application of Ground Cover Plants in Jiaozuo%焦作市地被植物种类及应用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红军; 张桂芝; 马君丽; 孔德政

    2012-01-01

    根据对焦作市建成区地被植物进行实地调查,统计得出焦作市作为地被植物应用的灌木,藤本,一、二年生花卉,宿根、球根花卉、草类共有192种65科151属.灌木应用较多,宿根、球根花卉,一、二年生花卉应用较少;提出了应用频率最高的地被植物有:马棘、月季、剑麻、铺地柏、迎春等;焦作地被植物应用形式主要有以下几种;模纹花坛和绿篱,旷地造景,路缘造景等.最后提出优化灌草比例,引进新优品种的建议.%Based on the investigation of ground cover plants, which be divided into Bush, Fujimoto, one or two annual flower, Perennial and bulbs flowers and grasses, which we proposes 192 species in the Building area in the city of Jiaozuo belong to 65 families and 151 genera. Bush is widely used, on the contrary, one or two annual flowers and Perennial and bulbs flowers used very seldom. And we discover these plants as indigofera and rose and jasmine and sisal and winter juniper etc are used the most frequently. There are these kinds of application forms as follows: mode pattern flower and hedgerow, open areas landscaping, road edge landscaping. At the last, we proposed that Optimization the Proportion of bush and grass and introduction new and excellent variety.

  12. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  13. A Possible Detection of Solar Gamma-Rays by the Ground Level Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Muraki, Y; Gonzalez, L X; Koga, K; Matsumoto, H; Masuda, S; Matsubara, Y; Nagai, Y; Tanaka, Y; Sakai, T; Sako, T; Shibata, S; Watanabe, K

    2013-01-01

    On March 7, 2011 from 19:48:00 to 20:03:00 UT, the solar neutron telescope located at Mt. Sierra Negra, Mexico (4,600m) observed a 8.8sigma enhancement. In this paper, we would like to try to explain this enhancement by a hypothesis that a few GeV gamma-rays arrived at the top of the mountain produced by the Sun. We postulate that protons were accelerated at the shock front. They precipitate at the solar surface and produced those gamma-rays. If hypothesis is confirmed, this enhancement is the first sample of GeV gamma-rays observed by a ground level detector.

  14. Isomeric and ground state energy level measurements of natural tellurium isotopes via (γ,n) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkas, M.; Akcali, O.; Durusoy, A.

    2015-04-01

    We have planned to measure isomeric and ground state energy levels in 120Te(γ,n)119m,gTe, 122Te(γ,n)121m,gTe, 128Te(γ,n)127m,gTe, 130Te(γ,n)129m,gTe photonuclear reactions of natural tellurium induced by bremsstrahlung photons with end-point energy at 18 MeV. The sample was irradiated in the clinical linear electron accelerator (Philips SLi-25) at Akdeniz University Hospital. The gamma spectrum of the tellurium sample was measured using HP(Ge) semiconductor detector (ORTEC) and multi channel analyzer. We used both MAESTRO (ORTEC) and home made root based gui program (Theia) for data analyzing. The obtained experimental data values are compared with NUDAT energy values.

  15. Cost-Effective Control of Ground-Level Ozone Pollution in and around Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xuxuan; Zhang Shiqiu; Xu Jianhua; Wu Dan; Zhu Tong

    2012-01-01

    Ground level ozone pollution has become a significant air pollution problem in Beijing. Because of the complex way in which ozone is formed, it is difficult for policy makers to identify optimal control options on a cost-effective basis. This paper identi- fies and assesses a range of options for addressing this problem. We apply the Ambient Least Cost Model and compare the eco- nomic costs of control options, then recommend the most effective sequence to realize pollution control at the lowest cost. The study finds that installing of Stage II gasoline vapor recovery system at Beijing's 1446 gasoline stations would be the most cost-effective option. Overall, options to reduce ozone pollution by cutting ve- hicular emissions are much more cost-effective than options to "clean up" coal-fired power plants.

  16. Solar Energetic-Particle Release Times in Historic Ground-Level Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2009-11-01

    Ground-level events (GLEs) are large solar energetic-particle events with sufficiently hard spectra for GeV protons to be detected by neutron monitors at ground level. For each of 30 well-observed historic GLEs from four solar cycles, extending back to 1973, I have plotted onset times versus velocity-1 for particles observed on the IMP-7 and 8, ISEE-3, Wind, and GOES spacecraft and by neutron monitors. A linear fit on such a plot for each GLE determines the initial solar particle release (SPR) time, as the intercept, and the magnetic path length traversed, as the slope, of the fitted line. Magnetic path lengths and SPR times are well determined by the fits and cannot be used as adjustable parameters to make particle and photon emission times coincide. SPR times follow the onsets of shock-induced type II radio bursts and the coronal height of the coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock at SPR time can be determined for GLEs spanning an interval of solar longitude of ~140 deg. For a given GLE, all particle species and energies diverge from a single SPR point at a given coronal height and footpoint longitude of the field line to the Earth. These heights tend to increase with longitudinal distance away from the source, a pattern expected for shock acceleration. Acceleration for magnetically well-connected large GLEs begins at ~2 solar radii, in contrast to non-GLEs that have been found to be strongly associated with shocks above ~3 solar radii. The higher densities and magnetic field strengths at lower altitudes may be responsible for the acceleration of higher-energy particles in GLEs, while those GLEs that begin above 3R S may compensate by having higher shock speeds. These results support the joint dependence of maximum particle energy on magnetic field strength, injected particle density, and shock speed, all predicted theoretically.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Ground water Level Changes Induced by the 2006 Hengchun Earthquake Doublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeping Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-level changes were ob served in 107 wells at 67 monitoring stations in the southern coastal plain of Tai wan during the 2006 Mw 7.1 Hengchun earthquake doublet. Two consecutive coseismic changes induced by the earth quake doublet can be observed from high-frequency data. Obervations from multiple-well stations indicate that the magnitude and direction of coseismic change may vary in wells of different depths. Coseismic rises were dominant on the south east side of the costal plain; whereas, coseismic falls prevailed on the north west side. In the transition zone, rises appeared in shallow wells whilst falls were evident in deep wells. As coseismic ground water level changes can reflect the tectonic strain field, tectonic extension likely dominates the deep subsurface in the transition area, and possibly in the en tire southern coastal plain. The coseismic rises in water level showed a tendency to de crease with distance from the hypocenter, but no clear trend was found for the coseismic falls.

  18. A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of total phosphate in selected surface water and groundwater bodies from Manzini and Lubombo regions of Swaziland were determined using UV spectroscopic method. Samples were collected from three rivers (upstream and downstream of each, three industrial effluents, one reservoir, one pond, one tap water and fifteen boreholes. Mean phosphate levels in the tap water and reservoir varied between 0.08-0.09 mg/L while for the river samples, the range was 0.11-0.37 and for the industrial discharge, it was 0.11-1.60 mg/L PO4–P. For the ground water systems it ranged between 0.10-0.49 mg/L PO4–P. The mean phosphate levels in all the analyzed surface and groundwater samples were below the recommended maximum contaminant level (MCL by SWSC (Swaziland Water Service Corporation – i.e. 1.0 mg/L for drinking water; 2.0 mg/L for rivers and industrial effluents, and the South African criterion of 1.0 mg/L PO4–P, for sewage effluents being discharged into receiving waters. However, pooled mean values for all the sites were higher than the USEPA criterion of 0.03 mg/L maximum for uncontaminated lakes. Dominant factors considered to have influenced the levels of phosphates in both the surface and groundwater samples analyzed include industrial activities (where present, agricultural activities (including livestock, population density, location (urban, suburban or rural, soil/rock type in the vicinity of the sampling point, climate and rainfall pattern of the area or region concerned.

  19. ELECTRON AND PROTON ACCELERATION DURING THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Sun, L. P. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Firoz, Kazi A. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Miroshnichenko, L. I., E-mail: lic@nju.edu.cn [N. V. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, 142190 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-10

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 {+-} 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 {+-} 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active region has been performed to provide escape channels for flare-accelerated electrons. Meanwhile, relativistic protons are found to be released {approx}10 minutes later than the electrons, assuming their scatter-free travel along the same IMF path length. Combining multi-wavelength imaging data of the prominence eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME), we obtain evidence that GLE protons, with an estimated kinetic energy of {approx}1.12 GeV, are probably accelerated by the CME-driven shock when it travels to {approx}3.07 solar radii. The time-of-maximum spectrum of protons is typical for shock wave acceleration.

  20. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancement of 1989 September 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R. A. [Ciencias Espaciales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    The ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 1989 September 29 is one of the largest of 71 solar energetic particle events observed by neutron monitors on Earth. It was smaller than the record-breaking GLE 5 of 1956 February 23, but by some measures it was larger than GLE 69 of 2005 January 20. It is also the most extensively studied of the 71 GLEs, and it was observed by more than 50 ground-based detectors in the worldwide network. This paper contains another study of the event, with the main difference from previous studies that all the existing observations are employed, instead of the usual selection of stations. An effort is made to represent all the information graphically. This reveals new insight in the event, mainly about its time profile. The main conclusion is that the event is the best example available of a 'classical' GLE that has a gradual increase toward peak intensity and does not contain two or more distinct peaks as inferred previously. It does, however, suggest that there were two acceleration or release mechanisms: a prompt, rapid one and a delayed, slower one. This conclusion is based on a detailed comparison with GLE 69 of 2005 January 20, which is the best-known example of a double-peaked event with a 'prompt' component. It is also found that the rigidity spectrum was probably softer than derived in several previous studies, and that the decay phase of the event reveals that the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient in the neutron monitor range is proportional to rigidity.

  1. Assessing Vegetation Composition and Characteristics Using Ground-Level Hyperspectral Data in Northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    The study of ecosystem properties and processes through remote sensing allows ecological questions to be answered more efficiently for large geographical expanses than field work alone, especially in areas that are relatively inaccessible. These properties and processes are often studied at coarse spatial scales with multispectral data; however, the use of hyperspectral data to ask plant community and species-level questions is still a developing field. Many applications, such as understanding the influence of disturbances and assessing management strategies, need finer-scale information than is currently available using multispectral data. In this study, we used hyperspectral data to examine vegetation community properties in preparation for addressing these finer-scale questions. Specifically, we examined the ability to assess vegetation composition and diversity using ground-level hyperspectral data for early successional and other non-forested fields in north-central Virginia. Twelve 5m by 5m plots were established at which a vegetation survey was conducted at the ground, understory, and canopy levels at 0.5m intervals. We additionally collected twelve spectra with approximately 1m footprints at each plot. We then ran ordinations to assess clustering of plots by similarity in species compositions and assessed the spectral bands most strongly correlated with clustering. We found that plots do cluster by species composition, but the most influential wavelengths varied by year of data collection. In 2012, the most influential bands were in the near-infrared plateau region followed by some influence from the red region. The most influential bands in 2014 were in the blue-green and red regions. The correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity also differed by year; however, when an outlier was removed from each of the years, there was a weak positive correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity during both years. These results are

  2. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  3. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN and GCRPS (GUN and GNN, solely chicken manure (GCM and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN. The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of −1.33 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80–11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05–9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 yr−1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS

  4. Temporal and spatial variability response of groundwater level to land use/land cover change in oases of arid areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jinfeng; CHEN Xi; LUO Geping; GUO Quanjun

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a case study on the impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on the temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in an arid oasis in the Sangong River Watershed by using the geographical information system (GIS),remote sensing (RS) and geostatistical methods. The temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in the watershed in 1978, 1987 and 1998 is regressed by using thesemivariogram model and Kriging interpolation. The LUCC classification maps derived from the aerial images in 1978, Landsat TM image in 1987 and Landsat ETM image in 1998 are used to superpose and analyze the conversion relationship of LUCC types in the regions with different isograms of the groundwater depth. The results show that the change of groundwater recharge was not so significant in the whole oasis, but the temporal and spatial LUCC was significant either in the normal flow periods or in the high flow periods during the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, and there was a close correlation between them. There is generally a moderate spatial correlation of groundwater level (33.4%),and the spatial autocorrelation distance is 17.78 km.The regions where the groundwater level is sharply changed are also the regions where the land resources are increasingly exploited, which include mainly the exploitation of farmlands, woodlands, and building, industrial and mining lands. The study reveals that the LUCC affects strongly the temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in the arid oasis. The study results are of direct and practical significance for rationally utilizing shallow groundwater resources and maintaining the stability of the arid oasis.

  5. Solar cosmic rays during the extremely high ground level enhancement on 23 February 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belov

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The 23 February 1956 ground level enhancement of the solar cosmic ray intensity (GLE05 is the most famous among the proton events observed since 1942. But we do not have a great deal of information on this event due to the absence of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements at that time. Furthermore, there were no X-Ray or gamma observations and the information on the associated flare is limited. Cosmic ray data was obtained exclusively by ground level detectors of small size and in some cases of a non-standard design. In the present work all available data from neutron monitors operating in 1956 were analyzed, in order to develop a model of the solar cosmic ray behavior during the event. The time-dependent characteristics of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, cosmic ray anisotropy, and differential and integral fluxes have been evaluated utilizing different isotropic and anisotropic models. It is shown that the most outstanding features of this proton enhancement were a narrow and extremely intense beam of ultra-relativistic particles arriving at Earth just after the onset and the unusually high maximum solar particle energy. However, the contribution of this beam to the overall solar particle density and fluency was not significant because of its very short duration and small width. Our estimate of the integral flux for particles with energies over 100 MeV places this event above all subsequent. Perhaps the number of accelerated low energy particles was closer to a record value, but these particles passed mainly to the west of Earth.

    Many features of this GLE are apparently explained by the peculiarity of the particle interplanetary propagation from a remote (near the limb source. The quality of the available neutron monitor data does not allow us to be certain of some details; these may be cleared up by the incorporation into the analysis of data from muonic telescopes and ionization chambers

  6. Postural sway at ground and bevel levels in subjects with spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shin-Tsu; Ku, Chih-Hung

    2007-06-01

    To assess whether the postural function is impaired by comparing the performances in upright standing at ground and bevel levels in adult subjects with spina bifida occulta (SBO). Eighty subjects with SBO (38 with minor type and 42 with major type) and 35 healthy control subjects participated in the study. All participants performed ten tests while standing upright on a platform at ground level (0 degrees, baseline) and on a beveled surface (with their feet in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at 10 degrees and 20 degrees). Tests were done with their eyes open and closed. The postural sway was examined using a force platform (CATSYS, Danish) that records sway intensity and velocity. Sway intensity and sway velocity were universally associated with group, degree of bevel, open- or closed-eyes condition, and dorsiflexion or plantarflexion after adjusting for age and gender. With respect to sway intensity, the differences of minor or major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with control groups, whereas the differences between minor and major SBO were significant differences at 10 degrees and 20 degrees. With respect to sway velocity, the differences of major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with minor SBO and control groups, whereas the difference in minor SBO was only significant at 0 degrees when compared with control. Group differences (minor SBO vs. control, major SBO vs. control) showed a significant decrease in sway velocity when comparing at 10 degrees than at 0 degrees and at 20 degrees than at 0 degrees. In all subjects with SBO, the sway intensity/velocity values obtained with open eyes and with plantarflexion had lower values, when compared with values obtained with closed eyes and with dorsiflexion. This study supports the hypothesis that SBO impairs control of postural sway in both the resting upright and stressful postures. Our results imply that the larger the bone

  7. Comparison of temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Ozone Pollution at Ground Level in the Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Houfeng

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring data from ozone(O3) automatic stations in three typical cities with different climatic areas in the southern and northern parts of eastern China are used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of ozone pollution at ground level. The results show that ozone pollution level has distinct regional differences and the concentration in the suburbs is higher than that in the urban areas. The seasonal variation of ozone concentration in different climatic areas is greatly affected by the variation of precipitation. Ozone concentration in Shenyang and Beijing , in the temperate zone, has one perennial peak concentration, occurring in early summer,May or June. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou, in sub-tropical zone, has two peak values year round. The highest values occur in October and the secondary high value in June. The ozone season in the south is longer than that in the north. The annual average daily peak value of ozone concentrations in different climates usually occur around 3 pm. The diurnal variation range of ozone concentration declines with the increase of latitude. Ozone concentration does not elevate with the increase of traffic flow. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou has a distinct reverse relation to CO and NOx. This complicated non-linearity indicates that the equilibrium of ozone photochemical reaction has regional differences.Exceeding the rate of Beijing's 1h ozone concentration is higher than that of Guangzhou, whereas the average 8h ozone level is lower than that of Guangzhou, indicating that areas in low latitude are more easily affected by moderate ozone concentrations and longer exposure. Thus,China should work out standards for 8h ozone concentration.

  8. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  9. Sensitivity of Hurricane Storm Surge to Land Cover and Topography Under Various Sea Level Rise Scenarios Along the Mississippi Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Major Gulf hurricanes have a high probability of impacting the northern Gulf of Mexico, especially coastal Mississippi (Resio, 2007). Due to the wide and flat continental shelf, this area provides near-perfect geometry for high water levels under tropical cyclone conditions. Literature suggests with 'very high confidence that global sea level will rise at least 0.2 m and no more than 2.0 m by 2011' (Donoghue, 2011; Parris et al., 2012). Further, it is recognized that the Mississippi barrier islands are highly susceptible to a westward migration and retreating shoreline. With predictions for less frequent, more intense tropical storms, rising sea levels, and a changing landscape, it is important to understand how these changes may affect inundation extent and flooding due to hurricane storm surge. A state-of-the-art SWAN+ADCIRC hydrodynamic model of coastal Mississippi was utilized to simulate Hurricane Katrina with present day sea level conditions. Using present day as a base scenario, past (1960) and future (2050) sea level changes were simulated. In addition to altering the initial sea state, land use land cover (LULC) was modified for 1960 and 2050 based on historic data and future projections. LULC datasets are used to derive surface roughness characteristics, such as Manning's n, and wind reduction factors. The topography along the barrier islands and near the Pascagoula River, MS was also altered to reflect the 1960 landscape. Storm surge sensitivity to topographic change were addressed by comparing model results between two 1960 storm surge simulations; one with current topography and a second with changes to the barrier islands. In addition, model responses to changes in LULC are compared. The results will be used to gain insight into adapting present day storm surge models for future conditions. References Donoghue, J. (2011). Sea level history of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast and sea level rise scenarios for the near future. Climatic Change, 107

  10. Ground-Level Geriatric Falls: A Not-So-Minor Mechanism of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Parker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ground-level falls are typically regarded as a minor mechanism of injury that do not necessitate trauma team activation; however, they represent a significant proportion of hospitalised trauma and can result in multisystem injury. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old nursing home resident was brought to the emergency department following an unwitnessed fall. She suffered dementia and had a seizure in the department resulting in a reduced GCS, making history and examination difficult. She was diagnosed with a right proximal humerus fracture and admitted under joint orthopedic and medical care. Following orthopedic review, further X-rays were requested which showed bilateral neck of femur fractures. The following day she had bilateral hip hemiarthroplasties and K-wire stabilisation of the right shoulder. Several days later, when cognition had improved, she was noted to be avoiding use of the left arm and was found to also have a left proximal humerus fracture which was managed conservatively. Conclusion. Trauma patients with reduced cognitive function should undergo full ATLS assessment, and a prospective trial is required to see if age should be incorporated as a criteria for trauma team activation. More liberal use of advanced imaging such as a full body CT-scan may be beneficial.

  11. The Time Structure of Ground Level Enhancements in Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraal, H.; McCracken, K. G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recent paper McCracken et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 113:A12101, 2008) proposed that the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 20 January 2005 may have been produced by more than one acceleration mechanism, with the first acceleration due to the solar flare and the second one due to the CME associated with that event. They also noted several other GLEs with similar multiple pulse structures. This paper systematically investigates all the GLEs of solar cycle 23, from GLE 55 on 6 November 1997 to GLE 70 on 13 December 2006, to study their morphology and pulse structure, and to determine whether the multiple structures that may be found in these events are qualitatively similar to that of the GLE of 20 January 2005. We use all the data of all NMs that saw each event, to have as much directional and spectral information as possible. It is shown that three of these 16 events do contain such double-pulse structures, and the properties of these three are discussed in some detail.

  12. Small Ground-Level Enhancement of 6 January 2014: Acceleration by CME-Driven Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Available spectral data for solar energetic particles (SEPs) measured near the Earth's orbit (GOES-13) and on the terrestrial surface (polar neutron monitors) on 6 January 2014 are analyzed. A feature of this solar proton event (SPE) and weak ground-level enhancement (GLE) is that the source was located behind the limb. For the purpose of comparison, we also use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data on sub-relativistic electrons and GOES-13 measurements of a strong and extended proton event on 8 - 9 January 2014. It was found that the surface observations at energies {>} 433 MeV and GOES-13 data at {>} 30 - {>} 700 MeV may be satisfactorily reconciled by a power-law time-of-maximum (TOM) spectrum with a characteristic exponential tail (cutoff). Some methodological difficulties of spectrum determination are discussed. Assuming that the TOM spectrum near the Earth is a proxy of the spectrum of accelerated particles in the source, we critically consider the possibility of shock acceleration to relativistic energies in the solar corona. Finally, it is suggested to interpret the observational features of this GLE under the assumption that small GLEs may be produced by shocks driven by coronal mass ejections. However, the serious limitations of such an approach to the problem of the SCR spectrum prevent drawing firm conclusions in this controversial field.

  13. Effects of 10% biofuel substitution on ground level ozone formation in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin; Milano, Aaron; Garivait, Savitri; Kamens, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Thai Government's search for alternatives to imported petroleum led to the consideration of mandating 10% biofuel blends (biodiesel and gasohol) by 2012. Concerns over the effects of biofuel combustion on ground level ozone formation in relation to their conventional counterparts need addressing. Ozone formation in Bangkok is explored using a trajectory box model. The model is compared against O 3, NO, and NO 2 time concentration data from air monitoring stations operated by the Thai Pollution Control Department. Four high ozone days in 2006 were selected for modeling. Both the traditional trajectory approach and a citywide average approach were used. The model performs well with both approaches but slightly better with the citywide average. Highly uncertain and missing data are derived within realistic bounds using a genetic algorithm optimization. It was found that 10% biofuel substitution will lead to as much as a 16 ppb peak O 3 increase on these four days compared to a 48 ppb increase due to the predicted vehicle fleet size increase between 2006 and 2012. The approach also suggests that when detailed meteorological data is not available to run three dimensional airshed models, and if the air is stagnant or predominately remains over an urban area during the day, that a simple low cost trajectory analysis of O 3 formation may be applicable.

  14. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  15. Radiological safety studies on ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Environmental simulation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Washio, Masakazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment)

    1982-03-01

    As the method of disposing low level radioactive wastes on land, the underground disposal method disposing the wastes in the structures constructed underground near the ground surface has been investigated as a feasible method. In order to contribute to the environmental safety assessment for this underground disposal method, environmental simulation test is planned at present, in which earth is sampled in the undisturbed state, and the behavior of radioactive nuclides is examined. The testing facilities are to be constructed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from fiscal 1981. First, the research made so far concerning the movement of radioactive nuclides in airing layer and aquifer which compose natural barrier is outlined. As for the environmental simulation test, the necessity and method of the test, earth sampling, the underground simulation facility and the contribution to environmental safety assessment are explained. By examining the movement of radioactive nuclides through natural barrier and making the effective mddel for the underground movement of radioactive nuclides, the environmental safety assessment for the disposal can be performed to obtain the national consensus.

  16. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  17. Aromatic volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports proton mass spectrometry data on aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and propylbenzene) obtained in different Russian regions along the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok, based on expedition data retrieved using the TRO-ICA-12 mobile laboratory in the summer of 2008. The contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation in the cities and regions along the measurement route has been estimated quantitatively. The greatest contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation is characteristic of large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway (up to 7.5 ppbv O3) specified by the highest concentrations of aromatic VOCs (1-1.7 ppbv) and nitrogen oxides (>20 ppbv). The results obtained are indicative of a considerable contribution (30-50%) of anthropogenic emissions of VOCs to photochemical ozone generation in the large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway in hot and dry weather against the background of a powerful natural factor such as isoprene emissions controlling the regional balance of ground-level ozone in warm seasons.

  18. Seasonal Variability of Ground Water Levels in the Puszcza Zielonka Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajewski Sylwester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies on seasonal variability of ground water tables recorded in long-term observations of water levels in the Puszcza Zielonka forest complex. The Puszcza Zielonka Forest is located in the middle part of the Warta basin in the central part of the Wielkopolska region. Its western boundary is located approx. 6 km north-east of Poznań. The area is situated in the western part of the Wielkopolska-Mazovian climatic region. The natural landscape is of young glacial type of Pleistocene and Holocene formation. For this reason parent materials for soils in this area were mainly postglacial drifts, deposits coming from the Poznań stage of the Würm glaciation. In terms of granulometric composition these were mainly low clayey sands deposited on loose sands with an admixture of gravel and eroded sandy clay. Scots pine is the dominant species. Oaks, alders, larches and scarce spruces are also found in this area. Predominant sites include fresh mixed forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest, fresh broadleaved forest and alder swamp forest.

  19. Analysis of Daytime and Nighttime Ground Level Ozone Concentrations Using Boosted Regression Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaitun Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the use of boosted regression trees (BRTs to draw an inference about daytime and nighttime ozone formation in a coastal environment. Hourly ground-level ozone data for a full calendar year in 2010 were obtained from the Kemaman (CA 002 air quality monitoring station. A BRT model was developed using hourly ozone data as a response variable and nitric oxide (NO, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx and meteorological parameters as explanatory variables. The ozone BRT algorithm model was constructed from multiple regression models, and the 'best iteration' of BRT model was performed by optimizing prediction performance. Sensitivity testing of the BRT model was conducted to determine the best parameters and good explanatory variables. Using the number of trees between 2,500-3,500, learning rate of 0.01, and interaction depth of 5 were found to be the best setting for developing the ozone boosting model. The performance of the O3 boosting models were assessed, and the fraction of predictions within two factor (FAC2, coefficient of determination (R2 and the index of agreement (IOA of the model developed for day and nighttime are 0.93, 0.69 and 0.73 for daytime and 0.79, 0.55 and 0.69 for nighttime respectively. Results showed that the model developed was within the acceptable range and could be used to understand ozone formation and identify potential sources of ozone for estimating O3 concentrations during daytime and nighttime. Results indicated that the wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature were the most dominant variables in terms of influencing ozone formation. Finally, empirical evidence of the production of a high ozone level by wind blowing from coastal areas towards the interior region, especially from industrial areas, was obtained.

  20. Characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations over contrasting land uses in a tropical urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, M.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Indian cities feature high human population density, heterogeneous traffic, mixed land-use patterns and mostly tropical meteorological conditions. Characteristics of ambient CO2 concentrations under these distinctive features are very specific and the related studies are limited. This paper presents the characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations at three contrasting land uses (residential, commercial and industrial) in a tropical urban area of India. The CO2 concentrations were monitored in Chennai city for 31 days at each land use during June-September, 2013. Emissions of CO2 from all the major anthropogenic sources present at the three study sites were also quantified. Results indicated that the daily average CO2 concentrations were high at commercial (467 ± 35.15 ppm) and industrial (464 ± 31.68 ppm) sites than at residential site (448 ± 33.45 ppm). The quantified CO2 emissions were also showed high levels at commercial (1190 tons/day) and industrial sites (8886 tons/day) than at residential site (90 tons/day). On a diurnal scale, CO2 concentrations were low during afternoons and high during the late evenings and early morning hours at all the three types of land use sites. At the urban residential site, the domestic sector had a strong impact on the day time CO2 concentrations, while soil and plant respiration phenomena had a greater control over the night time CO2 concentrations. Further, the CO2 concentrations were high during the stagnation and stable meteorological conditions than the ventilation and unstable conditions.

  1. An empirical method of RH correction for satellite estimation of ground-level PM concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Chen, Liangfu; Tao, Jinhua; Liu, Yang; Hu, Xuefei; Tao, Minghui

    2014-10-01

    A hygroscopic growth model suitable for local aerosol characteristics and their temporal variations is necessary for accurate satellite retrieval of ground-level particulate matters (PM). This study develops an empirical method to correct the relative humidity (RH) impact on aerosol extinction coefficient and to further derive PM concentrations from satellite observations. Not relying on detailed information of aerosol chemical and microphysical properties, this method simply uses the in-situ observations of visibility (VIS), RH and PM concentrations to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity, and thus makes the RH correction capable of supporting the satellite PM estimations with large spatial and temporal coverage. In this method, the aerosol average mass extinction efficiency (αext) is used to describe the general hygroscopic growth behaviors of the total aerosol populations. The association between αext and RH is obtained through empirical model fitting, and is then applied to carry out RH correction. Nearly one year of in-situ measurements of VIS, RH and PM10 in Beijing urban area are collected for this study and RH correction is made for each of the months with sufficient data samples. The correlations between aerosol extinction coefficients and PM10 concentrations are significantly improved, with the monthly correlation R2 increasing from 0.26-0.63 to 0.49-0.82, as well as the whole dataset's R2 increasing from 0.36 to 0.68. PM10 concentrations are retrieved through RH correction and validated for each season individually. Good agreements between the retrieved and observed PM10 concentrations are found in all seasons, with R2 ranging from 0.54 in spring to 0.73 in fall, and the mean relative errors ranging from -2.5% in winter to -10.8% in spring. Based on the satellite AOD and the model simulated aerosol profiles, surface PM10 over Beijing area is retrieved through the RH correction. The satellite retrieved PM10 and those observed at ground sites agree well

  2. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  3. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (level markers in GPR data from microtidal depositional environments. Nielsen and Clemmensen (2009) showed that iden......Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (... that identified downlap points in GPR data from Anholt (an island in the Kattegat Sea, Denmark) can be interpreted to mark sea level at the time of deposition. The data presented here support this hypothesis. The GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & Software antennae along...

  4. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  5. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  6. The short term influence of aboveground biomass cover crops on C sequestration and β–glucosidase in a vineyard ground under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peregrina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions accelerate soil organic matter losses in Spanish vineyards. Previous studies showed that cover crops can increase soil organic carbon (SOC in Mediterranean vineyards. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of two different cover crops in the short term on soil C sequestration in a semiarid vineyard and to study the potential use of both β–glucosidase enzimatic activity (GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio in order to assess the SOC increase. The experiment was carried out in a cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L. vineyard on a Oxyaquic Xerorthent soil in Rioja winegrowing region (NE, Spain. The experimental design was established in 2009 with three treatments: conventional tillage; sown barley cover crop (Hordeum vulgare, L.; sown Persian clover cover crop (Trifolium resupinatum L.. Carbon in the aboveground biomass with each cover crop was monitored. Soil was sampled in June 2011 and June 2012, and SOC, GLU and the GLU/SOC ratio were determined. After 3 years both cover crops increased SOC at soil surface with C sequestration rates of 0.47 and 1.19 t C ha-1 yr-1 for BV and CV respectively. GLU and GLU/SOC ratio increased in both cover crops at 0-5 cm soil depth. The C sequestration rates and GLU were related to the cover crops aboveground biomass. In consequence, in semiarid vineyards under cover crops GLU could be an appropriate indicator to asses the increase of SOC and the soil quality improvement in the short-term (2-3 years.

  7. Comparison of ground reaction forces during the Basic Step on the Core Board platform at various levels of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewska, Magdalena; Madej, Anna; Sadowska, Aleksandra; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Urbanik, Czesław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine and compare the changes of ground reaction forces observed during the Basic Step on the Core Board fitness device at various levels of stability. The study involved 10 female students. Participants stepped on and off the Core Board 10 times at 3 levels of stability. After completing a series of steps, the Core Board's stability was modified and the participant repeated the whole series. The measurement platform to examine three components of the reaction force (horizontal in the sagittal and frontal planes, and vertical) was used. The ground reaction force (GRF) observed on the Core Board, in the vertical and horizontal components is higher at all three levels of stability than on the platform without the device. Significant differences in GRF were observed in the horizontal component in the frontal plane (Fz) at all three levels of mobility as well as in impulse, measured on platforms with the device. The results on the Core Board training device present highest horizontal ground reaction forces in frontal plane at the highest level of Core Board mobility and this showing little medio-lateral stability and a more reactive way of movement regulation of the participants. As a consequence of the force patterns found it may be suggested that fitness training concepts should focus more possibly higher strains on the locomotor system most likely caused by changed ground reaction force patterns, an idea that has to be further analyzed with more complex measurement approaches.

  8. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  9. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; COhen, C. M. S.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Haggerty, D. K.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPBX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from approximately 0.1 to approximately 500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from approximately 2 to approximately 46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at greater than 40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about approximately 50% of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive He-3-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, Ne-22/Ne-20, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These He-3 rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of (Q(sub Fe) is approximately equal to +20 if the acceleration starts at approximately 1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  10. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  11. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Mosaic-level inference of the impact of land cover changes in agricultural landscapes on biodiversity: a case-study with a threatened grassland bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a "whole-landscape" approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated.

  13. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY Level 2 Ground Processor Towards Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Markus; Noël, Stefan; Lichtenberg, Günter; Lerot, Christophe; Theys, Nicolas; Fehr, Thorsten; Dehn, Angelika; Liebing, Patricia; Gretschany, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming version 7 of ESA's operational level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had originally been developed for the GOME-2 sensor and was later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to split BrO total columns, which are already an operational product, into stratospheric VCD_{strat} and tropospheric VCD_{trop} fractions. BrO VCD_{strat} is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O_3 and NO_2 observations. Tropospheric vertical column densities are then determined as difference VCD_{trop}=VCD_{total}-VCD_{strat}. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher

  14. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  15. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2011-07-01

    ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95 % level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, associated with this GLE, led to very small enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1 % and ozone decreases of less than 0.01 %.

  16. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2011-03-01

    this time period. Polar mesospheric enhancements of NOx are computed to be greater than 50 ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95% level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, not normally included in our computations, led to enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1% as a result of this GLE.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  18. 地被植物在郑州都市区园林绿化中的组成结构及管理对策研究%The investigation and analysis about common ground cover plants of metropolitan area parks in Zhengzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪进; 杨旭; 高闪闪; 何瑞珍

    2014-01-01

    The ground cover plants in the major urban parks and plazas of Zhengzhou City were investigated by using on‐the‐spot statistical investigation in this paper ,and the vegeta‐tion characteristics , selection criteria , and maintenance management , etc . w ere discussed and analysed .The results showed that the species of ground cover plants are simplex ,with smaller size plantation and often separatly planted with many bare grounds and extensive management at late stage . T herefore , some effective measurs are proposed by reasonable planting according to the viewing characteristis of different species in different growth seasonsand enhancing their management in time ,which can greatly improve their ornamental value ,and hence increase the level of ground cover plants landscaping .%采用实地调查统计的方法对郑州市各大公园及路边广场的地被植物及其特点、选择标准、养护管理等进行了研究分析。结果表明:当前地被植物品种单一,种植面积较小,且多单独种植,混合应用较少,较多地段没有地被植物覆盖,后期管理粗放。建议充分利用每种地被植物不同时期的观赏特点,种植时合理搭配,及时管理,以大大提高观赏价值,从而提高地被植物的造景水平。

  19. Ground Maneuver and Air Interdiction: A Matter of Mutual Support at the Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    i title, "Air hiit , rdictiii anid thii Nced for Doictrinal hag, rteiRiuo20, I’all 1992. 3t1 8 Fuotrell, 546; 58 9. Otto P’. Weyliaid, holi Air...George H. Doran Co., 1927), 392. There is a striking resemblance here to the deceptive end run of US ground forces in Desert Storm and the ann~hilation

  20. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  1. Effects of environmental chemicals on useful insects and pests. Studies on the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Nutz- und Schadinsekten in Abhaengigkeit von Umweltchemikalien. Aluminiumtoleranz von Waldbodenpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Bogenschuetz, H.; Buecking, W.; Hradetzky, J.; Koenig, E.; Kublin, E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present issue one of four contributions deals with the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Growth results are indicated for the forest ground cover species Poa nemoralis, Luzula luzuloides, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta, Milium effusum and Melica uniflora as potted cultures on sand receiving nitrogen in different ratios of form and in different concentrations, the aluminium concentration being variable in the culture broths with a pH-value of 4.0. Low aluminium concentrations (10.8 mg/l Al) in the culture broths enhanced the growth of all species, some species were adversely affected and showed impaired growth (Poa nemoralis, Milium effusum, Melica uniflora) from high aluminium-ion concentrations (108 mg/l Al), but others had their best growth results - varying according to the form of nitrogen offered - only if aluminium concentrations in the culture broth were high. The species examined accumulate aluminium in their above-ground biomass to varying extents. With 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  3. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    Estimates of Holocene sea-level variations have been presented in a range of studies based on different approaches, including interpretation of internal beach ridge characteristics from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geomorphological data. We present GPR data and geomorphological observations...... of sea level variation and vertical land movement in southern Scandinavia in response to unloading after the last glaciation. We have tested the validity of downlap points, which marks the transition from beach to upper shoreface as sea-level markers. The test is based on comparative analyses...

  4. Estimating spatial distribution of daily snow depth with kriging methods: combination of MODIS snow cover area data and ground-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the spatial distribution of the snow depth is difficult because stations are sparse, particularly in western China. In this study, we develop a novel scheme that produces a reasonable spatial distribution of the daily snow depth using kriging interpolation methods. These methods combine the effects of elevation with information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover area (SCA products. The scheme uses snow-free pixels in MODIS SCA images with clouds removed to identify virtual stations, or areas with zero snow depth, to compensate for the scarcity and uneven distribution of stations. Four types of kriging methods are tested: ordinary kriging (OK, universal kriging (UK, ordinary co-kriging (OCK, and universal co-kriging (UCK. These methods are applied to daily snow depth observations at 50 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the spatial distribution of snow depth can be accurately reconstructed using these kriging methods. The added virtual stations improve the distribution of the snow depth and reduce the smoothing effects of the kriging process. The best performance is achieved by the OK method in cases with shallow snow cover and by the UCK method when snow cover is widespread.

  5. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  6. A review of the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives -Effects of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Endo, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives, with a special focus on the effect of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth. Ionized acidic adhesive monomers chemically interact with tooth substrates and facilitate good bonding to ground dentin. Polymerization initiators in self-etching primers further promote effective bonding to ground dentin. To promote bonding to both dentin and enamel, phosphonic acid monomers such as 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) were developed. These novel adhesive monomers also have a water-soluble nature and are hence endowed with sufficient demineralization capability. A new single-bottle, self-etching, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-free adhesive comprising 6-MHPA and 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) was developed. This novel adhesive enabled strong adhesion to both ground enamel and dentin, but its formulation stability was influenced by pH value of the adhesive. To develop hydrolytically stable, single-bottle, self-etching adhesives, hydrolytically stable, radical-polymerizable acidic monomers with amide or ether linkages have been developed.

  7. Analysis of the ground level enhancements on 14 July 2000 and on 13 December 2006 using neutron monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of neutron monitor data we estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction and pitch-angle distribution of solar energetic particles during two major ground level enhancements (GLE 59 on 14 July 2000 and GLE 70 on 13 December 2006). For the analysis we use a newly computed neutron monitor yield function. The method consists of several consecutive steps: definition of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations considered for the data analysis by computations of cosmic ray particles propagation in a model magnetosphere with the MAGNETOCOSMICS code; computation of the neutron monitor model responses and derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics on the basis of inverse problem solution. The pitch-angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of ground level enhancements. A comparison with previously reported results is performed and reasonable agreement is achieved. A discussion of the obtained res...

  8. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  9. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  10. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-Tae SOHN; Deuk-Kyun RHA; Young-Kyung SEO

    2003-01-01

    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematicerror of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values ofthe DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecastswith RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  11. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of a Vibrational Level Within the Electronic Ground State of a Polyatomic Molecule with Ultra Short Pulses Ludwig de Clercq1,2, Lourens Botha1,2, Hermann Uys1, Anton Du Plessis1,2, Erich Rohwer2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO BOX 395, Pretoria... al lbl d i I e I e dt ? , )? ? ? ? ?=?= ??h (1) where, , .a b a b? ? ?= ? , (2) ?ab gives the elements of the density matrix, ?a the frequencies...

  12. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  13. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  14. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated.

  15. Coseismic Ground level Changes Associated with the Great Andaman-Sumatra Earthquake: A Tour from Nicobar to North Andaman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, K.; Rajendran, C.; Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone led to significant ground level changes, uplift as well as subsidence of land, along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Falling nearly 400 km north of the epicenter of the main shock, and extending northwards, the second phase of the rupture observed in these islands account for more about two thirds of the total rupture. Ground level changes were observed along both the eastern and western margins of the islands. The western margins were generally characterized by uplift of about 1m, while the eastern margins subsided by nearly 1 m, permanently submerging many parts of these islands. Elevated beaches, uplifted coral colonies and biological markers such as mangroves, lines of barnacles on rock exposures and man-made structures provide spectacular visual effects of ground uplift. Along the western margin of the Interview Island, in the middle Andamans, we observed at least two older terraces, probably formed by the predecessors of the 2004 earthquake. In the Diglipur region, north Andaman, we observed elevation change of about 1 m, and in this part of the arc, both the western and eastern margins are characterized by uplift. Coseismic vertical offset observed from GPS data suggest a change of +0.6m at Diglipur, a region that also marks the termination of rupture in the north. Field observations conform to nearly +1m change in this region. Maximum subsidence of nearly 1.5 m was documented in Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, and a GPS site there shows a change in elevation of -1.05m. This paper gives a short tour of the sites of ground level changes from Car Nicobar in the south to Diglipur in the North Andaman.

  16. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  17. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  18. Study of the Forbush Decreases, Geomagnetic Storms, and Ground-Level Enhancements in Selected Intervals and Their Space Weather Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Kumar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    We analysed geomagnetic storms, ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and Forbush decreases in cosmic-ray intensity that occurred in selected intervals. We used data of ground-based neutron monitors for the cosmic-ray intensity. We used the geomagnetic index Dst as a measure of the geomagnetic storm intensity. Solar observations and interplanetary plasma/field parameters were used to identify the solar cause(s), interplanetary structure(s), and physical mechanism(s) responsible for the geomagnetic storms, the Forbush decreases, and the GLEs of different amplitudes and time profiles; all of them occurring within four selected periods of one month each. The observed differences in cosmic-ray and geomagnetic-activity responses to the same solar sources were used to distinguish the structures and mechanisms responsible for transient cosmic-ray modulation and geomagnetic storms.

  19. Pushing For Privileged Passage: A grounded theory of guardians to middle level mathematics students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This grounded theory research identified conflict over decisions about placement into high ability mathematics classes. A theory termed pushing for privileged passage emerged from data collected from parents and educators in the Northwest United States as well as international literature. Pushing occurs following a break down of trust among parents and/or educators over various facets of the school and over student abilitygrouping decisions in mathematics specifically. Subsequently they try to circumvent the system to gain advantaged placement for specific students. Those who push use investing strategies to insure a child’s future success. They use pressuring techniques on decision-makers to garner advanced mathematics access. Finally, those who push use strategic lobbying for program changes.

  20. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  1. Spectroscopical Determination of ground-level concentrations of Reactive Halogen Species (RHS) above salt lakes, salt pans and other areas with high halogen emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robert; Landwehr, Sebastian; Platt, Ulrich; Kotte, Karsten; Lisitsyna, Linda V.; Mulder, Ines; Emmerich, Maren; Huber, Stefan; Heidak, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Reactive Halogen Species (RHS), especially BrO and IO, are crucial for the photo chemistry of ozone, the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and have an impact on the equilibria of many atmospheric reaction cycles. This also induces a potential influence on the earth's climate. Beside polar regions, volcanoes and the marine boundary layer salt lakes are an important source for reactive halogen species. At the Dead Sea BrO mixing ratios of up to 176 ppt were measured in summer 2001 [Matveev et al., 2001] and IO was identified with maximal mixing ratios of more than 10 ppt by [Zingler and Platt, 2005]. The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia showed the presence of up to 20 ppt BrO [Hönninger et al., 2004]. Salt pans and salt deserts may be important halogen sources as well. Saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth and might increase in the near future due to desertification as one aspect of the global climate change. Within the scope of the DFG research group HALOPROC a measurement campaign in Southern Russia was performed in August 2009. The ground-level concentrations of BrO, IO, Ozone and other trace gases above the salt lakes El'Ton, Baskuntschak and other local areas were measured using the Multi-AXis-DOAS technique. A further campaign was performed in Mauritania in November/December 2009 in cooperation with the BMBF project SOPRAN. In addition to the above-mentioned measurements the Long-Path DOAS technique was used in order to measure the ground-level concentrations at two different sites: 1. the salt pan Sebkha N'Dramcha and 2. close to a sea weed field at Poste Iwik in a coastal area. We present results from both campaigns concerning the concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), ozone (O3)and formaldehyde (HCHO) and give an outlook on possible further campaigns in the future.

  2. Effects on the crank torque profile when changing pedalling cadence in level ground and uphill road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William; Grappe, Frederic; Girard, Amaury; Betik, Andrew; Rouillon, Jean Denis

    2005-05-01

    Despite the importance of uphill cycling performance during cycling competitions, there is very little research investigating uphill cycling, particularly concerning field studies. The lack of research is partly due to the difficulties in obtaining data in the field. The aim of this study was to analyse the crank torque in road cycling on level and uphill using different pedalling cadences in the seated position. Seven male cyclists performed four tests in the seated position (1) on level ground at 80 and 100 rpm, and (2) on uphill road cycling (9.25% grade) at 60 and 80 rpm.The cyclists exercised for 1 min at their maximal aerobic power. The bicycle was equipped with the SRM Training System (Schoberer, Germany) for the measurement of power output (W), torque (Nm), pedalling cadence (rpm), and cycling velocity (km h(-1)). The most important finding of this study indicated that at maximal aerobic power the crank torque profile (relationship between torque and crank angle) varied substantially according to the pedalling cadence and with a minor effect according to the terrain. At the same power output and pedalling cadence (80 rpm) the torque at a 45 degrees crank angle tended (p cycling compared to level cycling. During uphill cycling at 60 rpm the peak torque was increased by 42% compared with level ground cycling at 100 rpm. When the pedalling cadence was modified, most of the variations in the crank torque profile were localised in the power output sector (45 degrees to 135 degrees).

  3. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  4. Difficulties in Interpreting Ballast Degradation Level Estimates from Synthetic Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, K. M.; Hendry, M. T.; Martin, C. D.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    As fine-grained particles accumulate within railway ballast, it becomes more susceptible to differential deformations, which leads to the loss of proper track alignment and an increased risk for car derailment. Methods for estimating the ballast degradation level from low-frequency (signals makes the quantificaion of ballast degradation levels difficult.

  5. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  6. Performance and Carbon Emission Analysis on Glass-covering Greenhouse Heating with Ground Source Heat Pump Technology%玻璃温室地源热泵供暖性能与碳排放分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟

    2012-01-01

    The heating test was conducted in a glass-covering multi-span greenhouse ( 756 m ) with groundwater-style GSHP technology. The heat quantity estimating models based on air enthalpy difference method ( AEDM) were developed according to the heating characteristics of GSHP. The economical performance and carbon footprint ( greenhouse gas emission level) of the GSHP was analyzed and compared with currently widely used coal fired heating system ( CFHs) and natural gas fired heating system (GFHs) based on investigated various energy sources price during heating tests. According to the compared results, the GSHPs heating cost is higher than CFHs, but lower than GFHs. Meanwhile, GSHPs CO2 emission during heating is higher than GFHs, but lower than CFHs.In view of the strong coupling between temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse simulation system, an adaptive decoupling method based on dynamic matrix control was proposed. Taking the measure of feedforward compensation to eliminate interaction between channels of temperature and humidity, an adaptive decoupling algorithm by weighting was designed. The proposed method can adjust the decoupling parameters online under different operating modes, effectively overcome the effect of model severe mismatch to control accuracy. Compared with the traditional PID control, simulation and experimental results both indicated the proposed strategy greatly improved the control performance.%在北京地区一栋玻璃连栋温室(756 m2)中采用地下水式地源热泵(ground source heat pump,简称GSHP)技术进行了冬季供暖试验,并结合GSHP技术的供热特点构建了基于供热末端空气焓差法的供热量计算模型以及供热系统性能分析方法.根据供暖期北京地区能源价格水平,对比当前广泛使用的燃煤供暖系统和天然气供暖系统,系统地评价了GSHP技术的碳排放(温室气体排放水平)和供暖经济性.GSHP供暖成本低于同期燃气供暖,但

  7. Interference at the Single Photon Level Along Satellite-Ground Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele; Tomasin, Marco; Vedovato, Francesco; Schiavon, Matteo; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Quantum interference arising from the superposition of states is striking evidence of the validity of quantum mechanics, confirmed in many experiments and also exploited in applications. However, as for any scientific theory, quantum mechanics is valid within the limits in which it has been experimentally verified. In order to extend such limits, it is necessary to observe quantum interference in unexplored conditions such as moving terminals at large distances in space. Here, we experimentally demonstrate single photon interference at a ground station due to the coherent superposition of two temporal modes reflected by a rapidly moving satellite a thousand kilometers away. The relative speed of the satellite induces a varying modulation in the interference pattern. The measurement of the satellite distance in real time by laser ranging allows us to precisely predict the instantaneous value of the interference phase. We then observed the interference patterns with a visibility up to 67% with three different satellites and with a path length up to 5000 km. Our results attest to the viability of photon temporal modes for fundamental tests of physics and quantum communication in space.

  8. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  9. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  10. Effect of copper and aluminium on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altameemi, Rasha N. I.; Gopir, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we determine the effect of aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) shielding on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level. The experiment was performed at Bangi in Malaysia with coordinates of 101.78° E, 2.92° N and elevation 30 m above sea level. Measurements were made along the vertical direction using muon telescopes (MTs) of parallel Geiger-Muller (GM) tubes with metal sheets above the MTs of up to 2.4 cm for Al and 2.7 cm for Cu. For these ranges of metal thicknesses, we find that the muon count rates increase linearly with the increase in metal thicknesses. The observed increase rate values are (0.18 ± 0.10) cm-1 and (0.26 ± 0.10)cm-1 for Al and Cu, respectively, with the larger value for Cu as expected from its higher atomic number and density. This indicates that for this thickness range, only the lower region of the Rossi curve is observed, with incoming cosmic ray muons producing charged particles in the metal layers, resulting in shower events or electromagnetic cascade. Thus, for this range of layer thickness, both aluminium and copper are not suitable to be used as shielding materials for ground level cosmic ray muons.

  11. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-TaeSOHN; Deuk-KyunRHA; Young-KyungSEO

    2003-01-01

    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematic error of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values of the DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecasts with RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  12. Measurement of solar radiation at ground level in the region 1950-2150 A using ammonia actinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, P.; Reeves, R. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The use of ammonia as an actinometer for measurement of the solar flux in the region 1950-2150 A is presented. The solar flux was found to be 270 million photons/sq cm per sec at ground level in this wavelength interval in an area with minimum overhead ozone concentration. The advantages of this method over previously used methods are discussed, and the results are related to the present estimates of the tropospheric photodissociation rates for the freons CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 by radiation in this wavelength region.

  13. Accurate Determination of Rotational Energy Levels in the Ground State of ^{12}CH_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Iwakuni, K.; Okubo, S.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have measured absolute frequencies of saturated absorption of 183 allowed and 21 forbidden transitions in the νb{3} band of ^{12}CH_4 using an optical comb-referenced difference-frequency-generation spectrometer from 86.8 to 93.1 THz (from 2890 to 3100 wn). The pump and signal sources are a 1.06-μ m Nd:YAG laser and a 1.5-μ m extended-cavity laser diode. An enhanced-cavity absorption cell increases the optical electric field and enhances the sensitivity. The typical uncertainty is 3 kHz for the allowed transitions and 12 kHz for the forbidden transitions. Twenty combination differences are precisely determined, and the scalar rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the ground state are thereby yielded as r@ = l@ r@ = l B_{{s}} (157 122 614.2 ± 1.5) kHz, D_{{s}} (3 328.545 ± 0.031) kHz, H_{{s}} (190.90 ± 0.26) Hz, and L_{{s}} (-13.16 ± 0.76) mHz. Here, B_{{s}} is the rotational constant and D_{{s}}, H_{{s}} and L_{{s}} are the scalar quartic, sextic, octic distortion constants. The relative uncertainties are considerably smaller than those obtained from global analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba and H. Sasada, Opt. Express 19, 23878 (2011). M. Abe, K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, and H. Sasada, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published). S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. -P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, Chem. Phys. 356, 131 (2009).

  14. 9种多年生地被植物在华北高寒区的抗寒性%Study on Cold -resistance of Several Ground Cover Plants in the Cold Plateau of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓磊; 马建平; 宋国亮; 李欣儒; 张立峰

    2012-01-01

    The study with introduced ground cover plants as meterials. Through observations on their natural growth conditions and growth morphology and demonstration tests of artificial low-temperature stress root cold physiological changes and physical growth of strain recovery validation studies, the results showed that 0 - -18℃ low temperature processing, the relative conductivity, soluble sugar and praline contents of nine perennial ground cover plants were all on the rise, while in the - 18- - 36℃ processing, soluble sugar and free proline content of Platycodon grandiforus. Hemerocallis stella remained rise after fall. The Hosta plantaginea, Aster novibelgii, Lilium brownii var. viridulum showed continuous downward trend. Combination of winter cold stress, sexual and physical strain to restore growth status showed that nine perennial ground cover plants could be successful overwintering in north China. Basis of resistance to the cold, the orders were Platycodon grandiforus 〉 HemerocaUis stella 〉 Hemerocallis middenclorffii 〉 Paeonia lactiflora 〉 P. lactiflora 〉 Sedum spectabile 〉 Hosta plantaginea 〉 Lilium brownii var. viridulum.%以引种的9种多年生地被植物为材料,通过对其在华北高寒区自然生长条件下的越冬性与生长形态观测,以及人工低温胁迫下根系抗寒生理指标变化与株体生长恢复的实证研究表明,0-18℃处理温段,9种地被植物的相对电导率、可溶性糖和游离脯氨酸含量均呈上升趋势;在-18--6℃处理温段,桔梗、金娃娃萱草可溶性搪和游离脯氨酸含量仍保持上升而后再下降,而玉椿、荷兰菊、百合则呈持续下降趋势。结合越冬性与低温胁迫下株体恢复生长状况认为,9种地被植物在华北高寒区常年环境下均可越冬,其抗寒能力依次为:桔梗〉金娃娃萱草〉大花萱草〉单瓣芍药〉重瓣芍药〉八宝景天〉玉簪〉荷兰菊〉百合。

  15. 氯盐融雪剂对4种地被植物种子萌发的影响%Effect of chloride deicing salts on seed germination of four ground covers species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬; 周广柱

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of four kinds of ground covers (Poa pratensts, Bromus inermis Layss,Coreopsis basalis,Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. ) were studied. The length of roots and shoots of ground covers were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the four kinds of ground covers was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 14.69 g/L, 10.04 g/L, 7.38 g/L and 7.31 g/L forCosmos bipinnatus Cav, Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis,respectively and the maximum value were 21.08 g/L, 16.51 g/L, 14.67 g/L and 13.50 g/L, respectively.%以草地早熟禾、无芒雀麦、金鸡菊、波斯菊4种地被植物种子为研究材料,探讨不同浓度氯盐类融雪剂对其发芽的影响。结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,4种地被植物种子萌发、幼芽、幼根生长受到的抑制作用增强。4种地被植物对融雪剂胁迫的耐受能力大小依次为波斯菊>无芒雀麦>金鸡菊>草地早熟禾,耐受临界值分别为14.69 g/L、10.04 g/L、7.38 g/L和7.31 g/L,极限值分别为21.08 g/L、16.51 g/L、14.67 g/L和13.50 g/L。

  16. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Assessment of the Current Level of Innovation Receptivity of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelianov Oleksandr Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies and generalises existing approaches to identification of criteria of assessment of innovation receptivity of subjects of economic activity and also marks out main groups of methods of this assessment. It provides a chain of competences of an enterprise in the sphere of management of its innovation activity, which meets its passive and active innovation receptivity, which lies in the foundation of formation of the multiplicative approach to assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of an enterprise. The article offers complex qualitative and quantitative indicators of active and also passive innovation receptivity of an enterprise. Further studies of the issue of assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of economic subjects require clarification of capabilities of a more complete consideration of influence of the obtained financial results from the enterprise innovation activity upon this level.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  18. Grounding cognitive-level processes in behavior: the view from dynamic systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Jenkins, Gavin W; Spencer, John P

    2015-04-01

    Marr's seminal work laid out a program of research by specifying key questions for cognitive science at different levels of analysis. Because dynamic systems theory (DST) focuses on time and interdependence of components, DST research programs come to very different conclusions regarding the nature of cognitive change. We review a specific DST approach to cognitive-level processes: dynamic field theory (DFT). We review research applying DFT to several cognitive-level processes: object permanence, naming hierarchical categories, and inferring intent, that demonstrate the difference in understanding of behavior and cognition that results from a DST perspective. These point to a central challenge for cognitive science research as defined by Marr-emergence. We argue that appreciating emergence raises questions about the utility of computational-level analyses and opens the door to insights concerning the origin of novel forms of behavior and thought (e.g., a new chess strategy). We contend this is one of the most fundamental questions about cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  20. Analysis of the ground level enhancement on 17 May 2012 using data from the global neutron monitor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed the data of the world neutron monitor network for the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24, the ground level enhancement (GLE) on 17 May 2012. A newly computed neutron monitor yield function and an inverse method are applied to estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, and pitch angle distribution of the high-energy solar particles in interplanetary space. The method includes the determination of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations through computations of trajectories of cosmic rays in a model magnetosphere. The cosmic ray particle trajectories are determined with the GEANT-based MAGNETOCOSMICS code using Tsyganenko 1989 and International Geomagnetic Reference Field models. Subsequent calculation of the neutron monitor responses with the model function is carried out, that represents an initial guess of the inverse problem. Derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics is fulfilled by fitting the data of the global neutron monitor network using the Levenberg-Marquardt method over the nine-dimensional parameter space. The pitch angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of the GLE. The angular distribution appears quite complicated. It comprises a focused beam along the interplanetary magnetic field line from the Sun and a loss-cone feature around the opposite direction, possibly indicative of the particle transport in interplanetary magnetic field structures associated with previous coronal mass ejections.

  1. Ground-level climate at a peatland wind farm in Scotland is affected by wind turbine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Burton, Ralph R.; Lee, Susan E.; Mobbs, Stephen; Ostle, Nicholas; Smith, Victoria; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    The global drive to produce low-carbon energy has resulted in an unprecedented deployment of onshore wind turbines, representing a significant land use change for wind energy generation with uncertain consequences for local climatic conditions and the regulation of ecosystem processes. Here, we present high-resolution data from a wind farm collected during operational and idle periods that shows the wind farm affected several measures of ground-level climate. Specifically, we discovered that operational wind turbines raised air temperature by 0.18 °C and absolute humidity (AH) by 0.03 g m-3 during the night, and increased the variability in air, surface and soil temperature throughout the diurnal cycle. Further, the microclimatic influence of turbines on air temperature and AH decreased logarithmically with distance from the nearest turbine. These effects on ground-level microclimate, including soil temperature, have uncertain implications for biogeochemical processes and ecosystem carbon cycling, including soil carbon stocks. Consequently, understanding needs to be improved to determine the overall carbon balance of wind energy.

  2. Carbon monoxide levels measured in major commuting corridors covering different landuse and roadway microenvironments in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L. Y.; Liu, Y. M.; Lee, S. C.; Chan, C. Y.

    Vehicle exhaust is the major source of pollutant in modern cities. About half of Hong Kong residents are living in suburban or rural areas. They need to traverse through tunnels, highways, urban street canyons and other road conditions in different landuse areas when they traverse to work in urban centres or new towns. Also, there is increasing traffic, especially trucks across the border between Hong Kong and mainland China via several border highways. This study helps us in assessing the exposure level of suburban and cross border commuters. Carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a tracer for traffic emission. An experimental vehicle traversing major commuting corridors were used to measure CO levels in different landuse and roadway microenvironments including tunnels and highways. The air samples were taken simultaneously at the outside and inside of a travelling vehicle. Result indicates that the pattern of fluctuation of the out-vehicle and in-vehicle CO level vary with different landuse areas. The variation pattern of in-vehicle CO level is closely related to that of out-vehicle level. The effects of the out-vehicle CO concentration on the in-vehicle CO concentration under different roadway conditions in various landuse categories are examined. There is an indication that external air pollutants penetrated into the in-vehicle compartment through car body cracks, ventilation system. From our observation, the exhaust of a nearby petrol vehicle contributed significantly to the in-vehicle CO level. The use of low standard of diesel fuel from Shenzhen in mainland China leads to higher CO level near border area.

  3. Gpm Level 1 Science Requirements: Science and Performance Viewed from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W.; Kirstetter, P.; Wolff, D.; Kidd, C.; Tokay, A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Grecu, M.; Huffman, G.; Jackson, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    GPM meets Level 1 science requirements for rain estimation based on the strong performance of its radar algorithms. Changes in the V5 GPROF algorithm should correct errors in V4 and will likely resolve GPROF performance issues relative to L1 requirements. L1 FOV Snow detection largely verified but at unknown SWE rate threshold (likely < 0.5 –1 mm/hr/liquid equivalent). Ongoing work to improve SWE rate estimation for both satellite and GV remote sensing.

  4. Level ground and uphill cycling ability in elite female mountain bikers and road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, F M; Ebert, T; Sassi, A; Menaspà, P; Rampinini, E; Martin, D T

    2008-02-01

    This study compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of elite female mountain bikers with road cyclists of different specialties and competitive level. Twenty-seven professional road cyclists and 12 mountain bikers (MTB) were involved. Road cyclists were classified as flat specialists (n = 10, FL), time trialists (n = 5, TT) and climbers (n = 12, C). From these cyclists two subgroups were obtained and compared: world class road cyclists (n = 5) and MTB (n = 5). Maximum oxygen uptake, peak power output, oxygen uptake at respiratory compensation point and power output at respiratory compensation point were determined in the laboratory. Body surface area and frontal area were also estimated. TT and FL showed higher body mass, body surface and frontal area compared with C and MTB. Absolute physiological parameters were generally higher in TT than the other groups. The same parameters normalized by body mass were similar between TT, C and MTB but higher compared to FL. No differences were found between world class road cyclists compared with top level MTB. These results confirm that a cyclist's morphological characteristics are important determinants of female cycling performance. Female MTB have anthropometric characteristics similar to road climbers, whilst the physiological profile was not different between time trialists and climbers. This suggests that, as for male professional cyclists, top level time trialists have an overall performance advantage over all types of terrain.

  5. Progress in understanding the formation of fine particulate matter and ground-level ozone in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Junyu; Shao, Min; Wang, Xinming

    2015-12-01

    In the past three decades, the Pearl River Delta of China has been suffered from severe air pollution due to the rapid increase in energy consumption associated with industrialization and urbanization of the region. The number of hazy days, increased from below 20 days in a year before 1970, to more than 150 days a year during 1980 and 2000. The ground-level ozone levels have also on the rise, with hourly concentration of 160 ppbv being observed in Guangzhou and 201 ppbv in nearby Hong Kong (Zhang et al., 2008). The ozone pollution has been difficult to reduce even in air quality improvement program for the Guangzhou Asian Games (Liu et al., 2013).

  6. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... actual monitoring. In a response to the acute characteristics of air pollution, the basic principle is that up-to-date and accurate information about air pollution levels will help 1) citizens to protect their health, 2) policy makers in assessing the state of the environment, and 3) researchers...... in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air...

  7. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  8. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  9. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  10. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 μm in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ≅ 17 μm. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards.

  11. Ground radiometric investigation of natural radiation levels and their radiological effects in Akpabuyo, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E.; Paul, Nnana D.; Uwah, Edet J.

    2016-11-01

    Ground investigations of the activity concentrations from primordial radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) were conducted in Akpabuyo, southeastern Nigeria. These investigations were aimed at assessing the magnitude and spatial distribution of activity concentrations from primordial radionuclides. Also, radiological hazard assessment and their associated risk to both human environmental healths and suitability of soils in the area for constructing dwellings places will be made. Instrument used for the investigations, which were conducted both randomly and along 6 profiles with inter-profile distance of 100 m, was a potable GRS-2 model of a Pico Envirotec spectrometer. Activity concentrations in the area, which vary with spatial distribution of soil texture, lithology, land use and topography, range between 2.22 and 116.09 Bq kg-1 (mean of 34.67 Bq kg-1) for 238U, 3.65-87.41 Bq kg-1 (mean of 38.59 Bq kg-1) for 232Th and 6.26-384.99 Bq kg-1 (mean of 114.66 Bq kg-1) for 40K. The mean activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th are marginally higher than world averages of 30 and 39 Bq kg-1 respectively. However, the activity concentration of 40K, which is the most abundant radionuclide (60.02%), is less than the world average of 400 Bq kg-1. Results obtained from skew and kurtosis analyses of the activity concentration data show that the distribution of 238U and 232Th radionuclides in the soils is nearly symmetrical. The radiological hazard indicators computed from the activity concentrations of the radionuclides are all below maximum permissible limits. For instance, values of radium equivalent, which vary from 41.72 to 171.02 Bq kg-1 (average of 98.68 Bq kg-1), are below the permissible limit of 370 Bq kg-1. External and internal hazard indices vary between 0.11 and 0.46 Bq kg-1 (mean of 0.27 Bq kg-1) and 0.14-0.72 Bq kg-1 (mean of 0.36 Bq kg-1) respectively. These results are below the 1 Bq kg-1 benchmark required for materials to be safe for use in constructing

  12. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.delahaye@univ-reims.fr; Rey, Michaël, E-mail: michael.rey@univ-reims.fr; Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, BP 1039, F-51687, Reims Cedex 2 (France); Nikitin, Andrei [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055 Tomsk, Russia and Quamer, State University of Tomsk (Russian Federation); Szalay, Péter G. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-09-14

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  13. Effects of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the unaffected leg during level-ground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; D'Andrea, Susan

    2013-06-07

    People with a lower-extremity amputation that use conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prostheses encounter a series of stress-related challenges during walking such as greater forces on their unaffected leg, and may thus be predisposed to secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as chronic joint disorders. Specifically, people with a unilateral transtibial amputation have an increased susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis, especially in their unaffected leg. Previous studies have hypothesized that the development of this disorder is linked to the abnormally high peak knee external adduction moments encountered during walking. An ankle-foot prosthesis that supplies biomimetic power could potentially mitigate the forces and knee adduction moments applied to the unaffected leg of a person with a transtibial amputation, which could, in turn, reduce the risk of knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that compared to using a passive-elastic prosthesis, people with a transtibial amputation using a powered ankle-foot prosthesis would have lower peak resultant ground reaction forces, peak external knee adduction moments, and corresponding loading rates applied to their unaffected leg during walking over a wide range of speeds. We analyzed ground reaction forces and knee joint kinetics of the unaffected leg of seven participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation and seven age-, height- and weight-matched non-amputees during level-ground walking at 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 m/s. Subjects with an amputation walked while using their own passive-elastic prosthesis and a powered ankle-foot prosthesis capable of providing net positive mechanical work and powered ankle plantar flexion during late stance. Use of the powered prosthesis significantly decreased unaffected leg peak resultant forces by 2-11% at 0.75-1.50 m/s, and first peak knee external adduction moments by 21 and 12% at 1.50 and 1.75 m/s, respectively. Loading rates were not significantly different

  14. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems-covering gauged and ungauged sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ming Chiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows signals to propagate in both forward and backward directions, which offers the network dynamic memories. Besides, the information at the current time-step with a feedback operation can yield a time-delay unit that provides internal input information at the next time-step to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Ground water Level Changes Induced by the 2006 Hengchun Earthquake Doublet

    OpenAIRE

    Yeeping Chia; Jessie J. Chiu; Po-Yu Chung; Ya-Lan Chang; Wen-Chi Lai; Yen-Chun Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Water-level changes were ob served in 107 wells at 67 monitoring stations in the southern coastal plain of Tai wan during the 2006 Mw 7.1 Hengchun earthquake doublet. Two consecutive coseismic changes induced by the earth quake doublet can be observed from high-frequency data. Obervations from multiple-well stations indicate that the magnitude and direction of coseismic change may vary in wells of different depths. Coseismic rises were dominant on the south east side of the costal plain; wher...

  16. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  17. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 in China based on ground-level observations for 190 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2016-09-01

    Whereas air pollution in many Chinese cities has reached epidemic levels in recent years, limited research has explored the spatial and temporal patterns of fine air particles such as PM2.5, or particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm, using nationally representative data. This article applied spatial statistical approaches including spatial interpolation and spatial regression to the analysis of ground-level PM2.5 observations for 190 Chinese cities in 2014 obtained from the Chinese Air Quality Online Monitoring Platform. Results of this article suggest that most Chinese cities included in the dataset recorded severe levels of PM2.5 in excess of the WHO's interim target and cities in the North China Plain had the highest levels of PM2.5 regardless of city size. Spatially interpolated maps of PM2.5 and population-weighted PM2.5 indicate vast majority of China's land and population was exposed to disastrous levels of PM2.5 concentrations. The regression results suggest that PM2.5 in a city was positively related to its population size, amount of atmospheric pollutants, and emissions from nearby cities, but inversely related to precipitation and wind speed. Findings from this research can shed new light on the complex spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 throughout China and provide insights into policies aiming to mitigate air pollution in China.

  18. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, Kerry R., E-mail: hgp3@cdc.gov [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Peel, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Robinson, Byron F. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Busacker, Ashley [Field Support Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Grandpre, Joseph [Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Bisgard, Kristine M. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Road, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Yip, Fuyuen Y. [Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Murphy, Tracy D. [Wyoming Department of Health, 101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  19. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  20. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  1. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  2. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails.

  3. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  4. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  5. The elementary level science methods course: Breeding ground of an apprehension toward science? a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.

    Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education majors science methods class. Interviews with the students and the instructors as well as survey instruments to assess students' preparation in science were used. Two different approaches to the study of science, one content oriented, the other process oriented, may contribute to the students' confusion, insecurity, and avoidance of science. The students' perception that science is learning content, an objective of introductory level science courses, and the science methods class's objectives of teaching science as a process sets up an antagonistic dilemma between the two. Such antagonistic dilemma may be manifest in the lack of instructional time accorded to science by elementary educators. The type of science experiences an individual encounters influences their perceptions. To offset student perceptions developed in science courses which stress principally content, the students need science experiences which truly represent science as inquiry. New strategies for the training of elementary education majors in science need to be examined.

  6. Ground-level ozone following astrophysical ionizing radiation events: an additional biological hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to-date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling we have examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and find that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supe...

  7. Effects of ground cover on the niches of main insect pests and their natural enemies in peach orchard%桃园生草对桃树上主要害虫及天敌生态位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万年峰; 季香云; 蒋杰贤; 淡家贵

    2011-01-01

    调查了种植白三叶草桃园(生草区)与不种草桃园(对照区)桃树上主要害虫及天敌数量,并对其生态位进行了测定.结果表明:生草区桃树害虫的水平生态位、垂直生态位和时间生态位宽度最大的分别是桃红颈天牛(0.999)、茶翅蝽(0.964)和茶翅蝽(0.795),而对照区其值分别是0.918、0.792和0.632;生草区桃树天敌的水平生态位、垂直生态位和时间生态位宽度最大的都是蜘蛛,分别为0.996、0.983和0.932,而在对照区其值分别是0.900、0.800和0.818;生草区桃树害虫的三维生态位宽度依次为茶翅蝽>叶蝉>蜡蝉>桃蚜>桃潜叶蛾>桃蛀螟>桃红颈天牛>梨小食心虫>桑白蚧,而对照区为桃蚜>叶蝉>茶翅蝽>桃红颈天牛>梨小食心虫>蜡蝉>桑白蚧>桃潜叶蛾>桃蛀螟;生草区桃树天敌的三维生态位宽度为蜘蛛>小花蝽>草蛉>寄生蜂>瓢虫>食蚜蝇,而对照区为蜘蛛>草蛉>瓢虫>寄生蜂>小花蝽>食蚜蝇;对照区小花蝽、瓢虫、食蚜蝇、寄生蜂均有推迟活动迹象;生草区小花蝽与害虫的三维生态位重叠值都比相应的对照区大,天敌与害虫在时间上的同步性和空间上的同域性总体优于对照区.%Taking the peach orchards with and without ground cover Trifolium repens as test ob jects, an investigation was made on the quantities of main insect pests and their natural enemies on peach trees, with the niches of the insect pests and natural enemies measured. Among the main msect pests, Aromia bungii in the peach orchard with ground cover T. repens had the widest horizontal niche breadth ( 0. 999) , Halyomorpha halys had the widest vertical niche breadth ( 0. 964 ) and widest time niche breadth (0. 795 ) , while the corresponding values in the orchard without T. repens were 0. 918, 0. 792, and 0. 632, respectively. Among the natural enemies, spiders in the peach orchard with ground cover T. repens had the widest

  8. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  9. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  10. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  11. Communication: The ground electronic state of Si{sub 2}C: Rovibrational level structure, quantum monodromy, and astrophysical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Kokkin, Damian L.; McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Changala, P. Bryan [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Baraban, Joshua H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si{sub 2}C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its {sup 1}A{sub 1} ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed K{sub a} = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm{sup −1} with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the K{sub a} = 0, 2,  and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν{sub 2}) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm{sup −1} (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm{sup −1}). The calculated (K{sub a}, ν{sub 2}) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si{sub 2}C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC{sub 2} molecule is known to be abundant.

  12. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  13. Assessment of Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique to improve the simulation of ground-level ozone over Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardi, V; Ortiz, J; Rincón, A; Jorba, O; Pay, M T; Gassó, S; Baldasano, J M

    2012-02-01

    The CALIOPE air quality modelling system has been used to diagnose ground level O(3) concentration for the year 2004, over the Iberian Peninsula. We investigate the improvement in the simulation of daily O(3) maximum by the use of a post-processing such as the Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique. The Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique is a recursive algorithm to optimally estimate bias-adjustment terms from previous measurements and model results. The bias-adjustment technique improved the simulation of daily O(3) maximum for the entire year and the all the stations considered over the whole domain. The corrected simulation presents improvements in statistical indicators such as correlation, root mean square error, mean bias, and gross error. After the post-processing the exceedances of O(3) concentration limits, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, are better reproduced and the uncertainty of the modelling system, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, is reduced from 20% to 7.5%. Such uncertainty in the model results is under the established EU limit of the 50%. Significant improvements in the O(3) timing and amplitude of the daily cycle are also observed after the post-processing. The systematic improvements in the O(3) maximum simulations suggest that the Kalman filter post-processing method is a suitable technique to reproduce accurate estimate of ground-level O(3) concentration. With this study we evince that the adjusted O(3) concentrations obtained after the post-process of the results from the CALIOPE system are a reliable means for real near time O(3) forecasts.

  14. Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  15. Numerical study of the impact of vegetation coverings on sound levels and time decays in a canyon street model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, G; Gauvreau, B; L'Hermite, P

    2015-01-01

    Given a constantly increasing urban population, the mitigation of environmental impacts caused by urbanization has become a critical concern. Sprawling cities accelerate the phenomenon of soil sealing, whose impacts relative to climatology, water cycle and ecology are substantial. The "VegDUD" project, which provides the framework for the present paper, lays out a possible alternative for limiting these deleterious effects through focusing on the role of vegetation in promoting sustainable urban development. The study presented herein addresses the beneficial effect of greening building facades and rooftops in terms of both acoustic level and sound-decay time indicators at low frequency third-octave bands. This is carried out through numerical simulations in the time-domain of sound propagation in a canyon street of infinite length for various scenarios of surface vegetalization. Numerical predictions show a more significant effect in the upper part and outside the street, depending on the location of the vegetalized surfaces, frequency bands and number of reflections on the treated materials.

  16. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Vroom

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover need to be reevaluated.

  17. Effects of ETA, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered Alloy 600 and brass corrosion at Indian Point 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkatt, A.; Labuda, E.; Wilder, D.M. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Smialowska, S.; Rebak, R.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center; Cherepakhov, G. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., NY (United States); Burns, R.J. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on Alloy 600 specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2. The tests showed that the introduction of ETA and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to mild decrease in these rates.

  18. A novel lidar-driven two-level approach for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Cui, Bo; Zhang, Xingzhong

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a two-level LIDAR-driven hybrid approach is proposed for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building. Top level is newly designed enhanced Voronoi Diagram (EVD) method to plan a global trajectory for an unmanned vehicle. Bottom level employs Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm based on the LIDAR sensor information to locally guide the vehicle under complicated workspace, in which it autonomously traverses from one node to another within the planned EDV with obstacle avoidance. To find the least-cost path within the EDV, novel distance and angle based search heuristic algorithms are developed, in which the cost of an edge is the risk of traversing the edge. An EVD is first constructed based on the environment, which is utilized to generate the initial global trajectory with obstacle avoidance. The VFH algorithm is employed to guide the vehicle to follow the path locally. Its effectiveness and efficiency of real-time navigation and map building for unmanned vehicles have been successfully validated by simulation studies and experiments. The proposed approach is successfully experimented on an actual unmanned vehicle to demonstrate the real-time navigation and map building performance of the proposed method. The vehicle appears to follow a very stable path while navigating through various obstacles.

  19. Acoustic Characterization of Grass-cover Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    for noise and rever- beration control. Examples of porous media are cements, ceramics, rocks, building insulation , foams and soil. Characterizing the... air is consid- ered as lossless fluid and Eqs. 2.1 and 2.2 can be applied without approximations. However, when acoustic waves travel in narrow...3.1) In Eq. 3.1, P1 and P2 are the acoustic pressures measured at each respective microphone, Pi is the incident pressure, k0 is wave number in air , ω

  20. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  1. Effects of Different Concentrations of Gibberellin on the Flowering of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum 'Zichonglou'%不同浓度赤霉素对地被菊‘紫重楼’开花特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 崔雁汇; 孔一昌; 张强; 吕晋慧

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of gibberellin on plant height, crown breadth, flowering characteristic (flowering season, flower number, petals number, flower diameter) and the pollen germination viability of ground-cover Chrysanthemum ' Zichonglou' were studied, which could provided substantial base for the hybrid breeding and regulating flower season of ground-cover Chrysanthemum. The results showed that 100-500 mg/L of gibberellin might cause the dewing color season 6-10 days ahead of time, the starting flower season 7-12 days ahead of time, and the abundant flowering season 2-7 days ahead of time. With the increase of gibberellin concentration ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L, internode and plant height were increased, but the flower number, petals number, crown breadth, and flower diameter were inhibited. The longest internode and plant height occurred with 500 mg/L gibberellin treatment. The pollen germination viability were improved by 100-300 mg/L of gibberellin, and impressed by 500 mg/L gibberellin.%笔者探讨不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对地被菊‘紫重楼’株高、冠幅、开花特性(花期、开花量、花朵重瓣性、花径)和花粉生活力的影响,旨在为地被菊杂交育种、花期调控提供参考依据.试验结果表明,喷施100~500 mg/L GA3后,‘紫重楼’露色期、始花期及盛花期分别提前6~10天、7~12天和2~7天;GA3有利于节间伸长和株高增加,但植株开花量和花瓣重瓣性降低,冠幅、花径减小.其中,500 mg/L GA3处理下的地被菊节间长度与株高显著高于其他水平;100~300 mg/L GA3处理可促进花粉生活力,500 mg/L对花粉生活力有抑制作用.

  2. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Omar Tomm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  3. Study on Water Adaptability of Seven Common Species of Ground Cover Plants in South China%华南地区7种常见园林地被植物水分适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瑭璜; 雷江丽; 庄雪影

    2012-01-01

    Water adaptability of seven common ground cover plants in South China were studied by pot experiment. The effect of biomass increment, root-crown ratio, florescence, diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate and diurnal variations of net transpiration rate were determined in different soil water content. The experimental results showed that 7 ground cover plants could grow strongly in the soil w ith the water holding rate above 70% to 75%. Schefflera arboricola, Rhoeo discolor (L'He'rit.) Hance and Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'White Butterfly' could grow well and possess good ornamental value in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 30% to 35%; lxora coccinea L., Excoecaria cochinchinensis, Hymenocallis littoralis and Nephrolepis auriculata could grow well in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 50% to 55%.%以华南地区7种常见园林地被植物为研究对象,通过盆栽控水试验研究,综合比较了不同水分条件下植株的生长量、根冠比、花期、花量、净光合速率日变化、净蒸腾速率日变化等生长及光合指标的变化趋势.结果表明:1)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的70%~75%时,7种参试植物均有较旺盛的生长势;2)在满足各参试植物园林观赏性的前提下,鹅掌藤(Schefflera arboricola)、蚌花[Rhoeo discolor (L’Hérit.)Hance]和[白蝶合果芋(Syngonium podophyllum Schott ‘White Butterfly’)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的30%~35%时可以正常生长;而红花龙船化(Ixora coceinea L.)、红背桂(Excoecaria cochinchinensis)、水鬼蕉(Hymenocallis littoralis)和肾蕨(Nephrolepis auriculata)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的50%~55%时可以正常生长.

  4. The Influence of Internal Wall and Floor Covering Materials and Ventilation Type on Indoor Radon and Thoron Levels in Hospitals of Kermanshah, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Najafi, Farid; Haghparast, Abbas; Hemati, Lida; Sharafi, Kiomars; Kurd, Nematullah

    2016-01-01

    Background Building materials and the ventilation rate of a building are two main factors influencing indoor radon and thoron levels (two radioactive gases which have the most important role in human natural radiation exposure within dwellings). Objectives This analytical descriptive study was intended to determine the relationship between indoor radon and thoron concentrations and the building materials used in interior surfaces, as well as between those concentrations and the type of ventilation system (natural or artificial). Materials and Methods 102 measurements of radon and thoron levels were taken from different parts of three hospital buildings in the city of Kermanshah in the west of Iran, using an RTM-1688-2 radon meter. Information on the type of building material and ventilation system in the measurement location was collected and then analyzed using Stata 8 software and multivariate linear regression. Results In terms of radon and thoron emissions, travertine and plaster were found to be the most appropriate and inappropriate covering for walls, respectively. Furthermore, granite and travertine were discovered to be inappropriate materials for flooring, while plastic floor covering was found suitable. Natural ventilation performed better for radon, while artificial ventilation worked better for thoron. Conclusions Internal building materials and ventilation type affect indoor radon and thoron concentrations. Therefore, the use of proper materials and adequate ventilation can reduce the potential human exposure to radon and thoron. This is of utmost importance, particularly in buildings with a high density of residents, including hospitals.

  5. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-09

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  6. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  7. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  8. Signals at ground level of relativistic solar particles associated with a radiation storm on 2014 April 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Carlos; Navia, Carlos; de Oliveira, Marcel N.; Fauth, Anderson; Nepomuceno, André

    2016-02-01

    Active region NOAA AR2036, located at S20W34 at the Sun disk, produced a moderately strong (GOES class M7.3) flare on 2014 April 18. The flare itself was long in duration, and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) was emitted. In addition, a radiation storm, that is, solar energetic particles (SEP), began to reach the Earth at 13:30 UT in the aftermath of the solar blast, meeting the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level. In temporal coincidence with the onset of the S1 radiation storm, the Tupi telescopes located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) detected a fast rise in the muon counting rate, caused by relativistic protons from this solar blast, with a confidence of up to 3.5% at peak. At the time of the solar blast, of all ground-based detectors, the Tupi telescopes had the best geoeffective location. Indeed, in association with the radiation storm, a gradual increase in the particle intensity was found in some neutron monitors (NMs), all of them in the west region relative to the Sun-Earth line, yet within the geoeffective region. However, their confidence levels are smaller: up to 3%. The fast rising observed at Tupi suggests possible detection of solar particles emitted during the impulsive phase, following by a gradual phase observed also at NMs. Details of these observations, including the expected energy spectrum, are reported.

  9. Establishment of a structural equation model for ground-level ozone: a case study at an urban roadside site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Ming; Yu, Tai-Yi; Chang, Len-Fu

    2014-12-01

    This study established a cause-effect relationship between ground-level ozone and latent variables employing partial least-squares analysis at an urban roadside site in four distinct seasons. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were adopted to cite and identify suitable latent variables from 14 observed variables (i.e., meteorological factors, wind and primary air pollutants) in 2008-2010. Analytical results showed that the first six components explained 80.3 % of the variance, and eigenvalues of the first four components were greater than 1. The effectiveness of this model was empirically confirmed with three indicators. Except for surface pressure, factor loadings of observed variables were 0.303-0.910 and reached statistical significance at the 5 % level. Composite reliabilities for latent variables were 0.672-0.812 and average variances were 0.404-0.547, except for latent variable "primary" in spring; thus, discriminant validity and convergent validity were marginally accepted. The developed model is suitable for the assessment of urban roadside surface ozone, considering interactions among meteorological factors, wind factors, and primary air pollutants in each season.

  10. Simulated Sea-Level Rise Effects on the Above and Below-Ground Growth of Two Tidal Marsh Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Callaway, J. C.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise between 55 and 140 cm in the next century and is likely to have significant effects on the distribution and maintenance of tidal wetlands; however, little is known about the effects of increased sea level on Pacific coast tidal marsh vegetation. We initiated a field experiment in March 2011 to examine how increased depth and duration of inundation affect above and below-ground growth of two tidal wetland plant species: Schoenoplectus acutus and S. americanus. PVC planters, referred to as marsh organs, were installed at fixed elevations in channels at two ancient marshes in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: Browns Island and Rush Ranch. Each marsh organ structure is comprised of five rows of three six-inch PVC pipes, with each row 15cm lower than the row above, and was filled with surrounding mudflat sediment. Elevations span 60 cm and were chosen to be lower than the average current elevations of both species at each marsh to reflect projected increases in sea level. Rhizomes were collected from Browns Island, the less-saline site, and were cut to uniform sizes before planting. In every row, each species was grown individually and together. On a monthly basis, plant heights were recorded and pore-water sulfide concentration, salinity, and soil oxidation-reduction potential were measured. Schoenoplectus americanus growth and density significantly decreased with increased inundation at both sites. Schoenoplectus acutus growth was impacted more significantly at lower elevations at Rush Ranch but had little variation in density and growth across elevations at Browns Island. Salinity and sulfide concentrations varied little across elevations within a site but differed between sites. Above and belowground biomass will be collected in September 2011 to measure total annual productivity. The experiment provides basic yet crucial information on the impacts of increased inundation on tidal wetland vegetation and insight into potential changes in

  11. Study on Introduction and Cultivation Techniques of Four Color--leafed Plants of Ground Cover%四种地被类彩叶植物引种栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王太平

    2011-01-01

    对引进的4个地被类植物优良品种进行了引种试验,结果表明:红叶石楠和金森女贞在高度生长和冠幅增长方面优势明显,其次为红花檀木、洒金珊瑚;栽培试验表明:4个地被类植物经过几个生长期的栽培试验,形成了一套较完整的栽培技术措施,为4个优良品种的推广应用提供了技术保障。%In this paper, four species of ground cover were studied through introduction experiment and cul- tivation experiment. The results of introduction experiment show that Photinia serru alta and Ligustrum japonicum 'Howardii" have clear advantages on high-growth and crown-growth, followed by Lorpetalum Chinese Oliv. var. rubrum Yieh and Var. variegata D'ombr. The results of cultivation experiment show that after the experiment of several growth periods, a complete cultivation technique of these four species has been formed,which provides technical support for applying these four fine varieties.

  12. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  13. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  14. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity.

  15. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  16. Deriving the properties of coronal pressure fronts in 3-D: application to the 17 May 2012 ground level enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Rouillard, Alexis P; Pinto, Rui F; Tirole, Margot; Lavarra, Michael; Zucca, Pietro; Vainio, Rami; Tylka, Allan J; Vourlidas, Angelos; De Rosa, Marc; Linker, Jon; Warmuth, Alexander; Mann, Gottfried; Cohen, Christina M; Mewaldt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 17 May 2012. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the 3-D expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3-D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M_FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magneto-hydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M_FM values appear along the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the CME eruption; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric and plasma sheet. We can also estimate the time evolution of the shock speed, shock geometry and Mach number along different modeled ma...

  17. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral Analyses and Radiation Exposures from Several Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) Solar Proton Events: A Comparison of Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan; Dietrich, William; Badavi, Francis; Rojdev, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for analyzing the particle spectra from extremely large solar proton events, called Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs), have been developed and utilized by the scientific community to describe the solar proton energy spectra and have been further applied to ascertain the radiation exposures to humans and radio-sensitive systems, namely electronics. In this paper 12 GLEs dating back to 1956 are discussed, and the three methods for describing the solar proton energy spectra are reviewed. The three spectral fitting methodologies are EXP [an exponential in proton rigidity (R)], WEIB [Weibull fit: an exponential in proton energy], and the Band function (BAND) [a double power law in proton rigidity]. The EXP and WEIB methods use low energy (MeV) GLE solar proton data and make extrapolations out to approx.1 GeV. On the other hand, the BAND method utilizes low- and medium-energy satellite solar proton data combined with high-energy solar proton data deduced from high-latitude neutron monitoring stations. Thus, the BAND method completely describes the entire proton energy spectrum based on actual solar proton observations out to 10 GeV. Using the differential spectra produced from each of the 12 selected GLEs for each of the three methods, radiation exposures are presented and discussed in detail. These radiation exposures are then compared with the current 30-day and annual crew exposure limits and the radiation effects to electronics.

  19. Decoupling of ground level pressures observed in Italian volcanoes: are they driven by space weather geo-effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on correlation drops between near-ground atmospheric pressures measured at sea level and at higher altitudes on Italian volcanoes have been carried out. We looked for perturbations of the atmospheric pressure field driven by volcanic activity, but not excluding possible external triggers for the observed anomalies. Decorrelations between atmospheric pressures measured at Stromboli Island in stations located at different altitudes (years 2002-10 have been analysed and compared with data from other volcanic (Vesuvius and non volcanic (Mt. Soro orographic structures. We investigated as their possible triggers volcanic, meteorological and space weather parameters, with particular attention to Total Solar Irradiance (TSI, Kp index and Forbush decreases. Pressure decorrelations seems to be driven by astronomic cycles, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. A further contribution was found, seemingly assignable to TSI anomalies, with correlation minima occurring 12 hours after these but only during phases of high Sun activity. Moreover, during the same phases a main periodicity of about 27 days in pressure decorrelations was revealed by FFT analysis. This period is the same of the Sun Carrington rotation, expressing the periodic reappearance of sunspot groups on Sun’s surface. The strong similarity between recurrences of sunspot number and atmospheric pressure anomalies further supports the role of the former as a possible trigger for the latter.

  20. 7Be Measured at Ground Air Level and Rainfall in the City of SÃO Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damatto, S. R.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracers for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. This short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 = 53.3 d) was measured, from March 2011 to July 2012, in samples of air at ground level, every fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that ocurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) which campus (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level) is located in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV for 60Co and associated electronic devices and live counting time varing from 150,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clearly seasonal variations was observed.

  1. Deriving the Properties of Coronal Pressure Fronts in 3D: Application to the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; De Rosa, M. L.; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical (M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  2. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  4. Carbon distributions in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes in Galveston, Texas: The role of elevation, relative sea level history, and land cover conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawardhana, R. W.; Feagin, R. A.; Popescu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands, including salt marshes, are considered to be large carbon sinks. Yet, there is little knowledge about how the terrain and land cover of these environments are related to carbon distribution. An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon held in both the biomass and soil, and the factors that influence its distribution, will be necessary to allow coastal managers to initiate and verify "Blue Carbon" projects. In this study, we attempt to understand: 1) the temporal changes in salt marsh distributions as affected by marsh submergence, vertical accretion and land cover conversions; 2) patterns of soil carbon across different depths of the soil profile; and 3) to evaluate how changes in relative water level governs the spatial and temporal variability of salt marsh carbon storage ability. Our results indicate that over the study period (1954 to present) a considerable portion of salt marsh extents were submerged, while at the higher terrains these salt marshes indicated a landward shift in response to the sea level rise. Soil carbon measured in the soil profile, revealed a gradual depletion of soil carbon with depth. However, both the soil bulk density and the percent carbon indicated an abrupt and significant change at a depth of 15cm (p=0.05), which we interpreted as distinct of two different environments. As evidenced by historical aerial imagery (1954, 1969), the first (15-30 cm depth) coincided with an unvegetated salt flat at the sample locations, which were then overlain by lower bulk density and higher carbon Spartina alterniflora low marsh (0-15 cm depth) that migrated upslope in response to rapid relative sea level rise. However, within each of these two environments separately, carbon distribution followed a unique pattern with respect to elevation. Our results further point to two different processes, each acting at a different time scale (daily tides versus relative sea level rise), and each results in distinct spatial

  5. Analysis of Causes of Karst Collapse and the Corresponding Countermeasures During the Running of Ground Source Heat Pump in the Covered Karst Areas%覆盖型岩溶区地下水地源热泵工程岩溶塌陷成因及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段启杉; 曹振东; 孟凡涛; 宋小庆

    2015-01-01

    地下水地源热泵工程是抽取地下水,以地下水为换热介质,提取能量之后全部回灌于含水层中。因此地下水地源热泵是改变地下水局部水位高程,整体上不影响地下水流场的变化。覆盖型岩溶区地质环境承载力较差,地下水的开发利用过程,可能加强诱发岩溶塌陷的因素,发生岩溶塌陷。在地下水地源热泵的建设和运行中,控制水位降深、尽量避免水位波动和瞬间水位变化过大等措施,达到预防岩溶塌陷的目的。而岩溶塌陷预防措施的研究给覆盖型岩溶区地下水地源热泵的建设和运行提供技术支撑。%Ground source heat pump engineering is pumping groundwater, groundwater as heat transfer medium, extract the energy after full recharge in the aquifer. So the groundwater source heat pump is to change the local groundwater level elevation, on the whole does not affect the change of the groundwater flow field. Covered karst area with poor bearing capacity of geological envi-ronment, the development and utilization of groundwater, karst collapse could strengthen induced factors, karst collapse occurred. In groundwater in the construction and operation of ground source heat pump, control the water level drawdown, avoid water level fluctuation and instantaneous water level change is too big, so as to achieve the purpose of prevention of karst collapse, and preven-tive measures of karst collapse research covered karst area groundwater source heat pump with pumping and technical support for the construction and operation.

  6. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  7. Estimating national-scale ground-level PM25 concentration in China using geographically weighted regression based on MODIS and MISR AOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei; Zang, Zengliang; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Yi; Wang, Weiqi

    2016-05-01

    Taking advantage of the continuous spatial coverage, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been widely used to assess the spatial and temporal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the ground and their effects on human health. However, the national-scale ground-level PM2.5 estimation is still very limited because the lack of ground PM2.5 measurements to calibrate the model in China. In this study, a national-scale geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was developed to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentration based on satellite AODs, newly released national-wide hourly PM2.5 concentrations, and meteorological parameters. The results showed good agreements between satellite-retrieved and ground-observed PM2.5 concentration at 943 stations in China. The overall cross-validation (CV) R (2) is 0.76 and root mean squared prediction error (RMSE) is 22.26 μg/m(3) for MODIS-derived AOD. The MISR-derived AOD also exhibits comparable performance with a CV R (2) and RMSE are 0.81 and 27.46 μg/m(3), respectively. Annual PM2.5 concentrations retrieved either by MODIS or MISR AOD indicated that most of the residential community areas exceeded the new annual Chinese PM2.5 National Standard level 2. These results suggest that this approach is useful for estimating large-scale ground-level PM2.5 distributions especially for the regions without PMs monitoring sites.

  8. Prediction of ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo, Brazil: Deterministic versus statistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Brasseur, G.; Andrade, M. F.; Gavidia-Calderón, M.; Bouarar, I.; Ynoue, R. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Two state-of-the-art models (deterministic: Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and statistic: Artificial Neural Networks: (ANN)) are implemented to predict the ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Two domains are set up for WRF-Chem simulations: a coarse domain (with 50 km horizontal resolution) including whole South America (D1) and a nested domain (with horizontal resolution of 10 km) including South Eastern Brazil (D2). To evaluate the spatial distribution of the chemical species, model results are compared to the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, showing that the model satisfactorily predicts the CO concentrations in both D1 and D2. The model also reproduces the measurements made at three air quality monitoring stations in SP with the correlation coefficients of 0.74, 0.70, and 0.77 for O3 and 0.51, 0.48, and 0.57 for NOx. The input selection for ANN model is carried out using Forward Selection (FS) method. FS-ANN is then trained and validated using the data from two air quality monitoring stations, showing correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.75 for daily mean and 0.64 and 0.67 for daily peak ozone during the test stage. Then, both WRF-Chem and FS-ANN are deployed to forecast the daily mean and peak concentrations of ozone in two stations during 5-20 August 2012. Results show that WRF-Chem preforms better in predicting mean and peak ozone concentrations as well as in conducting mechanistic and sensitivity analysis. FS-ANN is only advantageous in predicting mean daily ozone concentrations considering its significantly lower computational costs and ease of development and implementation, compared to that of WRF-Chem.

  9. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  10. Impact of Ground Level Enhancement from Solar Cosmic Rays on 20 January 2005 - Results for Ozone and Ionosphere Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, P.; Tassev, Y.; Spassov, H.; Tomova, D.

    The influences of major solar proton flare from 20 January 2005 on the ionized and neutral components in the middle atmosphere are analyzed in this work This flare is accompanied by ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays and strong geomagnetic storm with SSC on 22 January 2005 Kp index reaches 8 Short-term variations along the ozone profiles are discussed Ozone partial pressure measurements from the programme Halogen Occultation Experiment HALOE realized by the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite UARS are used The GOES-10 satellite obtained the data on high energy protons All energetic intervals 0 8 - 4 MeV 4 - 9 MeV 9 - 15 MeV 15 - 40 MeV 40 - 80 MeV 80 - 165 MeV 165 - 500 MeV are used Cosmic ray data from super neutron monitors Kiel - Germany 54 9 95 6 geomagnetic degree and Potchefstroom - South African Republic -27 3 -90 1 geomagnetic degree are analyzed also Statistical analysis with this big volume of data is accomplished Correlation and cross-correlation analysis between ozone and particle data is made Different behaviors of the ozone response in both hemispheres is obtained on the basis of these computations The ionosphere results for the same period are obtained in the observatory Sofia - Bulgaria by means of A3 method The minimal reflectance frequency fmin which characterizes the state of the lower ionosphere has unusual course For complement the other ionospheric parameters are involved also The present investigation is an example for complex analysis of solar and extra-terrestrial influence in the middle atmosphere

  11. Estimating urban ground-level PM10 using MODIS 3km AOD product and meteorological parameters from WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Saba; Sotoudeheian, Saeed; Arhami, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing products of AOD from MODIS along with appropriate meteorological parameters were used to develop statistical models and estimate ground-level PM10. Most of previous studies obtained meteorological data from synoptic weather stations, with rather sparse spatial distribution, and used it along with 10 km AOD product to develop statistical models, applicable for PM variations in regional scale (resolution of ≥10 km). In the current study, meteorological parameters were simulated with 3 km resolution using WRF model and used along with the rather new 3 km AOD product (launched in 2014). The resulting PM statistical models were assessed for a polluted and largely variable urban area, Tehran, Iran. Despite the critical particulate pollution problem, very few PM studies were conducted in this area. The issue of rather poor direct PM-AOD associations existed, due to different factors such as variations in particles optical properties, in addition to bright background issue for satellite data, as the studied area located in the semi-arid areas of Middle East. Statistical approach of linear mixed effect (LME) was used, and three types of statistical models including single variable LME model (using AOD as independent variable) and multiple variables LME model by using meteorological data from two sources, WRF model and synoptic stations, were examined. Meteorological simulations were performed using a multiscale approach and creating an appropriate physic for the studied region, and the results showed rather good agreements with recordings of the synoptic stations. The single variable LME model was able to explain about 61%-73% of daily PM10 variations, reflecting a rather acceptable performance. Statistical models performance improved through using multivariable LME and incorporating meteorological data as auxiliary variables, particularly by using fine resolution outputs from WRF (R2 = 0.73-0.81). In addition, rather fine resolution for PM

  12. An estimation of COPD cases and respiratory mortality related to Ground-Level Ozone in the metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study :  Ground-Level Ozone (GLO is the component of one of greatest concern that threatened human health in both developing as well as developed countries. The GLO mainly enters the body through the respiration and can cause decrements in pulmonary complications, eye burning, shortness of breath, coughing, failure of immune defense, decreases forced vital capacity, reduce lung function of the lungs and increase rate of mortality. Ahwaz with high emission air pollutants because of numerous industries is one of the metropolitan Iranian polluted. The aim of this study is evaluate to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and respiratory mortality related to GLO in the air of metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011. Materials & Methods: We used the generalized additive Air Q model for estimation of COPD and respiratory mortality attributed to GLO pollutant. Data of GLO were collected in four monitoring stations Ahvaz Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software and at final step they were converted as input file to the Air Q model for estimate number of COPD Cases and respiratory mortality. Results: According to result this study, The Naderi and Havashenasi had the highest and the lowest GLO concentrations. The results of this study showed that cumulative cases of COPD and respiratory mortality which related to GLO were 34 and 30 persons, respectively. Also, Findings showed that approximately 11 % COPD and respiratory mortality happened when the GLO concentrations was more than 20 μg/m 3 . Conclusions: exposure to GLO pollution has stronger effects on human health in Ahvaz. Findings showed that there were a significant relationship between concentration of GLO and COPD and respiratory mortality. Therefore; the higher ozone pollutant value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.  

  13. The revision of the air quality legislation in the european union related to ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, M; Lutz, M

    2000-11-01

    Complying with the obligation in the current ozone directive, the European Commission came forward in 1999 with a strategy to combat tropospheric ozone together with a proposed revision of the air quality legislation for this pollutant. As a daughter legislation under the 1996 Framework Directive on Air Quality, the proposed ozone daughter directive defines for the first time (interim) air quality targets for ozone to be attained by 2010, complemented by long-term objectives for ozone based on the guideline values of the World Health Organisation. It also sets out enhanced requirements for monitoring and assessment of ozone concentrations, as well as minimum criteria for appropriate information of the public about the measured air pollution. In the past, abatement strategies against air pollution consisted of concrete obligations for controlling emissions derived solely on the basis of technical and economic aspects, covering specific types of installations or activities, thus with no direct quantitative relationship to the level of air pollution let alone to its effects. In compensating this deficit, the Commission presented, as a complement to the existing sectoral legislation, a proposal for a directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) which quantifies emission targets for every Member State to bring its total precursor emissions by 2010 down to levels being considered as necessary to achieve everywhere on a regional scale the air quality targets set in the ozone daughter directive. As the core element of the ozone abatement strategy, the national ceilings for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ammonia (NH(3)) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were derived from a cost-effectiveness analysis integrating information on economic, technical, physical and biological aspects of ozone pollution and abatement. This integrated assessment considers the potential and costs for further emission control in the various economic sectors in the

  14. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  15. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  16. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith, Jody L.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-ft in 1996 and 6,300 acre-ft in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by ET, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased.

  17. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    high flows. Conveyance losses in the Pebble-Topaz reach were greatest, about 283 cubic feet per second, during the spring regulated high flows and were attributed to a hydroelectric project.Comparison of water levels in 30 wells in the Portneuf Valley during September and October 1968 and 2001 indicated long-term declines since 1968; the median decline was 3.4 feet. September and October were selected for characterizing long-term ground-water-level fluctuations because declines associated with irrigation reach a maximum at the end of the irrigation season. The average annual snowpack in the study area has declined significantly; 1945 85 average annual snowpack was 16.1 inches, whereas 1986 through 2002 average annual snowpack was 11.6 inches. Water-level declines during 1998 2002 may be partially attributable to the extended dry climatic conditions. It is unclear whether the declines could be partially attributed to increases in ground-water withdrawals. Between 1968 and 1980, water rights for ground-water withdrawals nearly doubled from 23,500 to 46,000 acre-feet per year. During this period, ground-water levels were relatively constant and did not exhibit a declining trend that could be related to increased ground-water withdrawal rights. However, ground-water withdrawals are not measured in the valley; thus, the amount of water pumped is not known. Since the 1990s, there have been several years when the Chesterfield Reservoir has not completely refilled, and the water in storage behind the reservoir has been depleted by the middle of the irrigation season. In this situation, surface-water diversions for irrigation were terminated before the end of the irrigation season, and irrigators, who were relying in part on diversions from the Portneuf River, had to rely solely on ground water as an alternate supply. Smaller volumes of water in the Chesterfield Reservoir since the 1990s indicate a growing demand for ground-water supplies.

  18. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  19. Bird assemblage mist-netted in an Atlantic Forest area: a comparison between vertically-mobile and ground-level nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, M B; Alves, M A S

    2015-08-01

    Mist nets may be opened at different heights in the forest, but they are seldom used over 3 m above the ground. We used two different methods to compare species richness, composition, and relative abundance and trophic structure of the bird assemblage at Ilha Grande (with a 290 birds standardization): conventional ground-level nets (0-2.4 m height range) and elevated nets (0-17 m) with an adjustable-height system (modified from Humphrey et al., 1968) that we call vertically-mobile nets. There were significant differences in capture frequencies between methods for about 20% of the species (Chi-squared test, PForest.

  20. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  1. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  2. The 'Aachen Falls Prevention Scale' - development of a tool for self-assessment of elderly patients at risk for ground level falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Hans-Christoph; Schemmann, Ulrike; Foerster, Juergen; Knobe, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of falls in the elderly population is difficult to determine and therefore potentially underestimated. Screening algorithms usually have in common that the evaluation is undertaken by trained individuals in a hospital setting. This leads to the inclusion of a high proportion of low-risk people and a waste of resources. It would be advantageous to pretest the individuals at risk in their own environment using a simple self-assessment approach. The consensus process of our group of clinicians and physical therapists included: 1. a preparative literature review about risk profiles and assessment tools for ground level falls; 2. a selection of appropriate questions that cover all health aspects involved in an increased risk for falling; and 3. a selection of a simple physical test that can be used at home without the need of a health care professional. We thus searched to develop a scale that can be used by older citizen at higher risk of falling. The current manuscript summarizes the results of this review, consensus and selection process. The literature search was undertaken between March and August 1, 2013. The selection process for the questions used (Part I) lasted between March 2013 and January 2014. Among all tests evaluated the 20 second standing test (Part II) was deemed to be safe to be performed even by an individual at risk for a fall, as it closely resembles activities of daily living. The `Aachen Falls Prevention Scale` finally uses a self-assessment tool grading falls risk on a scale of 1 to 10 by the individual itself after completion of Part I and Part II. In summary, we present a scale that might offer a self-assessment option to improve the measures of falls prevention pass for elderly citizens. The introduction of the `Aachen Falls Prevention Scale` which combines a simple questionnaire with a safe and quick balance tool, meets the criteria to identify whether or not a balance problem exists - the first step in evaluation of falls

  3. Insights into aerosol chemistry during the 2015 China Victory Day parade: results from simultaneous measurements at ground level and 260 m in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Du, Wei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Chen; Xu, Weiqi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Yuying; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Li, Zhanqing; Sun, Yele

    2017-03-01

    Strict emission controls were implemented in Beijing and adjacent provinces to ensure good air quality during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Here, we conducted synchronous measurements of submicron aerosols (PM1) at ground level and 260 m on a meteorological tower by using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor, respectively, in Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed that the average PM1 concentrations are 19.3 and 14.8 µg m-3 at ground level and 260 m, respectively, during the control period (20 August-3 September), which are 57 and 50 % lower than those after the control period (4-30 September). Organic aerosols (OAs) dominated PM1 during the control period at both ground level and 260 m (55 and 53 %, respectively), while their contribution showed substantial decreases (˜ 40 %) associated with an increase in secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs) after the parade, indicating a larger impact of emission controls on SIA than OA. Positive matrix factorization of OA further illustrated that primary OA (POA) showed similar decreases as secondary OA (SOA) at both ground level (40 % vs. 42 %) and 260 m (35 % vs. 36 %). However, we also observed significant changes in SOA composition at ground level. While the more oxidized SOA showed a large decrease by 75 %, the less oxidized SOA was comparable during (5.6 µg m-3) and after the control periods (6.5 µg m-3). Our results demonstrated that the changes in meteorological conditions and PM loadings have affected SOA formation mechanisms, and the photochemical production of fresh SOA was more important during the control period. By isolating the influences of meteorological conditions and footprint regions in polluted episodes, we found that regional emission controls on average reduced PM levels by 44-45 %, and the reductions were close among SIA, SOA and POA at 260 m, whereas primary species showed relatively more reductions (55-67 %) than secondary

  4. Assessing the Influence of Land Use and Land Cover Datasets with Different Points in Time and Levels of Detail on Watershed Modeling in the North River Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC information is an important component influencing watershed modeling with regards to hydrology and water quality in the river basin. In this study, the sensitivity of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to LULC datasets with three points in time and three levels of detail was assessed in a coastal subtropical watershed located in Southeast China. The results showed good agreement between observed and simulated values for both monthly and daily streamflow and monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. Three LULC datasets in 2002, 2007 and 2010 had relatively little influence on simulated monthly and daily streamflow, whereas they exhibited greater effects on simulated monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. When using the two LULC datasets in 2007 and 2010 compared with that in 2002, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −11.0 to −7.8% and −4.8 to −9.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in simulated monthly and daily streamflow when using the three LULC datasets with ten, five and three categories. When using LULC datasets from ten categories compared to five and three categories, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −6.6 to −6.5% and −13.3 to −7.3%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to LULC datasets with different points in time and levels of detail was lower in monthly and daily streamflow simulation than in monthly NH4+-N and TP loads prediction. This research provided helpful insights into the influence of LULC datasets on watershed modeling.

  5. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  6. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  7. Records of wells and springs, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the East Portland area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Hogenson, G.M.; Hampton, E.R.

    1964-01-01

    Data are presented on more than 300 wells, including many new ones whose records will not be a part of a forthcoming interpretative report on the occurrence of ground water in this area. A brief description of the geomorphic features is given, and the characteristics of the rock units are summarized in a table. Principal aquifers are beds of loose sand and gravel in the early Pliocene Troutdale Formation, late Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits, and Recent alluvium. Locally, Columbia River Basalt (Miocene) and the Boring Lava (late Pliocene to Pleistocene) yield substantial amounts of wate.. In addition to well records there are 124 driller's logs and a table of chemical analyses of the ground water.

  8. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer) and Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  9. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer) and Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  10. Modeling increasing effect of soil temperature through plastic film mulch in ground cover rice production system using CERES-Rice%基于CERES-Rice模型的覆膜旱作稻田增温效应模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雯雯; 金欣欣; 石建初; 宁松瑞; 李森; 陶玥玥; 张亚男; 左强

    2015-01-01

    水稻覆膜旱作技术具有显著的节水、增温、防污和减排效应,是节水稻作技术体系的重要措施之一,将CERES-Rice模型用于覆膜旱作条件时,必须首先解决覆膜增温效应的准确模拟问题。该文拟应用热量传输理论及目前旱地作物生产系统中采用的覆膜增温效应模拟方法,来模拟水稻覆膜旱作生产体系中的增温效应,从而为完善 CERES-Rice 模型并使其能用于覆膜旱作水稻的生长模拟奠定基础。参数调校与模型检验验证通过2013、2014年在湖北房县开展的2 a水稻覆膜旱作田间试验来进行,共涉及淹水(对照)、覆膜湿润栽培和覆膜旱作共3个水分处理,分别对2个生长季、2个覆膜处理地表5 cm及地下10、20 cm处温度的变化过程进行了模拟,结果表明:经过参数调校后,所建立的覆膜增温模型可较好地模拟覆膜稻田地表和剖面上土壤温度的变化规律,地表5 cm处土壤温度模拟值与实测值的均方根差、相对均方根差分别低于1.8℃和10%,相关系数在0.89以上(P<0.01);尽管地下10、20 cm处的模拟误差稍大,也基本可满足要求,相应的均方根误差<3.2℃,相对均方根差<15%,相关系数>0.65(P<0.01)。%As one of the most promising water-saving rice production technologies, the ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) has been found to save water application, increase soil temperature, and reduce nitrogen pollution and methane emission. However, the feasibility of CERES-Rice, a software package widely and successfully applied in the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS), for simulating the rice growth in the GCRPS still remains unknown and needs further research. Undoubtedly, it should be based on accurately quantifying the effect of soil temperature enhancement caused by the ground cover material (chosen as the plastic film in this study). Therefore, the objective of

  11. Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2014-06-01

    Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land-based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground-level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant-soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground-level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land-based renewable energy sources to alter plant-soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research.

  12. The impact of biofuel poplar cultivation on ground-level ozone and premature human mortality depends on cultivar selection and planting location

    OpenAIRE

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, A. S. D.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. Future land use change, driven by the cultivation of biofuel feedstocks, will change the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 comme...

  13. Sensitivity of the southern West African mean atmospheric state to variations in low-level cloud cover as simulated by ICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffka, Anke; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents first results of numerical sensitivity experiments that are carried out in the framework of the project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa). DACCIWA aims to investigate the impact of the drastic increase in anthropogenic emissions in West Africa on the local weather and climate, for example through cloud-aerosol interactions or impacts on radiation and stability. DACCIWA organised a major international field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016 and involves a wide range of modelling activities. Several studies have shown - and first results of the DACCIWA campaign confirm - that extensive ultra-low stratus clouds form in the southern parts of West Africa (8°W-8°E, 5-10°N) at night in connection with strong nocturnal low-level jets. The clouds persist long after sunrise and have therefore a substantial impact on the surface radiation budget and consequently on the diurnal evolution of the daytime, convectively mixed boundary layer. The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the West African monsoon system and its diurnal cycle to the radiative effects of these low clouds. The study is based on a series of daily 5-day sensitivity simulations using ICON, the operational numerical weather prediction model of the German Weather Service during the months July - September 2006. In these simulations, low clouds are made transparent, by artificially lowering the optical thickness information passed on to the model's radiation scheme. Results reveal a noticeable influence of the low-level cloud cover on the atmospheric mean state of our region of interest and beyond. Also the diurnal development of the convective boundary layer is influenced by the cloud modification. In the transparent-cloud experiments, the cloud deck tends to break up later in the day and is shifted to a higher altitude, thereby causing a short-lived intensification around 11 LT. The average rainfall patterns are

  14. Water-quality and water-level data for a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1998-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.

  15. Impact of Biofuel Poplar Cultivation on Ground-Level Ozone and Premature Human Mortality Depends on Cultivar Selection and Planting Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, Allyson S D; Hewitt, C Nick

    2015-07-21

    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks will contribute to future land use change, altering the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 commercially available poplar hybrids to assess the impact that the large-scale cultivation of poplar for use as a biofuel feedstock will have on air quality, specifically ground-level ozone concentrations, in Europe. We show that the increases in ground-level ozone across Europe will increase the number of premature deaths attributable to ozone pollution each year by up to 6%. Substantial crop losses (up to ∼9 Mt y(-1) of wheat and maize) are also projected. We further demonstrate that these impacts are strongly dependent on the location of the poplar plantations, due to the prevailing meteorology, the population density, and the dominant crop type of the region. Our findings indicate the need for a concerted and centralized decision-making process that considers all aspects of future land use change in Europe, and not just the effect on greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  17. How much is particulate matter near the ground influenced by upper level processes within and above the PBL? A summertime case study in Milan (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Curci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and dynamical processes yield to the formation of aerosol layers in the upper planetary boundary layer (PBL and above it. Through vertical mixing and entrainment into the PBL these layers may contribute to the ground-level particulate matter (PM, but a quantitative assessment of such contribution is still missing. This study investigates this aspect combining chemical and physical aerosol measurements with WRF/Chem model simulations. The observations were collected in the Milan urban area (Northern Italy during summer of 2007. The period coincided with the passage of a meteorological perturbation that cleansed the lower atmosphere, followed by a high pressure period that favoured pollutant accumulation. Lidar observations reveal the formation of elevated aerosol layers and show evidences of their entrainment into the PBL. We analyze the budget of ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm with the help of the online meteorology-chemistry WRF/Chem model, with particular focus on the contribution of upper level processes. We find that an important player in determining the upper PBL aerosol layer is particulate nitrate, which may reach higher values in the upper PBL (up to 30% of the aerosol mass than the lower. The nitrate formation process is predicted to be largely driven by the relative humidity vertical profile, that may trigger efficient aqueous nitrate formation when exceeding the ammonium nitrate deliquescence point. Secondary PM2.5 produced in the upper half of the PBL may contribute up to 7–8 μg m−3 (or 25% to ground level concentrations on hourly basis. A large potential role is also found to be played by the residual aerosol layer above the PBL, which may occasionally contribute up to 10–12 μg m−3 (or 40% to hourly ground level PM2.5 concentrations during the morning. This study highlights the importance of considering the interplay between chemical and dynamical processes

  18. Chemistry of snow cover and acidic snowfall during a season with a high level of air pollution on the Hans Glacier, Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Adam P.; Migała, Krzysztof; Luks, Bartłomiej; Pakszys, Paulina; Głowacki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The central Arctic is within the range of air pollution transported from industrial areas of Eurasia and North America. A poor network of weather stations means that there is limited information available about air quality and contaminant deposition in the Arctic environment. For this reason seasonal snow cover is an important source of information. Chemical properties of precipitation, snow cover and fresh snow were monitored at the Hornsund Polish Polar Station (Spitsbergen) and in the altitude profile of the Hans Glacier. Meteorological data from the coast and the glacier helped to examine in detail the impact of atmospheric processes on snow cover contamination. The episode with extremely acidic precipitation was recognized in snow cover analysed in spring 2006. The source area of pollution and type of synoptic situation which enhanced transfer of pollution to the European Arctic were identified. Changes in snow chemistry in the altitude profile demonstrated the impact of the atmospheric boundary layer on chemical properties of precipitation and snow cover. Non-sea salt SO2 emissions and the role of nitrate in acidification should be considered a serious threat to the Arctic environment.

  19. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoydysh, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  20. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  1. Forests and Forest Cover, Forest areas as captured by orthophotography. Contains some attribution of forest type depending on imagery and ground-truthing if available., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  2. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2000. It is described...

  3. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs.

  4. Combustion analysis for flame stability predictions at ground level and altitude in aviation gas turbine engines with low emissions combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Tomas

    Low emissions combustors operating with low fuel/air ratios may have challenges with flame stability. As combustion is made leaner in the primary zone, the flame can lose its stability, resulting in operability problems such as relight, flameout or cold starting. This thesis analyzes combustion processes for the prediction of flame stability in low emissions combustors. A detailed review of the literature on flame stability was conducted and main approaches in flame stability modelling were indicated. Three flame stability models were proposed (Characteristic Time, Loading Parameter, and Combustion Efficiency models) and developed into a unique Preliminary Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization (PMDO) tool. Results were validated with a database of experimental combustor test data and showed that flame stability can be predicted for an arbitrary shape of combustors running at any operational conditions including ground and altitude situations with various jet fuels and nozzles. In conclusion, flame stability can be predicted for newly designed low emission combustors.

  5. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  6. SPARTAN: a global network to evaluate and enhance satellite-based estimates of ground-level particulate matter for global health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Snider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based observations have insufficient spatial coverage to assess long-term human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 at the global scale. Satellite remote sensing offers a promising approach to provide information on both short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 at local-to-global scales, but there are limitations and outstanding questions about the accuracy and precision with which ground-level aerosol mass concentrations can be inferred from satellite remote sensing alone. A key source of uncertainty is the global distribution of the relationship between annual average PM2.5 and discontinuous satellite observations of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD. We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations designed to evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates for application in health effects research and risk assessment. This Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN includes a global federation of ground-level monitors of hourly PM2.5 situated primarily in highly populated regions and collocated with existing ground-based sun photometers that measure AOD. The instruments, a three-wavelength nephelometer and impaction filter sampler for both PM2.5 and PM10, are highly autonomous. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations are inferred from the combination of weighed filters and nephelometer data. Data from existing networks were used to develop and evaluate network sampling characteristics. SPARTAN filters are analyzed for mass, black carbon, water-soluble ions, and metals. These measurements provide, in a variety of global regions, the key data required to evaluate and enhance satellite-based PM2.5 estimates used for assessing the health effects of aerosols. Mean PM2.5 concentrations across sites vary by an order of magnitude. Initial measurements indicate that the AOD column to PM2.5 ratio is driven temporally primarily by the vertical profile of aerosol scattering; and spatially by a~ more complex interaction

  7. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    collected across beach ridge deposits from Feddet, eastern Denmark, and resolve past relative sea level with a relatively high precision. Feddet is a spit located in Faxe Bay (western part of the Baltic Sea) close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound and is considered a key locality for studies...... in both the present beach face and upper shoreface deposits and in the interpreted beach face and upper shoreface GPR reflections. The break point marks the present transition from beach to upper shoreface and coincides with actual sea level within a few centimetres. Furthermore, our observations indicate...... that downlap points of deposits formed under both relatively high and low water levels are preserved and are identified in GPR reflection data. Thus, records of these sea-level markers constrain the local relative sea level history during the Holocene. Downlap points identified in GPR data across other...

  8. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  9. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    A digital model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas was used to simulate ground-water flow for the period from 1918 to 2049. The model results were used to evaluate effects on water levels caused by demand for ground water from the alluvial aquifer, which has increased steadily for the last 40 years. The model results showed that water currently (1998) is being withdrawn from the aquifer at rates greater than what can be sustained for the long term. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer has been reduced in some areas resulting in dry wells, degraded water quality, decreased water availability, increased pumping costs, and lower well yields. The model simulated the aquifer from a line just north of the Arkansas-Missouri border to south of the Arkansas River and on the east from the Mississippi River westward to the less permeable geologic units of Paleozoic age. The model consists of 2 layers, a grid of 184 rows by 156 columns, and comprises 14,118 active cells each measuring 1 mile on a side. It simulates time periods from 1918 to 1998 along with further time periods to 2049 testing different pumping scenarios. Model flux boundary conditions were specified for rivers, general head boundaries along parts of the western side of the model and parts of Crowleys Ridge, and a specified head boundary across the aquifer further north in Missouri. Model calibration was conducted for observed water levels for the years 1972, 1982, 1992, and 1998. The average absolute residual was 4.69 feet and the root-mean square error was 6.04 feet for the hydraulic head observations for 1998. Hydraulic-conductivity values obtained during the calibration process were 230 feet per day for the upper layer and ranged from 230 to 730 feet per day for the lower layer with the maximum mean for the combined aquifer of 480 feet per day. Specific yield values were 0.30 throughout the model and specific storage values were 0.000001 inverse-feet throughout

  10. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  11. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  12. Factors Influencing the Iterative Accuracy of Ground Water Level in Forecasting the Water Burst of Deep Drawdown Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎; 杨小荟; 武强; 张志忠

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influential factors of iteration accuracy when we use iteration to determine the numerical model for predicting water yield of deep drawdown mines and calculating the groundwater level. The relationship among the calculation error of groundwater level, the pumping rate, the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time, and the aquifer parameters were discussed by using an ideal model. Finally, the water yield of Dianzi iron mine was predicted using the testified numerical model. It is indicated that the calculation error of groundwater level is related to the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time and the aquifer parameters, but not to the pumping rate and the variation of groundwater level.

  13. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys.0008-420410.1139/p65-139 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  14. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  15. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  16. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  17. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  18. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  19. The Porcupine herd of barren ground caribou

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the porcupine herd of the barren ground caribou. The report covers the short history, the winter range, migration route, phenology, movements and...

  20. Monte Carlo transport simulation for a long counter neutron detector employed as a cosmic rays induced neutron monitor at ground level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio Tizziani; Carlson, Brett Vern [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio Antonio; Goncalez, Odair Lelis [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Great effort is required to understand better the cosmic radiation (CR) dose received by sensitive equipment, on-board computers and aircraft crew members at Brazil airspace, because there is a large area of South America and Brazil subject to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). High energy neutrons are produced by interactions between primary cosmic ray and atmospheric atoms, and also undergo moderation resulting in a wider spectrum of energy ranging from thermal energies (0:025eV ) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. Measurements of the cosmic radiation dose on-board aircrafts need to be followed with an integral flow monitor on the ground level in order to register CR intensity variations during the measurements. The Long Counter (LC) neutron detector was designed as a directional neutron flux meter standard because it presents fairly constant response for energy under 10MeV. However we would like to use it as a ground based neutron monitor for cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum (CRINS) that presents an isotropic fluency and a wider spectrum of energy. The LC was modeled and tested using a Monte Carlo transport simulation for irradiations with known neutron sources ({sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 251}Cf) as a benchmark. Using this geometric model its efficiency was calculated to CRINS isotropic flux, introducing high energy neutron interactions models. The objective of this work is to present the model for simulation of the isotropic neutron source employing the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) and then access the LC efficiency to compare it with experimental results for cosmic ray neutrons measures on ground level. (author)

  1. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  2. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  3. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data collected from 1993 to 1997, using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95- percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were within the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26

  4. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  5. Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Aziz, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The analyses presented in this paper include the concentration levels of NO2 and O3 measured during 2 successive years in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan from November 2009 to March 2011. NO2 was determined using the passive sampling method, while ozone was determined by Model 400E ozone analyzer. The average NO2 and O3 concentration in twin cities of Pakistan was found to be 44 ± 6 and 18.2 ± 1.24 ppb, respectively. Results indicate that the concentration of NO2 and O3 show seasonal variations. Results also depict that NO2 and O3 concentration levels are high in areas of intense traffic flow and congestion. Rawalpindi has more elevated levels of NO2 and O3 as compared to the Islamabad due to the narrow roads, enclosing architecture of road network and congestion. Climatic variables also influenced the NO2 and O3 concentration, i.e., temperature is positively related with O3, while negatively related with NO2, relative humidity is directly related with NO2 and inversely related with O3, whereas rainfall show negative association with both NO2 and O3 concentration. Comparing the results with WHO standards reveals that NO2 concentration levels at all the sampling points are above the permissible limit, while ozone concentration is still lower than the WHO standards. Thus, there is a need to take appropriate steps to control these continuously increasing levels of NO2 and O3 before they become a serious hazard for the environment and people living in those areas.

  6. Two Methods to Derive Ground-level Concentrations of PM2.5 with Improved Accuracy in the North China, Calibrating MODIS AOD and CMAQ Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Baolei; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard; Russell, Armistead; Bai, Yuqi

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and accurate characterizations of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations are essential to understand pollution sources and evaluate human exposures etc. Monitoring network could only provide direct point-level observations at limited locations. At the locations without monitors, there are generally two ways to estimate the pollution levels of PM2.5. One is observations of aerosol properties from the satellite-based remote sensing, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD). The other one is from deterministic atmospheric chemistry models, such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). In this study, we used a statistical spatio-temporal downscaler to calibrate the two datasets to monitor observations to derive fine-scale ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 with improved accuracy. We treated both MODIS AOD and CMAQ model predictions as biased proxy estimations of PM2.5 pollution levels. The downscaler proposed a Bayesian framework to model the spatially and temporally varying coefficients of the two types of estimations in the linear regression setting, in order to correct biases. Especially for calibrating MODIS AOD, a city-specific linear model was established to fill the missing AOD values, and a novel interpolation-based variable, i.e. PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator, was introduced to account for the spatial dependence among grid cells. We selected the heavy polluted and populated North China as our study area, in a grid setting of 81×81 12-km cells. For the evaluation of calibration performance for retrieved MODIS AOD, the R2 was 0.61 by the full model with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator being presented, and was 0.48 with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator not being presented. The constructed AOD values effectively predicted PM2.5 concentrations under our model structure, with R2=0.78. For the evaluation of calibrated CMAQ predictions, the R2 was 0.51, a little less than that of calibrated AOD. Finally we

  7. Ground level observations of relativistic solar particles on Oct 29th, 2015: Is it a new GLE on the current solar cycle?

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Nepomuceno, A A; Fauth, A C

    2016-01-01

    On Oct. 29th, 2015, the Earth crossed through a fold in the heliospheric current sheet. This is called a "solar sector boundary crossing". Under this circumstances, a large coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred at 2:24 UT, behind the west limb on the sun. Therefore, the boundary crossing occurred when in the blast's nearby environment was filled with energetic particles accelerated by the CME shock waves, spacecraft measurements (ACE and GOES) have shown that in such a case, protons with energies at least up to 30 MeV were stored within the range of the sector boundary. Thus, a fraction of the solar energetic particles (SEP) from CME, reached Earth around 03:00 UT in the aftermath of the solar blast, reaching the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level. The effect at ground level was a small increase in the counting rate in some ground based detectors, such as the South Pole Neutron Monitor (NM) and a sharp peak observed in the counting rate in the New-Tupi detector in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Thule...

  8. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the chemical speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their role in ground-level ozone formation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China, measurements of 56 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and 12 carbonyls were conducted at three sites in summer. Alkanes were the largest group of NMHCs (>50%), followed by alkenes and aromatics. Acetone was the most abundant carbonyl species (>50%). The OH loss rates (LOH) of VOCs were calculated to estimate their chemical reactivities. Alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity, among which ethene and propene were the largest contributors. Isoprene contributed 11.61-38.00% of the total reactivity of measured VOCs. Alkenes and aromatics were the largest contributors (47.65-61.53% totally) to the total Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) of measured VOCs based on the observed mixing ratio. Isoprene was the most reactive species, but originated mainly from biogenic emissions. Ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and 1-butene were considered to play significant roles in ground-level ozone formation in this region. The OFPs of total measured NMHCs increased by 10.20-22.05% when they were calculated based on the initial mixing ratio. Photochemical losses of hydrocarbons and the secondary formation of carbonyls in this region were also determined. Vehicle exhaust emissions contributed substantially to ambient VOCs.

  9. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  10. Low-Level Volatile Organic Compounds in Active Public Supply Wells as Ground-Water Tracers in the Los Angeles Physiographic Basin, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Land, Michael; Gronberg, JoAnn

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected to evaluate the use of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOC) to assess the vulnerability of public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Samples of untreated ground water from 178 active public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin show that VOCs were detected in 61 percent of the ground-water samples; most of these detections were low, with only 29 percent above 1 mg/L (microgram per liter). Thirty-nine of the 86 VOCs analyzed were detected in at least one sample, and 11 VOCs were detected in 7 percent or more of the samples. The six most frequently detected VOCs were trichloromethane (chloroform) (46 percent); trichloroethene (TCE) (28 percent); tetrachloro-ethene (PCE) (19 percent); methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 percent); 1,1-dichloroethane (11 percent); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (11 percent). These VOCs were also the most frequently detected VOCs in ground water representative of a wide range of hydrologically conditions in urban areas nationwide. Only two VOCs (TCE and PCE) exceeded state and federal primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water in a total of seven samples. Because samples were collected prior to water treatment, sample concentrations do not represent the concentrations entering the drinking-water system.Ground water containing VOCs may be considered to be a tracer of postindustrial-aged water-water that was recharged after the onset of intense urban development. The overall distribution of VOC detections is related to the hydrological and the engineered recharge facilities in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin and the Coastal Santa Ana Basin that comprise the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Most of the ground-water recharge occurs at engineered recharge facilities in the generally coarse-grained northeastern parts of the study area (forebay areas). Ground-water recharge from the land surface is minimal in the southwestern part of the basins, distal from the recharge

  11. Modeling of Morelia Fault Earthquake (Mw=5.4) source fault parameters using the coseismic ground deformation and groundwater level changes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychikhina, O.; Glowacka, E.; Mellors, R. J.; Vázquez, R.

    2009-12-01

    On 24 May 2006 at 04:20 (UTC) a moderate-size (Mw=5.4) earthquake struck the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, México, roughly 30 km to the southeast of the city of Mexicali, in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF). The earthquake occurred on the Morelia fault, one of the east-dipping normal faults in the Mexicali Valley. Locally, this earthquake was strongly felt and caused minor damage. The event created 5 km of surface rupture and down-dip displacements of up to 25-30 cm were measured at some places along this surface rupture. Associated deformation was measured by vertical crackmeter, leveling profile, and Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR). A coseismic step-like groundwater level change was detected at 7 wells. The Mw=5.4 Morelia Fault earthquake had significant scientific interest, first, because of surprisingly strong effects for an earthquake of such size; second, the variability of coseismic effects data from different ground-based and space-based techniques which allows to the better constrain of the source fault parameters. Source parameters for the earthquake were estimated using forward modeling of both surface deformation data and static volume strain change (inferred from coseismic changes in groundwater level). All ground deformation data was corrected by anthropogenic component caused by the geothermal fluid exploitation in the CPGF. Modeling was based on finite rectangular fault embedded in an elastic media. The preferred fault model has a strike, rake, and dip of (48°, -89°, 45°) and has a length of 5.2 km, width of 6.7 km, and 34 cm of uniform slip. The geodetic moment, based on the modeled fault parameters, is 1.18E+17 Nm. The model matches the observed surface deformation, expected groundwater level changes, and teleseismic moment reasonably well and explains in part why the earthquake was so strongly felt in the area.

  12. Comparison between reflectivity statistics at heights of 3 and 6 km and rain rate statistics at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the relations between the empirical distribution functions of reflectivity at specified locations above the surface and the corresponding functions at the surface. A bistatic radar system was used to measure continuously the scattering cross section per unit volume at heights of 3 and 6 km. A frequency of 3.7 GHz was used in the tests. It was found that the distribution functions for reflectivity may significantly change with height at heights below the level of the melting layer.

  13. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available molecules for which spectroscopic data for the vibrational modes are available in literature. A density matrix approach was followed. The time evolution of the density matrix is given by the Von Neumann equation [1] , , 1 ( )a l b lN i t i tab lb al... of the individual vibrational levels, and Iab the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian [2] which include the detailed time dependence of the shaped femtosecond pulse. 2. Simulation results A transform limited 150 femtosecond laser pulse with a...

  14. Dead leaves and the dirty ground: low-level image statistics in transmissive and occlusive imaging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Joel; Pfau, David; Deweese, Michael Robert

    2012-12-01

    The opacity of typical objects in the world results in occlusion, an important property of natural scenes that makes inference of the full three-dimensional structure of the world challenging. The relationship between occlusion and low-level image statistics has been hotly debated in the literature, and extensive simulations have been used to determine whether occlusion is responsible for the ubiquitously observed power-law power spectra of natural images. To deepen our understanding of this problem, we have analytically computed the two- and four-point functions of a generalized "dead leaves" model of natural images with parameterized object transparency. Surprisingly, transparency alters these functions only by a multiplicative constant, so long as object diameters follow a power-law distribution. For other object size distributions, transparency more substantially affects the low-level image statistics. We propose that the universality of power-law power spectra for both natural scenes and radiological medical images, formed by the transmission of x-rays through partially transparent tissue, stems from power-law object size distributions, independent of object opacity.

  15. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  16. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  17. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  18. PROTOTIPO DE UN SISTEMA INTEGRADO DIGITAL PARA LA CLASIFICACIÓN DE COBERTURAS Y USOS DE LA TIERRA A NIVEL DE FINCA BANANERA DIGITAL INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAND COVER AND USE TO BANANA FARM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Antonio Castañeda Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un prototipo de un sistema integral para la clasificación de coberturas y usos de la tierra, aplicable a los sistemas bananeros. Este se basó en dos criterios, el de la participación comunitaria y el del sensoramiento remoto. El primero se fundamenta en la incorporación del conocimiento que tiene la comunidad de su entorno mediante talleres y cartografía social, el segundo propone el empleo de herramientas tecnológicas de bajo costo para el levantamiento de las coberturas y uso de la tierra, como la adquisición de fotografías aéreas de baja altitud usando un sistema conformado por una cometa o globo, un equipo para la adquisición de las imágenes y un equipo de control en tierra. La propuesta fue aplicada mediante un estudio de caso en una finca bananera ubicada en la región de Urabá (Colombia. El análisis de imágenes permitió la agrupación de las coberturas en clases o grupos y con el aporte de la participación comunitaria se describieron los usos para cada cobertura. Finalmente se hizo un análisis de las normas ambientales relacionadas con la distribución espacial de las coberturas, hallándose por ejemplo áreas de retiro del cultivo respecto a recursos o zonas vulnerables así como su cumplimiento o no de la normatividad.An integrated system was developed for the classification of land cover and use that is applicable to banana systems. It was based on two criteria; community participation and remote sensing. The former is based upon incorporation of the knowledge that the community has regarding its surroundings through workshops and social cartography; the latter proposes the use of low cost technological tools for establishing land covers and uses, such as acquiring low altitude aerial photographs using a system comprised of a kite or balloon, equipment for image acquisition, and ground based control equipment. The proposal was applied through a case study in a banana plantation located in the Urab

  19. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  20. Determination of trace levels of herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, specific and highly sensitive method is described for the determination of several commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by using gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry. The compounds included atrazine, and its degradation products desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine; Simazine; Cyanazine; Metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. The method was applied to surface-water samples collected from 16 different stations along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, and ground-water samples beneath a cornfield in central Nebraska. Average recovery of a surrogate herbicide, terbuthylazine, was greater than 99%. Recoveries of the compounds of interest from river water spiked at environmental levels are also presented. Full-scan mass spectra of these compounds were obtained on 1 ng or less of analyte. Data were collected in the full-scan acquisition mode. Quantitation was based on a single characteristic ion for each compound. The detection limit was 60 pg with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1.

  1. Signals at ground level of relativistic solar particles associated to the "All Saints" filament eruption on 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Shigueoka, H; Nepomuceno, A A; Fauth, A C

    2015-01-01

    Far away from any sunspot, a bright flare erupted on November 1st, 2014, with onset at 4:44 UT and a duration of around three hours, causing a C2.7-class flare. The blast was associated with the sudden disappearance of a large dark solar filament. The rest of the filament flew out into space, forming the core of a massive CME. Despite the location of the explosion over the sun's southeastern region (near the eastern edge of the sun) not be geoeffective, a radiation storm, that is, solar energetic particles (SEP) started to reach the Earth around 14:00 UT, reaching the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level on Nov. 2th. In coincidence with onset of the S1 radiation storm (SEP above 5 MeV), the Tupi telescopes located at $22^090'$S; $43^020'$W, within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) detected a muon enhancement caused by relativistic protons from this solar blast. In addition an increase in the particle intensity was found also at South Pole neutron monitor. This means that there was a transverse prop...

  2. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a

  3. Impacts of climate change on ground level gas-phase pollutants and aerosols in the Iberian Peninsula for the late XXI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan José; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2012-08-01

    Climate change alone influences future air pollution levels through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. Hence, the goal of this study is to determine at what extent concentrations of air pollutants respond to changes over the Iberian Peninsula under a climate change scenario. The methodology includes the use of the regional modeling system MM5 (regional climate model version)-CHIMERE for two nested domains covering Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Two time slices driven by ECHO-G global circulation model covering from 1991 to 2010 and 2071 to 2100 under the SRES A2 scenario have been compared. Climate change influences the concentrations of both gas-phase pollutants and aerosols through changes in temperature, precipitation, mixing height, transport, humidity, and oxidant levels. The trends of variation of ozone (changes up to 5 ppb, +10% increase during summertime) and aerosols over southwestern Europe are influenced by the higher mean temperature modeled for the future climate (up to +5.4 K), since it favors the formation of secondary gas-phase products. It also enhances sulphates (+2 μg m-3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (+2.5 μg m-3 under SRES A2 scenario) and contributes to the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, remaining in the gas phase. Further, the 17% percent decrease of precipitation modeled for 2071-2100 has a strong effect in the frequency of the washout and therefore in the levels of natural aerosols: the concentrations of aerosols decrease with increasing precipitation as wet deposition provides the main aerosol sink.

  4. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  5. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Groner, Peter; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    Insight gained from examining the "pure" torsional, vibrational and vibration-torsional (vibtor) levels of the single rotor molecules: toluene (methylbenzene) and para-fluorotoluene (pFT), is applied to the double rotor para-xylene (p-dimethylbenzene) molecule . Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy are employed in order to investigate the S_{1} and ground cationic states of para-xylene. Observed transitions are assigned in the full molecular symmetry group (G_{72}) for the first time. J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance, J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  6. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Whalley, Laura E.; Claydon, Andrew; Carter, Joseph H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The S_{1} electronic state and ground state of the cation of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Here we focus on the low wavenumber region where a number of "pure" torsional, fundamental vibrational and vibration-torsional levels are expected; assignments of observed transitions are discussed, which are compared to results of published work on toluene (methylbenzene) from the Lawrance group. The similarity in the activity observed in the excitation spectrum of the two molecules is striking. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015).

  7. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  9. The ground-level enhancement of 2012 May 17: Derivation of solar proton event properties through the application of the NMBANGLE PPOLA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plainaki, Christina; Laurenza, Monica; Storini, Marisa [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133, Rome (Italy); Mavromichalaki, Helen; Gerontidou, Maria; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios, E-mail: christina.plainaki@iaps.inaf.it [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Pan/polis Zografos, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2014-04-20

    In this work, we apply an updated version of the Neutron Monitor (NM) Based Anisotropic GLE Pure Power Law (NMBANGLE PPOLA) model, in order to derive the characteristics of the ground-level enhancement (GLE) on 2012 May 17 (GLE71), the spectral properties of the related solar energetic particle (SEP) event, the spatial distributions of the high-energy solar cosmic ray fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, and the time evolution of the location of the GLE source. Our modeling, based uniquely on the use of ground-level NM data, leads to the following main results. The SEP spectrum related to GLE71 was rather soft during the whole duration of the event, manifesting some weak acceleration episodes only during the initial phase (at ∼01:55-02:00 UT) and at ∼02:30-02:35 UT and ∼02:55-03:00 UT. The spectral index of the modeled SEP spectrum supports the coronal mass ejection-shock driven particle acceleration scenario, in agreement with past results based on the analysis of satellite measurements. During the initial phase of GLE71, the solar proton source at the top of the atmosphere was located above the northern hemisphere, implying that the asymptotic directions of viewing of the northern hemisphere NMs were more favorably located for registering the event than the southern ones. The spatial distribution of the solar proton fluxes at the top of the atmosphere during the main phase manifested a large variation along longitude and latitude. At the rigidity of 1 GV, the maximum primary solar proton flux resulted on the order of ∼3 × 10{sup 4} part. m{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} GV{sup –1}.

  10. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  11. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  12. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  13. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  14. Relationship of ground-level aerosol concentration and atmospheric electric field at three observation sites in the Arctic, Antarctic and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Odzimek, Anna; Neska, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol number concentrations in the particle size range from 10 nm to 1 μm and vertical electric field strength in the surface layer was measured between September 2012 and December 2013 at three observation sites: mid-latitude station Swider, Poland, and, for the first time, in Hornsund in the Arctic, Spitsbergen, and the Antarctic Arctowski station in the South Shetland Islands. The measurements of aerosol concentrations have been performed simultaneously with measurements of the electric field with the aim to assess the local effect of aerosol on the electric field Ez near the ground at the three stations which at present form a network of atmospheric electricity observatories. Measurements have been made regardless of weather conditions at Swider and Arctowski station and mostly on fair-weather days at Hornsund station. The monthly mean particle number concentrations varied between 580 and 2100 particles cm- 3 at Arctowski, between 90 and 1270 particles cm- 3 in Hornsund, and between 6700 and 14,000 particles cm- 3 in the middle latitude station Swider. Average diurnal variations of the ground-level electric field Ez and particle number concentrations in fair-weather conditions were independent of each other for Arctowski and Hornsund stations. At Swider station the diurnal variation is usually characterized by an increase of aerosol concentration in the evening which results in the increased electric field. The assumption of neglecting the influence of varying aerosol concentration on the variation of the electric field in the polar regions, often adopted in studies, is confirmed here by the observations at Arctowski and Hornsund. The results of aerosol observations are also compared with modelled aerosol concentrations for global atmospheric electric circuit models.

  15. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  16. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  17. Vibration and Vibration-Torsion Levels of the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene and Para-Xylene Below 1000 \\wn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    We have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to investigate the first excited electronic singlet (S_{1}) state and the cationic ground state (D_{0}^{+}) of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) and para-xylene (pXyl). Spectra have been recorded via a large number of selected intermediate levels, to support assignment of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels in these molecules and to investigate possible couplings. The study of levels in this region builds upon previous work on the lower energy regions of pFT and pXyl and here we are interested in how vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels might combine and interact with vibrational ones, and so we consider the possible couplings which occur. Comparisons between the spectra of the two molecules show a close correspondence, and the influence of the second methyl rotor in para-xylene on the onset of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in the S_{1} state is a point of interest. This has bearing on future work which will need to consider the role of both more flexible side chains of substituted benzene molecules, and multiple side chains. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press). W. D. Tuttle, A. M. Gardner, K. O'Regan, W. Malewicz and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  18. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant.

  19. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  20. ISSUES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTAINING A LOW LEVEL OF EMPLOYMENT AND WORK IN ROMANIA COVERED BY THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN CAPITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the availability of a workforce that meets the growing needs of the business environment is one of the important factors for promoting competitive growth and to stimulate economic activity in the less-developed areas, to contribute to the alleviation of poverty and social exclusion. The paper examines the issues that contribute to maintaining a low level of employment and work in Romania in the period 2007-2015: the low employment rate among young people, the low density of business and employment opportunities limited, high degree of employment in agriculture and in rural areas lack opportunities, disparities related to access to and participation in the labour market of certain disadvantaged categories , the disparity between supply and demand of skills and expertise, limited capacity of Public Employment Services to provide quality services, tailored to the needs of the labour market, accessible to all.

  1. Characterization of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume over the Iberian Peninsula by lidar remote sensing and ground-level data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, M. A.; Sastre, M.; Fernández, A. J.; Martín, L.; García, R.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.; Molero, F.

    2012-03-01

    In April and May 2010 the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano disrupted air traffic across Europe. The vast economic impact of this event has stirred interest on accurate plume dispersion estimation and detailed ash characterization, in order to establish a more precise threshold for safe aircraft operation. In this work we study the physical and chemical properties of volcanogenic aerosol detected at ground level at several locations over the Iberian Peninsula, nearly 3000 km away from the Icelandic volcano. Between 4 and 14 May, the volcanogenic plume was detected at ground level, identified by an increase in sulfur dioxide, particle mass concentrations, and particulate sulfate concentration, at most EMEP stations as well as at the CIEMAT site (for the sulfate concentration in PM). At the CIEMAT site, the synergic use of Raman lidar and on-site instruments provided relevant information on the evolution and properties of the plume over the central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles provided by the lidar station show the presence of remarkable aerosol layers between 6 May and 15 May. Provenance studies using FLEXTRA backtrajectories confirmed that most of the aerosol layers originated in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The large suite of semi-continuous instruments present in the latter site allowed a better characterization of the aerosol properties. Size distribution and chemical composition were continuously monitored during the event, revealing a large increase in the aerosol fine mode, in coincidence with increases in ambient sulfate concentration, while the coarse mode remained almost unaltered. These results show that the plume carried mainly fine particles, with sizes between 0.1 and 0.7 μm in diameter, in contrast with studies of the plume that affected Central Europe in April, where particles with diameters larger than 20 μm were present in the ash layers. A possible explanation for this can be related to the

  2. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  4. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  5. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  6. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  7. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.emberson@york.ac.uk; Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Mike R. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO{sub 3}SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O{sub 3} risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O{sub 3} risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests.

  8. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of Actinides in Ground- and Seawater: An Innovative Method Allowing for the Simultaneous Analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm Isotopes below ppq Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Francesca; Golser, Robin; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schäfer, Thorsten; Steier, Peter; Geckeis, Horst

    2015-06-02

    (236)U, (237)Np, and Pu isotopes and (243)Am were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq (fg/g) with a maximum sample size of 250 g. Such high sensitivity was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) with extreme selectivity and recently improved efficiency and a significantly simplified separation chemistry. The use of nonisotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow for the determination of (237)Np and (243)Am, for which isotopic tracers either are rarely available or suffer from various isobaric mass interferences. In the present study, actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide coprecipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated by the analysis of the Reference Material IAEA 443 and was applied to groundwater samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) project at the deep underground rock laboratory of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) and to natural water samples affected solely by global fallout. While the precision of the presented analytical method is somewhat limited by the use of nonisotopic spikes, the sensitivity allows for the determination of ∼10(5) atoms in a sample. This provides, e.g., the capability to study the long-term release and retention of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems by tracing contamination from global fallout.

  9. Ground Level Observations of a Possible Downward-Beamed TGF during a Rocket-Triggered Lightning Flash at Camp Blanding, Florida in August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Rassoul, H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Grove, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground level high-energy observations of an August 2014 rocket-triggered lightning event at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, Florida show a 180 µs burst of multiple-MeV photons during the latter part of the Upward Positive Leader (UPL) phase of an altitude-triggered lightning flash, following the first, truncated return stroke. The timing and waveform profile being atypical from x-ray emissions from lightning leaders, our observations suggest the occurrence of a downward beamed terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF). Instrumentation operating during this event include a set of 16 NaI(TI)/PMT detectors plus 7 1-m2 plastic scintillation detectors spread across the 1 km2 facility, with 38 additional Na(TI)/PMT detectors located inside the 1"-thick Pb-shielded x-ray camera and an x-ray spectrometer. Comparing the location and energy data from these detectors to Monte Carlo simulations of TGFs from the REAM code developed by Dwyer [2003], our analysis investigates possible TGF production regions and determines the likelihood of the observed high-energy emissions being produced by a TGF inside the thunderstorm.

  10. AMS of actinides in ground- and seawater: a new procedure for simultaneous analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes below ppq levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    U-236, Np-237, Pu isotopes and Am-243 were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq with a maximum sample size of 0.250 l. Such high sensitivity measurement was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with an improved gas stripping and an additional high resolving magnet. The use of non-isotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow the determination of those nuclides, namely Np-237 and Am-243, for which isotopic tracers for mass spectrometry are rarely available. The actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide co-precipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated with the analysis of IAEA 443 seawater Reference Material and applied to background samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration project at the Grimsel Test Site and to sea- and freshwater samples affected solely by global fallout. The sensitivity of the presented analytical method provides the capability to study the long-term release of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems.

  11. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and outcomes after ground-level falls in geriatric trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa; Kaminski, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after a fall in geriatric patients. We sought to determine whether there were differences in ICH rates and outcomes based on type of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent after a ground-level fall (GLF). Our institutional trauma registry was used to identify patients 65 years old or older after a GLF while taking warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin over a 2-year period. Rates and types of ICH and patient outcomes were evaluated. Of 562 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 218 (38.8%) were on warfarin, 95 (16.9%) were on clopidogrel, and 249 (44.3%) were on aspirin. Overall ICH frequency was 15 per cent with no difference in ICH rate, type of ICH, need for craniotomy, mortality, or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Patients with ICH were more likely to present with abnormal Glasgow Coma Score, history of hypertension, and/or loss of consciousness.

  12. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lisa D; Büker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R

    2007-06-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO(3)SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O(3) risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O(3) risk.

  13. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  14. Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (μg/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-μm pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1μg/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling.

  15. Using a Simulation Tool to Model the Ground Level Concentrations of Green House Gases Emitted by Flaring in Petroleum Production in Kuwait Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireyah K.A Hamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and its effects on the ecosystem has been a source of concern for many environmental pollution organizations in the world. In particular climatologists who are not directly involved in petroleum industry sometimes express concerns about the environmental impacts of gas emissions from flaring at well heads. For environmental and resource conservation reasons, flaring should always be minimized as much as practicable and consistent with safety considerations. However, any level of flaring has a local environmental impact, as well as producing emissions which have the potential to contribute to the global warming. In the present research the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3 Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of two selected primary pollutants (i.e. methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all of Kuwait Oilfields. In additional, the performance of the ISCST3 model is assessed, by comparing the model prediction with the observed concentration of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons obtained from the monitoring sites. The described model evaluation is based on the comparison of 50 highest daily measured and predicted concentrations of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. The overall conclusion of this comparison is that the model predictions are in good agreement with the observed data (accuracy range of 60-95% from the monitoring stations maintained by the Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (EPA. A specific important conclusion of this study is that, there is a need for a proper emission inventory strategy for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC as means of monitoring and minimizing the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released because of flaring activities.

  16. Babassu mesocarp bran levels associated with whole or ground corn grains in the finishing of young bulls: carcass and meat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding corn and inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB in the diet of crossbred dairy young bulls finished in feedlot on their carcass and meat characteristics. Twenty-four young bulls were fed four experimental diets containing two BMB inclusion levels (0 and 41.24% and corn in two forms of processing (ground and whole grains for 98 days, and then slaughtered in a commercial packing plant. Among the quantitative carcass characteristics, there was interaction only in fat trimmings/whole hot carcass weight and cold carcass yield. The whole hot carcass and hot carcass weights showed reduced means with the use of whole corn. The other quantitative variables were not separately affected by BMB inclusion levels or by the form corn was processed. There was interaction between the factors for pistol cut weight, edible portion and weight of the cuts of the pistol cut, in which the use of whole corn and BMB promoted reduction in the mean values. The use of the whole corn grain reduced the participation of flank cut and elevated the participation of the bone fraction in the carcass. Inclusion of 41.24% of BMB did not change the qualitative meat characteristics, but the use of corn grain resulted in darker meat. The use of whole corn resulted in alteration in the weight of cuts like eye of rump and striploin, which have a high commercial value. There was interaction between factors for the percentages of moisture and minerals of the meat, whereas the crude protein content was affected by the two factors. The use of diets with whole corn or with babassu mesocarp bran may modify the carcass and meat characteristics of finishing crossbred young bulls.

  17. Grau de cobertura do solo e dinâmica da vegetação em olivais de sequeiro com a introdução de herbicidas Ground cover and dynamic of weeds after the introduction of herbicides as soil management system in a rainfed olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados do grau de cobertura do solo e da dinâmica da vegetação num olival de sequeiro, localizado em Mirandela, após a introdução de herbicidas como estratégia de manutenção do solo. As modalidades em estudo foram: mobilização tradicional; herbicida pós-emergência (glifosato; e herbicida com componentes de acção residual e pós-emergência (diurão+glifosato+terbut ilazina. O grau de cobertura e a composição da vegetação foram avaliados desde 2002 a 2007 pelo método do ponto quadrado. Ambas as soluções herbicidas combateram adequadamente a vegetação herbácea em aplicação única anual. O grau de cobertura no talhão mobilizado, antes da primeira mobilização, oscilou entre 50 a 80 % e 30 a 60 % debaixo e fora da copa, respectivamente. O tratamento com glifosato permitiu um grau de cobertura em Abril entre 60 a 90 % debaixo da copa e 40 a 50 % fora da copa. No tratamento com herbicida residual o grau de cobertura do solo foi sempre muito baixo ao longo do ano. A gestão da vegetação com glifosato permitiu a cobertura do solo durante todo o ano, com vegetação viva desde o Outono à Primavera e um mulching de vegetação morta durante o Verão. Nas restantes modalidades o solo permaneceu descoberto durante grande parte do ano. No talhão gerido com glifosato a vegetação manteve elevada dinâmica. Um ano após o início da aplicação de glifosato apareceu a dominar o coberto Ornithopus compressus. Com o tempo ganharam importância algumas espécies de Inverno de ciclo muito cur-to (como Mibora mínima e Logfia gallicae outras de elevada produção de sementes e fácil dispersão pelo vento (como Hypochaeris radicata e Conyza canadensis com origem provável em incultos e caminhos que circundam o olival ou em plantas individuais que escaparam à acção dos herbicidas.Results of the percentage of ground cover by weeds and the dynamic of the vegetation are presented after the introduction of

  18. Simulated effects of projected withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifer on ground-water levels in the Camden, New Jersey, area and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is being considered as a potential source of future water supply for the Camden, New Jersey, area. The deeper Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is currently the major major source of water supply for the area, but its use may be curtailed or reduced by 35 percent of 1983 withdrawals through its designation by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy as "Water Supply Critical Area#2." Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer currently (1989) total about 7 million gallons per day. The anticipated use of this aquifer by communities with access to it, as an alternative supply, could increase to more than 14 million gallons per day by 2020. If the communities of Clayton and Glassboro decrease their withdrawals from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system by 50 percent or cease them entirely because of their proximity to saline water, the use of Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer could increase to greater than 15 million gallons per day by 2020. Simulation of the ground-water system indicates that the projected increase in withdrawals will cause cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in the Camden metro- politan area by 2020 that extend to depths ranging from 10 feet above sea level to 60 feet below sea level. This represents a secline of about 40 to 100 feet thr 1990 conditions. Withdrawals in northeastern Burlington County will cause a large cone of depression that, by 2020, will extend to depths of about 220 feet below sea level, represent- ing a decline of about 140 feet from 1990 conditions. Simulation results indicate that water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer near the Salem Nuclear Power Plant are somewhat insensitive to withdrawals elsewhere in the aquifer. In some areas, especially in Burlington County, the cones of depression have developed in proximity to the aquifer-outcrop area and could induce infiltration from streams crossing the

  19. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  20. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  1. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  2. Ground-water level contours for the unconfined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing conditions during October 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  3. Ground-water level contours for the confined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing the partial-development conditions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  4. Ground-water level contours for the confined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing conditions during October 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  5. Ground-water level contours for the unconfined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing partial-development conditions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  6. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  7. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  8. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  11. Heliocentric Distance of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Time of Energetic Particle Release: Revisiting the Ground Level Enhancement Events of Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Using the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), onset time of soft X-ray flares, and the finite size of the pre-eruption CME structure, we derive the heliocentric distane at which the energetic particles during the ground level enhancement (GLE) events of Solar Cycle 23. We find that the GLE particles are released when the CMEs reach an average heliocentric distance of approx.3.25 solar radii (Rs). From this we infer that the shocks accelerating the particles are located at similar heights. Type II radio burst observations indicate that the CMEs are at much lower distances (average approx.1.4 Rs) when the CME-driven shock first forms. The shock seems to travel approx.1.8 Rs over a period of approox.30 min on the average before releasing the GLE particles. In deriving these results, we made three assumptions that have observational support: (i) the CME lift off occurs from an initial distance of about 1.25 Rs; (ii) the flare onset and CME onset are one and the same because these are two different manifestations of the same eruption; and (iii) the CME has positive acceleration from the onset to the first appearance in the coronagraphic field of view (2.5 to 6 Rs). Observations of coronal cavities in eclipse pictures and in coronagraphic images justify the assumption (i). The close relationship between the flare reconnection magnetic flux and the azimuthal flux of interplanetary magnetic clouds justify assumption (ii) consistent with the standard model (CSHKP) of solar eruption. Coronagraphic observations made close to the solar surface indicate a large positive acceleration of CMEs to a heliocentric distance of approx.3 Rs before they start slowing down due to the drag force. The inferred acceleration (approx.1.5 km/s/s) is consistent with reported values in the literature.

  12. Ankle Fractures and Modality of Hospital Transport at a Single Level 1 Trauma Center: Does Transport by Helicopter or Ground Ambulance Influence the Incidence of Complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah E; Ihejirika, Rivka C; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Lang, Maximilian F; Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Prablek, Marc A; Chern, Alexander Y; Thakore, Rachel V; Obremskey, William T; Joyce, David; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    In an era of concern over the rising cost of health care, cost-effectiveness of auxiliary services merits careful evaluation. We compared costs and benefits of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) with Ground Emergency Medical Service (GEMS) in patients with an isolated ankle fracture. A medical record review was conducted for patients with an isolated ankle fracture who had been transported to a level 1 trauma center by either HEMS or GEMS from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. We abstracted demographic data, fracture grade, complications, and transportation mode. Transportation costs were obtained by examining medical center financial records. A total of 303 patients was included in the analysis. Of 87 (28.71%) HEMS patients, 53 (60.92%) had sustained closed injuries and 34 (39.08%) had open injuries. Of the 216 (71.29%) GEMS patients, 156 (72.22%) had closed injuries and 60 (27.78%) had open injuries. No significant difference was seen between the groups regarding the percentage of patients with open fractures or the grade of the open fracture (p = .07). No significant difference in the rate of complications was found between the 2 groups (p = 18). The mean baseline cost to transport a patient via HEMS was $10,220 + a $108/mile surcharge, whereas the mean transport cost using GEMS was $976 per patient + $16/mile. Because the HEMS mode of emergency transport did not significantly improve patient outcomes, health systems should reconsider the use of HEMS for patients with isolated ankle fractures. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Cousin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols of the lower troposphere (0–3000 m. Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program. They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios with those of the last decade found in the literature for two high-elevation sites (Pic du Midi, 2877 m and Jungfraujoch, 3580 m leads to a trend that has slowed down compared to old trends but remains positive. This could be attribuable to the reduction of ozone precursors at European scale, that however do not compensate an ozone increase at the global scale. Averaged levels of ozone increase with elevation in good agreement with data provided by the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft, showing a highly stratified ozone field in the lower troposphere, with a transition at about 1000 m asl between a sharp gradient (30 ppb/km below but a gentler gradient (3 ppb/km above. Ozone variability also reveals a clear transition between boundary-layer and free-tropospheric regimes at the same altitude. Below, diurnal photochemistry accounts for about the third of the variability in summer, but less than 20% above – and at all levels in winter – where ozone variability is mostly due to day-to-day changes (linked to weather

  14. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-08-16

    Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative

  16. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  17. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  18. Manhole cover point locations across Guam's developed areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset with points across Guam's developed areas. The points represent manhole cover locations, ground elevation and manhole access depth.

  19. Land Cover Trends Geotagged Photography: 1999-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends field photography collection is a national-scale, ground-reference dataset which initially served as a...

  20. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperativ