WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground cover impacts

  1. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and

  2. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  3. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  4. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  5. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  6. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  7. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  8. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  9. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  10. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  11. On the impact of snow cover on daytime pollution dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Hildebrand, P.; Rogers, F. A.; Cramer, J.; Schanot, A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the impact of snow cover on daytime pollutant dispersion conditions is made by using conceptual, scaling, and observational analyses. For uniform snow cover and synoptically unperturbed sunny conditions, observations indicate a considerate suppression of the surface sensible heat flux, the turbulence, and the development of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) when compared to snow-free conditions. However, under conditions of non-uniform snow cover, as in urban areas, or associated with vegetated areas or bare ground patches, a milder effect on pollutant dispersion conditions would be expected. Observed concentrations of atmospheric particles within the ABL, and surface pollutant concentrations in urban areas, reflect the impact of snow cover on the modification of ABL characteristics.

  12. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  13. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  14. Ground cover in old-growth forests of the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; George R. Parker; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    1997-01-01

    Differences in ground cover (percent cover of litter, percent cover of vegetation and litter weight) in old-growth forests across this region are not well understood. We initiated a long-term study in a three-state region to enhance knowledge in this area. We present baseline results for ground cover and compare these data across productivity regions. Thirty 0.25-ac (0...

  15. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  16. MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GROUND COVER CLUMPINESS: SCALING FROM FIELD TO SENTINEL-2 COVER ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the development of cover data and derived products based on remotely sensed fractional cover information and field data across Australia, and these cover data sets are now used for quantifying and monitoring grazing land condition. The availability of a dense time-series of nearly 30 years of cover data to describe the spatial and temporal patterns in landscape changes over time can help with monitoring the effectiveness of grazing land management practice change. With the advent of higher spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the Copernicus Sentinel 2 series of satellites, we can look beyond reporting purely on cover amount and more closely at the operational monitoring and reporting on spatial arrangement of cover and its links with land condition. We collected high spatial resolution cover transects at 20 cm intervals over the Wambiana grazing trials in the Burdekin catchment in Queensland, Australia. Spatial variance analysis was used to determine the cover autocorrelation at various support intervals. Coincident Sentinel-2 imagery was collected and processed over all the sites providing imagery to link with the field data. We show that the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of cover are important indicators of grazing land condition for both productivity and water quality outcomes. The metrics and products derived from this research will assist land managers to prioritize investment and practice change strategies for long term sustainability and improved water quality, particularly in the Great Barrier Reef catchments.

  17. Intrusion of soil covered uranium mill tailings by whitetail prairie dogs and Richardson's ground squirrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the reclamation of uranium mill tailings is the long-term isolation of the matrial from the biosphere. Fossorial and semi-fossorial species represent a potentially disruptive influence as a result of their burrowing habits. The potential for intrusion was investigated with respect to two sciurids, the whitetail prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Populations of prairie dogs were established on a control area, lacking a tailings layer, and two experimental areas, underlain by a waste layer, in southeastern Wyoming. Weekly measurements of prairie dog mound surface activities were conducted to demonstrate penetration, or lack thereof, of the tailings layer. Additionally, the impact of burrowing upon radon flux was determined. Limited penetration of the waste layer was noted after which frequency of inhabitance of the intruding burrow system declined. No significant changes in radon flux were detected. In another experiment, it was found that Richardson's ground squirrels burrowed to less extreme depths when confronted by mill tailings. Additional work at an inactive tailings pile in western Colorado revealed repeated intrusion through a shallow cover, and subsequent transport of radioactive material to the ground surface by prairie dogs. Radon flux from burrow entrances was significantly greater than that from undisturbed ground. Data suggested that textural and pH properties of tailings material may act to discourage repeated intrusion at some sites. 58 references

  18. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  19. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  20. Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete cast in place four span deck of a concrete bridge near Roanoke, Texas, was recently completed. Due to possible construction errors, it was suspected that the concrete covers in the deck did not conform to drawings and specifications. A full scale non-destructive evaluation of the concrete covers was carried out using ground penetrating radar (GPR equipment. Cover values were determined from the radargram generated from the scan. The estimated covers were plotted on contour maps. Migration data can substitute the drilling based ground truth data without compromising the concrete cover estimations, except for areas with very high cover values. Areas with high water content may result in inaccurate concrete dielectric constants. Based on the results, significant retrofitting of the bridge deck, such as additional overlay, was recommended.

  1. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  2. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu Babu, P.; Eapen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of construction of dams or holding areas for uranium mill tailings is relatively new in India and to date there is only one such facility being maintained by Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) at Jaduguda in Jharkhand. Due to the residual nature of radionuclides, chiefly uranium and its daughter products, special emphasis is given to the engineering aspects of the mill tailings ponds so as to ensure safety to general public for at least 200 years. Once a mill tailings pond reaches to its full capacity, creation of barrier layers over the mill tailings to prevent seepage of rain water and also erosion of mill tailings due to wind and water are advocated and a number of procedures are followed worldwide. Taking the extraordinary period of public safety to be assured, providing soil covers along with contouring and appropriate slopes over which vegetation is grown is gaining popularity. The vegetation not only reduces the impact of rain water hitting the soil cover, thereby reducing the soil erosion, but also lowers the moisture in the soil cover by extensive evapotranspiration, ensuring long term hydrological separation of the mill tailings underneath. Based on set criteria, applicable to the field scenario of mill tailings, a screening experiment was conducted under pot culture conditions to evaluate the survival and growth of different plant species. The plants after germination and hardening were transplanted into beakers containing mill tailings and periodical measurements on appropriate morphological characteristics such as plant height, length of twiners, number of tillers and number of leaves were recorded and evaluated. Of the twenty species tested in mill tailings, significant differences were noticed in the vigour of growth and several plant species could indeed establish well completing their life cycle including flowering and seed setting. Further, several leguminous species could also produce root nodules. It appears that the

  3. Evaluating remotely sensed plant count accuracy with differing unmanned aircraft system altitudes, physical canopy separations, and ground covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Josue Nahun; Robbins, James; Saraswat, Dharmendra; She, Ying; Ehsani, Reza

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flight altitude and canopy separation of container-grown Fire Chief™ arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) on counting accuracy. Images were taken at 6, 12, and 22 m above the ground using unmanned aircraft systems. Plants were spaced to achieve three canopy separation treatments: 5 cm between canopy edges, canopy edges touching, and 5 cm of canopy edge overlap. Plants were placed on two different ground covers: black fabric and gravel. A counting algorithm was trained using Feature Analyst®. Total counting error, false positives, and unidentified plants were reported for images analyzed. In general, total counting error was smaller when plants were fully separated. The effect of ground cover on counting accuracy varied with the counting algorithm. Total counting error for plants placed on gravel (-8) was larger than for those on a black fabric (-2), however, false positive counts were similar for black fabric (6) and gravel (6). Nevertheless, output images of plants placed on gravel did not show a negative effect due to the ground cover but was impacted by differences in image spatial resolution.

  4. Mapping ground cover using hyperspectral remote sensing after the 2003 Simi and Old wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire effects on the ground surface are indicative of the potential for post-fire watershed erosion response. Areas with remaining organic ground cover will likely experience less erosion than areas of complete ground cover combustion or exposed mineral soil. The Simi and Old fires burned ~67,000 ha in southern California in 2003. Burn severity indices calculated...

  5. Assessment of human impacts on landuse and vegetation cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an assessment of the impact of man's activities on the landuse and vegetation cover of Mubi region. Landsat MSS Landuse/vegetation image of 1978 and Spot XS landuse/vegetation image of 1995 were used to study the landuse/vegetation cover changes of the region between 1978 and 1995 – a period of 17 ...

  6. Assessment of human impacts on landuse and vegetation cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human impacts on landuse and vegetation cover changes in Mubi region, Adamawa state, Nigeria; remote sensing and GIS approach. ... Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ...

  7. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  8. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  9. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Climate over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Frauenfeld, O. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover changes can influence regional climate through modifying the surface energy balance and water fluxes, and can also affect climate at large scales via changes in atmospheric general circulation. With rapid population growth and economic development, China has experienced significant land cover changes, such as deforestation, grassland degradation, and farmland expansion. In this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is used to investigate the climate impacts of anthropogenic land cover changes over China. To isolate the climatic effects of land cover change, we focus on the CAM and CLM models, with prescribed climatological sea surface temperature and sea ice cover. Two experiments were performed, one with current vegetation and the other with potential vegetation. Current vegetation conditions were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations, and potential vegetation over China was obtained from Ramankutty and Foley's global potential vegetation dataset. Impacts of land cover changes on surface air temperature and precipitation are assessed based on the difference of the two experiments. Results suggest that land cover changes have a cold-season cooling effect in a large region of China, but a warming effect in summer. These temperature changes can be reconciled with albedo forcing and evapotranspiration. Moreover, impacts on atmospheric circulation and the Asian Monsoon is also discussed.

  10. Assessment of the impact of underground mining on ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi

    1999-01-01

    The mine able oil shale bed is located in horizontally lying Ordovician limestones at a depth of 10-60 meters from the ground surface. Limestones are covered with Quaternary sediments, mainly till and loam, sporadically seams of clay occur. The overburden rocks of oil shale bed are jointed limestones with weak contacts between layers. The upper part of limestones is weakened additionally due to weathering to depths of 10-20 metres. Ground movements caused by mining reach the ground surface easily due to the shallow location of workings. The size and nature of these movements depend on mining and roof control methods used. In this study the impact of geotechnical processes on the ground surface caused by four different mining methods is analysed. A new, artificial micro relief is formed on undermined areas, where the ground surface depressions are alternating with rising grounds. When the Quaternary cover contains loamy sediments, the surface (rain) water will accumulate in the depressions. The response of usable lands on undermined areas depends on the degree of changes in the relief and water regime. There exists a maximum degree (limit) of changes of ground movements in case of which the changes in land use are not yet considerable. The factor of land deterioration was developed for arable and forest lands taking into account the character and degree of negative impacts. When no one deterioration factor exceeds the limit, the value of arable land will be 1.0 (100%). When some factor exceeds the limit, then water logging in subsidence troughs will diminish the value to 0.7, slopes to 0.8 and the area of weathered basic rocks to 0.9. In case of a combined effect of all these factors the value of arable land will fall to 0.5. As the long-term character of ground movement after room and pillar mining is not yet established, the factor for quasi stable areas is taken preliminarily as 0.9. Using detailed plans of mined out areas and the proposed factors, it is possible

  11. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  12. Accuracy assessment of the vegetation continuous field tree cover product using 3954 ground plots in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. White; J. D. Shaw; R. D. Ramsey

    2005-01-01

    An accuracy assessment of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation continuous field (VCF) tree cover product using two independent ground-based tree cover databases was conducted. Ground data included 1176 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots for Arizona and 2778 Southwest Regional GAP (SWReGAP) plots for Utah and western Colorado....

  13. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  14. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Lambot, Sé bastien; Dimitrov, Marin; Weihermü ller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn

  15. Topsoil and fertilizer effects on ground cover growth on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Canopy cover and above ground biomass of herbaceous species was measured in four studies for five years (1989-1993) in southeastern Ohio; on Central Ohio Coal Company's Muskingum Mine, 5 km South of Cumberland. Three studies compared graded cast overburden, standard graded topsoil (30 cm depth), and ripped topsoil. The fourth study lacked the ripped topsoil treatment. In 1987 two studies were seeded with both a standard and a modified mixture of grass and legume species, and two studies used the modified mix only. A nitrogen rate study used 45, 90 or 135 kg/ha of N applied on two occasions, and a phosphorus fertilizer study used rock phosphate amendment at 0, 1120, or 2240 kg/ha and triple superphosphate amendment at 0, 280, or 560 kg/ha. Based on one clipping per year, overall average biomass (Mg/ha dry weight) was slightly greater on standard topsoil (3.34), and ripped topsoil (3.30) than on cast overburden (3.09). Biomass did not differ significantly (p=0.05) on standard topsoil versus cast overburden for 15 of 19 comparisons. Legume biomass (Mg/ha, measured for 3 or 4 years) averaged 0.84 on standard topsoil, 0.75 on ripped topsoil, and 1.16 on cast overburden. In three studies, legume biomass was 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 1993. Nitrogen fertilizer increased ground cover only in the year when fertilizer was applied. Phosphorus fertilizer treatments had no significant effects. Ground cover showed no signs of deterioration during the last measurements in 1993. Observations in 1995 indicated dense canopy cover on all soil surfaces with substantial invasion by goldenrods (Solidago spp.) only on topsoils. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Weiya; Wang Tiantian; Yang Shuhua; Zhao Ying; Ge Hong; Chen Lin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60 Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  17. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  18. Distributed Modelling of Stormflow Generation: Assessing the Effect of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, B.; Sidle, R. C.; Roth, C. H.; Bartley, R.; Wilkinson, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of grazing management and land cover changes on surface hydrology is important for water resources and land management. A distributed hydrological modelling platform, wflow, (that was developed as part of Deltares's OpenStreams project) is used to assess the effect of land management practices on runoff generation processes. The model was applied to Weany Creek, a small catchment (13.6 km2) of the Burdekin Basin, North Australia, which is being studied to understand sources of sediment and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef. Satellite and drone-based ground cover data, high resolution topography from LiDAR, soil properties, and distributed rainfall data were used to parameterise the model. Wflow was used to predict total runoff, peak runoff, time of rise, and lag time for several events of varying magnitudes and antecedent moisture conditions. A nested approach was employed to calibrate the model by using recorded flow hydrographs at three scales: (1) a hillslope sub-catchment: (2) a gullied sub-catchment; and the 13.6 km2 catchment outlet. Model performance was evaluated by comparing observed and predicted stormflow hydrograph attributes using the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency metric. By using a nested approach, spatiotemporal patterns of overland flow occurrence across the catchment can also be evaluated. The results show that a process-based distributed model can be calibrated to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of runoff generation processes, to help identify dominant processes which may be addressed by land management to improve rainfall retention. The model will be used to assess the effects of ground cover changes due to management practices in grazed lands on storm runoff.

  19. Simulated impacts of land cover change on summer climate in the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Xue Yongkang

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a key region of land-atmosphere interactions with severe eco-environment degradation. This study uses an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP GCM/SSiB, to present the major TP summer climate features for six selected ENSO years and preliminarily assess the possible impact of land cover change on the summer circulation over the TP. Compared to Reanalysis II data, the GCM using satellite derived vegetation properties generally reproduces the main 6-year-mean TP summer circulation features despite some discrepancies in intensity and geographic locations of some climate features. Two existing vegetation maps with very different land cover conditions over the TP, one with bare ground and one with vegetation cover, derived from satellite derived data, are tested and produce clearer climate signals due to land cover change. It shows that land cover change from vegetated land to bare ground decreases the radiation absorbed by the surface and results in weaker surface thermal effects, which lead to lower atmospheric temperature, as well as weaker vertical ascending motion, low-layer cyclonic, upper level anticyclonic, and summer monsoon circulation. These changes in circulation cause a decrease in the precipitation in the southeastern TP.

  20. Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S.

    2010-11-01

    It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in Rd that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the “void” nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their “dual” solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper

  1. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  3. Feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction in table grape vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Cob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the feasibility of using pyranometers for continuous estimation of ground cover fraction (GCF at remote, unattended sites. Photographical techniques were used for measuring GCF (GCFref at a table grape vineyard grown under a net. Daily pyranometer-driven GCF estimates (GCFpyr were obtained from solar radiation measurements above and below the canopy. For GCFpyr computation, solar radiation was averaged for two hours around solar noon (midday periods and for daylight periods (8:00 to 18:00 Universal Time Coordinated. GCFpyr and GCFref (daylight periods showed a good agreement: mean estimation error, 0.000; root mean square error, 0.113; index of agreement, 0.967. The high GCF attained, the large measurement range for GCF and the presence of the net above the table grape were the likely reasons for the good performance of GCFpyr in this crop despite the short number of pyranometers used. Further research is required to develop more appropriate calibration equations of GCFpyr and for a more detailed evaluation of using a short number of pyranometers to estimate GCF.

  4. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  5. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  6. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  7. Ground mounted photovoltaic installations. Guide for an impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Legally, an impact study must be performed for ground mounted photovoltaic installations with a power greater than 250 kW. This guide is aimed at helping the actors of the photovoltaic sector to perform impact studies. After the description of the characteristics of a photovoltaic installation (principles, technical characteristics of a ground mounted installation, impact of photovoltaic systems on climate) and a presentation of the legal framework (European commitments, Grenelle de l'Environnement, applicable procedures), this report present the objectives and approach of an impact study, describes how the environment is taken into account from the early stages of a project, how the impact study is to be prepared. The last part describes the different components of the impact study: legal content, project description, analysis of the site initial status and environment, analysis of the project effects, rationale for the choice of the project

  8. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  9. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  10. assessment of human impacts on landuse and vegetation cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA; REMOTE SENSING AND GIS. APPROACH ... image of 1995 were used to study the landuse/vegetation cover changes of the region between 1978 and 1995 – a ... deteriorating environmental quality, loss of important wetlands, ... GIS to the land use of the River Glen catchments in England by ...

  11. Water availability forecasting for Naryn River using ground-based and satellite snow cover data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Kalashnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of river nourishment in arid regions of Central Asia is the melting of seasonal snow accu‑ mulated in mountains during the cold period. In this study, we analyzed data on seasonal snow cover by ground‑based observations from Kyrgyzhydromet network, as well as from MODIS satellite imagery for the period of 2000–2015. This information was used to compile the forecast methods of water availability of snow‑ice and ice‑snow fed rivers for the vegetation period. The Naryn river basin was chosen as a study area which is the main tributary of Syrdarya River and belongs to the Aral Sea basin. The representative mete‑ orological stations with ground‑based observations of snow cover were identified and regression analysis between mean discharge for the vegetation period and number of snow covered days, maximum snow depth based on in‑situ data as well as snow cover area based on MODIS images was conducted. Based on this infor‑ mation, equations are derived for seasonal water availability forecasting using multiple linear regression anal‑ ysis. Proposed equations have high correlation coefficients (R = 0.89÷0.92 and  and fore‑ casting accuracy. The methodology was implemented in Kyrgyzhydromet and is used for forecasting of water availability in Naryn basin and water inflow into Toktogul Reservoir.

  12. Impact of land cover changes on the South African climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwana, T I; Demory, M-E; Vidale, P L; Plant, R S; Mbedzi, M P

    2010-01-01

    The Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator (JULES) was run offline to investigate the sensitivity of land surface type changes over South Africa. Sensitivity tests were made in idealised experiments where the actual land surface cover is replaced by a single homogeneous surface type. The vegetation surface types on which some of the experiments were made are static. Experimental tests were evaluated against the control. The model results show among others that the change of the surface cover results in changes of other variables such as soil moisture, albedo, net radiation and etc. These changes are also visible in the spin up process. The model shows different surfaces spinning up at different cycles. Because JULES is the land surface model of Unified Model, the results could be more physically meaningful if it is coupled to the Unified Model.

  13. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m 2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  14. Evaluating rapid ground sampling and scaling estimated plant cover using UAV imagery up to Landsat for mapping arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Paradis, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The small stature and spectral diversity of arctic plant taxa presents challenges in mapping arctic vegetation. Mapping vegetation at the appropriate scale is needed to visualize effects of disturbance, directional vegetation change or mapping of specific plant groups for other applications (eg. habitat mapping). Fine spatial grain of remotely sensed data (ca. 10 cm pixels) is often necessary to resolve patches of many arctic plant groups, such as bryophytes and lichens. These groups are also spectrally different from mineral, litter and vascular plants. We sought to explore method to generate high-resolution spatial and spectral data to explore better mapping methods for arctic vegetation. We sampled ground vegetation at seven sites north or west of tree-line in Alaska, four north of Fairbanks and three northwest of Bethel, respectively. At each site, we estimated cover of plant functional types in 1m2 quadrats spaced approximately every 10 m along a 100 m long transect. Each quadrat was also scanned using a field spectroradiometer (PSR+ Spectral Evolution, 400-2500 nm range) and photographed from multiple perspectives. We then flew our small UAV with a RGB camera over the transect and at least 50 m on either side collecting on imagery of the plot, which were used to generate a image mosaic and digital surface model of the plot. We compare plant functional group cover ocular estimated in situ to post-hoc estimation, either automated or using a human observer, using the quadrat photos. We also compare interpolated lichen cover from UAV scenes to estimated lichen cover using a statistical models using Landsat data, with focus on lichens. Light and yellow lichens are discernable in the UAV imagery but certain lichens, especially dark colored lichens or those with spectral signatures similar to graminoid litter, present challenges. Future efforts will focus on integrating UAV-upscaled ground cover estimates to hyperspectral sensors (eg. AVIRIS ng) for better combined

  15. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  16. UV hazard on Italian Apennines under different shading and ground cover conditions during peak tourist seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Daniele; Carreras, Giulia; Sabatini, Francesco; Zipoli, Gaetano

    2006-12-01

    In solar UV irradiance monitoring and forecasting services UV information is generally expressed in terms of its effect on erythema and referred to horizontal surface. In this work we define the UV radiative regime, in terms of biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBE) for skin and eye, under full sun and shaded conditions, over a mountainous tourist area of central Italy by means of two all-day measurements (summer and early spring) with different ground albedo (grass and snow cover respectively). UV irradiance was monitored on tilted surfaces (the most frequent for people standing and walking). Results show the significant contribution of ground albedo and sun position in determining the incident UVBE irradiance. On early spring days the UVBE irradiance measured on horizontal surface was much lower than on tilted ones; the opposite condition was observed in summer. The highest UVBE irradiance values, in particular conditions of sun elevation and ground cover, were reached in periods different from the summer both in full sun and shaded condition.

  17. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  19. Uncertainty in Land Cover observations and its impact on near surface climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Land Cover (LC) and its bio-geo-physical feedbacks are important for the understanding of climate and its vulnerability to changes on the surface of the Earth. Recently ESA has published a new LC map derived by combining remotely sensed surface reflectance and ground-truth observations. For each grid-box at 300m resolution, an estimate of confidence is provided. This LC data set can be used in climate modelling to derive land surface boundary parameters for the respective Land Surface Model (LSM). However, the ESA LC classes are not directly suitable for LSMs, therefore they need to be converted into the model specific surface presentations. Due to different design and processes implemented in various climate models they might differ in the treatment of artificial, water bodies, ice, bare or vegetated surfaces. Nevertheless, usually vegetation distribution in models is presented by means of plant functional types (PFT), which is a classification system used to simplify vegetation representation and group different vegetation types according to their biophysical characteristics. The method of LC conversion into PFT is also called "cross-walking" (CW) procedure. The CW procedure is another source of uncertainty, since it depends on model design and processes implemented and resolved by LSMs. These two sources of uncertainty, (i) due to surface reflectance conversion into LC classes, (ii) due to CW procedure, have been studied by Hartley et al (2016) to investigate their impact on LSM state variables (albedo, evapotranspiration (ET) and primary productivity) by using three standalone LSMs. The present study is a follow up to that work and aims at quantifying the impact of these two uncertainties on climate simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) using prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice. The main focus is on the terrestrial water cycle, but the impacts on surface albedo, wind patterns, 2m temperatures

  20. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  1. Correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability in Alexandria City (Egypt) using time series SAR interferometry and optical Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, T.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Kourkouli, P.; Perrou, T.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2017-10-01

    The main scope of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability over Alexandria city, Egypt. Two different datasets for generating ground deformation and land cover maps were used. Hence, two different approaches were followed, a PSI approach for surface displacement mapping and a supervised classification algorithm for land cover/use mapping. The interferometric results show a gradual qualitative and quantitative differentiation of ground deformation from East to West of Alexandria government. We selected three regions of interest, in order to compare the obtained interferometric results with the different land cover types. The ground deformation may be resulted due to different geomorphic and geologic factors encompassing the proximity to the active deltaic plain of the Nile River, the expansion of the urban network within arid regions of recent deposits, the urban density increase, and finally the combination of the above mentioned parameters.

  2. Covering Ground: Movement Patterns and Random Walk Behavior in Aquilonastra anomala Sea Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-10-01

    The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.

  3. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Hydrological impacts of global land cover change and human water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Bosmans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts on global terrestrial hydrology have been accelerating during the 20th century. These human impacts include the effects of reservoir building and human water use, as well as land cover change. To date, many global studies have focussed on human water use, but only a few focus on or include the impact of land cover change. Here we use PCR-GLOBWB, a combined global hydrological and water resources model, to assess the impacts of land cover change as well as human water use globally in different climatic zones. Our results show that land cover change has a strong effect on the global hydrological cycle, on the same order of magnitude as the effect of human water use (applying irrigation, abstracting water, for industrial use for example, including reservoirs, etc.. When globally averaged, changing the land cover from that of 1850 to that of 2000 increases discharge through reduced evapotranspiration. The effect of land cover change shows large spatial variability in magnitude and sign of change depending on, for example, the specific land cover change and climate zone. Overall, land cover effects on evapotranspiration are largest for the transition of tall natural vegetation to crops in energy-limited equatorial and warm temperate regions. In contrast, the inclusion of irrigation, water abstraction and reservoirs reduces global discharge through enhanced evaporation over irrigated areas and reservoirs as well as through water consumption. Hence, in some areas land cover change and water distribution both reduce discharge, while in other areas the effects may partly cancel out. The relative importance of both types of impacts varies spatially across climatic zones. From this study we conclude that land cover change needs to be considered when studying anthropogenic impacts on water resources.

  5. The impact of Future Land Use and Land Cover Changes on Atmospheric Chemistry-Climate Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Bouwman, L.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate potential future consequences of land cover and land use changes beyond those for physical climate and the carbon cycle, we present an analysis of large-scale impacts of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry using the chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy

  6. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad; Liaqat, Umar Waqas; Qamar, Muhammad Uzair; Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time

  7. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hydrological impacts of global land cover change and human water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2017-01-01

    Human impacts on global terrestrial hydrology have been accelerating during the 20th century. These human impacts include the effects of reservoir building and human water use, as well as land cover change. To date, many global studies have focussed on human water use, but only a few focus on or

  9. Impacts of Rainfall and Forest Cover Change on Runoff in Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impacts of climate change on water resources have received much attention globally especially in the last 30 years. Rainfall, the main driver of the hydrological cycle, has been varying in parts of the world in various ways. The picture is more complicated if impacts of land cover changes on water resources are also ...

  10. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  11. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the

  12. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  13. Analysis of spatio-temporal land cover changes for hydrological impact assessment within the Nyando River Basin of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olang, Luke Omondi; Kundu, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Fürst, Josef

    2011-08-01

    The spatio-temporal changes in the land cover states of the Nyando Basin were investigated for auxiliary hydrological impact assessment. The predominant land cover types whose conversions could influence the hydrological response of the region were selected. Six Landsat images for 1973, 1986, and 2000 were processed to discern the changes based on a methodology that employs a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised classification schemes. The accuracy of the classifications were assessed using reference datasets processed in a GIS with the help of ground-based information obtained through participatory mapping techniques. To assess the possible hydrological effect of the detected changes during storm events, a physically based lumped approach for infiltration loss estimation was employed within five selected sub-basins. The results obtained indicated that forests in the basin declined by 20% while agricultural fields expanded by 16% during the entire period of study. Apparent from the land cover conversion matrices was that the majority of the forest decline was a consequence of agricultural expansion. The model results revealed decreased infiltration amounts by between 6% and 15%. The headwater regions with the vast deforestation were noted to be more vulnerable to the land cover change effects. Despite the haphazard land use patterns and uncertainties related to poor data quality for environmental monitoring and assessment, the study exposed the vast degradation and hence the need for sustainable land use planning for enhanced catchment management purposes.

  14. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  15. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  16. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  17. Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao; Sun, Genhou; Du, Yizhen; Song, Haiqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the impact of two snow cover schemes (NY07 and SL12) in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) on the snow distribution and surface energy budget over the Tibetan Plateau. The simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow cover days were evaluated against in situ snow depth observations and a satellite-based snow cover product and snow depth dataset. The results show that the SL12 scheme, which considers snow accumulation and snowmelt processes separately, has a higher overall accuracy (81.8%) than the NY07 (75.8%). The newer scheme performs better in the prediction of overall accuracy compared with the NY07; however, SL12 yields a 15.1% underestimation rate while NY07 overestimated the SCF with a 15.2% overestimation rate. Both two schemes capture the distribution of the maximum snow depth well but show large positive biases in the average value through all periods (3.37, 3.15, and 1.48 cm for NY07; 3.91, 3.52, and 1.17 cm for SL12) and overestimate snow cover days compared with the satellite-based product and in situ observations. Higher altitudes show larger root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the simulations of snow depth and snow cover days during the snow-free period. Moreover, the surface energy flux estimations from the SL12 scheme are generally superior to the simulation from NY07 when evaluated against ground-based observations, in particular for net radiation and sensible heat flux. This study has great implications for further improvement of the subgrid-scale snow variations over the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Caldwell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic

  19. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  20. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  1. Nonlinear 3D calculations of turbine blade impact on turbine cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, B.; Adamik, V.; Buchar, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper present the approach used at the VUJE institute for the evaluation of a ruptured blade impact on the current protection cover of a SKODA 220 MW turbine. Firstly, it briefly describes experiments (Hopkinson-Davies split bar facility, Taylor tests) and numerical simulations used to obtain realistic material parameters needed for the Cowper- Symonds material model that is implemented in the code LS-DYNA3D. Then, numerical simulations, by using the code, of the ruptured blade impact on various protection barriers are presented. These simulations make it possible to find an optimal solution for a new turbine protection cover. (author)

  2. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  3. On the Ground or in the Air? A Methodological Experiment on Crop Residue Cover Measurement in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Stevenson, James; Campbell, Jeff; Ambel, Alemayehu; Haile Tsegay, Asmelash

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia. The relative accuracy of these methods are compared against a benchmark, the line-transect method. The alternative methods compared against the benchmark include: (i) interviewee (respondent) estimation; (ii) enumerator estimation visiting the field; (iii) interviewee with visual-aid without visiting the field; (iv) enumerator with visual-aid visiting the field; (v) field picture collected with a drone and analyzed with image-processing methods and (vi) satellite picture of the field analyzed with remote sensing methods. Results of the methodological experiment show that survey-based methods tend to underestimate field residue cover. When quantitative data on cover are needed, the best estimates are provided by visual-aid protocols. For categorical analysis (i.e., >30% cover or not), visual-aid protocols and remote sensing methods perform equally well. Among survey-based methods, the strongest correlates of measurement errors are total farm size, field size, distance, and slope. Results deliver a ranking of measurement options that can inform survey practitioners and researchers.

  4. Degradation of ground ice in a changing climate: the potential impact of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grandpré, I.; Fortier, D.; Stephani, E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate changes affecting the North West portion of Canada alter the thermal state of the permafrost and promote ground ice degradation. Melting of ground ice leads to greater water flow into the ground and to significant hydraulic changes (i.e. drainage of peatland and lakes, triggering of thermokarst and new groundwater flow patterns). Road infrastructures built on permafrost are particularly sensitive to permafrost degradation. Road construction and maintenance induce heat flux into the ground by the increase of solar radiation absorption (comparing to natural ground), the increase of snow cover on side slopes, the infiltration of water in embankment material and the migration of surface water in the active layer. The permafrost under the roads is therefore submitted to a warmer environment than in natural ground and his behavior reflects how the permafrost will act in the future with the global warming trend. The permafrost degradation dynamic under a road was studied at the Beaver Creek (Yukon) experimental site located on the Alaska Highway. Permafrost was characterized as near-zero Celcius and highly susceptible to differential thaw-settlement due to the ground ice spatial distribution. Ice-rich cryostructures typical of syngenetic permafrost (e.g. microlenticular) were abundant in the upper and lower cryostratigraphic units of fine-grained soils (Units 1, 2A, and 2C). The middle ice-poor silt layer (Unit 2B) characterized by porous cryostructure comprised the top of a buried ice-wedge network extending several meters in the underlying layers and susceptible to degradation by thermo-erosion. These particular features of the permafrost at the study site facilitated the formation of taliks (unfrozen zones) under the road which leaded to a greater water flow. We believe that water flow is promoting an acceleration of permafrost degradation by advective heat transfer. This process remains poorly studied and quantified in permafrost environment. Field data on

  5. Impact of Basal Conditions on Grounding-Line Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koellner, S. J.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Muto, A.; Holschuh, N.; Nowicki, S.

    2017-12-01

    An often-made assumption included in ice-sheet models used for sea-level projections is that basal rheology is constant throughout the domain of the simulation. The justification in support of this assumption is that physical data for determining basal rheology is limited and a constant basal flow law can adequately approximate current as well as past behavior of an ice-sheet. Prior studies indicate that beneath Thwaites Glacier (TG) there is a ridge-and-valley bedrock structure which likely promotes deformation of soft tills within the troughs and sliding, more akin to creep, over the harder peaks; giving rise to a spatially variable basal flow law. Furthermore, it has been shown that the stability of an outlet glacier varies with the assumed basal rheology, so accurate projections almost certainly need to account for basal conditions. To test the impact of basal conditions on grounding-line evolution forced by ice-shelf perturbations, we modified the PSU 2-D flowline model to enable the inclusion of spatially variable basal rheology along an idealized bedrock profile akin to TG. Synthetic outlet glacier "data" were first generated under steady-state conditions assuming a constant basal flow law and a constant basal friction coefficient field on either a linear or bumpy sloping bed. In following standard procedures, a suite of models were then initialized by assuming different basal rheologies and then determining the basal friction coefficients that produce surface velocities matching those from the synthetic "data". After running each of these to steady state, the standard and full suite of models were forced by drastically reducing ice-shelf buttressing through side-shear and prescribed basal-melting perturbations. In agreement with previous findings, results suggest a more plastic basal flow law enhances stability in response to ice-shelf perturbations by flushing ice from farther upstream to sustain the grounding-zone mass balance required to prolong the

  6. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  7. Climate and Land-Cover Change Impacts on Stream Flow in the Southwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation change in arid and semi-arid climatic regions of the American West are a primary concern in sustaining key ecosystem services such as clean, reliable water sources for multiple uses. Land cover and climate change impacts on stream flow were investigated in a southeast ...

  8. Stratifying FIA Ground Plots Using A 3-Year Old MRLC Forest Cover Map and Current TM Derived Variables Selected By "Decision Tree" Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Hoppus; Stan Arner; Andrew Lister

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in variance for estimates of forest area and volume in the state of Connecticut was accomplished by stratifying FIA ground plots using raw, transformed and classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A US Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization (MRLC) vegetation cover map for Connecticut was used to produce a forest/non-...

  9. On the Impact of Local Taxes in a Set Cover Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Bruno; Gourvès, Laurent; Monnot, Jérôme

    Given a collection C of weighted subsets of a ground set E, the SET cover problem is to find a minimum weight subset of C which covers all elements of E. We study a strategic game defined upon this classical optimization problem. Every element of E is a player which chooses one set of C where it appears. Following a public tax function, every player is charged a fraction of the weight of the set that it has selected. Our motivation is to design a tax function having the following features: it can be implemented in a distributed manner, existence of an equilibrium is guaranteed and the social cost for these equilibria is minimized.

  10. Land cover change impact on urban flood modeling (case study: Upper Citarum watershed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    The upper Citarum River watershed utilizes remote sensing technology in Geographic Information System to provide information on land coverage by interpretation of objects in the image. Rivers that pass through urban areas will cause flooding problems causing disadvantages, and it disrupts community activities in the urban area. Increased development in a city is related to an increase in the number of population growth that added by increasing quality and quantity of life necessities. Improved urban lifestyle changes have an impact on land cover. The impact in over time will be difficult to control. This study aims to analyze the condition of flooding in urban areas caused by upper Citarum watershed land-use change in 2001 with the land cover change in 2010. This modeling analyzes with the help of HEC-RAS to describe flooded inundation urban areas. Land cover change in upper Citarum watershed is not very significant; it based on the results of data processing of land cover has the difference of area that changed is not enormous. Land cover changes for the floods increased dramatically to a flow coefficient for 2001 is 0.65 and in 2010 at 0.69. In 2001, the inundation area about 105,468 hectares and it were about 92,289 hectares in 2010.

  11. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jessica H.; Chang, Howard H.; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xuefei; Lyapustin, Alexei; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, approximately 70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  12. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  13. Simulation of Land-Cover Change in Taipei Metropolitan Area under Climate Change Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Thomas C C

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes environment change and shows up on land covers. Through observing the change of land use, researchers can find out the trend and potential mechanism of the land cover change. Effective adaptation policies can affect pattern of land cover change and may decrease the risks of climate change impacts. By simulating land use dynamics with scenario settings, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between climate change and land-cover change through efficient adaptation polices. It involves spatial statistical model in estimating possibility of land-cover change, cellular automata model in modeling land-cover dynamics, and scenario analysis in response to adaptation polices. The results show that, without any control, the critical eco-areas, such as estuarine areas, will be destroyed and people may move to the vulnerable and important economic development areas. In the other hand, under the limited development condition for adaptation, people migration to peri-urban and critical eco-areas may be deterred

  14. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  15. Orion Ground Test Article Water Impact Tests: Photogrammetric Evaluation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    The Ground Test Article (GTA) is an early production version of the Orion Crew Module (CM). The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. As part of the process of confirming the accuracy of LS-DYNA water landing simulations, the GTA water impact test series was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to gather data for comparison with simulations. The simulation of the GTA water impact tests requires the accurate determination of the impact conditions. To accomplish this, the GTA was outfitted with an array of photogrammetry targets. The photogrammetry system utilizes images from two cameras with a specialized tracking software to determine time histories for the 3-D coordinates of each target. The impact conditions can then be determined from the target location data.

  16. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  17. DEPENDENCE OF GRASS COVER TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE ON THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Miroshnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine forests Chigirinsky Bor grow on fresh sod-podzolic soils formed on ancient alluvial deposits. Pine forests are characterized by stringent moisture regimes and constantly suffer from lack of productive moisture in soil.  Industrial development of Cherkasy in 60th years of ХХ century leaded air pollution and emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, and dust. This contributed to significant negative influence on the surrounding forest ecosystems from enterprises of  Cherkassy industrial agglomeration. The grass cover in pine stands of Chigirinsky Bor transforms into xerophytic grasses and ruderal communities under the impact of negative biotic and abiotic factors. They are namely the anthropogenic violation of forest conditions, stands decline, recreational and industrial tree crowns understocking, xerophytic and heliophytic transformations of forest conditions. All the above mentioned caused strong ruderal and adventive transformation of grass cover. We registered the changes in nitrophilous plant spread regards the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration approaching which emits toxic with nitrogen-containing gases. Adventive and other non-forest species displace ferns and mosses, the ratio of ecomorfs is also changes due to increase of the quantity and development activation of annuals, xerophytic, ruderal, and nitrofil plants. The Asteraceae/Brassicaceae 3:1 ratio indicates significant anthropogenic violations in the region. We fixed the xerophytic, ruderal, and adventive transformation of grass cover in forest ecosystems. It is also founded the tendency of expanding the fraction of mesophilic plant species due to alterations in water regime (creation of Kremenchug reservoir and draining of floodplain Tyasmyn. When approaching the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration the grass cover degradation is clearly observed on the environmental profile. All this causes the forest ecosystem degradation and gradual loss of forest vegetation typical characteristics. We

  18. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  19. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Forecasting land cover change impacts on drinking water treatment costs in Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, S. A.; Wickham, J.

    2017-12-01

    Source protection is a critical aspect of drinking water treatment. The benefits of protecting source water quality in reducing drinking water treatment costs are clear. However, forecasting the impacts of environmental change on source water quality and its potential to influence future treatment processes is lacking. The drinking water treatment plant in Minneapolis, MN has recognized that land cover change threatens water quality in their source watershed, the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Over 1,000 km2 of forests, wetlands, and grasslands in the UMRB were lost to agriculture from 2008-2013. This trend, coupled with a projected population increase of one million people in Minnesota by 2030, concerns drinking water treatment plant operators in Minneapolis with respect to meeting future demand for clean water in the UMRB. The objective of this study is to relate land cover change (forest and wetland loss, agricultural expansion, urbanization) to changes in treatment costs for the Minneapolis, MN drinking water utility. To do this, we first developed a framework to determine the relationship between land cover change and water quality in the context of recent historical changes and projected future changes in land cover. Next we coupled a watershed model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to projections of land cover change from the FOREcasting SCEnarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model for the mid-21st century. Using historical Minneapolis drinking water treatment data (chemical usage and costs), source water quality in the UMRB was linked to changes in treatment requirements as a function of projected future land cover change. These analyses will quantify the value of natural landscapes in protecting drinking water quality and future treatment processes requirements. In addition, our study provides the Minneapolis drinking water utility with information critical to their planning and capital improvement process.

  1. Measurement of NO2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants using gas NO2 labelled 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, Nizar; Wungkar, Marietje; Gunawan, Andi; Gandanegara, Soertini; Suharsono, Heny

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the NO 2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants. 32 species of trees, 64 speceis of shrubs and 13 species of ground cover plants were exposed to 3 ppm (v / v) N- 15 O 2 in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. Experiment consisted of 2 replicates. The environment conditions in the chamber were set at 30 o C, 1000 lux, and initial relative humidity 60 %. After gas treatment, plants parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, than dried in 70 o C for 48 hours and then weighed. After weighing, those plants parts were ground to a pine powder. After kjendhal digestion, N total content of plants were analyzed by distillation method. 15 N content of plant samples were analyzed by emission spectrometer ( Yasco, N-151). The amount of N-15 absorbed by plant was the total content of 15 N in the whole plants ( leaves, stem and root ) per gram dry weight of leaves. The amount of 15 N absorbed by plants varied among investigated plants. 15 N sorption of trees are in the range 0.28 - 68.31μg/g. The sorption of shrubs and ground cover plants varied in 1.97 - 100.02 μg/g and 2.38 - 24.06μg/g, respectively. According to the amount of 15 N sorption , the plants were divided into 3 groups of sorption level, high ( > 30.0μg/g), moderate ( 15 - 30 μg/g ), and low sorption level ( 15 μg/g). Results showed that among of 32 investigated trees, 64 shrubs and 13 ground cover plant, 4 species of trees and 13 species of shrubs performed a high sorption level and no one of ground cover plants performed a high sorption level. The species of trees and 15 species of shrubs that mention above are recommended to use as an element of landscape which to be functioned to reduce NO 2 atmospheric pollutant

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  3. Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna Radiation Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. In many cases the computational cost of available commercial tools restricts the simulations to include only a small ground plane or, by use of the image principle, the infinitely...... large ground plane. The method proposed here makes use of results from such simulations to model large and moderate-sized finite ground planes. The method is applied to 3 different antenna test cases and a total of 5 different ground planes. Firstly it is validated through comparison with reference...... and measured reference solutions and the method is thus found to be a useful tool in determining the impact of finite ground planes....

  4. Experimental study on behavior of RC panels covered with steel plates subjected to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Hashimoto; Katsuki Takiguchi; Koshiro Nishimura; Kazuyuki Matsuzawa; Mayuko Tsutsui; Yasuhiro Ohashi; Isao Kojima; Haruhiko Torita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the behavior of concrete panels with steel plate subjected to missile impact. Two tests were carried out, divided in accordance with the types of projectile, non-deformable and deformable. In all, 40 specimens of 750 mm square were prepared. The panel specimen was suspended vertically by two steel wire ropes to allow free movement after projectile impact, and was subjected to a projectile. As a result, it is confirmed that a RC panel with steel plate on its back side has higher impact resistance performance than a RC panel and that thickness of concrete panel, thickness of steel plate and the impact velocity of the projectile have a great effect on the failure modes of steel concrete panels. Moreover, based on the experimental results, the quantitative evaluation method for impact resistance performance of RC panels covered with steel plates is examined. The formula for perforation velocity of a half steel concrete panel, proposed in accordance with the bulging height, is effective to evaluate the impact resistance performance of RC panels with steel plates. (authors)

  5. Assessing the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, N.; Yang, Y. E.; Choi, H. I.; Islam, A.; Charlotte, D. F.; Cai, X.; Kumar, P.

    2007-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) significantly modify the hydrological regime of the watersheds, affecting water resources and environment from regional to global scale. This study seeks to advance and integrate water and energy cycle observation, scientific understanding, and human impacts to assess future water availability. To achieve the research objective, we integrate and interpret past and current space based and in situ observations into a global hydrologic model (GHM). GHM is developed with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, physical complexity, hydrologic theory and processes to quantify the impact of LULCC on physical variables: surface runoff, subsurface flow, groundwater, infiltration, ET, soil moisture, etc. Coupled with the common land model (CLM), a 3-dimensional volume averaged soil-moisture transport (VAST) model is expanded to incorporate the lateral flow and subgrid heterogeneity. The model consists of 11 soil-hydrology layers to predict lateral as well as vertical moisture flux transport based on Richard's equations. The primary surface boundary conditions (SBCs) include surface elevation and its derivatives, land cover category, sand and clay fraction profiles, bedrock depth and fractional vegetation cover. A consistent global GIS-based dataset is constructed for the SBCs of the model from existing observational datasets comprising of various resolutions, map projections and data formats. Global ECMWF data at 6-hour time steps for the period 1971 through 2000 is processed to get the forcing data which includes incoming longwave and shortwave radiation, precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind components, boundary layer height and specific humidity. Land use land cover data, generated using IPCC scenarios for every 10 years from 2000 to 2100 is used for future assessment on water resources. Alterations due to LULCC on surface water balance components: ET, groundwater recharge and runoff are then addressed in the study. Land

  6. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  7. Impacts of land cover transitions on surface temperature in China based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Liang, Shunlin

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced intense land use and land cover changes during the past several decades, which have exerted significant influences on climate change. Previous studies exploring related climatic effects have focused mainly on one or two specific land use changes, or have considered all land use and land cover change types together without distinguishing their individual impacts, and few have examined the physical processes of the mechanism through which land use changes affect surface temperature. However, in this study, we considered satellite-derived data of multiple land cover changes and transitions in China. The objective was to obtain observational evidence of the climatic effects of land cover transitions in China by exploring how they affect surface temperature and to what degree they influence it through the modification of biophysical processes, with an emphasis on changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (ET). To achieve this goal, we quantified the changes in albedo, ET, and surface temperature in the transition areas, examined their correlations with temperature change, and calculated the contributions of different land use transitions to surface temperature change via changes in albedo and ET. Results suggested that land cover transitions from cropland to urban land increased land surface temperature (LST) during both daytime and nighttime by 0.18 and 0.01 K, respectively. Conversely, the transition of forest to cropland tended to decrease surface temperature by 0.53 K during the day and by 0.07 K at night, mainly through changes in surface albedo. Decreases in both daytime and nighttime LST were observed over regions of grassland to forest transition, corresponding to average values of 0.44 and 0.20 K, respectively, predominantly controlled by changes in ET. These results highlight the necessity to consider the individual climatic effects of different land cover transitions or conversions in climate research studies. This short

  8. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkes, Tim; Morriën, Elly; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeffrey A; McIntyre, Lauren M; Tamis, Wil L M; van der Putten, Wim H

    2008-12-18

    Many species are currently moving to higher latitudes and altitudes. However, little is known about the factors that influence the future performance of range-expanding species in their new habitats. Here we show that range-expanding plant species from a riverine area were better defended against shoot and root enemies than were related native plant species growing in the same area. We grew fifteen plant species with and without non-coevolved polyphagous locusts and cosmopolitan, polyphagous aphids. Contrary to our expectations, the locusts performed more poorly on the range-expanding plant species than on the congeneric native plant species, whereas the aphids showed no difference. The shoot herbivores reduced the biomass of the native plants more than they did that of the congeneric range expanders. Also, the range-expanding plants developed fewer pathogenic effects in their root-zone soil than did the related native species. Current predictions forecast biodiversity loss due to limitations in the ability of species to adjust to climate warming conditions in their range. Our results strongly suggest that the plants that shift ranges towards higher latitudes and altitudes may include potential invaders, as the successful range expanders may experience less control by above-ground or below-ground enemies than the natives.

  9. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  10. Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

  11. A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...

  12. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  13. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Weihermller, Lutz; McCabe, Matthew; Moghadas, Davood; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sbastien

    2015-01-01

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  14. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  15. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  16. Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajikumar, N; Remya, R S

    2015-09-15

    Change in Land Cover and Land Use (LCLU) influences the runoff characteristics of a drainage basin to a large extent, which in turn, affects the surface and groundwater availability of the area, and hence leads to further change in LCLU. This forms a vicious circle. Hence it becomes essential to assess the effect of change in LCLU on the runoff characteristics of a region in general and of small watershed levels (sub-basin levels) in particular. Such an analysis can effectively be carried out by using watershed simulation models with integrated GIS frame work. SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model, being one of the versatile watershed simulation models, is found to be suitable for this purpose as many GIS integration modules are available for this model (e.g. ArcSWAT, MWSWAT). Watershed simulation using SWAT requires the land use and land cover data, soil data and many other features. With the availability of repository of satellite imageries, both from Indian and foreign sources, it becomes possible to use the concurrent local land use and land cover data, thereby enabling more accurate modelling of small watersheds. Such availability will also enable us to assess the effect of LCLU on runoff characteristics and their reverse impact. The current study assesses the effect of land use and land cover on the runoff characteristics of two watersheds in Kerala, India. It also assesses how the change in land use and land cover in the last few decades affected the runoff characteristics of these watersheds. It is seen that the reduction in the forest area amounts to 60% and 32% in the analysed watersheds. However, the changes in the surface runoff for these watersheds are not comparable with the changes in the forest area but are within 20%. Similarly the maximum (peak) value of runoff has increased by an amount of 15% only. The lesser (aforementioned) effect than expected might be due to the fact that forest has been converted to agricultural purpose with major

  17. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impacts of land use and land cover on surface and air temperature in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating urbanization affects regional climate as the result of changing land cover and land use (LCLU). Urban land cover composition may provide valuable insight into relationships among urbanization, air, and land-surface temperature (Ta and LST, respectively). Climate may alter these relationships, where hotter climates experience larger LULC effects. To address these hypotheses we examined links between Ta, LST, LCLU, and vegetation across an urban coastal to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. Using surface temperature radiometers, continuously measuring LST on standardized asphalt, concrete, and turf grass surfaces across the climate gradient, we found a 7.2°C and 4.6°C temperature decrease from asphalt to vegetated cover in the coast and desert, respectively. There is 131% more temporal variation in asphalt than turf grass surfaces, but 37% less temporal variation in concrete than turf grass. For concrete and turf grass surfaces, temporal variation in temperature increased from coast to desert. Using ground-based thermal imagery, measuring LST for 24 h sequences over citrus orchard and industrial use locations, we found a 14.5°C temperature decrease from industrial to orchard land use types (38.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively). Additionally, industrial land use types have 209% more spatial variation than orchard (CV=0.20 and 0.09, respectively). Using a network of 300 Ta (iButton) sensors mounted in city street trees throughout the region and hyperspectral imagery data we found urban vegetation greenness, measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), was negatively correlated to Ta at night across the climate gradient. Contrasting previous findings, the closest coupling between NDVI and Ta is at the coast from 0000 h to 0800 h (highest r2 = 0.6, P urbanized regions of southern California, USA decrease Ta and LST and spatial variation in LST, while built surfaces and land uses have the opposite effect. Furthermore

  19. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  20. A state-of-the-art methodology for impact assessment of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.; Dierckx, A.; Wang, L.; Volckaert, G.; Zeevaert, Th.

    2002-01-01

    An impact assessment methodology is being developed that integrates several advanced modelling and characterisation techniques for the purpose of assessing the current and future environmental and health impact of a surface repository containing wastes from uranium milling and radium processing. The former radium processing plant at Olen, Belgium, accumulated during nearly half a century considerable amounts of radium-containing wastes. Also present at the site are uranium mill tailings. These wastes were disposed of in a heavily engineered surface repository at the occasion of a remediation plan carried out in the mid eighties. The repository contains several concrete bunkers covered with a multi-layer hydraulic barrier. In the current impact assessment study the only exposure pathway discussed is by contamination of groundwater. For this purpose we calculated variably-saturated water flow in the multi-layer barrier and the underlying waste zones and used geochemical modelling to estimate the chemical species and their solubility's in the aqueous phase of the various waste forms. The assessment further includes modelling of contaminant leaching from the tailings towards the groundwater, contaminant transport in the surrounding groundwater towards a water well, and evaluation of the doses for ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation resulting from use of groundwater from the well. Details of the waste and site characterisation as well as contaminant modelling are discussed. (author)

  1. Active condensation of the atmospheric moisture as a self-irrigation mechanism for the ground-covering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted at the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban (Utch-Dere, Sochi pretty much allow to explain the abnormally high drought resistance of Liriope graminifolia Lour. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.-Gawl., plants that naturally grow mostly in sufficient humidity. Quite low temperatures of the leaves’ surface allow to effectively condense the atmospheric moisture and to direct it along the leaf blade to the ground. The accumulation of condensation water leads to self-irrigation, a mechanism that ensures survival of plants in case of insufficient natural precipitation in the form of rain or fog. Combined with xeromorphic leaves with a thick cuticle and thick branch roots with fusiform bulb-shaped swellings, allowing to store water, makes the named plants extremely resistant to stress factors such as prolonged summer droughts accompanied by high daytime temperatures.

  2. Impacts of Early Summer Eurasian Snow Cover Change on Atmospheric Circulation in Northern Mid-Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new long-term snow cover extent (SCE) product using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data spanning from 1980's to date. This new product (JAXA/SCE) has higher spatial resolution and smaller commission error compared with traditional SCE dataset of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/SCE). Continuity of the algorithm is another strong point in JAXA/SCE. According to the new JAXA/SCE dataset, the Eurasian SCE has been significantly retreating since 1980's, especially in late spring and early summer. Here, we investigate impacts of early summer Eurasian snow cover change on atmospheric circulation in Northern mid-latitudes, especially over the East Asia, using the new JAXA/SCE dataset and a few reanalysis data. We will present analyzed results on relationships between early summer SCE anomaly over the Eurasia and changes in atmospheric circulations such as upper level zonal jets (changes in strength, positions, etc.) over the East Asia.

  3. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Water Resources in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes play an integral role in water resources by controlling the partitioning of water at the land surface. Here we evaluate impacts of changing LU/LC on water resources in response to climate variation and change and land use change related to agriculture using data from semiarid regions in the southwestern U.S. Land cover changes in response to climate can amplify or dampen climate impacts on water resources. Changes from wet Pleistocene to much drier Holocene climate resulted in expansion of perennial vegetation, amplifying climate change impacts on water resources by reducing groundwater recharge as shown in soil profiles in the southwestern U.S.. In contrast, vegetation response to climate extremes, including droughts and floods, dampen impacts of these extremes on water resources, as shown by water budget monitoring in the Mojave Desert. Agriculture often involves changes from native perennial vegetation to annual crops increasing groundwater recharge in many semiarid regions. Irrigation based on conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater increases water resource availability, as shown in the Central Valley of California and in southern Arizona. Surface water irrigation in these regions is enhanced by water transported from more humid settings through extensive pipelines. These projects have reversed long-term declining groundwater trends in some regions. While irrigation design has often focused on increased efficiency, "more crop per drop", optimal water resource management may benefit more from inefficient (e.g. flood irrigation) surface-water irrigation combined with efficient (e.g. subsurface drip) irrigation to maximize groundwater recharge, as seen in parts of the Central Valley. Flood irrigation of perennial crops, such as almonds and vineyards, during winter is being considered in the Central Valley to enhance groundwater recharge. Managed aquifer recharge can be considered a special case of conjunctive use of

  4. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  5. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  6. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth throug...

  7. Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts

  8. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  9. Biogeochemical Impact of Snow Cover and Cyclonic Intrusions on the Winter Weddell Sea Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, J.-L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J.-M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A.-M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.

  10. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  12. Impact of Appointment-Based Medication Synchronization on Proportion of Days Covered for Chronic Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Appointment-based medication synchronization (ABMS programs have been associated with increased adherence and persistence to chronic medications. Adherence to statin therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and non-insulin antidiabetic medications (NIDM are used to determine a health plan’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS Star Rating under a pay-for-performance model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an ABMS program on overall pharmacy adherence measures for statins, ACEI/ARBs, and NIDM, as presented through the Electronic Quality Improvement Platform for Plans and Pharmacies (EQuIPP© platform. This retrospective, pre-post ABMS program study evaluated EQuIPP© generated adherence performance measures, represented as proportion of days covered (PDC, 6-months before and 6- and 12-months after the ABMS service for statin therapy, ACEIs/ARBs, and NIDM. All adherence measures showed statistically significant improvement in PDC percentage post ABMS implementation, except for NIDM percentage in 6-months post-ABMS service. This study shows that a comprehensive medication synchronization program can enhance adherence measures that are important to health plans to increase CMS Star Rating under a pay-for-performance model.

  13. The impact of anthropogenic land use and land cover change on regional climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, Kirsten L; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John P; Lintner, Benjamin R; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph A; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-10-20

    Land surface processes modulate the severity of heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. However, models show contrasting effects of land surface changes on extreme temperatures. Here, we use an earth system model from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to investigate regional impacts of land use and land cover change on combined extremes of temperature and humidity, namely aridity and moist enthalpy, quantities central to human physiological experience of near-surface climate. The model's near-surface temperature response to deforestation is consistent with recent observations, and conversion of mid-latitude natural forests to cropland and pastures is accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of hot-dry summers from once-in-a-decade to every 2-3 years. In the tropics, long time-scale oceanic variability precludes determination of how much of a small, but significant, increase in moist enthalpy throughout the year stems from the model's novel representation of historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation, and regrowth of secondary vegetation and how much is forced by internal variability within the tropical oceans.

  14. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  15. Investigating the impact of land cover change on peak river flow in UK upland peat catchments, based on modelled scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jihui; Holden, Joseph; Kirkby, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Changes to land cover can influence the velocity of overland flow. In headwater peatlands, saturation means that overland flow is a dominant source of runoff, particularly during heavy rainfall events. Human modifications in headwater peatlands may include removal of vegetation (e.g. by erosion processes, fire, pollution, overgrazing) or pro-active revegetation of peat with sedges such as Eriophorum or mosses such as Sphagnum. How these modifications affect the river flow, and in particular the flood peak, in headwater peatlands is a key problem for land management. In particular, the impact of the spatial distribution of land cover change (e.g. different locations and sizes of land cover change area) on river flow is not clear. In this presentation a new fully distributed version of TOPMODEL, which represents the effects of distributed land cover change on river discharge, was employed to investigate land cover change impacts in three UK upland peat catchments (Trout Beck in the North Pennines, the Wye in mid-Wales and the East Dart in southwest England). Land cover scenarios with three typical land covers (i.e. Eriophorum, Sphagnum and bare peat) having different surface roughness in upland peatlands were designed for these catchments to investigate land cover impacts on river flow through simulation runs of the distributed model. As a result of hypothesis testing three land cover principles emerged from the work as follows: Principle (1): Well vegetated buffer strips are important for reducing flow peaks. A wider bare peat strip nearer to the river channel gives a higher flow peak and reduces the delay to peak; conversely, a wider buffer strip with higher density vegetation (e.g. Sphagnum) leads to a lower peak and postpones the peak. In both cases, a narrower buffer strip surrounding upstream and downstream channels has a greater effect than a thicker buffer strip just based around the downstream river network. Principle (2): When the area of change is equal

  16. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  17. Statistical downscaling of regional climate scenarios for the French Alps : Impacts on snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Déqué, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pagé, C.; Hasan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Owing to the complexity of mountain terrain, climate research at scales relevant for impacts studies and decisive for stakeholders is challenging. A possible way to bridge the gap between these fine scales and those of the general circulation models (GCMs) consists of combining high-resolution simulations of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to statistical downscaling methods. The present work is based on such an approach. It aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on snow cover in the French Alps for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under several IPCC hypotheses. An analogue method based on high resolution atmospheric fields from various RCMs and climate reanalyses is used to simulate local climate scenarios. These scenarios, which provide meteorological parameters relevant for snowpack evolution, subsequently feed the CROCUS snow model. In these simulations, various sources of uncertainties are thus considered (several greenhouse gases emission scenarios and RCMs). Results are obtained for different regions of the French Alps at various altitudes. For all scenarios, temperature increase is relatively uniform over the Alps. This regional warming is larger than that generally modeled at the global scale (IPCC, 2007), and particularly strong in summer. Annual precipitation amounts seem to decrease, mainly as a result of decreasing precipitation trends in summer and fall. As a result of these climatic evolutions, there is a general decrease of the mean winter snow depth and seasonal snow duration for all massifs. Winter snow depths are particularly reduced in the Northern Alps. However, the impact on seasonal snow duration is more significant in the Southern and Extreme Southern Alps, since these regions are already characterized by small winter snow depths at low elevations. Reference : IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the

  18. Impact of Prairie Cover on Hydraulic Conductivity and Storm Water Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkes, D. M. G.; Gori, A.; Juan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Houston has long struggled to find effective solutions to its historic flooding problems. Conventional strategies have revolved around constructing hard infrastructure such as levees or regional detention ponds to reduce flood impacts. However, there has been a recent shift to explore the implementation of nature-based solutions in reducing flood impacts. This is due to the price of structural mechanisms, as well as their failure to adequately protect areas from flooding during the latest flood events. One alternative could be utilizing the natural water retention abilities of native Texas prairies. This study examines the effect of Texas prairie areas in increasing soil infiltration capacities, thereby increasing floodwater storage and reducing surface runoff. For this purpose, an infiltration study of 15 sites was conducted on lands owned by the Katy Prairie Conservancy within Cypress Creek watershed. Located in Northwest Houston, it is an area which had been heavily impacted by recent flood events. Each sampling site was selected to represent a particular land cover or vegetation type, ranging from developed open space to native prairies. Field test results are then compared to literature values of soil infiltration capacity in order to determine the infiltration benefit of each vegetation type. Test results show that certain vegetation, especially prairies, significantly increase the infiltration capacity of the underlying soil. For example, the hydraulic conductivity of prairie on sandy loam soil is approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of the soil itself. Finally, a physics-based hydrologic model is utilized to evaluate the flood reduction potential of native Texas prairie. This model represents Cypress Creek watershed in gridded cell format, and allows varying hydraulic and infiltration parameters at each cell. Design storms are run to obtain flow hydrographs for selected watch points in the study area. Two scenarios are simulated and compared

  19. Predicting future land cover change and its impact on streamflow and sediment load in a trans-boundary river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment load can provide very important perspective on erosion of river basin. The changes of human-induced vegetation cover, such as deforestation or afforestation, affect sediment yield process of a catchment. We have already evaluated that climate change and land cover change changed the historical streamflow and sediment yield, and land cover change is the main factor in Red river basin. But future streamflow and sediment yield changes under potential future land cover change scenario still have not been evaluated. For this purpose, future scenario of land cover change is developed based on historical land cover changes and land change model (LCM. In addition, future leaf area index (LAI is simulated by ecological model (Biome-BGC based on future land cover scenario. Then future scenarios of land cover change and LAI are used to drive hydrological model and new sediment rating curve. The results of this research provide information that decision-makers need in order to promote water resources planning efforts. Besides that, this study also contributes a basic framework for assessing climate change impacts on streamflow and sediment yield that can be applied in the other basins around the world.

  20. Impact of Friction Reduction Technologies on Fuel Economy for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-13

    UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release IMPACT OF FRICTION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES ON FUEL ECONOMY FOR GROUND VEHICLES G. R. Fenske , R. A. Erck...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) G.R. Fenske ; R.A. Erck; O.O. Ajayi; A. Masoner’ A.S. Confort 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  1. Impact of Land Use Land Cover Change on East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukoti, N.; Xue, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    Humans modify the Earth's terrestrial surface on a continental scale by removing natural vegetation for crops/grazing. The current rates, extents and intensities of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are greater than ever in history. The earlier studies of Land-atmosphere interactions used specified land surface conditions without interannual variations. In this study using NCEP CFSv2 coupled with Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) model, biogeophysical impacts of LULCC on climate variability, anomaly, and changes are investigated by using the LULCC map from the Hurtt et al. (2006, 2011), which covered 66 years from 1950-2015 with annual variability. We combined the changes in crop and pasture fractions and consider as LULCC. A methodology had been developed to convert the Hurtt LULCC change map with 1° resolution to the GCM grid points. Since the GCM has only one dominant type, when the crop and pasture frction value at one point was larger than the critical value, that grid was assigned as degraded. Comprehensive evaluation was conducted to ensure the consistence of the trend of land degradation in the Hurtt's map and in the GCM LULCC map. In the degraded point, trees were changed to low vegetation or grasses, and low vegetation to bare soil. A set of surface parameters such as leaf area index, vegetation height, roughness length, and soil parameters, associated with vegetation are changed to show the degradation effects. We integrated the model with the potential vegetation map and the map with LULCC from 1950 to 2015, and the results indicate the LULCC causes precipitation reduction globally, with the strongest signals over monsoon regions. For instance, the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produced significant precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. Meanwhile, it has also found that the LULCC enhances the surface warming during the summer in monsoon

  2. Impact of Vegetation Cover Fraction Parameterization schemes on Land Surface Temperature Simulation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Li, C.; Lu, H.; Yang, K.; Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of vegetation cover fraction (VCF) is an important component of land surface models. This paper investigates the impacts of three VCF parameterization schemes on land surface temperature (LST) simulation by the Common Land Model (CoLM) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The first scheme is a simple land cover (LC) based method; the second one is based on remote sensing observation (hereafter named as RNVCF) , in which multi-year climatology VCFs is derived from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index); the third VCF parameterization scheme derives VCF from the LAI simulated by LSM and clump index at every model time step (hereafter named as SMVCF). Simulated land surface temperature(LST) and soil temperature by CoLM with three VCF parameterization schemes were evaluated by using satellite LST observation and in situ soil temperature observation, respectively, during the period of 2010 to 2013. The comparison against MODIS Aqua LST indicates that (1) CTL produces large biases for both four seasons in early afternoon (about 13:30, local solar time), while the mean bias in spring reach to 12.14K; (2) RNVCF and SMVCF reduce the mean bias significantly, especially in spring as such reduce is about 6.5K. Surface soil temperature observed at 5 cm depth from three soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks is also employed to assess the skill of three VCF schemes. The three networks, crossing TP from West to East, have different climate and vegetation conditions. In the Ngari network, located in the Western TP with an arid climate, there are not obvious differences among three schemes. In Naqu network, located in central TP with a semi-arid climate condition, CTL shows a severe overestimates (12.1 K), but such overestimations can be reduced by 79% by RNVCF and 87% by SMVCF. In the third humid network (Maqu in eastern TP), CoLM performs similar to Naqu. However, at both Naqu and Maqu networks

  3. Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G.; Burkhard, B.; Römer, H.; Sangkaew, S.; Graterol, R.; Haitook, T.; Sterr, H.; Sakuna-Schwartz, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused damages to coastal ecosystems and thus affected the livelihoods of the coastal communities who depend on services provided by these ecosystems. The paper presents a case study on evaluating and mapping the spatial and temporal impacts of the tsunami on land use and land cover (LULC) and related ecosystem service supply in the Phang Nga province, Thailand. The method includes local stakeholder interviews, field investigations, remote-sensing techniques, and GIS. Results provide an ecosystem services matrix with capacity scores for 18 LULC classes and 17 ecosystem functions and services as well as pre-/post-tsunami and recovery maps indicating changes in the ecosystem service supply capacities in the study area. Local stakeholder interviews revealed that mangroves, casuarina forest, mixed beach forest, coral reefs, tidal inlets, as well as wetlands (peat swamp forest) have the highest capacity to supply ecosystem services, while e.g. plantations have a lower capacity. The remote-sensing based damage and recovery analysis showed a loss of the ecosystem service supply capacities in almost all LULC classes for most of the services due to the tsunami. A fast recovery of LULC and related ecosystem service supply capacities within one year could be observed for e.g. beaches, while mangroves or casuarina forest needed several years to recover. Applying multi-temporal mapping the spatial variations of recovery could be visualised. While some patches of coastal forest were fully recovered after 3 yr, other patches were still affected and thus had a reduced capacity to supply ecosystem services. The ecosystem services maps can be used to quantify ecological values and their spatial distribution in the framework of a tsunami risk assessment. Beyond that they are considered to be a useful tool for spatial analysis in coastal risk management in Phang Nga.

  4. Land-cover impacts on streamflow: a change-detection modelling approach that incorporates parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Seibert; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    The effect of land-use or land-cover change on stream runoff dynamics is not fully understood. In many parts of the world, forest management is the major land-cover change agent. While the paired catchment approach has been the primary methodology used to quantify such effects, it is only possible for small headwater catchments where there is uniformity in...

  5. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  6. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  7. A large-area, spatially continuous assessment of land cover map error and its impact on downstream analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon; Chen, Peng; Debats, Stephanie; Evans, Tom; Ferreira, Stefanus; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Ragazzo, Gabrielle; Sheffield, Justin; Wolf, Adam; Wood, Eric; Caylor, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess (1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and (2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, and then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security. We also evaluated maps' spatial accuracy based on how precisely they could be used to locate specific landscape features. We found that cropland maps can have substantial biases and poor accuracy at all resolutions (e.g., at 1 km resolution, up to ∼45% underestimates of cropland (bias) and nearly 50% mean absolute error (MAE, describing accuracy); at 100 km, up to 15% underestimates and nearly 20% MAE). National-scale maps derived from higher-resolution imagery were most accurate, followed by multi-map fusion products. Constraining mapped values to match survey statistics may be effective at minimizing bias (provided the statistics are accurate). Errors in downstream analyses could be substantially amplified or muted, depending on the values ascribed to cropland-adjacent covers (e.g., with forest as adjacent cover, carbon map error was 200%-500% greater than in input cropland maps, but ∼40% less for sparse cover types). The average locational error was 6 km (600%). These findings provide deeper insight into the causes and potential consequences of land cover map error, and suggest several recommendations for land

  8. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  9. Assessing the impact of land use/land cover and climate changes on water stress in the derived savanna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amidu, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of land use/land cover (LULC) and climate patterns on basin runoff is necessary in assessing basin water stress. This assessment requires long-term observed rainfall time series and LULC spatial data. In order to assess...

  10. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  11. Impacts of land use/cover classification accuracy on regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianjun; Qi, Jiaguo; Lofgren, Brent M.; Moore, Nathan; Torbick, Nathan; Olson, Jennifer M.

    2007-03-01

    Land use/cover change has been recognized as a key component in global change. Various land cover data sets, including historically reconstructed, recently observed, and future projected, have been used in numerous climate modeling studies at regional to global scales. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of land cover classification accuracy on climate simulations, though accuracy assessment has become a routine procedure in land cover production community. In this study, we analyzed the behavior of simulated precipitation in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) over a range of simulated classification accuracies over a 3 month period. This study found that land cover accuracy under 80% had a strong effect on precipitation especially when the land surface had a greater control of the atmosphere. This effect became stronger as the accuracy decreased. As shown in three follow-on experiments, the effect was further influenced by model parameterizations such as convection schemes and interior nudging, which can mitigate the strength of surface boundary forcings. In reality, land cover accuracy rarely obtains the commonly recommended 85% target. Its effect on climate simulations should therefore be considered, especially when historically reconstructed and future projected land covers are employed.

  12. impacts of rainfall and forest cover change on runoff in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the relationship between rainfall and runoff in the two catchments has changed. Furthermore .... The monthly rainfall data for Namadzi catchment that was used in this .... land cover change with a big jump of forest planted after the 1990s. Fig.

  13. IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of miss-classifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support these hypotheses,...

  14. Simulating the hydrologic impacts of land cover and climate changes in a semi-arid watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Changes in climate and land cover are among the principal variables affecting watershed hydrology. This paper uses a cell-based model to examine the hydrologic...

  15. Snow cover and snowfall impact corticosterone and immunoglobulin a levels in a threatened steppe bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Hu, Xiaolong; Kessler, Aimee Elizabeth; Gong, Minghao; Wang, Yihua; Li, Huixin; Dong, Yuqiu; Yang, Yuhui; Li, Linhai

    2018-05-15

    Birds use both the corticosterone stress response and immune system to meet physiological challenges during exposure to adverse climatic conditions. To assess the stress level and immune response of the Asian Great Bustard during conditions of severe winter weather, we measured fecal corticosterone (CORT) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) before and after snowfall in a low snow cover year (2014) and a high snow cover year (2015). A total of 239 fecal samples were gathered from individuals in Tumuji Nature Reserve, located in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. We observed high CORT levels that rose further after snowfall both in high and low snow cover years. IgA levels increased significantly after snowfall in the low snow cover year, but decreased after snowfall in the high snow cover year. These results suggest that overwintering Asian Great Bustards are subjected to climatic stress during severe winter weather, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system react to this challenge. Extreme levels of stress, such as snowfall in already prolonged and high snow cover conditions may decrease immune function. Supplemental feeding should be considered under severe winter weather conditions for this endangered subspecies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of ground motion characterization on conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Toro, G.R.; McGuire, R.K.

    1996-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact, on estimates of seismic risk and its uncertainty, of alternative methods in treatment and characterization of earthquake ground motions. The objective of this study is to delineate specific procedures and characterizations that may lead to less biased and more precise seismic risk results. This report focuses on sources of conservatism and variability in risk that may be introduced through the analytical processes and ground-motion descriptions which are commonly implemented at the interface of seismic hazard and fragility assessments. In particular, implication of the common practice of using a single, composite spectral shape to characterize motions of different magnitudes is investigated. Also, the impact of parameterization of ground motion on fragility and hazard assessments is shown. Examination of these results demonstrates the following. (1) There exists significant conservatism in the review spectra (usually, spectra characteristic of western U.S. earthquakes) that have been used in conducting past seismic risk assessments and seismic margin assessments for eastern U.S. nuclear power plants. (2) There is a strong dependence of seismic fragility on earthquake magnitude when PGA is used as the ground-motion characterization. When, however, magnitude-dependent spectra are anchored to a common measure of elastic spectral acceleration averaged over the appropriate frequency range, seismic fragility shows no important nor consistent dependence on either magnitude or strong-motion duration. Use of inelastic spectral acceleration (at the proper frequency) as the ground spectrum anchor demonstrates a very similar result. This study concludes that a single, composite-magnitude spectrum can generally be used to characterize ground motion for fragility assessment without introducing significant bias or uncertainty in seismic risk estimates

  17. Impact of ground motion characterization on conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Toro, G.R.; McGuire, R.K.

    1996-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact, on estimates of seismic risk and its uncertainty, of alternative methods in treatment and characterization of earthquake ground motions. The objective of this study is to delineate specific procedures and characterizations that may lead to less biased and more precise seismic risk results. This report focuses on sources of conservatism and variability in risk that may be introduced through the analytical processes and ground-motion descriptions which are commonly implemented at the interface of seismic hazard and fragility assessments. In particular, implication of the common practice of using a single, composite spectral shape to characterize motions of different magnitudes is investigated. Also, the impact of parameterization of ground motion on fragility and hazard assessments is shown. Examination of these results demonstrates the following. (1) There exists significant conservatism in the review spectra (usually, spectra characteristic of western U.S. earthquakes) that have been used in conducting past seismic risk assessments and seismic margin assessments for eastern U.S. nuclear power plants. (2) There is a strong dependence of seismic fragility on earthquake magnitude when PGA is used as the ground-motion characterization. When, however, magnitude-dependent spectra are anchored to a common measure of elastic spectral acceleration averaged over the appropriate frequency range, seismic fragility shows no important nor consistent dependence on either magnitude or strong-motion duration. Use of inelastic spectral acceleration (at the proper frequency) as the ground spectrum anchor demonstrates a very similar result. This study concludes that a single, composite-magnitude spectrum can generally be used to characterize ground motion for fragility assessment without introducing significant bias or uncertainty in seismic risk estimates.

  18. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażewicz-Woźniak, M.; Konopiñski, M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of cover crops biomass, mixed with the soil on different dates and with the use of different tools in field conditions. The cover crop biomass had a beneficial influence on the total porosity of the 0-20 cm layer of the soil after winter. The highest porosity was achievedwith cover crops of buckwheat, phacelia and mustard, the lowest with rye. During the vegetation period the highest porosity of soil was observed in the ridges. Among the remaining non-ploughing cultivations, pre-winter use of stubble cultivator proved to have a beneficial influence on the soil porosity, providing results comparable to those achieved in conventional tillage. The differential porosity of the soil was modified not only by the catch crops and the cultivation methods applied, but also by the sample collection dates, and it did change during the vegetation period. The highest content of macropores after winter was observed for the phacelia cover crop, and the lowest in the case of cultivation without any cover crops. Pre-winter tillage with the use of a stubble cultivator increased the amount of macropores in soil in spring, and caused the biggest participation of mesopores as compared with other non-ploughing cultivation treatments of the soil. The smallest amount of mesopores was found in the ridges.

  20. Assessing the impact of climate variability on catchment water balance and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions among climate, vegetation cover and the water cycle lies at the heart of the study of watershed ecohydrology. Recently, considerable attention is being paid to the effect of climate variability on catchment water balance and also associated vegetation cover. In this paper, we investigate the general pattern of long-term water balance and vegetation cover (as reflected by fPAR among 193 study catchments in Australia through statistical analysis. We then employ the elasticity analysis approach for quantifying the effects of climate variability on hydrologic partitioning (including total, surface and subsurface runoff and on vegetation cover (including total, woody and non-woody vegetation cover. Based on the results of statistical analysis, we conclude that annual runoff (R, evapotranspiration (E and runoff coefficient (R/P increase with vegetation cover for catchments in which woody vegetation is dominant and annual precipitation is relatively high. Control of water available on annual evapotranspiration in non-woody dominated catchments is relatively stronger compared to woody dominated ones. The ratio of subsurface runoff to total runoff (Rg/R also increases with woody vegetation cover. Through the elasticity analysis of catchment runoff, it is shown that precipitation (P in current year is the most important factor affecting the change in annual total runoff (R, surface runoff (Rs and subsurface runoff (Rg. The significance of other controlling factors is in the order of annual precipitation in previous years (P−1 and P−2, which represents the net effect of soil moisture and annual mean temperature (T in current year. Change of P by +1% causes a +3.35% change of R, a +3.47% change of Rs and a +2.89% change of

  1. Impacts of land use/cover change on ecosystem services for Xiamen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Based on remote sensing images of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007, the process of ecosystem service alteration resulting from land use/cover change was quantitatively analyzed through RS and GIS techniques. Consulting relative researches, an integrated assessment model was built to evaluating regional ecosystem services of Xiamen. The results showed that the total ecosystem service value of Xiamen was increased by 14.67%, from 3271.5 million to 3751.39 RMB. The relative change rate of supplying service, regulation service, cultural service and supporting service were 97.8%, -25.1%, 165.0% and -44.7% respectively, which indicated that land use/ cover change had positive effects on supplying and cultural service, whereas it had negatively affected both regulation service and supporting service. Land use/cover types of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007 Ecosystem values of Xiamen in 1987, 1997 and 2007 10 thousand RMB

  2. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  3. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  4. Impacts of changes in vegetation cover on soil water heat coupling in an alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Genxu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpine meadow is one of the most widespread grassland types in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the transmission of coupled soil water heat is one of the most crucial processes influencing cyclic variations in the hydrology of frozen soil regions, especially under different vegetation covers. The present study assesses the impact of changes in vegetation cover on the coupling of soil water and heat in a permafrost region. Soil moisture (θv, soil temperature (Ts, soil heat content, and differences in θvTs coupling were monitored on a seasonal and daily basis under three different vegetation covers (30, 65, and 93% on both thawed and frozen soils. Regression analysis of θv vs. Ts plots under different levels of vegetation cover indicates that soil freeze-thaw processes were significantly affected by the changes in vegetation cover. The decrease in vegetation cover of an alpine meadow reduced the difference between air temperature and ground temperature (ΔTa−s, and it also resulted in a decrease in Ts at which soil froze, and an increase in the temperature at which it thawed. This was reflected in a greater response of soil temperature to changes in air temperature (Ta. For ΔTa−s outside the range of −0.1 to 1.0°C, root zone soil-water temperatures showed a significant increase with increasing ΔTa−s; however, the magnitude of this relationship was dampened with increasing vegetation cover. At the time of maximum water content in the thawing season, the soil temperature decreased with increasing vegetation. Changes in vegetation cover also led to variations in θvTs coupling. With the increase in vegetation cover, the surface heat flux decreased. Soil heat storage at 20 cm in

  5. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. → Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. → Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  6. Impact of Vegetative Cover on Runoff and Soil Erosion at Hillslope Scale in Lanjaron, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Francia-Martinez, J.R.; Martinez-Raya, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period (1997¿2000) were studied in erosion plots from three hillslopes under different vegetative covers (Rosmarinus officinalis, Triticum aestivum and natural-spontaneous vegetation) in Lanjaron (Alpujarras) on the south flank of the Sierra

  7. The impact of periglacial cover beds on runoff generation in a small spring catchment, Ore Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Katja; Hübner, Rico; Kleber, Arno

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of hillslope processes is essential to improve pollutant research and flood prediction. Relic periglacial covers are widespread on slopes of the central European low mountain ranges. Cover beds are assumed to be an important control factor for subcutaneous water flow paths. Periglacial cover beds originated by solifluction, kryoturbation and accumulation of loess during Pleistocene times. Differences in bulk density, sediment type, as well as structure and rate of coarse clasts in the layers result in vertical disparity in hydraulic conductivity (anisotropy), leading to interflow. This hypothesis has been testing in an ongoing study in a small spring catchment (6 ha) in the eastern Ore Mountains, south-eastern Germany, since November 2007. The study area is underlain by gneiss and is formed as a slope hollow. The cover beds consist of a 3-layer complex with upper layer, intermediate layer and basal layer. Soil water tension within the layers is measured with 76 recording tensiometers. Electrical resistivity tomography was used to monitor the spatial dispersal of soil moisture. Results of hydrometrical measurements and of electrical resistivity surveys will be described and new findings on slope water dynamics will be presented.

  8. Land management and land-cover change have impacts of similar magnitude on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jammet, Mathilde; Stoy, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to land cover (LCC) remain common, but continuing land scarcity promotes the widespread intensification of land management changes (LMC) to better satisfy societal demand for food, fibre, fuel and shelter1. The biophysical effects of LCC on surface climate are largely unders...

  9. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales

  10. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA) Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales.

  11. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  12. Air temperature and canopy cover of impacted and conserved mangrove ecosystems: a study of a subtropical estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra de Lima, Nadia Gilma; Galvani, Emerson; Falcao, Rita Monteiro; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia [UNIFESP

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the variation of air temperature between impacted and conserved mangrove areas by monitoring the microclimate and canopy cover of mangrove forests in the southern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were collected from September 2011 to August 2012 using meteorological towers installed below the canopy at a height of 2 m. Hemispherical photographs were processed to acquire the canopy opening and Leaf Area Index, which quantifies the area wit...

  13. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  14. Source, propagation and site effects: impact on mapping strong ground motion in Bucharest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, R.; Kuznetsov, I.; Panza, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Achievements in the framework of the NATO SfP project 972266 focused on the impact of Vrancea earthquakes on the security of Bucharest urban area are presented. The problem of Bucharest city security to Vrancea earthquakes is discussed in terms of numerical modelling of seismic motion and intermediate term earthquake prediction. A hybrid numerical scheme developed by Faeh et al. (1990; 1993) for frequencies up to 1 Hz is applied for the realistic modelling of the seismic ground motion in Bucharest. The method combines the modal summation for the 1D bedrock model and the finite differences for the 2D local structure model. All the factors controlling the ground motion at the site are considered: source, propagation and site effects, respectively. The input data includes the recent records provided by the digital accelerometer network developed within the Romanian-German CRC461 cooperation programme and CALIXTO'99, VRANCEA'99, VRANCEA2001 experiments. The numerical simulation proves to be a powerful tool in mapping the strong ground motion for realistic structures, reproducing acceptably from engineering point of view the observations. A new model of the Vrancea earthquake scaling is obtained and implications for the determination of the seismic motion parameters are analyzed. The role of the focal mechanism and attenuation properties upon the amplitude and spectral content of the ground motion are outlined. CN algorithm is applied for predicting Vrancea earthquakes. Finally, implications for the disaster management strategy are discussed. (authors)

  15. Impacts of Land Cover and Seasonal Variation on Maximum Air Temperature Estimation Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST, a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season. Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub, suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.

  16. Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Katie E.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

  17. Impact of land cover and population density on land surface temperature: case study in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Yongbin; Ying, Shen; Yu, Zhonghai; Li, Zhen; Lan, Honghao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, the standard of living has improved, but changes to the city thermal environment have become more serious. Population urbanization is a driving force of residential expansion, which predominantly influences the land surface temperature (LST). We obtained the land covers and LST maps of Wuhan from Landsat-5 images in 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2009, and discussed the distribution of land use/cover change and LST variation, and we analyzed the correlation between population distribution and LST values in residential regions. The results indicated massive variation of land cover types, which was shown as a reduction in cultivatable land and the expansion of building regions. High-LST regions concentrated on the residential and industrial areas with low vegetation coverage. In the residential region, the population density (PD) had effects on the LST values. Although the area or variation of residential regions was close, lower PD was associated with lower mean LST or LST variation. Thus, decreasing the high-LST regions concentration by reducing the PD may alleviate the urban heat island effect on the residential area. Taken together, these results can provide supports for urban planning projects and studies on city ecological environments.

  18. Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto K Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina and one generalist (Issoria lathonia. Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity, with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.

  19. Preliminary final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternative systems for conducting the ground water program. One of these systems is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies, because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS presents multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, that could be used to implement all the alternatives presented in the PEIS except the no action alternative. The no action alternative must be considered by law. It consists of taking no action to meet EPA standards. Implementing all PEIS alternatives (except no action) means applying a ground water compliance strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  20. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  1. Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form

  2. Long Term Quantification of Climate and Land Cover Change Impacts on Streamflow in an Alpine River Catchment, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the long term impacts of climate and land cover change on streamflow is of great important for sustainable water resources management in inland river basins. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was employed to simulate the streamflow in the upper reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwestern China, over the last half century. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm (SUFI-2 was selected to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.93 for calibration and validation periods, the percent bias (PBIAS of the two periods were—3.47% and 1.81%, respectively. The precipitation, average, maximum, and minimum air temperature were all showing increasing trends, with 14.87 mm/10 years, 0.30 °C/10 years, 0.27 °C/10 year, and 0.37 °C/10 years, respectively. Runoff coefficient has increased from 0.36 (averaged during 1964 to 1988 to 0.39 (averaged during 1989 to 2013. Based on the SWAT simulation, we quantified the contribution of climate and land cover change to streamflow change, indicated that the land cover change had a positive impact on river discharge by increasing 7.12% of the streamflow during 1964 to 1988, and climate change contributed 14.08% for the streamflow increasing over last 50 years. Meanwhile, the climate change impact was intensive after 2000s. The increasing of streamflow contributed to the increasing of total streamflow by 64.1% for cold season (November to following March and 35.9% for warm season (April to October. The results provide some references for dealing with climate and land cover change in an inland river basin for water resource management and planning.

  3. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  5. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo L B; Guzha, Alphonce C; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S S; Couto, Eduardo G; Hughes, Harold J; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-14

    Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream hydrochemistry in the tropics, plays a substantial role in the carbon and nutrient fluxes, especially in the Amazon biome, as its contributions to hydrochemical fluxes are mostly greater than the volumetric contribution to the total streamflow. These findings demonstrate that assessments of the impacts of deforestation in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes should also take into account rapid hydrological pathways; however, this can only be achieved through collection of high-temporal-resolution data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How does the canine paw pad attenuate ground impacts? A multi-layer cushion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaibin Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads, or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer. Finite element analyses were carried out and showed that the epidermis layer effectively attenuated the ground impact across impact velocities of 0.05–0.4 m/s, and that the von Mises stresses were uniformly distributed in this layer. The dermis layer encompassing the subcutaneous layer can be viewed as a hydrostatic system, which can store, release and dissipate impact energy. All three layers in the paw pad work as a whole to meet the biomechanical requirements of animal locomotion. These findings provide insights into the biomechanical functioning of digitigrade paw pads and could be used to facilitate bio-inspired, ground-contacting component development for robots and machines, as well as contribute to footwear design.

  7. How does the canine paw pad attenuate ground impacts? A multi-layer cushion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Huaibin; Fu, Jun; Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Ren, Lei

    2017-12-15

    Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads, or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer. Finite element analyses were carried out and showed that the epidermis layer effectively attenuated the ground impact across impact velocities of 0.05-0.4 m/s, and that the von Mises stresses were uniformly distributed in this layer. The dermis layer encompassing the subcutaneous layer can be viewed as a hydrostatic system, which can store, release and dissipate impact energy. All three layers in the paw pad work as a whole to meet the biomechanical requirements of animal locomotion. These findings provide insights into the biomechanical functioning of digitigrade paw pads and could be used to facilitate bio-inspired, ground-contacting component development for robots and machines, as well as contribute to footwear design. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Michaels

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas. We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research.

  10. Land-use and land-cover change shape the sustainability and impacts of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaw, Anteneh T; Pfaff, Alexander; Golden Kroner, Rachel E; Qin, Siyu; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Mascia, Michael B

    2018-02-27

    Protected areas (PAs) remain the dominant policy to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services but have been shown to have limited impact when development interests force them to locations with lower deforestation pressure. Far less known is that such interests also cause widespread tempering, reduction, or removal of protection [i.e., PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD)]. We inform responses to PADDD by proposing and testing a bargaining explanation for PADDD risks and deforestation impacts. We examine recent degazettements for hydropower development and rural settlements in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. Results support two hypotheses: ( i ) ineffective PAs (i.e., those where internal deforestation was similar to nearby rates) were more likely to be degazetted and ( ii ) degazettement of ineffective PAs caused limited, if any, additional deforestation. We also report on cases in which ineffective portions were upgraded. Overall our results suggest that enhancing PAs' ecological impacts enhances their legal durability.

  11. Women's strategies for coping with the impacts of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Saltanat; Gioia, Deborah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides an account of the adverse impacts of domestic violence on women in Kyrgyzstan and develops a grounded theory of coping among survivors of abuse. The results indicate that women adopt a range of strategies to prevent, avert, and minimize anticipated violence. Two key aspects of coping appeared in the narratives: 1) maintaining the status quo and 2) developing agency to resist the abuse. The results suggest that Government and nongovernmental organizations must take additional action to draw women to formal violence prevention services. Providing professional help at several levels (e.g., clinical, community, and societal) and promoting problem-focused strategies as part of therapeutic intervention are essential.

  12. Climate change impacts on freshwater wetland hydrology and vegetation cover cycling along a regional aridity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global mean temperature may increase up to 6°C by the end of this century and together with precipitation change may steepen regional aridity gradients, impacting the hydrology, productivity, diversity, and ecosystem goods and services from freshwater wetlands, where the water balance is tightly cou...

  13. The impact of urban morphology and land cover on the sensible heat flux retrieved by satellite and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawuc, L.; Łobocki, L.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in various applications for urban environments research. However, remotely-sensed radiative surface temperature is not equivalent to kinetic nor aerodynamic surface temperature (Becker and Li, 1995; Norman and Becker, 1995). Thermal satellite observations of urban areas are also prone to angular anisotropy which is directly connected with the urban structure and relative sun-satellite position (Hu et al., 2016). Sensible heat flux (Qh) is the main component of surface energy balance in urban areas. Retrieval of Qh, requires observations of, among others, a temperature gradient. The lower level of temperature measurement is commonly replaced by remotely-sensed radiative surface temperature (Chrysoulakis, 2003; Voogt and Grimmond, 2000; Xu et al., 2008). However, such replacement requires accounting for the differences between aerodynamic and radiative surface temperature (Chehbouni et al., 1996; Sun and Mahrt, 1995). Moreover, it is important to avoid micro-scale processes, which play a major role in the roughness sublayer. This is due to the fact that Monin-Obukhov similarity theory is valid only in dynamic sublayer. We will present results of the analyses of the impact of urban morphology and land cover on the seasonal changes of sensible heat flux (Qh). Qh will be retrieved by two approaches. First will be based on satellite observations of radiative surface temperature and second will be based on in-situ observations of kinetic road temperature. Both approaches will utilize wind velocity, and air temperature observed in-situ. We will utilize time series of MODIS LST observations for the period of 2005-2014 as well as simultaneous in-situ observations collected by road weather network (9 stations). Ground stations are located across the city of Warsaw, outside the city centre in low-rise urban structure. We will account for differences in urban morphology and land cover in the proximity of ground stations. We will

  14. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  15. LAND USE LAND COVER CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER RESOURCES - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pranav Sharma, Gaurang Gupta, Paritosh Prabhakar, Sheetal Tiwari, Pankaj Kathait, Yash Pathak; Nitin Mishra; Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The land use change has generally occurred locally, regionally and worldwide over the last few decades and will carry on in the future as well. The increment in urbanization has a major impact on groundwater and it is major concern over the few years to those who are involved in groundwater studies. The enlargement of the urbanization area results in decrease in infiltration, which affect the groundwater recharge and storage. The land use change has to be evaluated properly using conventional...

  16. Climate Change Impact on Various Land Cover Types Water Balance in South Western Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Péter; Béla Brolly, Gábor; Czimber, Kornél; Kalicz, Péter; Kisfaludy, Balázs; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Water balance of Zala county (South Western Hungary) was analyzed using remote-sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) 1-km spatial resolution maps for Hungary by Szilagyi and Kovacs over the 1999-2008 period [Szilagyi J., Kovacs A., 2011: A calibration-free evapotranspiration mapping technique for spatially-distributed regional-scale hydrologic modeling. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 59, 2011, 2, 118-130.]. Mean (1999-2008 period) annual evapotranspiration and runoff (as the difference of precipitation and evapotranspiration: R = P - ET) were analyzed in the context of land cover types (artificial surfaces, agricultural areas, forest and semi natural areas, wetlands, water bodies). The average ET of Zala county was 581 mm/year, it was more than 89 percent of the mean annual precipitation (650 mm/year). The highest mean annual ET values (1999-2008) determined for water bodies and wetlands. Forest and semi natural areas had higher mean annual value than agricultural areas, the lowest rate belonged to artificial surfaces. The maximum ET value was very high in case of water bodies (845 mm) as well as forest and semi natural areas (828 mm). Runoff was the largest on artificial surfaces (89 mm/year), and it was especially low for wetlands. Spatially-distributed calibration parameter of Budyko-model (alfa) was calculated by using temperature, precipitation and ET values. Another parameter, beta (which gives the relationship between pan-evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration) was calculated for those pixels, where the ET value was higher than the precipitation value, because the Budyko-type model for such type of pixels is not valid. The two parameter maps (alfa and beta) aggregate all of the factors affecting ET, dominantly the surface cover. They can be used for evaluating future ET and runoff in spatially-distributed mode. ET and runoff predictions have been done for three periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) using the parameter maps (alfa and beta) and future

  17. The impact of forest structure and spatial scale on the relationship between ground plot above ground biomass and GEDI lidar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Marselis, S.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; Kellner, J. R.; Calders, K.; Disney, M.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) will place a multi-beam waveform lidar instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide measurements of forest vertical structure globally. These measurements of structure will underpin empirical modelling of above ground biomass density (AGBD) at the scale of individual GEDI lidar footprints (25m diameter). The GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy for footprint level models relies on linking AGBD estimates from ground plots with GEDI lidar waveforms simulated from coincident discrete return airborne laser scanning data. Currently available ground plot data have variable and often large uncertainty at the spatial resolution of GEDI footprints due to poor colocation, allometric model error, sample size and plot edge effects. The relative importance of these sources of uncertainty partly depends on the quality of ground measurements and region. It is usually difficult to know the magnitude of these uncertainties a priori so a common approach to mitigate their influence on model training is to aggregate ground plot and waveform lidar data to a coarser spatial scale (0.25-1ha). Here we examine the impacts of these principal sources of uncertainty using a 3D simulation approach. Sets of realistic tree models generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data or parametric modelling matched to tree inventory data were assembled from four contrasting forest plots across tropical rainforest, deciduous temperate forest, and sclerophyll eucalypt woodland sites. These tree models were used to simulate geometrically explicit 3D scenes with variable tree density, size class and spatial distribution. GEDI lidar waveforms are simulated over ground plots within these scenes using monte carlo ray tracing, allowing the impact of varying ground plot and waveform colocation error, forest structure and edge effects on the relationship between ground plot AGBD and GEDI lidar waveforms to be directly assessed. We

  18. Ground-level O3 pollution and its impacts on food crops in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Enzhu; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) pollution has become one of the top environmental issues in China, especially in those economically vibrant and densely populated regions. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the O 3 concentration observation and O 3 effects on food crops throughout China. Data from 118 O 3 monitoring sites reported in the literature show that the variability of O 3 concentration is a function of geographic location. The impacts of O 3 on food crops (wheat and rice) were studied at five sites, equipped with Open Top Chamber or O 3 -FACE (free-air O 3 concentration enrichment) system. Based on exposure concentration and stomatal O 3 flux–response relationships obtained from the O 3 -FACE experimental results in China, we found that throughout China current and future O 3 levels induce wheat yield loss by 6.4–14.9% and 14.8–23.0% respectively. Some policies to reduce ozone pollution and impacts are suggested. - Highlights: • Ozone concentrations are increasing in most of regions of China. • Ozone has caused high yield loss of food crops in China. • More species and local varieties should be investigated for ozone sensitivity. • Developing the air quality standards for crops is required in China. • More air quality stations in the rural are needed. - Ground-level ozone is one of the most serious environmental pollutants for food production in China

  19. Cover crops impact on excess rainfall and soil erosion rates in orchards and potato fields, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey; Gil, Eshel

    2015-04-01

    Bare soil and high drainage densities are common characteristics of intensive agriculture land. The couplings of these characteristics lead to high runoff and eroded soil volumes leaving the field or the orchard via the local drainage system into the fluvial system. This process increase flood risk due to massive deposition of the coarse fraction of the eroded soil and therefore reduces channel capacity to discharge the increase volumes of concentrated runoff. As a result drainage basin authorities are forced to invest large amount of money in maintaining and enlarging the drainage network. However this approach is un-sustainable. On the other hand, implementing cover crops (CC) and modification to current agricultural practices over the contributing area of the watershed seems to have more benefits and provide sustainable solution. A multi-disciplinary approach applied in commercial potatoes fields and orchards that utilize the benefit of CC shows great success as means of soil and water conservation and weed disinfestation without reduction in the yield, its quality or its profitability. The results indicate that it is possible to grow potatoes and citrus trees under CC with no reduction in yield or nutrient uptake, with more than 95% reduction in soil loss and more than 60% in runoff volumes and peak discharges.

  20. Impact of mesh tracks and low-ground-pressure vehicle use on blanket peat hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick-Smith, Kathryn; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are subject to multiple uses including drainage, farming and recreation. Low-ground-pressure vehicle access is desirable by land owners and tracks facilitate access. However, there is concern that such activity may impact peat hydrology and so granting permission for track installation has been problematic, particularly without evidence for decision-making. We present the first comprehensive study of mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on peatland hydrology. In the sub-arctic oceanic climate of the Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, a 1.5 km long experimental track was installed to investigate hydrological impacts. Surface vegetation was cut and the plastic mesh track pinned into the peat surface. The experimental track was split into 7 treatments, designed to reflect typical track usage (0 - 5 vehicle passes per week) and varying vehicle weight. The greatest hydrological impacts were expected for sections of track subject to more frequent vehicle use and in close proximity to the track. In total 554 dipwells (including 15 automated recording at 15-min intervals) were monitored for water-table depth, positioned to capture potential spatial variability in response. Before track installation, samples for vertical and lateral hydraulic conductivity (Ks) analysis (using the modified cube method) were taken at 0-10 cm depth from a frequently driven treatment (n = 15), an infrequently driven treatment (0.5 passes per week) (n = 15) and a control site with no track/driving (n = 15). The test was repeated after 16 months of track use. We present a spatially and temporally rich water-table dataset from the study site showing how the impacts of the track on water table are spatially highly variable. Water-table depths across the site were shallow, typically within the upper 10 cm of the peat profile for > 75% of the time. We show that mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on water-table depth were small except

  1. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  2. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  3. Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of the Arctic atmosphere to low and high sea ice concentration phases based on European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim atmospheric data and Hadley Centre's sea ice dataset (HadISST1 from 1989 until 2010 has been studied. Time slices of winter atmospheric circulation with high (1990–2000 and low (2001–2010 sea ice concentration in the preceding August/September have been analysed with respect to tropospheric interactions between planetary and baroclinic waves. It is shown that a changed sea ice concentration over the Arctic Ocean impacts differently the development of synoptic and planetary atmospheric circulation systems. During the low ice phase, stronger heat release to the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean reduces the atmospheric vertical static stability. This leads to an earlier onset of baroclinic instability that further modulates the non-linear interactions between baroclinic wave energy fluxes on time scales of 2.5–6 d and planetary scales of 10–90 d. Our analysis suggests that Arctic sea ice concentration changes exert a remote impact on the large-scale atmospheric circulation during winter, exhibiting a barotropic structure with similar patterns of pressure anomalies at the surface and in the mid-troposphere. These are connected to pronounced planetary wave train changes notably over the North Pacific.

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  5. Impact of ice cover and freshwater discharge on the pelagic food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    -scale ocean and the ice sheet - for two reasons. First, it is plausible that a sizable portion of the observed glacier acceleration and retreat was triggered by increased submarine melting of the glaciers’ margins. Second, the melt water from Greenland must transit through the fjord before reaching Greenland......Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) quadrupled over the past two decades owing to increased surface melt and the widespread retreat and speedup of marine-terminating glaciers. These physical changes have sparked interest in Greenland’s glacial fjords - the conduits between the large......’s continental shelves - where it can impact the ocean circulation and the downstream marine ecosystems. Using data collected from several Greenland fjord/glacier systems we show that the freshwater discharge in these coastal waters is mediated by a complex interplay of atmospheric forcing, subglacial processes...

  6. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae: Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Li Peng

    Full Text Available Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1 water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2 no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants

  7. Land cover, land use, and climate change impacts on agriculture in southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontgis, Caitlin

    Global environmental change is rapidly changing the surface of the Earth in varied and irrevocable ways. Across the world, land cover and land use have been altered to accommodate the needs of expanding populations, and climate change has required plant, animal, and human communities to adapt to novel climates. These changes have created unprecedented new ecosystems that affect the planet in ways that are not fully understood and difficult to predict. Of utmost concern is food security, and whether agro-ecosystems will adapt and respond to widespread changes so that growing global populations can be sustained. To understand how one staple food crop, rice, responds to global environmental change in southern Vietnam, this dissertation aims to accomplish three main tasks: (1) quantify the rate and form of urban and peri-urban expansion onto cropland using satellite imagery and demographic data, (2) track changes to annual rice paddy harvests using time series satellite data, and (3) model the potential effects of climate change on rice paddies by incorporating farmer interview data into a crop systems model. The results of these analyses show that the footprint of Ho Chi Minh City grew nearly five times between 1990 and 2012. Mismatches between urban development and population growth suggest that peri-urbanization is driven by supply-side investment, and that much of this form of land expansion has occurred near major transit routes. In the nearby Mekong River Delta, triple-cropped rice paddy area doubled between 2000 and 2010, from one-third to two-thirds of rice fields, while paddy area expanded by about 10%. These results illustrate the intensification of farming practices since Vietnam liberalized its economy, yet it is not clear whether such practices are environmentally sustainable long-term. Although triple-cropped paddy fields have expanded, future overall production is estimated to decline without the effects of CO2 fertilization. Temperatures are anticipated

  8. Determining robust impacts of land-use induced land-cover changes on surface climate over North America and Eurasia; Results from the first set of LUCID experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noblet-Ducoudré, de N.; Boisier, J.P.; Pitman, A.; Bonan, G.B.; Brovkin, V.; Cruz, F.; Delire, C.; Gayler, V.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Lawrence, P.J.; Molen, van der M.K.; Müller, C.; Reick, C.H.; Strengers, B.J.; Voldoire, A.

    2012-01-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was conceived to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use–land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere–land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC

  9. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W; Lewis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES)--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1) matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2) fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case illustrates that

  10. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W Jones

    Full Text Available Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1 matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2 fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case

  11. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W.; Lewis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented—from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES)—to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing ‘matching’ to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods—an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1) matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2) fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators—due to the presence of unobservable bias—that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case

  12. Coupled fluid/structure response of a reactor cover to slug impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.; Saurer, G.; Wanner, R.; Palsson, H.

    1983-05-01

    The response of an LMFBR roof structure to slug impact loads is investigated using a combined 2D and 3D approach based on the containment code SEURBNUK and the finite element structure code ADINA. A specimen roof design of box-type construction with concrete infill is adopted for the study, with dimensions appropriate to a commercial-sized fast reactor of the 'pool' type. Provision is made in the model for the location of the major roof penetrations, and the roof annulus is closed in the central section by a rigid, but movable plug concentric with the axis of symmetry. An interface between the codes SEURBNUK and ADINA is made possible by defining a 2D substitute roof model with material properties chosen to match the principal response characteristics of the detailed model. The SEURBNUK code, recently extended to account for coupling of roof loading and roof response, uses the 2D model, incorporated in an appropriate reactor geometry, to examine the fluid-structure interactions and to supply roof pressure loadings for the ADINA runs. A strategy for cross-checking the structural equivalence of the 2D and 3D roof models is developed, and this operates in parallel with the loading and response computations. The first exploratory SEURBNUK calculations are described in which the roof is represented by a simple homogeneous plate. (Auth.)

  13. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  14. Cell Mergers and Their Impact on Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over the Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michael L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    A previous hypothesis advanced from observational studies such as METROMEX suggests that the intensity, frequency, and organization of cumulus convection may be impacted by the forcing of enhanced merger activity downstream of urban zones. A resulting corollary is that cities may exert an indirect anthropogenic forcing of parameters related to convection and associated phenomena such as lightning and precipitation. This paper investigates the urban merger hypothesis by examining the role of convective cell mergers on the existence and persistence of the Houston lightning "anomaly", a local maximum in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity documented to exist over and east of Houston. Using eight summer seasons of peak columnar radar reflectivity, CG lightning data and a cell-tracking algorithm, a two-dimensional cell merger climatology is created for portions of eastern Texas and Louisiana. Results from the tracking and analysis of over 3.8 million cells indicate that merger-driven enhancements in convection induce a positive response (O 46%) in ground-flash densities throughout the domain, with areas of enhanced lightning typically being co-located with areas of enhanced merger activity. However, while mergers over the Houston area (relative to elsewhere in the domain) do result in more vigorous convective cells that produce larger CG flash densities, we find that CG lightning contributions due to mergers are distributed similarly throughout the domain. Hence while we demonstrate that cell mergers do greatly impact the production of lightning, the urban cell merger hypothesis does not uniquely explain the presence of a local lightning maximum near and downstream of Houston.

  15. Impacts of decadal variations in natural emissions due to land-cover changes on ozone production in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decadal variations in emissions of high-reactivity biogenic volatile organics (BVOCs, as a result of land-cover changes, could significantly impact ozone (O3 production. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem modelling system, coupled with dynamic vegetation data sets derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 2001–2012 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, early 1990s measurements, were used to investigate the impacts of land-cover changes on natural emissions, and consequently O3 production, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of southern China over the past two decades. Model results indicate that BVOC emissions were highly dependent on forest area. The total BVOC emissions in the modelling domain increased by a factor of two due to afforestation since the early 1990s, declined slowly (−5.8% yr−1 until 2006 and then increased continuously (+9.1% yr−1 to 2012. The decadal variations in BVOC emissions have complex implications for summer O3 production in PRD, depending on the chemical regimes and prevailing winds. The impacts on O3 production were most sensitive in downwind areas, and it was found that the large increase in BVOC emissions during 2006–2012 tended to reduce surface O3 concentrations by 1.6–2.5 ppb in rural regions, but caused an increment of O3 peaks by up to 2.0–6.0 ppb in VOC-limited urban areas (e.g., Guangzhou, Foshan and Zhongshan. The opposite was true in the period 2001–2006, when the reduced BVOC emissions resulted in 1.3–4.0 ppb increases in daytime O3 concentrations over northern rural regions. Impact of the two-fold increase in BVOC emissions since the early 1990s to 2006 was a 0.9–4.6 ppb increment in surface O3 concentrations over the downwind areas. This study suggests that the potential impacts on ozone chemistry should be considered in long-term land-use planning and air-quality management.

  16. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Rapoport

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs, which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100–420 m s−1. Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical–numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1 of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 − f1 in the altitude ranges 0–0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2 of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1–20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz and VLF (kHz ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere–ionosphere system

  17. Projected Impacts of Bioenergy-Demand-Induced Land Use and Cover Changes on Regional Climate in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy shortfalls are becoming more and more serious all over the world, and worldwide governments have tried to promote the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the climatic impacts of massive fossil fuel consumption. Since the land is the main input factor of the bioenergy production, the development of biofuels will inevitably lead to change of the land use structure and allocation and thereby affect the climate system. With Central Europe as the study area, this study explored the impacts of land use/land cover change (LUCC on climate under the influence of demand of bioenergy production for land resources. First, the land use structure from 2010 to 2050 is simulated with the Agriculture and Land Use model in MiniCam. The result indicates that the main conversion will be mainly from grassland and forest to cropland and from cropland to grassland. Then the Dynamics of Land System model was used to spatially simulate the LUCC in the future. The impacts of LUCC on the climate were analyzed on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The climate change will be characterized by the increase of latent heat flux and temperature and the decrease of precipitation.

  18. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  19. Structural modeling of the Vichada impact structure from interpreted ground gravity and magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Orlando; Khurama, Sait; Alexander, Gretta C

    2011-01-01

    A prominent positive free-air gravity anomaly mapped over a roughly 50-km diameter basin is consistent with a mascon centered on (4 degrades 30 minutes N, 69 degrades 15 minutes W) in the Vichada Department, Colombia, South America. Ground follow up gravity and magnetic anomalies were modeled confirming the regional free air gravity anomalies. These potential field anomalies infer a hidden complex impact basin structure filled with tertiary sedimentary rocks and recent quaternary deposits. Negative Bouguer anomalies of 8 mgals to 15 mgals amplitude are associated with a concentric sedimentary basin with a varying thickness from 100 m to 500 m in the outer rings to 700 m to 1000 m at the center of the impact crater basin. Strong positive magnetic anomalies of 100 nt to 300 nt amplitude infer the presence of a local Precambrian crystalline basement that was affected by intensive faulting producing tectonic blocks dipping to the center of the structure, showing a typical domino structure of impact craters such as that of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Basic to intermediate mineralized veins and dikes with contrasting density and magnetic susceptibility properties could be emplaced along these faulting zones, as inferred from local gravity and magnetic highs. The geologic mapping of the area is limited by the flat topography and absence of outcrops/ geomorphologic units. Nevertheless, local normal faults along the inner ring together with radially sparse irregular blocks over flat terrains can be associated with terraced rims or collapse of the inner crater structure and eject blanket, respectively. A detailed airborne electromagnetic survey is recommended to confirm the gravity and magnetic anomalies together with a seismic program to evaluate the economic implications for energy and mineral exploration of the Vichada impact structure.

  20. Quantifying Impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change on Urban Vegetation Gross Primary Production: A Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified the impacts of land-use/cover change (LUCC on gross primary production (GPP during 2000–2013 in a typical densely urbanized Chinese city, Wuhan. GPP was estimated at 30-m spatial resolution using annual land cover maps, meteorological data of the baseline year, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was generated with the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM based on Landsat and MODIS images. The results showed that approximately 309.95 Gg C was lost over 13 years, which was mainly due to the conversion from cropland to built-up areas. The interannual variation of GPP was affected by the change of vegetation composition, especially the increasing relative fraction of forests. The loss of GPP due to the conversion from forest to cropland fluctuated through the study period, but showed a sharp decrease in 2007 and 2008. The gain of GPP due to the conversion from cropland to forest was low between 2001 and 2009, but increased dramatically between 2009 and 2013. The change rate map showed an increasing trend along the highways, and a decreasing trend around the metropolitan area and lakes. The results indicated that carbon consequences should be considered before land management policies are put forth.

  1. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  2. Assessment of the impact of climate change and land cover change on landslide in Tana Toraja district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah, M.; Rafiuddin, A.; Jadmiko, S. D.; Boer, R.

    2018-05-01

    Landslides are the frequent and widespread climate hazard in Indonesia that cause loss of human life and damage to property. Tana Toraja District is one of the regencies in Indonesia with the highest number of landslide events. Throughout the year 2016 there were at least 3 (three) landslide incidents that caused casualties and disconnection of transportation access. The study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and land cover change on landslide hazard in the Tana Toraja District. The study showed that in 2014 the number of landslide area with high risk was 53.3% and very high risk 14.4%, while in 2031 the high risk 56.4% and very high risk 12.7%. Thus, in high climate risk area, landslide adaptation and risk reduction strategies in the framework of climate change are necessary.

  3. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, ppost-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998

  4. Exploring the mechanisms of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian head injuries caused by ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sha; Li, Jiani; Xu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In pedestrian-vehicle accidents, pedestrians typically suffer from secondary impact with the ground after the primary contact with vehicles. However, information about the fundamental mechanism of pedestrian head injury from ground impact remains minimal, thereby hindering further improvement in pedestrian safety. This study addresses this issue by using multi-body modeling and computation to investigate the influence of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian safety. Accordingly, a simulation matrix is constructed to vary bonnet leading-edge height, bonnet length, bonnet angle, and windshield angle. Subsequently, a set of 315 pedestrian-vehicle crash simulations are conducted using the multi-body simulation software MADYMO. Three vehicle velocities, i.e., 20, 30, and 40km/h, are set as the scenarios. Results show that the top governing factor is bonnet leading-edge height. The posture and head injury at the instant of head ground impact vary dramatically with increasing height because of the significant rise of the body bending point and the movement of the collision point. The bonnet angle is the second dominant factor that affects head-ground injury, followed by bonnet length and windshield angle. The results may elucidate one of the critical barriers to understanding head injury caused by ground impact and provide a solid theoretical guideline for considering pedestrian safety in vehicle design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiping; Liu Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Young, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area. (letter)

  6. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  7. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  8. Projected global ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation under different emission and climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sicard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ground-level ozone (O3 on vegetation is largely under-investigated at the global scale despite large areas worldwide that are exposed to high surface O3 levels. To explore future potential impacts of O3 on vegetation, we compared historical and projected surface O3 concentrations simulated by six global atmospheric chemistry transport models on the basis of three representative concentration pathways emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5. To assess changes in the potential surface O3 threat to vegetation at the global scale, we used the AOT40 metric. Results point out a significant exceedance of AOT40 in comparison with the recommendations of UNECE for the protection of vegetation. In fact, many areas of the Northern Hemisphere show that AOT40-based critical levels will be exceeded by a factor of at least 10 under RCP8.5. Changes in surface O3 by 2100 worldwide range from about +4–5 ppb in the RCP8.5 scenario to reductions of about 2–10 ppb in the most optimistic scenario, RCP2.6. The risk of O3 injury for vegetation, through the potential O3 impact on photosynthetic assimilation, decreased by 61 and 47 % under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, respectively, and increased by 70 % under RCP8.5. Key biodiversity areas in southern and northern Asia, central Africa and North America were identified as being at risk from high O3 concentrations.

  9. The impact of changing climate on surface and ground water quality in southeast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribak, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    In the current changing climate globally, Ireland have been experiencing a yearly recurrent extreme heavy rainfall events in the last decade, with damaging visible effects socially, economically and on the environment. Ireland intensive agriculture production is a major treat to the aquatic environment, Nitrogen and phosphorus losses to the water courses are major causes to eutrophication. The European Water Frame Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) sets a number of measures to better protect and improve water status. Five years of high temporal resolution river water quality data measurement from two contrasting catchment in the southeast of Ireland were correlated with rain fall and nutrients losses to the ground and surface water, additional to the integrated Southeast River District Basin ground and surface water quality to establish spatiotemporal connection to the agriculture activities, the first well-drained soil catchment had high coefficient correlation with rain fall with higher losses to groundwater, on the other hand higher nutrients losses to surface water were higher with less influence from groundwater recharge of N and P transfer, the poorly clay base soil contributed to higher increased losses to surface water during excessive rain fall. Agriculture activities, hydrology, geology and human interaction can interact according to their site specific setting and the effects will fluctuate dependent on the conditions influencing the impact on water quality, there is a requirement to better distinguish those effects together and identify areas and land uses control and nutrients management to improve the water quality, stakeholders co-operation along with effective polices, long term monitoring, nutrients pathways management and better understanding of the environmental factors interaction on national, regional and catchment scale to enable planning policies and enforcement measures to be more focused on areas of high risk

  10. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  11. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  12. Impacts of Rainfall Variability, Land Use and Land Cover Change on Stream Flow of the Black Volta Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komlavi Akpoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential implications of rainfall variability along with Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULC on stream flow have been assessed in the Black Volta basin using the SWAT model. The spatio-temporal variability of rainfall over the Black Volta was assessed using the Mann-Kendall monotonic trend test and the Sen’s slope for the period 1976–2011. The statistics of the trend test showed that 61.4% of the rain gauges presented an increased precipitation trend whereas the rest of the stations showed a decreased trend. However, the test performed at the 95% confidence interval level showed that the detected trends in the rainfall data were not statistically significant. Land use trends between the year 2000 and 2013 show that within thirteen years, land use classes like bare land, urban areas, water bodies, agricultural lands, deciduous forests and evergreen forests have increased respectively by 67.06%, 33.22%, 7.62%, 29.66%, 60.18%, and 38.38%. Only grass land has decreased by 44.54% within this period. Changes in seasonal stream flow due to LULC were assessed by defining dry and wet seasons. The results showed that from year 2000 to year 2013, the dry season discharge has increased by 6% whereas the discharge of wet season has increased by 1%. The changes in stream flows components such us surface run-off (SURF_Q, lateral flow (LAT_Q and ground water contribution to stream flow (GW_Q and also on evapotranspiration (ET changes due to LULC was evaluated. The results showed that between the year 2000 and 2013, SURF_Q and LAT_Q have respectively increased by 27% and 19% while GW_Q has decreased by 6% while ET has increased by 4.59%. The resultant effects are that the water yield to stream flow has increased by 4%.

  13. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  14. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will

  15. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  16. Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

  17. Electron impact excitation cross sections and rates from the ground state of atomic calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Samson, A M

    2001-01-01

    New R-matrix calculations are presented for electron excitation of atomic calcium. The target state expansion includes 22 states: 4s sup 2 sup 1 S; 4snl sup 1 sup , sup 3 L, where nl is 3d, 4p, 5s, 5p, 4d and 4f; 3d4p sup 1 sup , sup 3 P,D,F; and 4p sup 2 sup 3 P, sup 1 D, sup 1 S terms. The calculation is in LS coupling, and configuration interaction involving 3p subshell correlation is included. Electron impact excitation cross sections from the 4s sup 2 ground state to the next 10 states are tabulated for low energies, and thermally averaged effective collision strengths are tabulated over a range of electron temperatures from 1000 to 10,000 K. Comparisons are made with previous cross sections calculations for the 4s sup 2 -4s4p sup 3 P deg. transition; excellent agreement is found with experimentally derived rates for 4s sup 2 -4s4p sup 1 P deg

  18. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Kurevija; Domagoj Vulin; Marija Macenić

    2014-01-01

    ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and ther...

  19. Modelling the Impacts of Changing Land Cover/Land Use and Climate on Flooding in the Elk River Watershed, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; Hopkinson, C.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk River is a mountain watershed located along the eastern border of British Columbia, Canada. The Elk River is confined by railway bridges, roads, and urban areas. Flooding has been a concern in the valley for more than a century. The most recent major flood event occurred in 2013 affecting several communities. River modifications such as riprapped dykes, channelization, and dredging have occurred in an attempt to reduce inundation, with limited success. Significant changes in land cover/land use (LCLU) such as natural state to urban, forestry practices, and mining from underground to mountaintop/valley fill have changed terrain and ground surfaces thereby altering water infiltration and runoff processes in the watershed. Future climate change in this region is expected to alter air temperature and precipitation as well as produce an earlier seasonal spring freshet potentially impacting future flood events. The objective of this research is to model historical and future hydrological conditions to identify flood frequency and risk under a range of climate and LCLU change scenarios in the Elk River watershed. Historic remote sensing data, forest management plans, and mining industry production/post-mining reclamation plans will be used to create a predictive past and future LCLU time series. A range of future air temperature and precipitation scenarios will be developed based on accepted Global Climate Modelling (GCM) research to examine how the hydrometeorological conditions may be altered under a range of future climate scenarios. The GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model will be used to simulate climate and LCLU to assess historic and potential future flood frequency and magnitude. Results will be used to create innovative flood mitigation, adaptation, and management strategies for the Elk River with the intent of being wildlife friendly and non-destructive to ecosystems and habitats for native species.

  20. The impact of CO2 fertilization and historical land use/land cover change on regional climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, Kirsten; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John; Lintner, Benjamin; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Recent research highlights the role of land surface processes in heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. Here we use an earth system model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to investigate the regional impacts of historical anthropogenic land use/land cover change (LULCC) and the vegetative response to changes in atmospheric CO2 on combined extremes of temperature and humidity. A bivariate assessment allows us to consider aridity and moist enthalpy extremes, quantities central to human experience of near-surface climate conditions. We show that according to this model, conversion of forests to cropland has contributed to much of the upper central US and central Europe experiencing extreme hot, dry summers every 2-3 years instead of every 10 years. In the tropics, historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation and regrowth of secondary vegetation have enhanced near surface moist enthalpy, leading to extensive increases in the occurrence of humid conditions throughout the tropics year round. These critical land use processes and practices are not included in many current generation land models, yet these results identify them as critical factors in the energy and water cycles of the midlatitudes and tropics. Current work is targeted at understanding how CO2 fertilization of plant growth impacts water use efficiency and surface flux partitioning, and how these changes influence temperature and humidity extremes. We use this modeling work to explore how remote sensing can be used to determine how different forest ecosystems in different climatological regimes are responding to enhanced CO2 and a warming world.

  1. How does soil erosion influence the terrestrial carbon cycle and the impacts of land use and land cover change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naipal, V.; Wang, Y.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Lauerwald, R.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of agriculture has accelerated soil erosion rates significantly, mobilizing vast quantities of soil organic carbon (SOC) globally. Studies show that at timescales of decennia to millennia this mobilized SOC can significantly alter previously estimated carbon emissions from land use and land cover change (LULCC). However, a full understanding of the impact of soil erosion on land-atmosphere carbon exchange is still missing. The aim of our study is to better constrain the terrestrial carbon fluxes by developing methods, which are compatible with earth system models (ESMs), and explicitly represent the links between soil erosion and carbon dynamics. For this we use an emulator that represents the carbon cycle of ORCHIDEE, which is the land component of the IPSL ESM, in combination with an adjusted version of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. We applied this modeling framework at the global scale to evaluate how soil erosion influenced the terrestrial carbon cycle in the presence of elevated CO2, regional climate change and land use change. Here, we focus on the effects of soil detachment by erosion only and do not consider sediment transport and deposition. We found that including soil erosion in the SOC dynamics-scheme resulted in two times more SOC being lost during the historical period (1850-2005 AD). LULCC is the main contributor to this SOC loss, whose impact on the SOC stocks is significantly amplified by erosion. Regionally, the influence of soil erosion varies significantly, depending on the magnitude of the perturbations to the carbon cycle and the effects of LULCC and climate change on soil erosion rates. We conclude that it is necessary to include soil erosion in assessments of LULCC, and to explicitly consider the effects of elevated CO2 and climate change on the carbon cycle and on soil erosion, for better quantification of past, present, and future LULCC carbon emissions.

  2. Impact Force Applied on the Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Canister that Accidentally Drops and Collides onto the Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical methodology was theoretically studied to obtain the impact force caused by the collision between rigid bodies. This theoretical methodology was applied to compute the impact force applied on the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally drops and collides onto the ground. From this study, the impact force required to ensure a structurally safe canister design was theoretically formulated. The main content of the theoretical study concerns the rigid body kinematics and equation of motion during collision between two rigid bodies. On the basis of this study, a general impact theory to compute the impact force caused by the collision between two bodies was developed. This general impact theory was applied to theoretically formulate the approximate mathematical solution of the impact force that affects the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally falls to the ground. Simultaneously, a numerical analysis was performed using the computer code to compute the numerical solution of the impact force, and the numerical result was compared with the approximate mathematical solution

  3. Numerical study on the impact of ground heating and ambient wind speed on flow fields in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Jie; Jiang, Yin

    2012-11-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods. A series of numerical tests were performed, and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio, ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account. Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed. The ground heating intensity, which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature, ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests. The results showed that under calm conditions, ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1, which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon. It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio. When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study, the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious, and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon. When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold, the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects. The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon, which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  4. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  5. Urban Land-Cover Change and Its Impact on the Ecosystem Carbon Storage in a Dryland City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of research into the complexity in urban land conversion, and paucity of observational data of soil organic carbon (SOC beneath impervious surface area (ISA limit our understanding of the urbanization effects on carbon (C pools in dryland cities. Employing Landsat TM images acquired in 1990 and 2010, a hybrid classification method consisting of Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and decision tree classification was applied to retrieve the land cover (water, ISA, greenspace, cropland, and remnant desert of the largest dryland city in China—Urumqi. Based on vegetation carbon (VEGC and SOC density data determined through field observations and literature reviews, we developed Urumqi’s C pool maps in 1990 and 2010, and assessed the urbanization impacts on ecosystem C. Our results showed that ISA tripled from 1990 to 2010 displacing remnant desert and cropland. The urban landscape, especially the greenspaces, became obviously fragmented. In 2010, more than 95% of the urban ecosystem C was SOC, 48% of which under the ISA. The city lost 19% of C stock from 1990 to 2010. About 82% of the ecosystem C loss was caused by the conversion of remnant desert and cropland into ISA, mainly in the northern city.

  6. Does Certification Change the Trajectory of Tree Cover in Working Forests in The Tropics? An Application of the Synthetic Control Method of Impact Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC remains rare among forest management units (FMUs in natural tropical forests, presenting a challenge for impact evaluation. We demonstrate application of the synthetic control method (SCM to evaluate the impact of FSC certification on a single FMU in each of three tropical forest landscapes. Specifically, we estimate causal effects on tree cover change from the year of certification to 2012 using SCM and open-access, pan-tropical datasets. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct synthetic controls, or weighted combinations of non-certified FMUs, that followed the same path of tree cover change as the certified FMUs before certification. By using these synthetic controls to measure counterfactual tree cover change after certification, we find that certification reduced tree cover loss in the most recent year (2012 in all three landscapes. However, placebo tests show that in one case, this effect was not significant, and in another case, it followed several years in which certification had the opposite effect (increasing tree cover loss. We conclude that SCM has promise for identifying temporally varying impacts of small-N interventions on land use and land cover change.

  7. Implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up contamination to protect human health and the environment at 24 inactive uranium processing sites located in 10 states. Five of the sites are either on or near Native American lands. The UMTRA Project is divided into two projects: Surface and Ground Water. On November 18, 1992, the DOE issued a notice of intent (57 FR 54374, 1992) to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will result in a record of decision that will determine how the UMTRA Ground Water Project will address ground water contamination resulting from milling operations at the UMTRA Project processing sites. DOE regulations (10 CFR section 1021.312) require that an implementation plan be prepared to provide guidance for preparing a PEIS and to record the results of the scoping process. This implementation plan describes and records the results of the PEIS scoping process; summarizes comments received and their disposition; describes the purpose of and need for agency action, the proposed action, and alternatives; lists alternatives considered and eliminated from review; identifies cooperating agencies, their roles, and responsibilities; provides a draft PEIS outline, which includes the planned PEIS scope and content (Attachment A); and provides a schedule for the PEIS process. This plan will be placed in the UMTRA Project libraries listed in Attachment B. The PEIS will identify and evaluate the potential impacts associated with alternatives for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will not assess site-specific impacts; site-specific impacts must be analyzed in separate National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents that will tier off the PEIS. This tiering process will streamline the preparation of site-specific NEPA documents

  8. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and thermogeologic properties of ground. After abovementioned depth, increase of ground temperature is solely dependent on geothermal gradient. Accurately determined value of undisturbed ground temperature is beneficial for proper sizing of borehole heat exchangers. On practical example of building which is being heated and cooled with shallow geothermal resource, influences of undisturbed ground temperature and geothermal gradient, on size of borehole heat exchanger are going to be presented. Sizing of borehole heat exchanger was calculated with commercial software Ground Loop Designer (GLD, which uses modified line source and cylinder source solutions of heat conduction in solids.

  9. A bare ground evaporation revision in the ECMWF land-surface scheme: evaluation of its impact using ground soil moisture and satellite microwave data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ soil moisture data from 122 stations across the United States are used to evaluate the impact of a new bare ground evaporation formulation at ECMWF. In November 2010, the bare ground evaporation used in ECMWF's operational Integrated Forecasting System (IFS was enhanced by adopting a lower stress threshold than for the vegetation, allowing a higher evaporation. It results in more realistic soil moisture values when compared to in situ data, particularly over dry areas. Use was made of the operational IFS and offline experiments for the evaluation. The latter are based on a fixed version of the IFS and make it possible to assess the impact of a single modification, while the operational analysis is based on a continuous effort to improve the analysis and modelling systems, resulting in frequent updates (a few times a year. Considering the field sites with a fraction of bare ground greater than 0.2, the root mean square difference (RMSD of soil moisture is shown to decrease from 0.118 m3 m−3 to 0.087 m3 m−3 when using the new formulation in offline experiments, and from 0.110 m3 m−3 to 0.088 m3 m−3 in operations. It also improves correlations. Additionally, the impact of the new formulation on the terrestrial microwave emission at a global scale is investigated. Realistic and dynamically consistent fields of brightness temperature as a function of the land surface conditions are required for the assimilation of the SMOS data. Brightness temperature simulated from surface fields from two offline experiments with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling (CMEM platform present monthly mean differences up to 7 K. Offline experiments with the new formulation present drier soil moisture, hence simulated brightness temperature with its surface fields are larger. They are also closer to SMOS remotely sensed brightness temperature.

  10. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  11. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires

  12. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  13. Understanding the impact of accreditation on quality in healthcare: A grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, L; Mitchell, J I; Shaw, J; Ivers, N M

    2017-11-01

    To explore how organizations respond to and interact with the accreditation process and the actual and potential mechanisms through which accreditation may influence quality. Qualitative grounded theory study. Organizations who had participated in Accreditation Canada's Qmentum program during January 2014-June 2016. Individuals who had coordinated the accreditation process or were involved in managing or promoting quality. The accreditation process is largely viewed as a quality assurance process, which often feeds in to quality improvement activities if the feedback aligns with organizational priorities. Three key stages are required for accreditation to impact quality: coherence, organizational buy-in and organizational action. These stages map to constructs outlined in Normalization Process Theory. Coherence is established when an organization and its staff perceive that accreditation aligns with the organization's beliefs, context and model of service delivery. Organizational buy-in is established when there is both a conceptual champion and an operational champion, and is influenced by both internal and external contextual factors. Quality improvement action occurs when organizations take purposeful action in response to observations, feedback or self-reflection resulting from the accreditation process. The accreditation process has the potential to influence quality through a series of three mechanisms: coherence, organizational buy-in and collective quality improvement action. Internal and external contextual factors, including individual characteristics, influence an organization's experience of accreditation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  15. Investigation and Analysis on Ground Cover Plants Resources of Urban Green Space in Hunan%湖南城市园林绿地地被植物资源调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖姣娣

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出湖南省优良乡土地被植物,采用现场实地调查与查询相关文献资料的方式对湖南省典型城市园林绿地地被植物种类及利用形式进行研究。结果表明:湖南省共有地被植物243种,隶属77科177属,其中低矮灌木类地被植物87种、草本类地被植物103种、矮竹类地被植物10种、藤本地被植物33种、蕨类地被植物8种,主要以花坛、花境、色带、绿篱的形式应用在城市公共空间,疏林、密林、园林道路边界,坡地、水岸、建筑及围墙周边。%In order to screen native ground cover plants of Hunan province ,species and application form of typi-cal groundcover plants of urban greenspace were investigated by field investigation and consulting relevant lit-eratures .The results showed that there were 243 species of ground cover plants in Hunan province ,which be-longed to 77 families and 177 genus ,including 87 species of low bush ,103 species of herb ,10 species of bam-boo ,33 species of liana and 8 species of fern .They were applied in urban public space ,open forest ,dense forest , garden road boundary ,slope ,water-front and surrounding ground of buildings and walls with the form of flower bed ,flower border ,ribbon and hedge .

  16. Analysis of land cover change impact on flood events using remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models: a case study of the Nyando River Basin in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olang, L. O.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, land cover changes in the Nyando River basin (3500 km 2 ) of Kenya were analyzed and their impact of floods quantified. Three Landsat satellite images for 1973, 1986 and 2000 were acquired, processed and classified based on seven major land cover classes prevalent in the basin using a hybrid of supervised and non supervised classification procedures. The detected land cover changes, together with a DEM and a soil map of the basin, were then used to estimate physically based parameters for the selected hydrological models. The models were then used to estimate local and flood peak discharges and volumes arising from selected storm events for each state of the classified land cover dataset. To further understand how changes in the land cover may impact on the flood hydrology, three scenarios that represent quite extreme alternatives were formulated to study the possible bandwidth during floods. Land cover classification results revealed immense land degradation over the span of study. Forests reduced by an area of 488 km 2 representing a 20% decline, while agricultural fields expanded by 581 km 2 representing a 16% increase over the same period of time (1973-2000). Hydrological modeling results indicated that the basin underwent significant increase in the peak discharge value. The flood peak discharges in the whole basin were noted to have increased by at least 16% over the period of 1973 -2000.Flood volumes were also noted to have increased by at least 10% over the same period of time. (author) [de

  17. Implication of relationship between natural impacts and land use/land cover (LULC) changes of urban area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantumur, Byambakhuu; Wu, Falin; Zhao, Yan; Vandansambuu, Battsengel; Dalaibaatar, Enkhjargal; Itiritiphan, Fareda; Shaimurat, Dauryenbyek

    2017-10-01

    Urban growth can profoundly alter the urban landscape structure, ecosystem processes, and local climates. Timely and accurate information on the status and trends of urban ecosystems is critical to develop strategies for sustainable development and to improve the urban residential environment and living quality. Ulaanbaatar city was urbanized very rapidly caused by herders and farmers, many of them migrating from rural places, have played a big role in this urban expansion (sprawl). Today, 1.3 million residents for about 40% of total population are living in the Ulaanbaatar region. Those human activities influenced stronger to green environments. Therefore, the aim of this study is determined to change detection of land use/land cover (LULC) and estimating their areas for the trend of future by remote sensing and statistical methods. The implications of analysis were provided by change detection methods of LULC, remote sensing spectral indices including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI). In addition, it can relate to urban heat island (UHI) provided by Land surface temperature (LST) with local climate issues. Statistical methods for image processing used to define relations between those spectral indices and change detection images and regression analysis for time series trend in future. Remote sensing data are used by Landsat (TM/ETM+/OLI) satellite images over the period between 1990 and 2016 by 5 years. The advantages of this study are very useful remote sensing approaches with statistical analysis and important to detecting changes of LULC. The experimental results show that the LULC changes can image on the present and after few years and determined relations between impacts of environmental conditions.

  18. Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Pedersen, Stine Højlund; Brucker, Ludovic; Anisimov, Oleg; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Brown, Ross D.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Essery, Richard L. H.; Heilig, Achim; Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Johansson, Margareta; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Inga, Niila; Luojus, Kari; Macelloni, Giovanni; Mariash, Heather|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41327697X; Mclennan, Donald; Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis; Sato, Atsushi; Savela, Hannele; Schneebeli, Martin; Sokolov, Aleksandr; Sokratov, Sergey A.; Terzago, Silvia; Vikhamar-schuler, Dagrun; Williamson, Scott; Qiu, Yubao; Callaghan, Terry V.

    2016-01-01

    Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for

  19. Climate change impacts detection in dry forested ecosystem as indicated by vegetation cover change in -Laikipia, of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'mboroki, Kiambi Gilbert; Wandiga, Shem; Oriaso, Silas Odongo

    2018-03-29

    The objective of the study was to detect and identify land cover changes in Laikipia County of Kenya that have occurred during the last three decades. The land use types of study area are six, of which three are the main and the other three are the minor. The main three, forest, shrub or bush land and grassland, changed during the period, of which grasslands reduced by 5864 ha (40%), forest by 3071 ha (24%) and shrub and bush land increased by 8912 ha (43%). The other three minor land use types were bare land which had reduced by 238 ha (45%), river bed vegetation increased by 209 ha (72%) and agriculture increased by 52 ha (600%) over the period decades. Differences in spatiotemporal variations of vegetation could be largely attributed to the effects of climate factors, anthropogenic activities and their interactions. Precipitation and temperature have been demonstrated to be the key climate factors for plant growth and vegetation development where rainfall decreased by 200 mm and temperatures increased by 1.5 °C over the period. Also, the opinion of the community on the change of land use and management was attributed to climate change and also adaptation strategies applied by the community over time. For example unlike the common understanding that forest resources utilisation increases with increasing human population, Mukogodo dry forested ecosystem case is different in that the majority of the respondents (78.9%) reported that the forest resource use was more in that period than now and also a similar majority (74.2%) had the same opinion that forest resource utilisation was low compared to last 30 years. In Yaaku community, change impacts were evidenced and thus mitigation measures suggested to address the impacts which included the following: controlled bush management and indigenous grass reseeding programme were advocated to restore original grasslands, and agricultural (crop farming) activities are carried out in designated areas outside the

  20. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings ' ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.' Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  2. IMPACT OF TURBIDITY ON TCE AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated particulate concentrations in ground water samples can bias contaminant concentration data. This has been particularly problematic for metal analyses where artificially increased turbidity levels can affect metals concentrations and confound interpretation of the data. H...

  3. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  4. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  5. Assessing climate change impacts on winter cover crop nitrate uptake efficiency on the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in this region owing to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, little is known about climate change impacts on the ef...

  6. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  7. Integrated Landsat Image Analysis and Hydrologic Modeling to Detect Impacts of 25-Year Land-Cover Change on Surface Runoff in a Philippine Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Paringit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976–2001 in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a “rehabilitated” land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling.

  8. Contrasting suspended covers reveal the impact of an artificial monolayer on heat transfer processes at the interfacial boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, P; Martínez-Alvarez, V; Hancock, N

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable performance of artificial monolayers in reducing evaporation from water storages has been attributed to wind speed and wave turbulence. Other factors operating at the interfacial boundary layer have seldom been considered. In this paper, two physical shade covers differing in porosity and reflectivity were suspended over 10 m diameter water tanks to attenuate wind and wave turbulence. The monolayer octadecanol was applied to one of the covered tanks, and micrometeorological conditions above and below the covers were monitored to characterise diurnal variation in the energy balance. A high downward (air-to-water) convective heat flux developed under the black cover during the day, whereas diurnal variation in the heat flux under the more reflective, wind-permeable white cover was much less. Hourly air and water temperature profiles under the covers over 3 days when forced convection was minimal (low wind speed) were selected for analysis. Monolayer application reduced temperature gain in surface water under a downward convective heat flux, and conversely reduced temperature loss under an upward convective heat flux. This 'dual property' may explain why repeat application of an artificial monolayer to retard evaporative loss (reducing latent heat loss) does not inevitably increase water temperature.

  9. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  10. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  11. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Maguas, C.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO 2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species

  12. Impact of global warming on performance of ground source heat pumps in US climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Pengyuan; Lukes, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Used morphing method to have downscaled hourly local weather data from GCM. • Selected representative cities in different climate zones in the US for case study on GSHP performance. • Used hourly building simulation tools (eQuest and TRNSYS) to project GSHP performance in future. • Analysis on GSHP performance in 2050 for both residential and office building in the US are conducted. - Abstract: Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) have attracted increasing attention because of their high energy efficiencies. The aim of this paper is to study the performance of (GSHP) in future climate conditions (2040–2069) by using projected future hourly weather data of selected representative cities in the US to estimate future ground temperature change. The projected hourly weather data and estimated ground temperatures are input to an hourly simulation tool (TRNSYS and eQuest for this research), which provides reliable coupling of GSHP system and building performance. The simulation results show that global warming will decrease the energy efficiency of GSHP in US residential buildings because a rise in inlet and outlet water temperature is predicted for GSHP systems during the cooling season and because buildings will become more cooling dominated in the future. For office buildings, although the cooling performance of GSHP will not drop significantly under future climate, the overall energy efficiency for the system will decrease due to the increasing energy consumption of the ground loop pump. In the future, considering the significant ground heat imbalance for GSHP operation, GSHP will become less competitive both economically and technically than it is now in the context of US climate zones

  13. Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Guzha

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights: Forest cover loss is accompanied by increased stream discharges and surface runoff. No significant difference in stream discharge is observed between bamboo and pine plantation catchments, and between cultivated and tea plantation catchments. Trend analyses show that despite forest cover loss, 63% of the watersheds show non-significant changes in annual discharges while 31% show increasing trends. Half of the watersheds show non-significant trends in wet season flows and low flows while 35% reveal decreasing trends in low flows. Modeling studies estimate that forest cover loss increases annual discharges and surface runoff by 16 ± 5.5% and 45 ± 14%, respectively. Peak flows increased by a mean of 10 ± 2.8% while low flows decreased by a mean of 7 ± 5.3%. Increased forest cover decreases annual discharges and surface runoff by 13 ± 1.9% and 25 ± 5%, respectively. Weak correlations between forest cover and runoff (r = 0.42, p < 0.05, mean discharge (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 and peak discharge (r = 0.67, p < 0.05 indicate that forest cover alone is not an accurate predictor of hydrological fluxes in East African catchments. The variability in these results supports the need for long-term field monitoring to better understand catchment responses and to improve the calibration of currently used simulation models.

  14. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  15. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N (ge) 3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N = 0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  16. Impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production on above and below-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bech Bruun, Thilde

    2012-01-01

    The need to mitigate climate change makes production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Substituting fossil fuels by biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas has gained widespread attention as Jatropha cultivation is claimed to offer green house gas emission reductions. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests into Jatropha, but whether Jatropha-based biodiesel offers carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to Jatropha. This paper provides an impact assessment of a small-scale Jatropha project in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above and below-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase Jatropha production. The results show that expansion of Jatropha production will most likely lead to the conversion of miombo forest areas to Jatropha, which implies a reduction in above and below-ground carbon stocks. The carbon debts created by the land use change can be repaid by replacing fossil fuels with Jatropha-based biodiesel. A repayment time of almost two centuries is found with optimistic estimates of the carbon debt, while the use of pessimistic values results in a repayment time that approaches the millennium. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of Jatropha-based biodiesel a priority. ► Farmers in Northern Mozambique are likely to convert un-logged miombo to Jatropha. ► Converting miombo to Jatropha creates reductions in above and below-ground carbon. ► It takes 187–966 years to repay emissions from above and below-ground carbon stocks.

  17. Effects of knee extension constraint training on knee flexion angle and peak impact ground-reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Will; Yao, Wanxiang; Spang, Jeffrey T; Creighton, R Alexander; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2014-04-01

    Low compliance with training programs is likely to be one of the major reasons for inconsistency of the data regarding the effectiveness of current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. Training methods that reduce training time and cost could favorably influence the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs. A newly designed knee extension constraint training device may serve this purpose. (1) Knee extension constraint training for 4 weeks would significantly increase the knee flexion angle at the time of peak impact posterior ground-reaction force and decrease peak impact ground-reaction forces during landing of a stop-jump task and a side-cutting task, and (2) the training effects would be retained 4 weeks after completion of the training program. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four recreational athletes were randomly assigned to group A or B. Participants in group A played sports without wearing a knee extension constraint device for 4 weeks and then played sports while wearing the device for 4 weeks, while participants in group B underwent a reversed protocol. Both groups were tested at the beginning of week 1 and at the ends of weeks 4 and 8 without wearing the device. Knee joint angles were obtained from 3-dimensional videographic data, while ground-reaction forces were measured simultaneously using force plates. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the training effects and the retention of training effects. Participants in group A significantly increased knee flexion angles and decreased ground-reaction forces at the end of week 8 (P ≤ .012). Participants in group B significantly increased knee flexion angles and decreased ground-reaction forces at the ends of weeks 4 and 8 (P ≤ .007). However, participants in group B decreased knee flexion angles and increased ground-reaction forces at the end of week 8 in comparison with the end of week 4 (P ≤ .009). Knee extension constraint training for 4 weeks

  18. National climate assessment technical report on the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Loveland; Rezaul Mahmood; Toral Patel-Weynand; Krista Karstensen; Kari Beckendorf; Norman Bliss; Andrew Carleton

    2012-01-01

    This technical report responds to the recognition by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the importance of understanding how land use and land cover (LULC) affects weather and climate variability and change and how that variability and change affects LULC. Current published, peer-reviewed, scientific literature...

  19. The Parana paradox: can a model explain the decadal impacts of climate variability and land-cover change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Livino, A.; Briscoe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the 1970s, despite a decrease in rainfall, flow in the Parana river has increased. This paradox is explored using the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. If there were no change in land cover, the modeled runoff decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s by 11.8% (with 1970 land cover) or 18.8% (with 2008 land cover). When the model is run holding climate constant, the decadal average of the modeled runoff increased by 24.4% (with the 1970s climate) or by 33.6% (with 2000s climate). When the model is run allowing both the actual climate and land-cover changes, the model gives an increase in the decadal average of runoff by 8.5%. This agrees well with 10.5% increase in the actual stream flow as measured at Itaipu. There are three main conclusions from this work. First, the ED model is able to explain a major, paradoxical, reality in the Parana basin. Second, it is necessary to take into account both climate and land use changes when exploring past or future changes in river flows. Third, the ED model, now coupled with a regional climate model (i.e., EDBRAMS), is a sound basis for exploring likely changes in river flows in major South American rivers.

  20. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  1. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  2. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  3. Foraging traces as an indicator to monitor wild boar impact on ground nesting birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roda , Fabrice; Roda , Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The successful management of large herbivores requires the monitoring of a set of indicators of ecological change describing animal performance, relative animal abundance, and ungulate impact on habitat. Wild boar populations increases have been spectacular in many countries including France. Wild boars can have a substantial environmental impact on many ecosystem components including birds, but indicators to monitor such impact are currently lacking. In this paper, we examined the usefulness...

  4. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  5. Impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on the land cover and use: study of the basin Lajeado Bonito - RS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramontina, Juliana; Breunig, Fabio Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to analyze the impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on land cover and use in Lajeado Bonito-RS watershed. The study evaluated the temporal evolution of land cover and use in the watershed for the period before and after to installation of hydroelectric plant Foz do Chapeco (2009 to 2010). For temporal analysis, two images were interpreted, one orbital image of High Resolution Camera (HRC) onboard of the CBERS-2B, acquired in December 29, 2009. And a high-resolution image obtained from Google Earth application, acquired at December 26, 2010. The land cover and use maps were generated by vector editing SPRING software. We found that the predominant land use related to agriculture and livestock, including bare soil. In 2009 this class accounted for 70.23% of the total area, while it come to represent 61.8% in 2010. At the same time, there was increase of areas with native forest cover, from 27.49% covered by forest in 2009, to 31% in 2010. The results showed that in both 2009 and 2010 years, approximately 49% of permanent preservation area were used inappropriately. (author)

  6. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  7. Impacts of traditional architecture on the use of wood as an element of facade covering in Serbian contemporary architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trend of re-use of wood and wood products as materials for construction and covering of architectural structures is present not only because of the need to meet the aesthetic, artistic and formal requirements or to seek inspiration in the return to the tradition and nature, but also because of its ecological, economic and energetic feasibility. Furthermore, the use of wood fits into contemporary trends of sustainable development and application of modern technical and technological solutions in the production of materials, in order to maintain a connection to nature, environment and tradition. In this study the author focuses on wood and wood products as an element of facade covering on buildings in our country, in order to extend knowledge about possibilities and limitations of their use and create a base for their greater and correct application. The subject of this research is to examine the application of wood and wood products as an element covering the exterior in combination with other materials applied in our traditional and contemporary homes with the emphasis on functional, representational art and the various possibilities of wood. In this study all the factors that affect the application of wood and wood products have been analyzed and the conclusions have been drawn about the manner of their implementation and the types of wood and wood products protection. The development of modern technological solutions in wood processing led to the production of composite materials based on wood that are highly resistant, stable and much longer lasting than wood. Those materials have maintained in an aesthetic sense all the characteristics of wood that make it unique and inimitable. This is why modern facade coating based on wood should be applied as a facade covering in the exterior of modern architectural buildings in Serbia, and the use wood reduced to a minimum.

  8. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  9. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.; Shahmim, M.A.; Elahi, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  10. Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on ground level fog and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1977-03-01

    This document presents the details of a study of the atmospheric impacts of an Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC) that might result from the use of evaporative cooling alternatives. Specific cooling systems considered include once-through river cooling, cooling ponds, cooling towers, helper cooling ponds and towers and hybrid wet/dry cooling towers. The specific impacts evaluated are increases in fog and relative humidity

  11. A study on ground truth data for impact damaged polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentine, Sarah M.; Uchic, Michael D.

    2018-04-01

    This study presents initial results toward correlative characterization of barely-visible impact damage (BVID) in unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite laminate plates using nondestructive ultrasonic testing (UT) and destructive serial sectioning microscopy. To produce damage consistent with BVID, plates were impacted using an instrumented drop-weight tower with pneumatic anti-rebound brake. High-resolution, normal-incidence, single-sided, pulse-echo, immersion UT scans were performed to verify and map internal damage after impact testing. UT C-scans were registered to optical images of the specimen via landmark registration and the use of an affine transformation, allowing location of internal damage in reference to the overall plate and enabling specimen preparation for subsequent serial sectioning. The impact-damaged region was extracted from each plate, prepared and mounted for materialographic sectioning. A modified RoboMet.3D version 2 was employed for serial sectioning and optical microscopy characterization of the impact damaged regions. Automated montage capture of sub-micron resolution, bright-field reflection, 12-bit monochrome optical images was performed over the entire specimen cross-section. These optical images were post- processed to produce 3D data sets, including segmentation to improve visualization of damage features. Impact-induced delaminations were analyzed and characterized using both serial sectioning and ultrasonic methods. Those results and conclusions are presented, as well as future direction of the current study.

  12. Characterization of cover crops by NMR spectroscopy: impacts on soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under tillage regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cover crops by solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and its effects on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Acrustox. Cover crops (Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus and natural fallow were studied in rotation with maize under conventional and no-tillage regimes. Tissues of Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus were analyzed using CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected at the end of the growing season of the cover crops (September 2002 and during the grain filling period in corn from 0-5 and 5-10 cm layers. Cajanus cajan presented the lowest content of polysaccharides and along with Mucuna pruriens presented the highest percentage of aromatic carbon compounds, reflecting the slow decomposition of highly lignified material. Carbon stocks were higher in the superficial soil layer and under no-tillage due to the accumulation and slower decomposition of plant tissues under these conditions. Increases in the C/N ratio of the soil with Mucuna pruriens and the C/P ratio with Cajanus cajan in the dry season were also related to slower rates of decomposition, caused by the large concentration of aromatic compounds in the tissues of these species. The higher C/P ratios found at 0-5 cm layer are due to higher values of P (Mehlich-1 at 5-10 cm (25 mg kg-1 layer and the higher concentration of carbon in the superficial soil layer as a result of the accumulation of plant residues.

  13. Investigating the Impact of Human Activity on Land Use/Cover Change in China’s Lijiang River Basin from the Perspective of Flow and Type of Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring how human activity impacts land use/cover change (LUCC is a hot research topic in the field of geography and sustainability management. Researchers have primarily used socioeconomic variables to measure human activity. However, the human activity indexes mainly based on socioeconomic variables have a spatial resolution that is coarser than traditional LUCC datasets, which hinders a deep and comprehensive analysis. In view of these problems, we selected China’s Lijiang River Basin as our study area and proposed the use of GPS trajectory data for analyzing the impact of human activity on LUCC from two perspectives: (1 Type of population: we used the kernel density estimation method to extract the spatial distribution of activity intensity of local residents and tourists, investigated their correlation with the LUCC result, and found these two populations have different impacts on each land cover; (2 Flow of population: we used the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN algorithm and a network analysis method to build a flow network of population from raw trajectories, conducted regression analysis with LUCC, and found that the flow of population is an important factor driving LUCC and is sometimes a more important factor than the static distribution of the population. Experimental results validated that the proposed method can be used to uncover the impact mechanism of human activity on LUCC at fine-grained scales and provide more accurate planning and instructions for sustainability management.

  14. The Impact of Land Cover Change on Ecosystem Service Values in Urban Agglomerations along the Coast of the Bohai Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushuo Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Local ecosystem services have been significantly affected by land cover changes associated with rapid urbanization in China. Based on the 2000 and 2010 land cover data products with 30-m resolution, we examined the similarities and differences in the impacts of land cover change on ecosystem service values (ESV at three coastal urban agglomerations in China between 2000 and 2010 (Liaodong Peninsula (LP, Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ and Shandong Peninsula (SP. A rapid evaluation method developed by Xie et al. (2008 was used to derive an ecosystem service value coefficient. The most significant change was an increase in artificial surfaces, due to urban expansion, which mainly occurred on cultivated land. The greatest loss in total ESV (2273 million Chinese Yuan occurred in SP, due to the large decrease in wetland areas, because this service has the highest estimated coefficient. The second greatest loss in ESV (893 million Yuan occurred in JJJ, due to the urban expansion of major cities. In contrast, ESV increased (72 million Yuan in LP. This study demonstrates that urban expansion does not necessarily lead to a net decline in ESV. In conclusion, land use and land cover policymaking should consider the sustainability of ecosystem services in relation to economic growth.

  15. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  16. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover Changes under Climate Uncertainty: Modelling the Impacts on Hydropower Production in Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Obahoundje

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bui hydropower plant plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. This paper attempt to explore the combined effects of climate-land use land cover change on power production using the (WEAP model: Water Evaluation and Planning system. The historical analysis of rainfall and stream flow variability showed that the annual coefficient of variation of rainfall and stream flow are, respectively, 8.6% and 60.85%. The stream flow varied greatly than the rainfall, due to land use land cover changes (LULC. In fact, the LULC analysis revealed important changes in vegetative areas and water bodies. The WEAP model evaluation showed that combined effects of LULC and climate change reduce water availability for all of demand sectors, including hydropower generation at the Bui hydropower plant. However, it was projected that Bui power production will increase by 40.7% and 24.93%, respectively, under wet and adaptation conditions, and decrease by 46% and 2.5%, respectively, under dry and current conditions. The wet condition is defined as an increase in rainfall by 14%, the dry condition as the decrease in rainfall by 15%; current account is business as usual, and the adaptation is as the efficient use of water for the period 2012–2040.

  18. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV, and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010–2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000–2010 to 2010–2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services.

  19. Soil cover patterns and dynamics impact on GHG fluxes in RF native and man-changed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Nesterova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The increased soil spatial-temporal variability is mutual feature for most mature natural and particularly man-changed terrestrial ecosystems in Central and Far-East regions of Russia with soil cover strongly pronounced bioclimatic zoning and landscape-geomorphologic differentiation. Soil cover patterns (SCP) detailed morphogenetic analysis and typification is useful tool for soil forming and degradation processes quantitative evaluation, land ecological state and functional quality quantitative assessment. Quantitative analysis and functional-ecological interpretation of representative SCP spatial variability is especially important for environmentally friendly and demand-driven land-use planning and decision making. The carried out 33-years region- and local-scale researches of the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and SCP with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe, agricultural and recreational ones) give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. Succession process-based analysis of modern evolution of man-changed and natural soils and ESCP essentially increases accuracy of quantitative assessments of dominant soil forming and degradation processes rate and potential, their influence on land and soil cover quality and ecosystem services. Their results allow developing the regional and landscape adapted versions of automated land evaluation systems and land-use DSS. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and develop¬ment, ecosystem principal services (with especial attention on greenhouse gases emissions, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, biodiversity and productivity, hydrological regimes and geomorphologic stabilization), land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and

  20. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    propagation of the electromagnetic waves generated by lightning has also been studied in the frequency range 1 kHz-1MHz at distances lower than 1000 km from the lightning source. A propagation model has been developed to determine the ground waves which propagate in a homogenous medium using the analytical expression given by Maclean and Wu [1993]. This approach takes into account the electric finite conductivity and the fact that the Earth is spherical, which allow us to deal with over-the-horizon propagation. We installed in 2008 four stations which were more or less aligned - the maximum distance between two stations was about 870 km. Two stations were located close to the Mediterranean Sea and the two others inside the continent, at the centre of France. This station distribution and the observation period (from August to December) allowed statistical and physical studies, such as the influence of the electric conductivity on wave propagation. Comparison of electric field spectra, measured after propagation only over sea and only over ground, showed clearly the effects of ground conductivity on propagation. Comparison between observations and modelling has been used to evaluate the ground conductivity. In the future we will implement the sky-wave inside our model and validate it with the database.

  1. Seepage from uranium tailing ponds and its impact on ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, P.H.; Mabes, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A typical uranium mill produces about 1800 metric tons of tailing per day. An assessment of the seepage from an unlined tailing impoundment of a hypothetical mill in northwestern New Mexico indicates that about 2x10 5 m 3 /yr of water will seep over a period of 23 years. The seepage water will move vertically to the water table, and then spread out radially and ultimately downgradient with ground water. The principal dissolved contaminants in the tailing pond liquid are radium, thorium, sulfate, iron, manganese, and selenium; in addition, the liquid is acidic (pH=2). Many contaminants precipitate out as neutralization of seepage water occurs. At the termination of mill operation, radium will have advanced about 0.4 m and thorium no more than 0.1 m below the bottom of the tailing pond

  2. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  3. Run for cover now or later? The impact of premiums, threats and deadlines on private health insurance in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Savage, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Between 1997 and 2000 the Australian government introduced three policy reforms that aimed to increase private health insurance coverage and reduce public hospital demand. The first provided income-based tax incentives; the second gave an across-the-board 30% premium subsidy; and the third introduced selective age-based premium increases for those enrolling after a deadline. Together the reforms increased enrolment by 50% and reduced the average age of enrollees. The deadline appeared to induce consumers to enroll now rather than delay. We estimate a model of individual insurance decisions and examine the effects of the reforms on the age and income distribution of those with private cover. We interpret the major driver of the increased enrollment as a response to a deadline and an advertising blitz, rather than a pure price response.

  4. Investigating the climate and carbon cycle impacts of CMIP6 Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Community Earth System Model (CESM2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P.; Lawrence, D. M.; O'Neill, B. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    For the next round of CMIP6 climate simulations there are new historical and SSP - RCP land use and land cover change (LULCC) data sets that have been compiled through the Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP). The new time series data include new functionality following lessons learned through CMIP5 project and include new developments in the Community Land Model (CLM5) that will be used in all the CESM2 simulations of CMIP6. These changes include representing explicit crop modeling and better forest representation through the extended to 12 land units of the Global Land Model (GLM). To include this new information in CESM2 and CLM5 simulations new transient land surface data sets have been generated for the historical period 1850 - 2015 and for preliminary SSP - RCP paired future scenarios. The new data sets use updated MODIS Land Cover, Vegetation Continuous Fields, Leaf Area Index and Albedo to describe Primary and Secondary, Forested and Non Forested land units, as well as Rangelands and Pasture. Current day crop distributions are taken from the MIRCA2000 crop data set as done with the CLM 4.5 crop model and used to guide historical and future crop distributions. Preliminary "land only" simulations with CLM5 have been performed for the historical period and for the SSP1-RCP2.6 and SSP3-RCP7 land use and land cover change time series data. Equivalent no land use and land cover change simulations have been run for these periods under the same meteorological forcing data. The "land only" simulations use GSWP3 historical atmospheric forcing data from 1850 to 2010 and then time increasing RCP 8.5 atmospheric CO2 and climate anomalies on top of the current day GSWP3 atmospheric forcing data from 2011 to 2100. The offline simulations provide a basis to evaluate the surface climate, carbon cycle and crop production impacts of changing land use and land cover for each of these periods. To further evaluate the impacts of the new CLM5 model and the CMIP6 land

  5. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  6. Ground-level ozone pollution and its health impacts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Shuai; Xue, Boru; Lv, Zhaofeng; Meng, Zhihang; Yang, Xiaofan; Xue, Tao; Yu, Qiao; He, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution in China has become an increasingly prominent problem. This study simulated and analyzed spatiotemporal distribution of ozone and exposure level by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models and monitoring data from 1516 national air quality monitoring stations in China during 2015. The simulation results show that the Sichuan Basin, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had relatively high average annual concentrations of ozone. The regions with more than 10% nonattainment days of 160 μg/m3 (daily maximum 8-h) are mainly concentrated in BTH, Shandong Peninsula and YRD, where large seasonal variations were also found. Exposure levels were calculated based on population data and simulated ozone concentrations. The cumulative population exposed to daily maximum 8-h concentration greater than or equal to 100 μg/m3 was 816.04 million, 61.17% of the total. Three methods were used to estimate the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ozone. A comparative study using different exposure concentrations and threshold concentrations found large variations among these methods, although they were all peer-reviewed methods. The estimated mortality of COPD caused by ozone in China in 2015 ranged from 55341 to 80280, which mainly distributed in Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Sichuan Province, the YRD and PRD region.

  7. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies: impacts on risk assessment of uniform hazard spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Sewell, R.T.

    1996-07-01

    Conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates are studied: effects of uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) are examined for deriving probabilistic estimates of risk and in-structure demand levels, as compared to the more-exact use of realistic time history inputs (of given probability) that depend explicitly on magnitude and distance. This approach differs from the conventional in its exhaustive treatment of the ground-motion threat and in its more detailed assessment of component responses to that threat. The approximate UH-ISS (in-structure spectrum) obtained based on UHS appear to be very close to the more-exact results directed computed from scenario earthquakes. This conclusion does not depend on site configurations and structural characteristics. Also, UH-ISS has composite shapes and may not correspond to the characteristics possessed a single earthquake. The shape is largely affected by the structural property in most cases and can be derived approximately from the corresponding UHS. Motions with smooth spectra, however, will not have the same damage potential as those of more realistic motions with jagged spectral shapes. As a result, UHS-based analysis may underestimate the real demands in nonlinear structural analyses

  8. Monitoring Urbanization-Related Land Cover Change on the U.S. Great Plains and Impacts on Remotely Sensed Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Jackson, T.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is currently in an era of rapid urban growth with >50% of global population living in urban areas. Urbanization occurs alongside urban population growth, as cities expand to meet the demands of increasing population. Consequently, there is a need for remote sensing research to detect, monitor, and measure urbanization and its impacts on the biosphere. Here we used MODIS and Landsat data products to (1) detect urbanization-related land cover changes, (2) investigate urbanization-related impacts on land surface phenology (LSP) across rural to urban gradients and (3) explore fractional vegetation and impervious surface area regionally across the US Great Plains and within 14 cities in this region. We used the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) and Land Cover Type (LCT) products from 2001, 2006, and 2011 for 30m classification of the peri-urban environment. We investigated the impacts of urbanization-related land cover change on urban LSP at 30m resolution using the NDVI product from Web Enabled Landsat Data (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov) with accumulated growing degree-days calculated from first-order weather stations. We fitted convex quadratic LSP models to a decade (2003-2012) of observations to yield these phenometrics: modeled peak NDVI, time (thermal and calendar) to modeled peak, duration of season (DOS), and model fit. We compared our results to NDVI from MODIS NBAR (500m) and we explored the utility of 4 μm radiance (MODIS band 23) at 1 km resolution to characterize fractional vegetation dynamics in and around urbanized areas. Across all 14 cities we found increases in urbanized area (>25 %ISA) exceeding 10% from 2001-2011. Using LSP phenometrics, we were able to detect changes from cropland to suburban LCTs. In general we found negative relationships between DOS and distance from city center. We found a distinct seasonal cycle of MIR radiance over cropland LCTs due to the spectral contrast between bare soils and green vegetation.

  9. Spatial and temporal assessment of driving and conditioning factors and their impact on land use / land cover change in the Xiangxi Catchment, Three Gorges Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Christoph; Hartmann, Heike; Xiang, Wei; King, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    Land use / land cover change (LUCC) is the most important human alteration of the earth's surface and is primarily studied in cases where it leads to severe environmental problems. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China has an extensive impact on the ecosystems and the local population. To assess its impact, the Xiangxi Catchment is taken as an example. The outlet of the Xiangxi River, a northern tributary of the Yangtze River, is located about 40 km upstream of the Three Gorges Dam. Due to the loss of fertile arable land and residential land which is mainly induced by the inundation and measures of resettlement, enormous LUCC is observed in the study area by depicting the land use / land cover by classification of LandsatTM data retrieved in 1987 and 2007. LUCC in the Xiangxi Catchment during this period can generally be characterized as decrease of cultivated land, increase of woodland and fallow land, and a shift in cropping from traditional smallholder farming to the establishment of citrus orchards, which are implemented as cash crops. Not only the inundation and the resettlement have an impact on LUCC, also the newly built and improved traffic infrastructure, growth of urban structures and land use policies in terms of environmental protection are expected to play an important role concerning LUCC. To assess the spatial and temporal impact of influencing factors, a LUCC gradient is generated based on post-classification change analysis of multispectral data. Furthermore, inter-stages between 1987 and 2007 have to be examined, to reach for a higher temporal resolution, which shall help to figure out temporal relationships between LUCC and the occurrence of driving factors. Once influence factors and and their spatial and temporal impacts are identified, a basis for predicting LUCC in the future for is provided for this area.

  10. Exposure Through Runoff and Ground Water Contamination Differentially Impact Behavior and Physiology of Crustaceans in Fluvial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alexandra N; Belanger, Rachelle M; Moore, Paul A

    2018-06-19

    Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This study used agonistic encounters in crayfish Orconectes virilis as a behavioral assay to investigate impact of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, 80, and 160 µg/L) delivered by methods mimicking ground water and surface runoff influx into flow-through exposure arenas for a total of 23 h. Each experimental animal participated in a dyadic fight trial with an unexposed opponent. Fight duration and intensity were analyzed. Experimental crayfish hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissue samples were analyzed for cytochrome P450 and acetylcholinesterase levels to discern mechanism of detoxification and mode of action of atrazine. Atrazine delivered via runoff decreased crayfish overall fight intensity and contrastingly ground water delivery increased overall fight intensity. The behavioral differences were mirrored by increases in cytochrome P450 activity, whereas no differences were found in acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates that method of delivery into fluvial systems has differential effects on both behavior and physiology of organisms and emphasizes the need for the consideration of delivery pathway in ecotoxicological studies and water-impairment standards.

  11. Trajectory analysis of land use and land cover maps to improve spatial-temporal patterns, and impact assessment on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomlot, Z.; Verbeiren, B.; Huysmans, M.; Batelaan, O.

    2017-11-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) change is a consequence of human-induced global environmental change. It is also considered one of the major factors affecting groundwater recharge. Uncertainties and inconsistencies in LULC maps are one of the difficulties that LULC timeseries analysis face and which have a significant effect on hydrological impact analysis. Therefore, an accuracy assessment approach of LULC timeseries is needed for a more reliable hydrological analysis and prediction. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of land use uncertainty and to improve the accuracy of a timeseries of CORINE (coordination of information on the environment) land cover maps by using a new approach of identifying spatial-temporal LULC change trajectories as a pre-processing tool. This ensures consistency of model input when dealing with land-use dynamics and as such improves the accuracy of land use maps and consequently groundwater recharge estimation. As a case study the impact of consistent land use changes from 1990 until 2013 on groundwater recharge for the Flanders-Brussels region is assessed. The change trajectory analysis successfully assigned a rational trajectory to 99% of all pixels. The methodology is shown to be powerful in correcting interpretation inconsistencies and overestimation errors in CORINE land cover maps. The overall kappa (cell-by-cell map comparison) improved from 0.6 to 0.8 and from 0.2 to 0.7 for forest and pasture land use classes respectively. The study shows that the inconsistencies in the land use maps introduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge estimation in a range of 10-30%. The analysis showed that during the period of 1990-2013 the LULC changes were mainly driven by urban expansion. The results show that the resolution at which the spatial analysis is performed is important; the recharge differences using original and corrected CORINE land cover maps increase considerably with increasing spatial resolution. This study indicates

  12. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  13. Daily life impact of malocclusion in Swedish adolescents: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Bayat, Jari; Hallberg, Ulrika; Lindblad, Frank; Huggare, Jan; Mohlin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    To explore how malocclusions affect daily life in adolescents and how adolescents cope with malocclusion-related distress. Twelve strategically selected teenagers, seven girls and five boys aged 13-14 years, participated in this study. Open, tape-recorded in-depth interviews based on Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were performed using a theme guide and analyzed according to the qualitative method of classic grounded theory (GT). A core category was identified and named 'Repeatedly reminded of the malocclusion'. Associated to the core category, five categories were generated and labeled 'Being directed by the media's ideal image', 'Monitoring others' teeth', 'Struggling with low self-esteem', 'Hiding one's teeth' and 'Striving for cure'. Low self-esteem appeared to be frequently reinforced through the concerns for the malocclusion and handled via different coping strategies, such as hiding the teeth and striving to receive orthodontic treatment. Such processes were further enforced through the influence of media. Low self-esteem could be associated to a visible malposition of teeth, according to the informants. Having to wait for orthodontic treatment was frustrating the adolescents. Adolescents with malocclusion are often reminded of their condition, which can lead to avoiding strategies to minimize the negative feelings associated with the teeth and low self-esteem. Clinicians may therefore need to be aware of potential irrational behaviors when interacting with adolescents with malocclusions. The findings also suggest that there might be a discrepancy of attitudes between professionals focusing on oral health aspects of malocclusions and the adolescents focusing on esthetic aspects.

  14. Laser - assisted multiphoton ionization of ground state Li{sup +} by electron and positron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S Ghosh; Sinha, C, E-mail: srabanti.ghosh@gmail.co, E-mail: chand_sin@hotmail.co [Theoretical Physics Department, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700032 (India)

    2009-11-01

    The influence of the laser field on the dynamics of (e, 2e) process of Li{sup +} ion by electron / positron impact is studied for coplanar geometry with laser polarization parallel to the incident momentum. The laser dressed projectile wavefunctions are chosen as Coulomb Volkov (CV) while for ejected electron, modified CV is considered. The target dressing is constructed using the time dependent perturbation theory. Laser field suppresses the FF cross-sections significantly for single photon exchange while for multiple photon exchanges the cross-sections are enhanced. TDCS is quite sensitive with respect to the initial phase of the laser field.

  15. Impact of Mina Ratones (Albala, Caceres) in surface and ground waters: hydro geochemistry modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, P.

    2002-01-01

    Weathering of rock materials, tailings and mine dumps produce acidic and metal-enriched waters that contaminate surface and groundwaters. The understanding and quantification of the environmental impact of the Ratones old uranium mine (Albala, Caceres) are the main objectives of this work. For this purpose, the hydro geochemistry around the mine has been studied based on a precise knowledge of the structure and hydrogeology of the zone. The hydrochemical study aims to establish the chemical phases that control the concentration of the possible contaminants of the groundwaters. (Author)

  16. Does Suspected Sleep Disordered Breathing Impact on the Sleep and Performance of Firefighting Volunteers during a Simulated Fire Ground Campaign?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8 or a non-SDB group (n = 12. The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL followed by two nights of restricted (4 h sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R. All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST, REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its

  17. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  18. Impacts of a large boreal wildfire on ground level atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, VOCs and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Gregory R.; Aklilu, Yayne-abeba; Landis, Matthew S.; Hsu, Yu-Mei

    2018-04-01

    During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements collected every sixth day at four and seven sites, respectively, from May to August 2016. The sum of PAHs (ΣPAH) was on average 17 times higher in fire-influenced samples (852 ng m-3, n = 8), relative to non-fire influenced samples (50 ng m-3, n = 64). Diagnostic PAH ratios in fire-influenced samples were indicative of a biomass burning source, whereas ratios in June to August samples showed additional influence from petrogenic and fossil fuel combustion. The average increase in the sum of VOCs (ΣVOC) was minor by comparison: 63 ppbv for fire-influenced samples (n = 16) versus 46 ppbv for non-fire samples (n = 90). The samples collected on August 16th and 22nd had large ΣVOC concentrations at all sites (average of 123 ppbv) that were unrelated to wildfire emissions, and composed primarily of acetaldehyde and methanol suggesting a photochemically aged air mass. Normalized excess enhancement ratios (ERs) were calculated for 20 VOCs and 23 PAHs for three fire influenced samples, and the former were generally consistent with previous observations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report ER measurements for a number of VOCs and PAHs in fresh North American boreal wildfire plumes. During May the aged wildfire plume intercepted the cities of Edmonton (∼380 km south) or Lethbridge (∼790 km south) on four separate occasions. No enhancement in ground-level ozone (O3) was observed in these aged plumes despite an assumed increase in O3 precursors. In the AOSR, the only daily-averaged VOCs which approached or exceeded the hourly Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives (AAAQOs) were benzene (during the fire) and acetaldehyde (on August 16th

  19. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on orogrpahic clouds and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Binod

    This dissertation examines reflectivity data from three different radar systems, as well as airborne and ground-based in situ particle imaging data, to study the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on orographic clouds and precipitation formed over the mountains in southern Wyoming. The data for this study come from the AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) field campaign conducted over the Sierra Madre mountains in 2012 (ASCII-12) and over the Medicine Bow mountains in 2013 (ASCII-13) in the context of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP). The campaigns were supported by a network of ground-based instruments, including a microwave radiometer, two profiling Ka-band Micro Rain Radars (MRRs), a Doppler on Wheels (DOW), rawinsondes, a Cloud Particle Imager, and a Parsivel disdrometer. The University of Wyoming King Air with profiling Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) conducted nine successful flights in ASCII-12, and eight flights in ASCII-13. WCR profiles from these flights are combined with those from seven other flights, which followed the same geographically-fixed pattern in 2008-09 (pre-ASCII) over the Medicine Bow range. All sampled storms were relatively shallow, with low-level air forced over the target mountain, and cold enough to support ice initiation by silver iodide (AgI) nuclei in cloud. Three detailed case studies are conducted, each with different atmospheric conditions and different cloud and snow growth properties: one case (21 Feb 2012) is stratiform, with strong winds and cloud droplets too small to enable snow growth by accretion (riming). A second case (13 Feb 2012) contains shallow convective cells. Clouds in the third case study (22 Feb 2012) are stratiform but contain numerous large droplets (mode ~35 microm in diameter), large enough for ice particle growth by riming. These cases and all others, each with a treated period following an untreated period, show that a clear seeding signature is not immediately apparent

  20. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  1. Climate and land cover effects on the temperature of Puget Sound streams: Assessment of Climate and Land Use Impacts on Stream Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qian [Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Sun, Ning [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yearsley, John [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Nijssen, Bart [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA

    2016-03-06

    We apply an integrated hydrology-stream temperature modeling system, DHSVM-RBM, to examine the response of the temperature of the major streams draining to Puget Sound to land cover and climate change. We first show that the model construct is able to reconstruct observed historic streamflow and stream temperature variations at a range of time scales. We then explore the relative effect of projected future climate and land cover change, including riparian vegetation, on streamflow and stream temperature. Streamflow in summer is likely to decrease as the climate warms especially in snowmelt-dominated and transient river basins despite increased streamflow in their lower reaches associated with urbanization. Changes in streamflow also result from changes in land cover, and changes in stream shading result from changes in riparian vegetation, both of which influence stream temperature. However, we find that the effect of riparian vegetation changes on stream temperature is much greater than land cover change over the entire basin especially during summer low flow periods. Furthermore, while future projected precipitation change will have relatively modest effects on stream temperature, projected future air temperature increases will result in substantial increases in stream temperature especially in summer. These summer stream temperature increases will be associated both with increasing air temperature, and projected decreases in low flows. We find that restoration of riparian vegetation could mitigate much of the projected summer stream temperature increases. We also explore the contribution of riverine thermal loadings to the heat balance of Puget Sound, and find that the riverine contribution is greatest in winter, when streams account for up to 1/8 of total thermal inputs (averaged from December through February), with larger effects in some sub-basins. We project that the riverine impact on thermal inputs to Puget Sound will become greater with both urbanization

  2. The impact of China's carbon allowance allocation rules on the product prices and emission reduction behaviors of ETS-covered enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Ao-Dong; Tan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    It is an important task for China to allocate carbon emission allowance to realize its carbon reduction target and establish carbon trading market. China has designed several allocation rules within seven pilot regions. What influence those rules may cause is closely related with the enthusiasm of emission trading scheme (ETS) covered enterprises' participation in carbon market, and more importantly, with the mechanism design and sustainable development of carbon market. For this purpose, the multi-stage profit model is developed to analyze the ETS-covered enterprises' product prices and emission reduction behaviors under different allocation rules. The results show that, first, under the rules of grandfathering, self-declaration and auctioning, when deciding the optimal product price and optimal carbon emission reduction, those enterprises may focus on maximizing current stage profit; however, under the rule of benchmarking, those enterprises may care more about the impact of current decisions on the profit in next stage. Second, the optimal product price policy is positively correlated with the price of the same kind products, consumers' low-carbon awareness and government subsidy. Finally, along with the increase of carbon price, consumers' low-carbon awareness and government subsidy and the decrease of carbon emission cap, those enterprises tend to reduce carbon emissions. - Highlights: • Analyze the impact of carbon allowance allocation rules on ETS-covered enterprises. • For grandfather, self-declaration and auction, they may maximize current profits. • For benchmark, they care the effect of current decisions on the coming profits. • The optimal product price positively relates to low-carbon awareness and subsidy. • Carbon price, low-carbon awareness and subsidy rise leads their emission reduction.

  3. Impact of agricultural and industrial activities on ground water quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, M.A.; Latif, Z.; Butt, S.; Afzal, M.; Ali, M.; Afzal, M.; Khan, I.H.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of agricultural and industrial activities on groundwater quality. Kasur area was selected to study the influence of chemical fertilizers and tannery effluents on groundwater with the help of /sup 15/N of water nitrates. Bremner and keeney methods with certain modifications ware adopted for extraction of nitrate nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions. Ammonium concentrates were converted to nitrogen gas using potassium hypo bromide solution and analyzed on GD-150 mass spectrometer. /sup 15/N of nitrates from groundwater (n=14), pond water and Kisan urea were determined. There is a pronounced difference in the /sup 15/N values of nitrates from various sources. /sup 15/N of pond water (mixture of tannery effluents, sewerage and rainwater) was found to be +31.99% and +21.26% for the first and the second samplings respectively. /sup 15/N of Kisan urea sample was determined to be - 1.00%. The nitrate concentration of groundwater ranged from 1-171 ppm and / sup 15/N was found to be -0.40 to WHO permissible limits (45 ppm). Temporal variation was also observed but the values were still above the WHO limits. It is concluded that the major source of nitrates pollution in the Kasur area is due to chemical fertilizers and +37.10%. Out of 14 drinking water samples six have nitrate contents above biological wastes but not due to the tannery effluents. (author)

  4. CALCULATION OF FOUNDATIONS-COVERS FOR CONSTRUCTIONS OF TOWER TYPE ON THE IMPACT OF UNEVEN SUBSIDENCE OF BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMCHENKO R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Among the constructions of the tower type there are the foundations are made as round or circular plate and a truncated conical coverleans on it being a continuation of kernel hardness. The round in plan and circular annular reinforced concrete foundations are mainly used in engineering structures, such as chimneys, silos, water towers, tanks. Buildings and structures built on the unfavorable areas are exposed with deformation influence from the foundation. The degree of weakening of the foundation depends on the size of the horizontal deformations and change of the structure and state of the soil. Purpose. Reduced the characteristics of weak bases are defined differently, depending on the nature, type and size of deformation. Not for all cases, there are specific recommendations as for their definition. The work of round, circular, polygonal shape of the foundation plates is not studied enough in these conditions and requires consideration. Conclusion. One of the actual problems of the foundation structures design is to define the limits of deformation effects for a certain type of foundation for a given force loading in hard soil conditions. This task can be solved with a gradual increase of deformation impacts on foundation (increasing of curvature, slope, subsidence, dimensions of the ledge, the diameter of the failures. Foundation structures should be designed with such dimensions that the ratio of the stiffness of the plate and the foundation will be conformed to the highest capacity of plate, then supporting capacity of the elements of the system are used most fully.

  5. Pollen core assemblages as indicator of Polynesian and European impact on the vegetation cover of Auckland Isthmus catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahim, Ghada M. S.; Parker, Robin J.; Horrocks, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Tamaki Estuary is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf situated on the eastern side of central Auckland. Over the last 100 years, Tamaki catchment has evolved from a nearly rural landscape to an urbanised and industrialised area. Pollen, 14C and glass shards analyses, were carried out on three cores collected along the estuary with the aim to reconstruct the estuary's history over the last ˜8000 years and trace natural and anthropogenic effects recorded in the sediments. Glass shard analysis was used to establish key tephra time markers such as the peralkaline eruption of Mayor Island, ˜6000 years BP. During the pre-Polynesian period (since at least 8000 years BP), regional vegetation was podocarp/hardwood forest dominated by Dacrydium cupressinun, Prumnopits taxifolia, and Metrosideros. Major Polynesian settler impact (commencing ˜700 yr BP) was associated with forest clearance as indicated by a sharp decline in forest pollen types. This coincided with an increase in bracken (Pteridium esculentum) spores and grass pollen. Continuing landscape disturbance during European settlement (commencing after 1840 AD) was accompanied by the distinctive appearance of exotic pollen taxa such as Pinus.

  6. Impact assessment of fly ash on ground water quality: An experimental study using batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandautiya, Rahul; Singh, Ajit Pratap; Kundu, Sanghamitra

    2018-05-01

    The fly ash, generated at the coal-based thermal power plant, is always a cause of concern to environmentalists owing to its adverse impact on air, water and land. There exists a high environmental risk when it is disposed to the environment. Thus, two different type of fly ash samples (FA-1 and FA-2) have been considered in this study to examine the leaching potential of the elements magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, strontium, cadmium, barium and lead for different types of leachant. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure and ASTM tests have been performed in the laboratory to simulate different natural leaching scenarios. Characterisation of samples have been done through X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscope. The effect of different liquid to solid ratios (i.e. 5, 10, 20 and 50) on the mobilisation of elements has been analysed. The results indicated that the maximum leaching of all elements occurred at a liquid to solid ratio of 5 except for arsenic, barium and silicon. The groundwater analysis has also been done to understand the actual effects of leachate. The elements presenting the highest leachability in the two fly ash samples under all tested conditions were magnesium, aluminium, silicon and calcium. It has been observed that calcium exhibits greater leaching effects than all other constituents. The study presented here has been found very useful for assessing contamination levels in groundwater owing to leaching effects of fly ash under different scenarios, which can be helpful to prevent spreading of the contaminants by efficient management of fly ash.

  7. Detecting the hydrological impacts of forest cover change in tropical mountain areas: need for detrending time series of rainfall and streamflow data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Balthazar, V.

    2012-04-01

    Interactions between human activities and the physical environment have increasingly transformed the hydrological functioning of Andean ecosystems. In these human-modified landscapes, land use/-cover change may have a profound effect on riverine water and sediment fluxes. The hydrological impacts of land use/-cover change are diverse, as changes in vegetation affect the various components of the hydrological cycle including evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff. Quantitative data for tropical mountain regions are scarce, as few long time series on rainfall, water discharge and land use are available. Furthermore, time series of rainfall and streamflow data in tropical mountains are often highly influenced by large inter- and intra-annual variability. In this paper, we analyse the hydrological response to complex forest cover change for a catchment of 280 km2 located in the Ecuadorian Andes. Forest cover change in the Pangor catchment was reconstructed based on airphotos (1963, 1977), LANDSAT TM (1991) and ETM+ data (2001, 2009). From 1963, natural vegetation was converted to agricultural land and pine plantations: forests decreased by a factor 2, and paramo decreased by 20 km2 between 1963 and 2009. For this catchment, there exists an exceptionally long record of rainfall and streamflow data that dates back from the '70s till now, but large variability in hydrometeorological data exists that is partly related to ENSO events. Given the nonstationary and nonlinear character of the ENSO-related changes in rainfall, we used the Hilbert-Huang transformation to detrend the time series of the river flow data from inter- and intra-annual fluctuations in rainfall. After applying adaptive data analysis based on empirical model decomposition techniques, it becomes apparent that the long-term trend in streamflow is different from the long-term trend in rainfall data. While the streamflow data show a long-term decrease in monthly flow, the rainfall data have a

  8. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  9. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  10. Evaluation of the Internal and Borehole Resistances during Thermal Response Tests and Impact on Ground Heat Exchanger Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lamarche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters evaluated with a conventional thermal response test (TRT are the subsurface thermal conductivity surrounding the borehole and the effective borehole thermal resistance, when averaging the inlet and outlet temperature of a ground heat exchanger with the arithmetic mean. This effective resistance depends on two resistances: the 2D borehole resistance (Rb and the 2D internal resistance (Ra which is associated to the short-circuit effect between pipes in the borehole. This paper presents a field method to evaluate these two components separately. Two approaches are proposed. In the first case, the temperature at the bottom of the borehole is measured at the same time as the inlet and outlet temperatures as done in a conventional TRT. In the second case, different flow rates are used during the experiment to infer the internal resistance. Both approaches assumed a predefined temperature profile inside the borehole. The methods were applied to real experimental tests and compared with numerical simulations. Interesting results were found by comparison with theoretical resistances calculated with the multipole method. The motivation for this work is evidenced by analyzing the impact of the internal resistance on a typical geothermal system design. It is shown to be important to know both resistance components to predict the variation of the effective resistance when the flow rate and the height of the boreholes are changed during the design process.

  11. Quantifying the energy impact of a variable flow pump in a ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iolova, K.; Bernier, M.A. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique; Nichols, L. [Dessau-Soprin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of an energy-efficient public high school building was modelled using the TRNSYS multi-zone building simulation program. The architectural elements such as windows, external and internal walls, roofs, and slabs were described in detail. The two-storey Ecole du Tournant high school near Montreal is the most efficient in Quebec and the second in Canada. It consumes 79.2 per cent less source energy than a typical high school built in accordance with the Model National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings. This presentation described the case study and quantified the energy impact of replacing a constant speed pump with a pump driven by a variable frequency drive in a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system that was installed in the high school. Performance data collected from an on-site energy management system showed that the annual energy consumption of the heat pumps is 33 per cent (63700 kWh) of the total energy consumption of the school while the circulating pump consumes 7.1 per cent (13702 kWh). This performance data was used to validate the energy simulations which were performed using TRNSYS 15. Simulations with variable-flow pumping showed that pumping energy consumption was reduced by about 82 per cent while the total energy used by the circulating pump and heat pumps was reduced by 18.5 per cent. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  13. Do we need to account for scenarios of land use/land cover changes in regional climate modeling and impact studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc

    2016-04-01

    By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land

  14. Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Water Yield: A Case Study in Jing-Jin-Ji, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiao Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the impact of land-use and land-cover (LULC changes on the distribution of water yield (WY is essential for water resource management. Using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST model, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of WY from 1990 to 2015 in China’s northern semi-arid region of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji. We quantified the combined effects of LULC dynamics and climatic variation on WY. Furthermore, we identified the relative contribution of main LULC types to WY. For our study region, the built-up area increased by 35.66% (5380 km2 during the study period. In the meantime, cropland, grassland, and wetland decreased continuously. The expansion of built-up area and decline of vegetated land led to an increase of 1047 million m3 (5.1% in total WY. The impacts of LULC changes on WY were mainly determined by the biophysical characteristics of LULC composition. Vegetated land has relatively lower WY coefficients due to higher rates of evapotranspiration and water infiltration. Built-up areas and bare land have higher WY coefficients as a result of their impermeable surface. The spatial-temporal analysis of WY with specification of WY coefficients by LULC types can facilitate integrated land-use planning and water resource management.

  15. Local Knowledge and Professional Background Have a Minimal Impact on Volunteer Citizen Science Performance in a Land-Cover Classification Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Salk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea that closer things are more related than distant things, known as ‘Tobler’s first law of geography’, is fundamental to understanding many spatial processes. If this concept applies to volunteered geographic information (VGI, it could help to efficiently allocate tasks in citizen science campaigns and help to improve the overall quality of collected data. In this paper, we use classifications of satellite imagery by volunteers from around the world to test whether local familiarity with landscapes helps their performance. Our results show that volunteers identify cropland slightly better within their home country, and do slightly worse as a function of linear distance between their home and the location represented in an image. Volunteers with a professional background in remote sensing or land cover did no better than the general population at this task, but they did not show the decline with distance that was seen among other participants. Even in a landscape where pasture is easily confused for cropland, regional residents demonstrated no advantage. Where we did find evidence for local knowledge aiding classification performance, the realized impact of this effect was tiny. Rather, the inherent difficulty of a task is a much more important predictor of volunteer performance. These findings suggest that, at least for simple tasks, the geographical origin of VGI volunteers has little impact on their ability to complete image classifications.

  16. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  17. Impacts of historic and projected land-cover, land-use, and land-management change on carbon and water fluxes: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lawrence, P.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human land-use activities have resulted in large changes to the Earth surface, with resulting implications for climate. In the future, land-use activities are likely to intensify to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and energy. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) aims to further advance understanding of the broad question of impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) as well as more detailed science questions to get at process-level attribution, uncertainty, and data requirements in more depth and sophistication than possible in a multi-model context to date. LUMIP is multi-faceted and aims to advance our understanding of land-use change from several perspectives. In particular, LUMIP includes a factorial set of land-only simulations that differ from each other with respect to the specific treatment of land use or land management (e.g., irrigation active or not, crop fertilization active or not, wood harvest on or not), or in terms of prescribed climate. This factorial series of experiments serves several purposes and is designed to provide a detailed assessment of how the specification of land-cover change and land management affects the carbon, water, and energy cycle response to land-use change. The potential analyses that are possible through this set of experiments are vast. For example, comparing a control experiment with all land management active to an experiment with no irrigation allows a multi-model assessment of whether or not the increasing use of irrigation during the 20th century is likely to have significantly altered trends of regional water and energy fluxes (and therefore climate) and/or crop yield and carbon fluxes in agricultural regions. Here, we will present preliminary results from the factorial set of experiments utilizing the Community Land Model (CLM5). The analyses presented here will help guide multi-model analyses once the full set of LUMIP simulations are available.

  18. Impacts of late Quaternary environmental change on the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus) in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Nyamsuren, Batsaikhan; Tchabovsky, Andrey; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-08

    Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total). Phylogenetic inference supports the existence of two deeply divergent infraspecific lineages (corresponding to subspecies U. u. undulatus and U. u. eversmanni), a result in agreement with previous molecular investigations but discordant with patterns of range-wide craniometric and external phenotypic variation. In the widespread western eversmanni lineage, we recovered geographically-associated clades from the: (a) Khangai, (b) Mongolian Altai, and (c) Govi Altai mountain ranges. Phylogeographic structure in U. u. eversmanni is consistent with an isolation-by-distance model; however, genetic distances are significantly lower than among subspecies, and intra-clade relationships are largely unresolved. The latter patterns, as well as the relatively higher nucleotide polymorphism of populations from the Great Lakes Depression of northwestern Mongolia, suggest a history of range shifts into these lowland areas in response to Pleistocene glaciation and environmental change, followed by upslope movements and mitochondrial lineage sorting with Holocene aridification. Our study illuminates possible historical mechanisms responsible for U. undulatus genetic structure and contributes to a framework for ongoing exploration of mammalian response to past and present climate change in central Asia.

  19. Modeling transient luminous events produced by cloud to ground lightning and narrow bipolar pulses: detailed spectra and chemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Invernon, F. J.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic field generated by lightning discharges can produce Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the lower ionosphere, as previously investigated by many authors. Some recent studies suggest that narrow bipolar pulses (NBP), an impulsive and not well-established type of atmospheric electrical discharge, could also produce TLEs. The characterization and observation of such TLEs could be a source of information about the physics underlying NBP. In this work, we develop two different electrodynamical models to study the impact of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the lower ionosphere. The first model calculates the quasi-electrostatic field produced by a single cloud to ground lightning in the terrestrial atmosphere and its influence in the electron transport. This scheme allows us to study halos, a relatively frequent type of TLE. The second model solves the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field produced by a lightning discharge coupled with the Langevin's equation for the induced currents in the ionosphere. This model is useful to investigate elves, a fast TLE produced by lightning or by NBP. In addition, both models are coupled with a detailed chemistry of the electronically and vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen, allowing us to calculate synthetic spectra of both halos and elves. The models also include a detailed set of kinetic reactions to calculate the temporal evolution of other species. Our results suggest an important enhancement of some molecular species produced by halos, as NOx , N2 O and other metastable species. The quantification of their production could be useful to understand the role of thunderstorms in the climate of our planet. In the case of TLEs produced by NBP, our model confirms the appearance of double elves and allows us to compute their spectral characteristics.

  20. The impact of land-cover modification on the June meteorology of China since 1700, simulated using a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Pitman, A.J.; Zhao, M.; Leemans, R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of simulations was conducted using a regional climate model with a domain covering mainland China. Simulations were conducted for a single June using estimated land cover for 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850, 1900, 1950, 1970 and 1990. The conversion of land cover between these periods was extensive

  1. The Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Water Yield in the Jing- Jin-Ji Region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suxiao; Yang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Water yield is one of the key ecosystem services sustaining both people's life and economic development. However, the water yield function is sensitive to anthropogenic activity especially the land use and land cover change (LUCC). Assessment of historical LUCC and its impact on water yield could benefit designing and implementing appropriate land use strategy that enhance the water yield capacity. Beijing (Jing) and its surrounding areas of Tianjin (Jin) and Hebei (Ji) is the political, cultural and economic center of China. The region is facing increasingly water crisis. Taking the Jing-Jin-Ji region as a study area, this study analyzed the historical LUCC and its impact on water yield by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to spatially map and quantify the changes of water yield from 1995 to 2010. The results showed there was main decline in area of wetland and forest and increase in area of crop land and built up land. An abrupt decline in water yield was found for year 2000. The water yield was influenced to a great extent by precipitation and evapotranspiration, but the land use played an important role in the water yield capacity (water yield per unit area) through plant cover that affected evapotranspiration, soil water permeability and the capacity of holding the moisture content. By general ranking, the water yield capacity of different land use type was as follows: built-up>bare land>cropland> grassland>forest >wetland, which illustrated that the built-up and bare land had higher run off rate while the vegetation area had higher capacity to control surface run off to increase the groundwater. A good understanding of temporal-spatial allocation of historical LUCC and Water yield of the Jing-Jin-Ji region could help guide land use policy decisions that take into consideration of tradeoffs with respect to spatial distribution of ecosystem services amongst the three administrative entities (Jing-Jin-Ji) and

  2. [Economic impact of etanercept and adalimumab biosimilars on hospitals scale covered by PharmAlp'Ain, a hospitals grouping of orders for health products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreur, B; Guerin, F; Christophe, B; Limido, G; Paubel, P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of future prescriptions of etanercept and adalimumab biosimilars at the territorial scale covered by PharmAlp'Ain, a hospitals grouping of orders for health products. Determination of the number and status of patients (naive or in continuation of treatment) from the National Database "Datamart de Consommation Inter-Régimes" of health insurance, concerned by a dispensation in a pharmacy of etanercept or adalimumab in 2015. Calculation of potential savings in case of biosimilar requirements according to 3 hypotheses: 63% (rate observed in a previous study) of initiations are treated with biosimiliaries and the others by princeps (H 1 ); all initiations under biosimilars and continuation therapy with the princeps (H 2 ) or all patients are treated with biosimilars (H 3 ). The annual savings are estimated at 237,000 € with the H 1 hypothesis. In the case of H 2 , the expected savings would be 376,200 € per year. In the case of H 3 , savings for the community could reach almost 1,282,800 € per year. The arrival of biosimilars allows significant savings for medicines market. According to the French recommendations in 2016, the expected savings are between the H 1 and H 2 hypothesis. The rate of penetration of biosimilars depends on many factors such as the involvement of health professionals, patient adherence, or health authority recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part II: Analysis of lake surface temperature and ice cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a study on the impact of remote-sensing Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations in the analysis of lake surface state of a numerical weather prediction (NWP model. Data assimilation experiments were performed with the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional operational NWP model. Selected thermal remote-sensing LSWT observations provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR sensors onboard the Terra/Aqua and ENVISAT satellites, respectively, were included into the assimilation. The domain of our experiments, which focussed on two winters (2010–2011 and 2011–2012, covered northern Europe. Validation of the resulting objective analyses against independent observations demonstrated that the description of the lake surface state can be improved by the introduction of space-borne LSWT observations, compared to the result of pure prognostic parameterisations or assimilation of the available limited number of in-situ lake temperature observations. Further development of the data assimilation methods and solving of several practical issues are necessary in order to fully benefit from the space-borne observations of lake surface state for the improvement of the operational weather forecast. This paper is the second part of a series of two papers aimed at improving the objective analysis of lake temperature and ice conditions in HIRLAM.

  4. Multi-Sourced Satellite Observations of Land Cover and Land Use Change in South and Southeast Asia with Challenging Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Small, C.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Balk, D.; Sorichetta, A.; Masetti, M.; Gaughan, A. E.; Stevens, F. R.; Mathews, A.; Frazier, A. E.; Das, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative paradigm to observe the rural-urban transformation over the landscape using multi-sourced satellite data is formulated as a time and space continuum, extensively in space across South and Southeast Asia and in time over a decadal scale. Rather than a disparate array of individual cities and their vicinities in separated areas and in a discontinuous collection of points in time, the time-space continuum paradigm enables significant advances in addressing rural-urban change as a continuous gradient across the landscape from the wilderness to rural to urban areas to study challenging environmental and socioeconomic issues. We use satellite data including QuikSCAT scatterometer, SRTM and Sentinel-1 SAR, Landsat, WorldView, MODIS, and SMAP together with environmental and demographic data and modeling products to investigate land cover and land use change in South and Southeast Asia and associated impacts. Utilizing the new observational advances and effectively capitalizing current capabilities, we will present interdisciplinary results on urbanization in three dimensions, flood and drought, wildfire, air and water pollution, urban change, policy effects, population dynamics and vector-borne disease, agricultural assessment, and land degradation and desertification.

  5. Regarding "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331/9 (2012) 2129-2140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" by Jun Liu, Yu Zhang, Bin Yun, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (2012) 2129-2140, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work in this field by Dr. Mark Svinkin. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  6. Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Their Impacts on Future Runoff in the Luanhe River Basin in North China Using Markov and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Long, D.

    2017-12-01

    Both land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change exert significant impacts on runoff, which needs to be thoroughly examined in the context of urbanization, population growth, and climate change. The majority of studies focus on the impacts of either LUCC or climate on runoff in the upper reaches of the Panjiakou Reservoir in the Luanhe River basin, North China. In this study, first, two land use change matrices for periods 1970‒1980 and 1980‒2000 were constructed based on the theory of the Markov Chain which were used to predict the land use scenario of the basin in year 2020. Second, a distributed hydrological model, Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT), was set up and driven mainly by the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) product and outputs from three general circulation models (GCMs) of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP). Third, under the land use scenario in 2000, streamflow at the Chengde gauging station for the period 1998‒2014 was simulated with the CGDPA as input, and streamflow for the period 2015‒2025 under four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was simulated using the outputs from GCMs and compared under the land use scenarios in 2000 and 2020. Results show that during 2015‒2025, the ensemble average precipitation in summer (i.e., from June to August) may increase up to 20% but decrease by -16% in fall (i.e., from September to November). The streamflow may increase in all the seasons, particularly in spring (i.e., from March to May) and summer reaching 150% and 142%, respectively. Furthermore, the streamflow may increase even more when the land use scenario for the period 1998‒2025 remains the same as that in 2000. The minimum (61mm) and maximum (77mm) mean annual runoff depth occur under the RCP4.5 and RCP6 scenarios, respectively, compared with the mean annual observed streamflow of 33 mm from 1998 to 2014. Finally, we analyzed the correlation among the main land use types

  7. Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wærsted, Eivind G.; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Delanoë, Julien; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling and heating impact the liquid water balance of fog and therefore play an important role in determining their persistence or dissipation. We demonstrate that a quantitative analysis of the radiation-driven condensation and evaporation is possible in real time using ground-based remote sensing observations (cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer). Seven continental fog events in midlatitude winter are studied, and the radiative processes are further explored through sensitivity studies. The longwave (LW) radiative cooling of the fog is able to produce 40-70 g m-2 h-1 of liquid water by condensation when the fog liquid water path exceeds 30 g m-2 and there are no clouds above the fog, which corresponds to renewing the fog water in 0.5-2 h. The variability is related to fog temperature and atmospheric humidity, with warmer fog below a drier atmosphere producing more liquid water. The appearance of a cloud layer above the fog strongly reduces the LW cooling relative to a situation with no cloud above; the effect is strongest for a low cloud, when the reduction can reach 100 %. Consequently, the appearance of clouds above will perturb the liquid water balance in the fog and may therefore induce fog dissipation. Shortwave (SW) radiative heating by absorption by fog droplets is smaller than the LW cooling, but it can contribute significantly, inducing 10-15 g m-2 h-1 of evaporation in thick fog at (winter) midday. The absorption of SW radiation by unactivated aerosols inside the fog is likely less than 30 % of the SW absorption by the water droplets, in most cases. However, the aerosols may contribute more significantly if the air mass contains a high concentration of absorbing aerosols. The absorbed radiation at the surface can reach 40-120 W m-2 during the daytime depending on the fog thickness. As in situ measurements indicate that 20-40 % of this energy is transferred to the fog as sensible heat, this surface absorption can contribute

  8. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  9. Assessing the potential impacts of declining Arctic sea ice cover on the photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinova, Christie L.; Frey, Karen E.; Mann, Paul J.; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2015-11-01

    A warming and shifting climate in the Arctic has led to significant declines in sea ice over the last several decades. Although these changes in sea ice cover are well documented, large uncertainties remain in how associated increases in solar radiation transmitted to the underlying ocean water column will impact heating, biological, and biogeochemical processes in the Arctic Ocean. In this study, six under-ice marine, two ice-free marine, and two ice-free terrestrially influenced water samples were irradiated using a solar simulator for 72 h (representing ~10 days of ambient sunlight) to investigate dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics from the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Solar irradiation caused chromophoric DOM (CDOM) light absorption at 254 nm to decrease by 48 to 63%. An overall loss in total DOM fluorescence intensity was also observed at the end of all experiments, and each of six components identified by parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was shown to be photoreactive in at least one experiment. Fluorescent DOM (FDOM) also indicated that the majority of DOM in under-ice and ice-free marine waters was likely algal-derived. Measurable changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were only observed for sites influenced by riverine runoff. Losses of CDOM absorbance at shorter wavelengths suggest that the beneficial UV protection currently received by marine organisms may decline with the increased light transmittance associated with sea ice melt ponding and overall reductions of sea ice. Our FDOM analyses demonstrate that DOM irrespective of source was susceptible to photobleaching. Additionally, our findings suggest that photodegradation of CDOM in under-ice waters is not currently a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., we did not observe systematic DOC loss). However, increases in primary production and terrestrial freshwater export expected under future climate change scenarios may cause an increase in CDOM quantity and shift in quality

  10. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Ten Hoeve

    2011-04-01

    aerosols and both CWV and clouds over varying land surface types is also analyzed. The study finds that the difference in CWV between forested and deforested land is not correlated with aerosol loading, supporting the assumption that temporal variation of CWV is primarily a function of the larger-scale meteorology. However, a difference in the response of CF to increasing AOD is observed between forested and deforested land. This suggests that dissimilarities between other meteorological factors, such as atmospheric stability, may have an impact on aerosol-cloud correlations between different land cover types.

  11. Climate change, land use and land cover change detection and its impact on hydrological hazards and sustainable development: a case study of Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABHAY SHANKAR PRASAD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events impact on the natural ecosystems of Alaknanda river basin which affect the socio-economic condition of the rural communities, loss of life, livelihood and natural resources. They pose a serious threat to normal life as well as the process of sustainable development. Rivers are fragile ecosystems which are globally important as water tower of the earth, reservoirs of rich biodiversity, and a popular destination for recreation, tourism and culture heritage. Rivers provides direct life support base for humankind. The unique Geo-climatic condition of Garhwal Himalaya, Alaknanda River basin, Uttarakhand makes it one of the most vulnerable regions in the India. Hydrological hazards are sudden calamities, which involve loss of life, property and livelihood. This paper presents a methodological approach for the integration of extreme events, climatic vulnerability, land use scenario, and flood risk assessment. Anthropogenic activities are continuously disturbing the natural system of the Garhwal Himalaya and its impact on extreme hydrological events. Factors causing these changes have been attempted to be understood through the use of GIS and Geospatial techniques. Human interference, unscientific developmental activities, agriculture extension, tourism activity and road construction are creating the hydrological hazards. Soil erosion and landslide have been recognised as major hazards in the high altitude region of Himalaya. This paper has analysed and evaluates the climate and livelihood vulnerability assessment and its adaptation for sustainable development in the near district headquarter (NDH away district headquarter (ADH determined mainly by a weighted matrix index. The Geospatial technique is used to find out the land use/cover change detection and secondary data is taken to carry out the analysis work. Primary data from each hotspot has been collected through a questionnaire survey and a Participatory Research Approach

  12. Winter supplementation of ground whole flaxseed impacts milk fatty acid composition on organic dairy farms in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground whole flaxseed to organic dairy cows during the non-grazing season to maintain levels of beneficial fatty acid concentrations in milk typically observed during the grazing season. During the winters of 2013-14 and 2014-15, 9 organ...

  13. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  14. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  15. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  16. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on global distributions and fate – 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Lorenz; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without inclusion of land ice (in Antarctica and Greenland) or snow cover (dynamic). MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. After a decade of simulation 4.2% γ-HCH and 2.3% DDT are stored in land ice and snow. Neglection of land ice and snow in modelling would underestimate the total environmental residence time, τ ov , of γ-HCH and overestimate τ ov for DDT, both on the order of 1% and depending on actual compartmental distribution. Volatilisation of DDT from boreal, seasonally snow covered land is enhanced throughout the year, while volatilisation of γ-HCH is only enhanced during the snow-free season. Including land ice and snow cover in modelling matters in particular for the Arctic, where higher burdens are predicted to be stored. - Highlights: ► Land ice and snow hosts 2–4% of the global environmental burden of γ-HCH and DDT. ► Inclusion of land ice and snow cover matters for global environmental residence time. ► Including of land ice and snow cover matters in particular for the Arctic. - The inclusion of cycling in temporary snow cover and land ice in the model is found relevant for predicted POPs multicompartmental distribution and fate in the Arctic and on the global scale.

  17. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M; McCarty, Gregory W; Hively, W Dean; Lang, Megan W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  18. Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Yeo, In-Young; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, W. Dean

    2017-01-01

    Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW) due to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, future climate conditions (FCCs) are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrate loads from agriculture. Accordingly, the question remains whether WCCs are sufficient to mitigate increased nutrient loads caused by FCCs. In this study, we assessed the impacts of FCCs on WCC nitrate reduction efficiency on the Coastal Plain of the CBW using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three FCC scenarios (2085 – 2098) were prepared using General Circulation Models (GCMs), considering three Intergovernmnental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We also developed six representative WCC implementation scenarios based on the most commonly used planting dates and species of WCCs in this region. Simulation results showed that WCC biomass increased by ~ 58 % under FCC scenarios, due to climate conditions conducive to the WCC growth. Prior to implementing WCCs, annual nitrate loads increased by ~ 43 % under FCC scenarios compared to the baseline scenario (2001 – 2014). When WCCs were planted, annual nitrate loads were substantially reduced by ~ 48 % and WCC nitrate reduction efficiency water ~ 5 % higher under FCC scenarios relative to the baseline. The increase rate of WCC nitrate reduction efficiency varied by FCC scenarios and WCC planting methods. As CO2 concentration was higher and winters were warmer under FCC scenarios, WCCs had greater biomass and therefore showed higher nitrate reduction efficiency. In response to FCC scenarios, the performance of less effective WCC practices (e.g., barley, wheat, and late planting) under the baseline indicated ~ 14 % higher increase rate of nitrate reduction efficiency compared to ones with better effectiveness under the baseline (e

  19. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Lee

    Full Text Available The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC. The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean, with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  20. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  1. Impacts of land use and cover change on terrestrial carbon stocks and the micro-climate over urban surface: a case study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Zhan, J.; Bai, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Land use and cover change is the key factor affecting terrestrial carbon stocks and micro-climate, and their dynamics not only in regional ecosystems but also in urbanized areas. Using the typical fast-growing city of Shanghai, China as a case study, this paper explored the relationships between terrestrial carbon stocks, micro-climate and land cover within an urbanized area. The main objectives were to assess variation in soil carbon stocks and local climate conditions across terrestrial land covers with different intensities of urban development, and quantify spatial distribution and dynamic variation of carbon stocks and microclimate in response to urban land use and cover change. On the basis of accurate spatial datasets derived from a series of Landsat TM images during the years 1988 to 2010 and reliable estimates of urban climate and soil carbon stocks using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, our results showed that carbon stocks per unit area in terrestrial land covers decreased and urban temperature increased with increasing intensity of urban development. Urban land use and cover change and sealing of the soil surface created hotspots for losses in carbon stocks. Total carbon stocks in Shanghai decreased by about 30%-35%, representing a 1.5% average annual decrease, and the temperature increased by about 0.23-0.4°/10a during the past 20 years. We suggested potential policy measures to mitigate negative effects of land use and cover change on carbon stocks and microclimate in urbanized areas.

  2. Characterization of Personal Privacy Devices (PPD) radiation pattern impact on the ground and airborne segments of the local area augmentation system (LAAS) at GPS L1 frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Abualkair M. Khair

    Personal Privacy Devices (PPDs) are radio-frequency transmitters that intentionally transmit in a frequency band used by other devices for the intent purpose of denying service to those devices. These devices have shown the potential to interfere with the ground and air sub-systems of the Local Area Augmentation Systems (LAAS), a GPS-based navigation aids at commercial airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned by the potential impact of these devices to GPS navigation aids at airports and has commenced an activity to determine the severity of this threat. In support of this situation, the research in this dissertation has been conducted under (FAA) Cooperative Agreement 2011-G-012, to investigate the impact of these devices on the LAAS. In order to investigate the impact of PPDs Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the ground and air sub-systems of the LAAS, the work presented in phase one of this research is intended to characterize the vehicle's impact on the PPD's Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). A study was conceived in this research to characterize PPD performance by examining the on-vehicle radiation patterns as a function of vehicle type, jammer type, jammer location inside a vehicle and jammer orientation at each location. Phase two was to characterize the GPS Radiation Pattern on Multipath Limiting Antenna. MLA has to meet stringent requirements for acceptable signal detection and multipath rejection. The ARL-2100 is the most recent MLA antenna proposed to be used in the LAAS ground segment. The ground-based antenna's radiation pattern was modeled. This was achieved via (HFSS) a commercial-off the shelf CAD-based modeling code with a full-wave electromagnetic software simulation package that uses the Finite Element Analysis. Phase three of this work has been conducted to study the characteristics of the GPS Radiation Pattern on Commercial Aircraft. The airborne GPS antenna was modeled and the resulting radiation pattern on

  3. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  4. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  5. Modelling global nitrogen export to ground and surface water from natural ecosystems: impact of N deposition, climate, and CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Rebel, Karin; Dekker, Stefan; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Smith, Ben; Wassen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    For large regions in the world strong increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and food production. This will cause many previously N limited ecosystems to become N saturated, leading to increased export to ground and surface water and negative impacts on the environment and human health. However, precise N export fluxes are difficult to predict. Due to its strong link to carbon, N in vegetation and soil is also determined by productivity, as affected by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, and denitrification. Furthermore, the N concentration of water delivered to streams depends strongly on local hydrological conditions. We aim to study how N delivery to ground and surface water is affected by changes in environmental factors. To this end we are developing a global dynamic modelling system that integrates representations of N cycling in vegetation and soil, and N delivery to ground and surface water. This will be achieved by coupling the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, which includes representations of N cycling, as well as croplands and pasture, to the global water balance model PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. This coupling will allow us to trace N across different systems and estimate the input of N into the riverine system which can be used as input for river biogeochemical models. We will present large scale estimates of N leaching and transport to ground and surface water for natural ecosystems in different biomes, based on a loose coupling of the two models. Furthermore, by means of a factorial model experiment we will explore how these fluxes are influenced by N deposition, temperature, and CO2 concentration.

  6. Impact of Seasonal Heat Accumulation on Operation of Geothermal Heat Pump System with Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, D. V.; Malyavina, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    The subject of the investigation was to find out the influence of heat pump operation in summer on its function in winter. For this purpose a mathematical model of a ground coupled heat pump system has been developed and programmed. The mathematical model of a system ground heat exchanger uses the finite difference method to describe the heat transfer in soil and the analytical method to specify the heat transfer in the U-tubes heat exchanger. The thermal diffusivity by the heat transfer in the soil changes during gradual freezing of the pore moisture and thus slows soil freezing. The mathematical model of a heat pump includes the description of a scroll compressor and the simplified descriptions of the evaporator and condenser. The analysis showed that heating during the cold season and cooling in the warm season affect the average heat transfer medium temperature in the soil loop in the winter season. It has been also showed that the degree of this effect depends on the clay content in the soil.

  7. Impact of deforestation and climate on the Amazon Basin's above-ground biomass during 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Liu, Yi Y; Williams, Mathew

    2017-11-15

    Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO 2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions. Here, we address these points of uncertainty with a machine-learning approach that combines satellite observations of AGB with climate data across the Amazon Basin to reconstruct annual maps of potential AGB during 1993-2012, the above-ground C storage potential of the undisturbed landscape. We derive a 2.2 Pg C loss of AGB over the study period, and, for the regions where these losses occur, we estimate a 0.7 Pg C reduction in potential AGB. Thus, climate change has led to a decline of ~1/3 in the capacity of these disturbed forests to recover and recapture the C lost in disturbances during 1993-2012. Our approach further shows that annual variations in land use change mask the natural relationship between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and AGB stocks in disturbed regions.

  8. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  9. Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watersheds using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW) due to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, future climate conditions (FCCs) are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrat...

  10. Post-mortem analysis on LiFePO4|Graphite cells describing the evolution & composition of covering layer on anode and their impact on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-11-01

    During cyclic aging of lithium-ion batteries the formation of a μm-thick covering layer on top of the anode facing the separator is found on top of the anode. In this work several post-mortem analyses of cyclic aged cylindrical LFP|Graphite cells are evaluated to give a detailed characterization of the covering layer and to find possible causes for the evolution of such a layer. The analyses of the layer with different methods return that it consists to high percentage of plated active lithium, deposited Fe and products of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The deposition is located mainly in the center of the cell symmetrical to the coating direction. The origin of these depositions is assumed in locally overcharged particles, Fe deposition or inhomogeneous distribution of capacity density. As a secondary effect the deposition on one side increases the thickness locally; thereafter a pressure-induced overcharging due to charge agglomeration of the back side of the anode occurs. Finally a compact and dense covering layer in a late state of aging leads to deactivation of the covered parts of the anode and cathode due to suppressed lithium-ion conductivity. This leads to increasing slope of capacity fade and increase of internal resistance.

  11. Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdie Birhanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent shocks and stresses are increasingly deteriorating pastoralist communities’ resilience capacities in many aspects. A context specific resilience framework is essential to strengthen pastoralist community’s resilience capacity towards the impact of recurrent drought. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop a context specific and data driven resilience building framework towards impacts of recurrent droughts in the case of Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. Qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to guide the study process. The data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in two drought affected districts of Borana Zone during October 2013. The analysis was assisted by ATLAS. ti 7.1.4. The analysis provided a context specific resilience building conceptual tool, which consists of, closely interconnected, eight dimensions operating at multiple capacities and levels: environment (underlying vulnerability factor; livestock, infrastructures/social services, and wealth (immediate causes and effects; community network/social capital, as well as governance, peace and security (support and enabling factors oriented, psychosocial, and human capital (as eventual outcomes and impacts. The resilience capacities of these pastoralist communities have been eroded, leaving them without sufficient and effective adaptive strategies. The emergent resilience framework can serve as a useful guidance to design context-specific interventions that makes the people and the system resilient to the impacts of recurrent droughts.

  12. The impact of land use and land cover changes on solute dynamics in seepage water of soil from karst hillslopes of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Hu; Lang Yunchao; Liu Congqiang

    2011-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes can cause variations in terrestrial energy, water balance and availability of nutrients. To understand the role of vegetation in regulating the hydrochemistry of karst hillslopes, overland flow and soil seepage water from two hillslopes covered with and without vegetation were studied in the Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Guangxi, SW China. Dissolved major ions, as well as isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were examined. Water from the vegetated control slope had higher solute concentrations (except NO 3 - ) and lower δ 13 C values than water from the disturbed slope. The dynamics of K + and NO 3 - in soil water sampled in time-sequence from the control slope was different from the disturbed slope. Specifically, K + and NO 3 - concentrations of the control slope decreased gradually over time, while K + and NO 3 - concentrations of the disturbed slope increased, and other ionic concentrations increased in both of the slopes.

  13. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  14. Impacts of land use and land cover changes on biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds in China from the late 1980s to the mid-2000s: implications for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature module embedded within the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, we estimate the changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and their impacts on surface-layer O3 and secondary organic aerosols (SOA in China between the late 1980s and the mid-2000s by using the land cover dataset derived from remote sensing images and land use survey. The land cover change in China from the late 1980s to the mid-2000s can be characterised by an expansion of urban areas (the total urban area in the mid-2000s was four times that in the late 1980s and a reduction in total vegetation coverage by 4%. Regionally, the fractions of land covered by forests exhibited increases in southeastern and northeastern China by 10–30 and 5–15%, respectively, those covered by cropland decreased in most regions except that the farming–pastoral zone in northern China increased by 5–20%, and the factions of grassland in northern China showed a large reduction of 5–30%. With changes in both land cover and meteorological fields, annual BVOC emission in China is estimated to increase by 11.4% in the mid-2000s relative to the late 1980s. With anthropogenic emissions of O3 precursors, aerosol precursors and aerosols fixed at year 2005 levels, the changes in land cover and meteorological parameters from the late 1980s to the mid-2000s are simulated to change the seasonal mean surface-layer O3 concentrations by −4 to +6 ppbv (−10 to +20% and to change the seasonal mean surface-layer SOA concentrations by −0.4 to +0.6 µg m−3 (−20 to +30% over China. We find that the decadal changes in meteorological parameters had larger collective effects on BVOC emissions and surface-layer concentrations of O3 and SOA than those in land cover and land use alone. We also perform a sensitivity simulation to compare the impacts of changes in anthropogenic emissions on concentrations of O3

  15. Ground vegetation dynamics in mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forests recovering after air pollution stress impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, O.; Vavříček, D.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-321 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest decline * norway spruce * microsite conditions * recovery * understorey layer Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2009

  16. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  17. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, cloud cover and water vapor on polar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, A. Helena; McDonald, Adrian J.; Bodeker, Gregory E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effects of non-linear interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and cloud cover (referred to as climate variables) on amplified warming of the polar regions, using a new energy balance model. Our simulations show that the sum of the contributions to surface temperature changes due to any variable considered in isolation is smaller than the temperature changes from coupled feedback simulations. This non-linearity is strongest when all three climate variables are allowed to interact. Surface albedo appears to be the strongest driver of this non-linear behavior, followed by water vapor and clouds. This is because increases in longwave radiation absorbed by the surface, related to increases in water vapor and clouds, and increases in surface absorbed shortwave radiation caused by a decrease in surface albedo, amplify each other. Furthermore, our results corroborate previous findings that while increases in cloud cover and water vapor, along with the greenhouse effect itself, warm the polar regions, water vapor also significantly warms equatorial regions, which reduces polar amplification. Changes in surface albedo drive large changes in absorption of incoming shortwave radiation, thereby enhancing surface warming. Unlike high latitudes, surface albedo change at low latitudes are more constrained. Interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and clouds drive larger increases in temperatures in the polar regions compared to low latitudes. This is in spite of the fact that, due to a forcing, cloud cover increases at high latitudes and decreases in low latitudes, and that water vapor significantly enhances warming at low latitudes.

  18. How reliable is the offline couple of WRF and VIC model? And how does high quality land cover data impact the VIC model simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C.; Dennis, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    First, the ability of the offline coupling of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to produce hydrological and climate variables was evaluated. The performance of the offline couple of WRF and VIC was assessed with respect to key simulated variables through a comparison with the calibrated VIC model simulation. A spatiotemporal comparison of the simulated evaporation (ET), soil moisture (SM), runoff, and baseflow produced by the VIC calibrated run (base data) and by the offline coupling run was conducted. The results showed that the offline couple of VIC with WRF was able to achieve good agreement in the simulation of monthly and daily soil moisture, and monthly evaporation. This suggests the VIC coupling should function without causing a large change in the moisture budget. However, the offline coupling showed most disagreement in daily and monthly runoff, and baseflow which is related to errors in WRF precipitation. Second, the sensitivity of the VIC model to the land cover was assessed by performing a sensitivity simulation using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) instead of the older NLDAS/AVHRR data. Improved land cover is shown to achieve more accurate simulation of the streamflow.

  19. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE IONOSPHERE ON GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE GLOBAL EPOCH OF REIONIZATION SIGNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Tremblay, Steven E.; Tingay, Steven J.; Waterson, Mark; Tickner, Jonathan; Emrich, David; Schlagenhaufer, Franz; Kenney, David; Padhi, Shantanu, E-mail: marcin.sokolowski@curtin.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, G.P.O Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    The redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H i), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (∼50–200 MHz), is a promising probe of the physical conditions of the intergalactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The sky-averaged H i signal is expected to be extremely weak (∼100 mK) in comparison to the Galactic foreground emission (∼10{sup 4} K). Moreover, the sky-averaged spectra measured by ground-based instruments are affected by chromatic propagation effects (∼tens of kelvin) originating in the ionosphere. We analyze data collected with the upgraded Broadband Instrument for Global Hydrogen Reionization Signal system deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory to assess the significance of ionospheric effects on the detection of the global EoR signal. The ionospheric effects identified in these data are, particularly during nighttime, dominated by absorption and emission. We measure some properties of the ionosphere, such as the electron temperature (T{sub e} ≈ 470 K at nighttime), magnitude, and variability of optical depth (τ{sub 100} {sub MHz} ≈ 0.01 and δτ ≈ 0.005 at nighttime). According to the results of a statistical test applied on a large data sample, very long integrations (∼100 hr collected over approximately 2 months) lead to increased signal-to-noise ratio even in the presence of ionospheric variability. This is further supported by the structure of the power spectrum of the sky temperature fluctuations, which has flicker noise characteristics at frequencies ≳10{sup −5} Hz, but becomes flat below ≈10{sup −5} Hz. Hence, we conclude that the stochastic error introduced by the chromatic ionospheric effects tends to zero in an average. Therefore, the ionospheric effects and fluctuations are not fundamental impediments preventing ground-based instruments from integrating down to the precision required by global EoR experiments, provided that the ionospheric contribution is

  1. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  2. Impacts of reintroduced bison on first nations people in Yukon, Canada: Finding common ground through participatory research and social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Clark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1988-1992 wood bison (Bison bison athabascae were transplanted to the southwest Yukon, inadvertently creating concerns among local First Nations about their impacts on other wildlife, habitat, and their members' traditional livelihoods. To understand these concerns we conducted a participatory impact assessment based on a multistage analysis of existing and new qualitative data. We found wood bison had since become a valued food resource, though there was a socially-determined carrying capacity for this population. Study participants desire a population large enough to sustainably harvest but avoid crossing a threshold beyond which bison may alter the regional ecosystem. An alternative problem definition emerged that focuses on how wildlife and people alike are adapting to the observed long-term changes in climate and landscape; suggesting that a wider range of acceptable policy alternatives likely exists than may have previously been thought. Collective identification of this new problem definition indicates that this specific assessment acted as a social learning process in which the participants jointly discovered new perspectives on a problem at both individual and organisational levels. Subsequent regulatory changes, based on this research, demonstrate the efficacy of participatory impact assessment for ameliorating human-wildlife conflicts.

  3. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  5. Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Salinity in Agricultural Areas Using Ground and Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), or areas receiving above average rainfall for a decade or more, such as Minnesota's Red River Valley (RRV). Climate change has impacted water availability with an under or over abundance, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone primarily from the upward movement of salts from shallow water tables. Inventorying and monitoring the impact of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation, drainage, and crop management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the SJV and RRV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for SJV and RRV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Decision makers in state and federal agencies, irrigation and drainage district managers, soil and water resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  6. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  7. The impact of land use and land cover changes on solute dynamics in seepage water of soil from karst hillslopes of Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Hu; Lang Yunchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46th Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China); Liu Congqiang, E-mail: liucongqiang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46th Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Land use and land cover changes can cause variations in terrestrial energy, water balance and availability of nutrients. To understand the role of vegetation in regulating the hydrochemistry of karst hillslopes, overland flow and soil seepage water from two hillslopes covered with and without vegetation were studied in the Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Guangxi, SW China. Dissolved major ions, as well as isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were examined. Water from the vegetated control slope had higher solute concentrations (except NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and lower {delta}{sup 13}C values than water from the disturbed slope. The dynamics of K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} in soil water sampled in time-sequence from the control slope was different from the disturbed slope. Specifically, K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations of the control slope decreased gradually over time, while K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations of the disturbed slope increased, and other ionic concentrations increased in both of the slopes.

  8. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  9. Impacts of Woody Invader Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. Martelli on Physio-chemical Properties of Soil and, Below and Above Ground Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.K. Wickramathilake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dillenia suffruticosa (Griffith Martelli, that spreads fast in low-lying areas in wet zone of Sri Lanka is currently listed as a nationally important Invasive Alien Species that deserves attention in ecological studies. Thus, impact of this woody invader on physical, chemical properties of soil and below and above ground flora was investigated. Five sampling sites were identified along a distance of 46km from Avissawella to Ratnapura. At each site, two adjacent plots [1m x10m each for D. suffruticosa present (D+ and absent (D-] were outlined. Physical and chemical soil parameters, microbial biomass and number of bacterial colonies in soil were determined using standard procedures and compared between D+ and D- by ANOVA using SPSS. Rate of decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was also determined using the litter bag technique at 35% and 50% moisture levels. Above ground plant species richness in sample stands was compared using Jaccard and Sorenson diversity indices.  Decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was slow, but occurred at a more or less similar rate irrespective of moisture content of soil. Particle size distribution in D+ soil showed a much higher percentage of large soil particles.  Higher % porosity in D+ sites was a clear indication that the soil was aerated.  The pH was significantly lower for D+ than D- thus developing acidic soils whereas conductivity has been significantly high making soil further stressed. The significant drop in Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC in D+ soil was a remarkable finding to be concerned with as it correlated with fertility of soil. Significantly higher values of phosphates reported in D+ soil support the idea that plant invaders are capable to increase phosphates in soil. Higher biomass values recorded for D+ sites together with higher number of bacterial colonies could be related to the unexpectedly recorded higher Organic Carbon. Both  the  Jaccard  and  Sorenson   indices indicated  that

  10. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  11. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  12. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kosmopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM and chemical transport model (CTM simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS. The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI attenuation by as much as 40–50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI decrease (80–90 %, while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS. Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m−2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m−2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are

  13. Estimation of mountain slope stability depending on ground consistency and slip-slide resistance changes on impact of dynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayroyan, H. S.; Hayroyan, S. H.; Karapetyan, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, three types of clayish soils with different consistency and humidity properties and slip-slide resistance indexes are considered on impact of different cyclic shear stresses. The side-surface deformation charts are constructed on the basis of experimental data obtained testing cylindrical soil samples. It is shown that the fluctuation amplitude depends on time and the consistency index depends on the humidity condition in the soil inner contact and the connectivity coefficients. Consequently, each experiment is interpreted. The main result of this research is that it is necessary to make corrections in the currently active schemes of slip-hazardous slopes stability estimation, which is a crucial problem requiring ASAP solution.

  14. Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol on seasonal snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Efang; Li, Qian; Sun, Shufen; Chen, Wen; Chen, Shangfeng; Nath, Debashis

    2017-11-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m-2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and "snow all gone" day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.

  15. Scenario-Based Impact Assessment of Land Use/Cover and Climate Changes on Watershed Hydrology in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hydrological impacts of potential climate and land use changes in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China. The future climate data for the simulation with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT were prepared using a dynamical downscaling method. The future land uses were simulated with the Dynamic Land Use System (DLS model by establishing Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL model for six land use types. In 2006–2030, land uses in the basin will experience a significant change with a prominent increase in urban areas, a moderate increase in grassland, and a great decrease in unused land. Besides, the simulation results showed that in comparison to those during 1981–2005 the temperature and precipitation during 2006–2030 will change by +0.8°C and +10.8%, respectively. The land use change and climate change will jointly make the water yield change by +8.5%, while they will separately make the water yield change by −1.8% and +9.8%, respectively. The predicted large increase in future precipitation and the corresponding decrease in unused land will have substantial impacts on the watershed hydrology, especially on the surface runoff and streamflow. Therefore, to mitigate negative hydrological impacts and utilize positive impacts, both land use and climate changes should be considered in water resource planning for the Heihe River Basin.

  16. Grau de cobertura do solo e dinâmica da vegetação em olivais de sequeiro com a introdução de herbicidas Ground cover and dynamic of weeds after the introduction of herbicides as soil management system in a rainfed olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ângelo Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados do grau de cobertura do solo e da dinâmica da vegetação num olival de sequeiro, localizado em Mirandela, após a introdução de herbicidas como estratégia de manutenção do solo. As modalidades em estudo foram: mobilização tradicional; herbicida pós-emergência (glifosato; e herbicida com componentes de acção residual e pós-emergência (diurão+glifosato+terbut ilazina. O grau de cobertura e a composição da vegetação foram avaliados desde 2002 a 2007 pelo método do ponto quadrado. Ambas as soluções herbicidas combateram adequadamente a vegetação herbácea em aplicação única anual. O grau de cobertura no talhão mobilizado, antes da primeira mobilização, oscilou entre 50 a 80 % e 30 a 60 % debaixo e fora da copa, respectivamente. O tratamento com glifosato permitiu um grau de cobertura em Abril entre 60 a 90 % debaixo da copa e 40 a 50 % fora da copa. No tratamento com herbicida residual o grau de cobertura do solo foi sempre muito baixo ao longo do ano. A gestão da vegetação com glifosato permitiu a cobertura do solo durante todo o ano, com vegetação viva desde o Outono à Primavera e um mulching de vegetação morta durante o Verão. Nas restantes modalidades o solo permaneceu descoberto durante grande parte do ano. No talhão gerido com glifosato a vegetação manteve elevada dinâmica. Um ano após o início da aplicação de glifosato apareceu a dominar o coberto Ornithopus compressus. Com o tempo ganharam importância algumas espécies de Inverno de ciclo muito cur-to (como Mibora mínima e Logfia gallicae outras de elevada produção de sementes e fácil dispersão pelo vento (como Hypochaeris radicata e Conyza canadensis com origem provável em incultos e caminhos que circundam o olival ou em plantas individuais que escaparam à acção dos herbicidas.Results of the percentage of ground cover by weeds and the dynamic of the vegetation are presented after the introduction of

  17. The impact and societal benefits of using earth observation for ground water policies in the agricultural sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Francoise; Bernknopf, Richard; Pearlman, Jay; Rigby, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of the impact and societal benefit of Earth Observation (EO) is a multidisciplinary task that involves the social, economic and environmental knowledge to formulate indicators and methods. The value of information (VOI) of EO is based on case studies that document the value in use of the information in a specific decision. A case study is an empirical inquiry investigating a phenomenon. It emphasizes detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. Quantitative estimates of the benefits and costs of the geospatial information derived from EO data document and demonstrate its economic value. A case study was completed to examine some of the technical perspectives of adapting and coupling satellite imagery and in situ water quality measurements to forecast changes in groundwater quality in the agricultural sector in Iowa. The analysis was conducted to identify the ability of EO to assist in improving agricultural land management and regulation of balancing production and groundwater contamination. The Iowa case study described the application of Landsat data in a land adaptation strategy to maintain agricultural production and groundwater water quality. Results demonstrated that Landsat information facilitates spatiotemporal analysis of the impact of nitrates (fertilizer application) on groundwater resources and that crop production could be retained while groundwater quality is maintained. To transition to the operational use of the geospatial information, the Landsat data should be applied in a use case where Interaction of various stakeholders within a decision process are addressed. The objective is to design implementation experiments of a system from the user's and contributor's perspective, and to communicate system behavior in their terms. A use case requires communication of system requirements, how the system operates and may be used, the roles that all participants play and what value the user

  18. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  19. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2 area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 0.12×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min, the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 4.91×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  20. Land application of domestic wastewater in Florida--statewide assessment of impact on ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bernard J.

    1981-01-01

    In Florida domestic waste water is being applied to the land for disposal and reuse. State and Federal regulations favor land-application methods over other advanced waste water treatment practices. Despite the increasing use of this alternative technology, little is known about localized effects on groundwater quality. This report documents the extent of land-application practices in Florida and summarizes case study information on some of the more adequately monitored site throughout the State. More than 2,500 sites in Florida are permitted by the Department of Environmental Regulation for applying domestic waste water to the land. The majority (more than 1,700 sites), classified as infiltration ponds, are concentrated in central and southern Florida. More than 560 sites classified as drainfields, and more than 250 sites classified as irrigation sites, are located primarily in central Florida. An estimated 150 million gallons per day of domestic waste water, after required secondary treatment, are applied to Florida soils. Despite the large numbers of sites and the considerable volume of waste water utilized, little is known about potential impact on groundwater quality. At the few sites where observation wells have been drilled and local groundwater quality monitored, no significant deterioration of water quality has been detected. (USGS)

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  2. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses

  3. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  4. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  5. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  6. Comparative Assessment of Two Vegetation Fractional Cover Estimating Methods and Their Impacts on Modeling Urban Latent Heat Flux Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC and assessing its role in heat fluxes modeling using medium resolution remotely sensed data has received less attention than it deserves in heterogeneous urban regions. This study examined two approaches (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-derived and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA-derived methods that are commonly used to map VFC based on Landsat imagery, in modeling surface heat fluxes in urban landscape. For this purpose, two different heat flux models, Two-source energy balance (TSEB model and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA model, were adopted for model evaluation and analysis. A comparative analysis of the NDVI-derived and MESMA-derived VFCs showed that the latter achieved more accurate estimates in complex urban regions. When the two sources of VFCs were used as inputs to both TSEB and PCACA models, MESMA-derived urban VFC produced more accurate urban heat fluxes (Bowen ratio and latent heat flux relative to NDVI-derived urban VFC. Moreover, our study demonstrated that Landsat imagery-retrieved VFC exhibited greater uncertainty in obtaining urban heat fluxes for the TSEB model than for the PCACA model.

  7. Impacts of short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire on a ground nesting bird in the central hardwoods region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H. Tyler; Krementz, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or large

  8. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  9. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  10. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Juhui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Farouk, Mustafa M; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Lamb loins ( M. longissimus lumborum , n = 25) were aged at -1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity), water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C). Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05) made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05) and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009) of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003) and lipid oxidation (p<0.05) of model sausages. This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  11. Impact of geo-chemical environment of subsurface water on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium in ground water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Karpe, Rupali; Ajay Kumar; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    During the present work, impacts of cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ,), anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) and DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium (VI) in subsurface water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is studied. The concentrations of these anions, cations and DOC in subsurface water changes due to change in the geo-chemical environment at different locations. In AdSV, concentration of U was determined by forming an uranium-chloranilic acid complex (2,5-dichloro- 3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone). AdSV measurements were carried out in the differential pulse (DP) mode using a pulse amplitude of -50 mV, a pulse time of 30 ms and a potential step of 4 mV. The detection limit, was calculated to 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ) and anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) was carried out by using Ion Chromatography. Ground water samples were spiked with varying degree of cations, anions and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). DOC in ground waters were measured by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer. Various experiments show that analysis of uranium in the concentration range of 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- . In case of DOC there is no interference observed in the concentration range of 0.02-15 ppm but beyond 15 ppm the concentration of uranium decrease sharply. Further, if DOC exceeded 16 ppm it was not possible to do the analysis of uranium by AdSV without destruction of DOC, as DOC is surface active organic compound and accumulates on Hg electrode preferentially over uranium-chloroanailic complex. (author)

  12. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhui Choe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25 were aged at −1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk. The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity, water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C. Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Results Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05 made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05 and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009 of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003 and lipid oxidation (p<0.05 of model sausages. Conclusion This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  13. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-02-21

    Feb 21, 1996 ... pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was signifi- ... sal and cooperative breeding in pale chanting goshawk families. ...... fortunes in the white-fronted bee-eater.

  14. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    r oo 09N Cml* Iw pim c rphkase MAd sAOl; Its D1 O r STHE UNIVERSITY OF MIS .. PHYSICAL ACOUSIS E _AC SGRO1PP tJ,, IPARTMENTO Ul1STIC__RSE C.ND AST•OP...its C LINIlINr Thl VALUES Ott Xfl-EL To NIt LobE,- THAN X%;P.I’ C THIS 1AUCE VEi4SiIh IS A P"’DIFJCA?1OP1 O’? PANGVZ# MAT HAhG.U3v c THE SYSTIh’ of

  15. Impact of northern Eurasian snow cover in autumn on the warm Arctic-cold Eurasia pattern during the following January and its linkage to stationary planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinping; He, Shengping; Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    The connection between Eurasian snow cover (SC) in autumn and Eurasian winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) has been identified by many studies. However, some recent observations indicate that early and late winter climate sometimes shows an out-of-phase relationship, suggesting that the winter mean situation might obscure the important relationships that are relevant for scientific research and applications. This study investigates the relationship between October northern Eurasian SC (NESC; 58°-68°N, 30°-90°E) and Eurasian SAT during the winter months and finds a significant relationship only exists in January. Generally, following reduced October NESC, the East Asian trough and Ural high are intensified in January, and anomalous northeasterly winds prevail in mid-latitudes, causing cold anomalies over Eurasia. Meanwhile, anomalous southwesterly winds along the northern fringe of the Ural high favor warm anomalies in the Arctic. The dynamical mechanism for the connection between NESC in October and the warm Arctic-cold Eurasia (WACE) anomaly in January is further investigated from the perspective of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity. It is found that planetary waves with zonal wavenumber-1 (ZWN1) play a dominant role in this process. Specifically, the ZWN1 pattern of planetary-scale waves concurrent with October NESC anomaly extends from the surface to the upper-stratosphere. It persists in the stratosphere through November-December and propagates downward to the surface by the following January, making the connection between October NESC and January climate possible. Additionally, the influence of October NESC on the January WACE pattern has intensified since the early-2000s.

  16. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-05-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant ( p changes on NPS pollution. The findings of this study may be useful to water resource planners in controlling water pollution

  17. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  18. Impacts of changes in groundwater recharge on the isotopic composition and geochemistry of seasonally ice-covered lakes: insights for sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth; Gibson, John; Noret, Aurélie

    2017-11-01

    Lakes are under increasing pressure due to widespread anthropogenic impacts related to rapid development and population growth. Accordingly, many lakes are currently undergoing a systematic decline in water quality. Recent studies have highlighted that global warming and the subsequent changes in water use may further exacerbate eutrophication in lakes. Lake evolution depends strongly on hydrologic balance, and therefore on groundwater connectivity. Groundwater also influences the sensitivity of lacustrine ecosystems to climate and environmental changes, and governs their resilience. Improved characterization of groundwater exchange with lakes is needed today for lake preservation, lake restoration, and sustainable management of lake water quality into the future. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to determine if the future evolution of the climate, the population, and the recharge could modify the geochemistry of lakes (mainly isotopic signature and quality via phosphorous load) and if the isotopic monitoring of lakes could be an efficient tool to highlight the variability of the water budget and quality. Small groundwater-connected lakes were chosen to simulate changes in water balance and water quality expected under future climate change scenarios, namely representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Contemporary baseline conditions, including isotope mass balance and geochemical characteristics, were determined through an intensive field-based research program prior to the simulations. Results highlight that future lake geochemistry and isotopic composition trends will depend on four main parameters: location (and therefore climate conditions), lake catchment size (which impacts the intensity of the flux change), lake volume (which impacts the range of variation), and lake G index (i.e., the percentage of groundwater that makes up total lake inflows), the latter being the dominant control on water balance conditions, as revealed by

  19. Impacts of changes in groundwater recharge on the isotopic composition and geochemistry of seasonally ice-covered lakes: insights for sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arnoux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are under increasing pressure due to widespread anthropogenic impacts related to rapid development and population growth. Accordingly, many lakes are currently undergoing a systematic decline in water quality. Recent studies have highlighted that global warming and the subsequent changes in water use may further exacerbate eutrophication in lakes. Lake evolution depends strongly on hydrologic balance, and therefore on groundwater connectivity. Groundwater also influences the sensitivity of lacustrine ecosystems to climate and environmental changes, and governs their resilience. Improved characterization of groundwater exchange with lakes is needed today for lake preservation, lake restoration, and sustainable management of lake water quality into the future. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to determine if the future evolution of the climate, the population, and the recharge could modify the geochemistry of lakes (mainly isotopic signature and quality via phosphorous load and if the isotopic monitoring of lakes could be an efficient tool to highlight the variability of the water budget and quality. Small groundwater-connected lakes were chosen to simulate changes in water balance and water quality expected under future climate change scenarios, namely representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Contemporary baseline conditions, including isotope mass balance and geochemical characteristics, were determined through an intensive field-based research program prior to the simulations. Results highlight that future lake geochemistry and isotopic composition trends will depend on four main parameters: location (and therefore climate conditions, lake catchment size (which impacts the intensity of the flux change, lake volume (which impacts the range of variation, and lake G index (i.e., the percentage of groundwater that makes up total lake inflows, the latter being the dominant control on water balance conditions, as

  20. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant (p < 0.05) pollutant loads were obtained from 2013 LULC conditions, while statistically least significant (p < 0.05) pollutant

  1. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  3. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  4. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change on the freshwater availability in the Brahmaputra River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study Region: Brahmaputra River basin in South Asia.Study Focus: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to evaluate sensitivities and patterns in freshwater availability due to projected climate and land use changes in the Brahmaputra basin. The daily observed discharge at Bahadurabad station in Bangladesh was used to calibrate and validate the model and analyze uncertainties with a sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm. The sensitivities and impacts of projected climate and land use changes on basin hydrological components were simulated for the A1B and A2 scenarios and analyzed relative to a baseline scenario of 1988–2004.New hydrological insights for the region: Basin average annual ET was found to be sensitive to changes in CO2 concentration and temperature, while total water yield, streamflow, and groundwater recharge were sensitive to changes in precipitation. The basin hydrological components were predicted to increase with seasonal variability in response to climate and land use change scenarios. Strong increasing trends were predicted for total water yield, streamflow, and groundwater recharge, indicating exacerbation of flooding potential during August–October, but strong decreasing trends were predicted, indicating exacerbation of drought potential during May–July of the 21st century. The model has potential to facilitate strategic decision making through scenario generation integrating climate change adaptation and hazard mitigation policies to ensure optimized allocation of water resources under a variable and changing climate. Keywords: Brahmaputra, Freshwater availability, SWAT, Streamflow, Climate change, Land use change

  6. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  7. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years.

  8. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  9. Systematic investigation of electron impact excitation-autoionization from the ground state of highly charged GaI-like ions through ΔN=1 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Mandlebaum, P.; Mittnik, D.; Meroz, E.; Schwob, J.L.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic variation in the line intensity ratios of GaI-like and ZnI-like ions of rare earth elements has been recently observed in spectra emitted in a low density, high temperature tokamak plasma. This variation is shown to be correlated with the gradual opening of autoionizing channels through inner-shell excited configurations of the GaI-like charge-state. These channels enhance the indirect ionization rate of GaI-like ions through excitation-autoionization (EA), effecting the ionization balance and temperatures of greatest abundance. We present a systematic investigation of EA and direct impact ionization (DI) in the GaI-like isoelectronic sequence from Mo (Z = 42) to Dy (Z = 66). As Z decreases from Dy to Pr (Z = 59) the levels of the configuration 3d 9 4p4f, which are excited from the ground state by strong dipole collisional transitions, gradually cross the first ionization limit of the ion and are responsible for this ionization enhancement. When Z decreases further an additional channel is opened through the configuration 3d 9 4p4d. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Systematic investigation of electron impact excitation-autoionization from the ground state of highly charged GaI-like ions through ΔN = 1 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Goldstein, W.H.; Mandlebaum, P.; Mittnik, D.; Meroz, E.; Schwob, J.L.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic variation in the line intensity ratios of GaI-like and ZnI-like ions of rare earth elements has been recently observed in spectra emitted in a low density, high temperature Tokamak plasma. This variation is shown to be correlated with the gradual opening of autoionizing channels through inner-shell excited configurations of the GaI-like charge-state. These channels enhance the indirect ionization rate of GaI-like ions through excitation-autoionization (EA), effecting the ionization balance and temperatures of greatest abundance. The authors a systematic investigations of EA and direct impact ionizations (DI) in the GaI-like isoelectronic sequence from Mo (Z = 42) to Dy (Z = 66). As Z decreases from Dy to Pr (Z = 59) the levels of the configuration 3d 9 4p4f, which are excited from the ground state by strong dipole collisional transitions, gradually cross the first ionization limit of the ion and are responsible for this ionization enhancement. When Z decreases further an additional channel is opened through the configuration 3d 9 4p4d

  11. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  12. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  13. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  14. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  15. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  16. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  18. An experimental study of the impact of trees and urban form on the turbulent dispersion of heavy particles from near ground point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, R., II; Christen, A.; Mahaffee, W.; Salesky, S.; Therias, A.; Caitlin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Pollution in the form of small particles has a strong impact on a wide variety of urban processes that play an important role in the function of urban ecosystems and ultimately human health and well-being. As a result, a substantial body of research exists on the sources, sinks, and transport characteristics of urban particulate matter. Most of the existing experimental work examining point sources employed gases (e.g., SF6) as the working medium. Furthermore, the focus of most studies has been on the dispersion of pollutants far from the source location. Here, our focus is on the turbulent dispersion of heavy particles in the near source region of a suburban neighborhood. To this end, we conducted a series of heavy particle releases in the Sunset neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada during June, 2017. The particles where dispersed from a near ground point source at two different locations. The Sunset neighborhood is composed mostly of single dwelling detached houses and has been used in numerous previous urban studies. One of the release points was just upwind of a 4-way intersection and the other in the middle of a contiguous block of houses. Each location had a significant density of trees. A minimum of four different successful release events were conducted at each site. During each release, fluorescing micro particles (mean diameter approx. 30 micron) were released from ultrasonic atomizer nozzles for a duration of approximately 20 minutes. The particles where sampled at 50 locations (1.5 m height) in the area downwind of the release over distances from 1-15 times the mean canopy height ( 6 m) using rotating impaction traps. In addition to the 50 sampler locations, instantaneous wind velocities were measured with eight sonic anemometers distributed horizontally and vertically throughout the release area. The resulting particle plume distributions indicate a strong impact of local urban form in the near source region and a high degree of sensitivity to the local

  19. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  20. Accuracy Assessment of Satellite Derived Forest Cover Products in South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Xu, X.; Jain, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) region occupies 16 % of worlds land area. It is home to over 50% of the world's population. The SSEA's countries are experiencing significant land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs), primarily in agriculture, forest, and urban land. For this study, we compiled four existing global forest cover maps for year 2010 by Gong et al.(2015), Hansen et al. (2013), Sexton et al.(2013) and Shimada et al. (2014), which were all medium resolution (≤30 m) products based on Landsat and/or PALSAR satellite images. To evaluate the accuracy of these forest products, we used three types of information: (1) ground measurements, (2) high resolution satellite images and (3) forest cover maps produced at the national scale. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select a set of validation data points from the ground and high-resolution satellite images. Then the confusion matrix method was used to assess and rank the accuracy of the forest cover products for the entire SSEA region. We analyzed the spatial consistency of different forest cover maps, and further evaluated the consistency with terrain characteristics. Our study suggests that global forest cover mapping algorithms are trained and tested using limited ground measurement data. We found significant uncertainties in mountainous areas due to the topographical shadow effect and the dense tree canopies effects. The findings of this study will facilitate to improve our understanding of the forest cover dynamics and their impacts on the quantities and pathways of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen fluxes. Gong, P., et al. (2012). "Finer resolution observation and monitoring of global land cover: first mapping results with Landsat TM and ETM+ data." International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(7): 2607-2654. Hansen, M. C., et al. (2013). "High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change." Science 342(6160): 850-853. Sexton, J. O., et al. (2013). "Global, 30-m resolution

  1. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  2. Linear disturbances on discontinuous permafrost: implications for thaw-induced changes to land cover and drainage patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Tyler J; Quinton, William L; Baltzer, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, linear disturbances such as winter roads and seismic lines severely alter the hydrology, ecology, and ground thermal regime. Continued resource exploration in this environment has created a need to better understand the processes causing permafrost thaw and concomitant changes to the terrain and ground cover, in order to efficiently reduce the environmental impact of future exploration through the development of best management practices. In a peatland 50 km south of Fort Simpson, NWT, permafrost thaw and the resulting ground surface subsidence have produced water-logged linear disturbances that appear not to be regenerating permafrost, and in many cases have altered the land cover type to resemble that of a wetland bog or fen. Subsidence alters the hydrology of plateaus, developing a fill and spill drainage pattern that allows some disturbances to be hydrologically connected with adjacent wetlands via surface flow paths during periods of high water availability. The degree of initial disturbance is an important control on the extent of permafrost thaw and thus the overall potential recovery of the linear disturbance. Low impact techniques that minimize ground surface disturbance and maintain original surface topography by eliminating windrows are needed to minimize the impact of these linear disturbances. (letter)

  3. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  4. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  5. Impact of global change on ground subsidence related to aquifer exploitation. The case of the Vega de Granada aquifer (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; María Mateos, Rosa; Rueda, Ramon; Pegalajar-Cuellar, Manuel; Ezquerro, Pablo; Béjar, Marta; Herrera, Gerardo; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan

    2017-04-01

    In this research, we intend to develop a methodology to assess the impact of potential global change scenarios on land subsidence. Subsidence rates in wide areas could be estimated by using remote sensing techniques, such as DInSAR and specifically the new radar information obtained by the Sentinel set of satellites from the European Space Agency (ESA). A symbolic regression method will be developed to obtain an explicit quantitative relationship between subsidence, hydraulic head changes and other physical variables (e.g. percentage of clay and silt in the ground, load of buildings and constructions, fill-in works etc.). Different ensemble and downscaling techniques will be used to define potential future global change scenarios for the test-regions based on the data coming from simulations with different Regional Circulation Models (RCMs). Future drawdowns can be estimated from these global change scenarios under different management options. The regression approach will be employed to simulate the impacts of these drawdowns, in terms of land-subsidence, taking into account the estimated hydraulic head changes. It will allow to assess sustainable management of detrital aquifers taking into account subsidence issues. Classic regression analysis attempts to postulate a hypothesis function f, and the regression is reduced to the problem of finding the optimal parameters w of the hypothesis y=f(x, w), to explain a set of dependent variables y from the values of independent variables x, where x and y are known input/output data. Symbolic regression generalizes this process by assuming that f is also unknown in advance, so that the problem is formulated as finding the optimal analytical expression and its parameters that best approximate the data y considering the data in x. To achieve that purpose, in this work Straight Line Programs (SLP) will be used to represent analytical expressions, and a genetic programming approach will be used to find an optimal SLP that

  6. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  7. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  8. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  11. Influence of surface mining on ground water (effects and possibilities of prevention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicki, J

    1977-01-01

    This article analyzes the negative impact of surface mining on ground water. The effects of water depression on water supply for households and industry, and for vegetation and agriculture are evaluated. The negative impact of lowering the ground water level under various water conditions are analyzed: (1) vegetation is supplied with water only by rainfall, (2) vegetation is supplied with water in some seasons by rainfall and in some by ground water, and (3) vegetation uses ground water only. The impact of deteriorating water supply on forests is discussed. Problems connected with storage of waste materials in abandoned surface mines are also discussed. The influence of black coal ash and waste material from coal preparation plants on ground water is analyzed: penetration of some elements and chemical compounds to the ground water and its pollution. Some preventive measures are proposed: injection of grout in the bottom and walls of storage areas to reduce their permeability (organic resins can also be used but they are more expensive). The distance between injection boreholes should be 15 to 20 m. Covering the bottom of the storage area with plastic sheets can also be applied.

  12. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  13. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  14. DAMPAK FASILITATIF TUMBUHAN LEGUM PENUTUP TANAH DAN TANAMAN BERMIKORIZA PADA SUKSESI PRIMER DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG KAPUR (Facilitative Impacts of Legume Cover-crop and Mycorrhizal-inoculated Plant on Primary Succession of Limestone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    melalui peningkatkan kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis pada semua tingkatan habitus, meskipun untuk tingkat herba dan semak, kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis terendah pada areal pertanaman tanpa mikoriza. ABSTRACT Limestone mining using open pit mining method that involves vegetation removal and soil drilling and blasting in accessing limestone material has caused ecosystem damages. Natural recovery of such a harsh site is a slow process as the site condition in the successional process do not favor the natural vegetation development. Plants Establishment could facilitate other plants by ameliorating harsh environmental characteristics and/or increasing the availability of nutrient resources. Facilitation impact of legume cover crop (Centrosema pubescens and mycorrhizal-inoculated plantation (Vitex cofassus was studied on primary succession of TNS limestone mining quarry. The emergence of natural plants is measured using individual density, diversity and number of species by quadrat systematic plot method base on their habitus. Site conditions measured by litterfall thickness and biomass, soil organic matter content and soil organic carbon levels. The study was conducted in four types of areas on limestone postmining lands are open areas/natural conditions without planting, legume cover crop area, non mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area and mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area. The results indicated, establishment of legume cover crops and mycorrhizal-inoculated plants improved site conditions of limestone quarry. Legume cover crops establishment produced a large amount of litters with 1.08 cm of a thickness and 188.96 g/m2 of biomass, and it’s subsequent decomposition increased soil organic matter of 3.80% and the organic carbon content of 2.20%. Plantation formation gave similar impact as well, particulary those inoculated with Arbuscula Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF produced amount of litters with 1.32 cm of a thickness and 220.48 g/m2 of biomass, with 3

  15. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  16. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of aerosol optical properties during 2005-2010 over Red Mountain Pass and Impact on the Snow Cover of the San Juan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Gautam, R.; Painter, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Growing body of evidence suggests the significant role of aerosol solar absorption in accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the cryosphere and elevated mountain regions via snow contamination and radiative warming processes. Characterization of aerosol optical properties over seasonal snow cover and snowpacks is therefore important towards the better understanding of aerosol radiative effects and associated impact on snow albedo. In this study, we present seasonal variations in column-integrated aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sunphotometer measurements (2005-2010) at Red Mountain Pass (37.90° N, 107.72° W, 3368 msl) in the San Juan Mountains, in the vicinity of the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured at 500nm is generally low (pollutant transport. In addition, the possibility of the observed increased coarse-mode influence associated with mineral dust influx cannot be ruled out, due to westerly-airmass driven transport from arid/desert regions as suggested by backward trajectory simulations. A meteorological coupling is also found in the summer season between AOD and column water vapor retrieved from AERONET with co-occurring enhanced water vapor and AOD. Based on column measurements, it is difficult to ascertain the aerosol composition, however, the summer-time enhanced aerosol loading as presented here is consistent with the increased dust deposition in the San Juan mountain snow cover as reported in recent studies. In summary, this study is expected to better understand the seasonal and inter-annual aerosol column variations and is an attempt to provide an insight into the effects of aerosol solar absorption on accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the San Juan mountains.

  17. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  18. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  19. Assessing Wetland Health Using a Newly Developed Land Cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citizen science combines environmental research with environmental education .... health of the wetland using land cover type impacts. Once the impact is ... to interpret the findings of the quantitative method using the qualitative findings.

  20. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  1. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  2. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  3. Long-range-transported bioaerosols captured in snow cover on Mount Tateyama, Japan: impacts of Asian-dust events on airborne bacterial dynamics relating to ice-nucleation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The westerly wind travelling at high altitudes over eastern Asia transports aerosols from the Asian deserts and urban areas to downwind areas such as Japan. These long-range-transported aerosols include not only mineral particles but also microbial particles (bioaerosols, that impact the ice-cloud formation processes as ice nuclei. However, the detailed relations of airborne bacterial dynamics to ice nucleation in high-elevation aerosols have not been investigated. Here, we used the aerosol particles captured in the snow cover at altitudes of 2450 m on Mt Tateyama to investigate sequential changes in the ice-nucleation activities and bacterial communities in aerosols and elucidate the relationships between the two processes. After stratification of the snow layers formed on the walls of a snow pit on Mt Tateyama, snow samples, including aerosol particles, were collected from 70 layers at the lower (winter accumulation and upper (spring accumulation parts of the snow wall. The aerosols recorded in the lower parts mainly came from Siberia (Russia, northern Asia and the Sea of Japan, whereas those in the upper parts showed an increase in Asian dust particles originating from the desert regions and industrial coasts of Asia. The snow samples exhibited high levels of ice nucleation corresponding to the increase in Asian dust particles. Amplicon sequencing analysis using 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial communities in the snow samples predominately included plant associated and marine bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria during winter, whereas during spring, when dust events arrived frequently, the majority were terrestrial bacteria of phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundances of Firmicutes (Bacilli showed a significant positive relationship with the ice nucleation in snow samples. Presumably, Asian dust events change the airborne bacterial communities over Mt Tateyama and carry terrestrial bacterial populations, which

  4. Long-range-transported bioaerosols captured in snow cover on Mount Tateyama, Japan: impacts of Asian-dust events on airborne bacterial dynamics relating to ice-nucleation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Furumoto, Shogo; Asahi, Yuya; Lee, Kevin C.; Watanabe, Koichi; Aoki, Kazuma; Murakami, Masataka; Tajiri, Takuya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mashio, Asami; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2018-06-01

    The westerly wind travelling at high altitudes over eastern Asia transports aerosols from the Asian deserts and urban areas to downwind areas such as Japan. These long-range-transported aerosols include not only mineral particles but also microbial particles (bioaerosols), that impact the ice-cloud formation processes as ice nuclei. However, the detailed relations of airborne bacterial dynamics to ice nucleation in high-elevation aerosols have not been investigated. Here, we used the aerosol particles captured in the snow cover at altitudes of 2450 m on Mt Tateyama to investigate sequential changes in the ice-nucleation activities and bacterial communities in aerosols and elucidate the relationships between the two processes. After stratification of the snow layers formed on the walls of a snow pit on Mt Tateyama, snow samples, including aerosol particles, were collected from 70 layers at the lower (winter accumulation) and upper (spring accumulation) parts of the snow wall. The aerosols recorded in the lower parts mainly came from Siberia (Russia), northern Asia and the Sea of Japan, whereas those in the upper parts showed an increase in Asian dust particles originating from the desert regions and industrial coasts of Asia. The snow samples exhibited high levels of ice nucleation corresponding to the increase in Asian dust particles. Amplicon sequencing analysis using 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial communities in the snow samples predominately included plant associated and marine bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria) during winter, whereas during spring, when dust events arrived frequently, the majority were terrestrial bacteria of phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundances of Firmicutes (Bacilli) showed a significant positive relationship with the ice nucleation in snow samples. Presumably, Asian dust events change the airborne bacterial communities over Mt Tateyama and carry terrestrial bacterial populations, which possibly induce ice

  5. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    OpenAIRE

    Juhui Choe; Hyun-Wook Kim; Mustafa M. Farouk; Yuan H. Brad Kim

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25) were aged at ?1.5?C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed ...

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    mechanically killed by several tractor passes. Ground cover was evaluated by a field surveys (4 per year) in which the same areas were measured at an approximate density of 4 samples/ha. In each point, over a 0.25 m2 area ground cover was measured using photographs, then point measurements were interpolated using method of Inverse Distance Weighting methods, to generate continuous distribution maps. The spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover in both farms presented a notably different patterns in both farms. In "La Conchuela", maximum values of cover can be reached in winter (61%, Dec-2011) while in "Arroyo Blanco", the maximum values were observed during the spring (50% May-2011) and are dramatically lower in the seasons of summer and autumn. These differences are justified by the influence of the management, the precipitation regime and the soil qualities such as the depth. On the other hand, the large spatial variability of ground cover measurements in both catchments, with coefficients of variation between 41 and 167%, was mainly led by the topography. In both farms the highest values of ground cover were found in those areas with deeper soils located in also in converging areas where surface runoff is concentrated. In the highest and shallowest area, soil management operations might improve the establishment of the vegetation as well as to address the growing in the most erosive periods. Finally, the impact of grass cover on the hydrological and erosive responses in the catchment is also discussed. References Aguilera, L. 2012. Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar. Evaluación espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba. Gómez, J.A., Giráldez, J.V. Erosión y degradación de suelos. In: Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía. Gómez, J.A. (Editor). Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla, p. 45-86. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A., Gir

  7. Evaluation of drought and UV radiation impacts on above-ground biomass of mountain grassland by spectral reflectance and thermal imaging techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publica