Sample records for ground combat troops


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. TSOKUR


    Full Text Available The article describes some of the features of Japanese combat training of troops and their display in the wars of the late XIX – early XX century in connection with using of bladed weapons. Despite decreasing one’s role in modern warfare, much attention was paid to training bayonet fighting techniques and fencing swords. A British officer, F. Norman after a long learning Japanese fencing wrote about considerable superiority of Japanese swords and fencing systems. During the Russian-Japanese war 1904‒1905 there were widely used bayonets and sabres (swords, broadswords in the melee, but more often the bayonets were used. Most memoirs celebrate excellence in the Russian bayonet attacks. The fall of the role of the cavalry is not only sharply increased role of firearms, but also with the preparation of engineering positions. Combat training of reserve forces in Japan and Russia also differ significantly. According to General A. Kuropatkin, the Japanese reserve units sometimes were fighting better than the field troops. There is widely spread opinion in the scientific literature that the Japanese soldier was physically strong and hardy, brought on unquestioning fulfillment of all the requirements of command. Military reporter D. Yanchevetsky, who observed the actions of the Japanese troops during the march to Beijing in 1900, wrote that the Japanese are brave in the battle, but not endurance in the campaigns. They are dangerous and impetuous only in the first impact, but quickly weakened, and for the next blow they did not have enough strength and energy. They were pass long distance on the march and were ready to fight at the place of arrival. 

  2. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.


    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

  3. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  4. The moderating effect of parenthood in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and lateral preference in Israeli reserve combat troops. (United States)

    Ritov, Gilad; Barnetz, Zion


    The present study examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and lateral preference, as reflected by handedness, in Israeli reserve combat troops. Data were gathered from 147 right-handed reserve combat personnel who filled out the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a questionnaire examining the severity of PTSD symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria and a questionnaire on the details of military service and familial status. The participants without children exhibited significantly more PTSD symptoms compared with the participants with children but did not differ in lateral preference levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed an altered pattern in the relationship between PTSD symptoms severity and lateral preference between the two groups. This alternation could suggest that being a parent might compel a reservist to inhibit the use of avoidance mechanisms for coping with intrusive memories, resulting in reduction of visible symptoms of PTSD while respectively contributing to their synchronization to lateral preference.

  5. Assessing possible exposures of ground troops to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War: the use of contemporary military records. (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F; Guilmartin, John F


    Potential exposure of ground troops in Vietnam to Agent Orange and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) remains controversial despite the passage of 30 years since the Vietnam War. Because of uncertainty over the serum dioxin levels in ground troops at the end of their service in Vietnam, attempts have been made to develop a methodology for characterizing exposure of ground troops in Vietnam to Agent Orange and other herbicides based upon historical reconstruction from military records. Historical information is often useful in evaluating and modeling exposure, but such information should be reasonably accurate, complete, and reliable. This paper reviews the procedures and supporting historical information related to the spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The historical information is classified into two categories: procedural information and operational information. Procedural information covered the process and procedures followed in spraying herbicides from US Air Force fixed wing aircraft (Operation RANCH HAND) in Vietnam, and included approval procedures for spray missions, the criteria required to conduct a mission, the control exercised by the Forward Air Controller and the Tactical Air Control Center and the characteristics of the equipment used to apply the herbicides. Operational information includes data from the RANCH HAND Daily Air Activities Reports, which included geographic locations of specific spray missions, the amount of herbicide sprayed by a specific mission, reports of battle damage to spray aircraft, reports of fighter aircraft support for aerial spray missions, and any comments, such as reasons for canceling a mission. Historical information demonstrates that herbicide spray missions were carefully planned and that spraying only occurred when friendly forces were not located in the target area. RANCH HAND spray missions were either not approved or cancelled if approved when there were friendly forces in the area designated for

  6. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy (United States)


    military. Many opponents believe that the military is being used as an experiment to "further social change in our society without regard for military...Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  7. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SHI


    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  8. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization (United States)


    not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and Abrams will remain in the inventory for 50...time since World War I, that the Army does not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and...Jane’s Land Warfare Platforms Armoured Fighting Vehicles, 2016-2017; IHS Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012; and unclassified information provided to

  9. Assessing the impact of reduced airspeed on tiltrotor support to ground combat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawsky, A.S.; Olness, D.U.; Uzelac, M.J.


    This paper reports the sensitivity of assessments of tiltrotor effectiveness for supporting ground combat to reductions in airspeed of V-22s carrying external sling loads. Attrition to ground-based air defenses realized in the simulations is presented. Finally, results of the supported ground combat are presented. 2 refs.

  10. Shipboard and Ground Troop Casualty Rates among Navy and Marine Corps Personnel during World War II Operations (United States)


    range of ships (major combatants, patrol craft, submarines, minecraft , landing craft, auxiliary vessels) critical to successful naval engagements. Figure... minecraft , and patrol craft. These vessels are generally small, with minrimnl rrpw rcmn1pmpntf. vieldina high rates of casualties when hit. Fuel oil

  11. Research on Modeling of Allocation of Air Defense Troops Based on Programming Method%基于规划方法的防空兵兵力区分问题建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋里强; 王桂花; 王纯; 高建军


    The allocation of air defense troops is an important step of troops disposition,a correct scheme about combat grouping and combat formation disposition could be worked out only after the allocation of air defense troops has been done. This paper is devoted to study allocation problem of troops during the process of coordination operation between ground -to -air missile forces and antiaircraft artillery forces within combat zone of air defense troops. Taking the mathematic expectation of destroying enemy air raid weapons as objective function,a nonlinear programming model is built and the optimal scheme of troops allocation is found to help commander make a policy by use of Lingo software.%防空兵兵力区分是防空兵兵力部署的一个重要环节,在进行正确的兵力区分基础上,才能进行正确的战斗编组和战斗队型配置。研究了防空兵作战地幅内地空导弹兵与高射炮兵协同作战时的兵力区分问题,以消灭敌空兵器的数学期望为目标函数,用规划方法建立了该问题的数学模型,用Lingo软件求出了兵力区分的最佳方案。

  12. Passive Fuel Tank Inerting Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles (United States)


    34Fire Protection Handbook,"Natioaal girt Pro~dction Association (NFPA), 14th es., Dos on, cu (January 1976) 25 American Petroleum Institute, API ...System on the X60 Series Combat Vehicles," Report No. 79-04A, U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research and Development I Command, DRDTA-V, Warren, MI (October

  13. The Quantified Judgement Model and Historic Ground Combat (United States)


    GEOGRAPHIC REGION NUMBER OF INCIDENTS Atlantic Community 572 Middle East 159 Asia 102 East Europe 8 Latin America 282 Africa 37 Figure 2. Distribution of...FORCE BLUE FORCE S 1500 500 OE 1.0 2.5 Q 2.0 1.5 The Combat Power Ratios are: P(r) 1500x 1.0x 2.0 -1.6 Pfb) - 500x 2.5 x 1.5 and PIb ) _ 500 x 250 x 150

  14. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  15. Air Ground Integration and the Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    throughout the year, and helping me fight my tendency to procrastinate . Her patience and understanding helped me keep things in perspective during the school...aircraft. “Artillery Integration for CAS Fighters,” discusses the need for CAS fighter pilots to understand the ground scheme of maneuver and current...research were identified within each research question. Chapter 2 provided an understanding of the extensive amount of literature on AGI and airspace

  16. The U.S. Ground Combat Presence in Korea: In Defense of U.S. Interests or a Strategic Dinosaur (United States)


    yD2 5?/ THE U.S. GROUND COMBAT PRESENCE IN KOREA : IN DEFENSE OF U.S. INTERESTS OR A STRATEGIC DINOSAUR 00 00 cV31 A tbosis presented to the Faculty...and Subttle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The U.S. Ground Combat Presence in Korea : In Defense of U.S. Interests or a StrategicMatrsTei Dinosaur 6...U IT Y C .A S I ic A TrIO H O T1411 ! AG E flW Io. * b at. Ir ’ THE U.S. GROUND COMBAT PRESENCE IN KOREA : IN DEFENSE OF U.S. INTERESTS OR A STRATEGIC

  17. Predictors of Risk and Resilience for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Ground Combat Marines: Methods of the Marine Resiliency Study (United States)


    and saliva are collected from each subject at T1, T3, and T4. Body measurements Height, weight, and waist circumference are measured at T1, T3, and...SPECIAL TOPIC Predictors of Risk and Resilience for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Ground Combat Marines: Methods of the Marine...PhD; the MRS Team Suggested citation for this article: Baker DG, Nash WP, Litz BT, Geyer MA, Risbrough VB, Nievergelt CM, et al. Predictors of Risk

  18. Environmental fate of TCDD and Agent Orange and bioavailability to troops in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karch, N.J.; Watkins, D.K.; Ginevan, M.E. [Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Young, A.L. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)


    This paper reviews the environmental fate of Agent Orange and the contaminant, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and discusses how this affects the bioavailability of TCDD for ground troops in Vietnam.

  19. The Importance of Combat Ethics Training: Solidifying Marines Footing on the Moral High Ground (United States)


    combat ethics is accomplished through a variety ofmethods. These include instruction on core values, leadership, martial arts , rules of engagement (ROE...exercises. We further reinforce confident, ethical decision-making through the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program that teaches our Core Values and" at the School of Infantry (Sal). The development of ethics continues with core values discussions, Marine Corps Martial Arts program (MCMAP

  20. Autonomous Robotic Weapons: US Army Innovation for Ground Combat in the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    164 William Mathews, “Megacity Warfare: Taking Urban Combat To a Whole New Level,” ARMY Magazine, March, 2015, 31. 165 David Shunk, “ Mega Cities ...2014. Accessed April 2, 2015. “ Mega Cities , Ungoverned Areas, and the Challenge of Army... plan is expected to reduce the overall active force strength from 520,000 to less than 450,000 and from 44 BCTs to just 28 BCTs by FY 2019.102 These

  1. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy


    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-troop sleeps apart from the main sub-troop, and these sub-troops reunite the following morning. A ..... Troop division in W had two peak periods i.e. between 0500 and 0700 h and again ... These were the times at which the left-overs.

  3. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations (United States)


    of global urbanization, planning for urban operations is critical to the execution and success of any military campaign. The U.S. Army describes...for the enemy to prepare for the likely attack direction and to plan coordinated attacks against the incoming ground force. Enemy sensors can also...The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) is developing an integrated counter IED suite known as the Counter IED & Mine Suite ( CIMS ). According to Eshel

  4. Motivational Factors in Combat: A Comparison of German and American Soldiers in World War II Using Content Analysis. (United States)


    Robert K. Merton and Paul F. Lazarsfeld . GlencoelL: The Free Press, 1950. Shils, Edward A. and Morris Janowitz. "Cohesion and Disintegration in the...Results and Discussion - Ground Troops 84 American Ground Troops 84 Overview 84 Paul Boesch, Road To Huertgen 85 Robert Leckie, Helmet for Robert Scott Target Ploesti by Leroy Newby Roar of the Tiger by James H. Howard American Ground Troops: Road to Huertgen by Paul Boesch

  5. Aerodynamics of Combat Aircraft Controls and of Ground Effects (L’Aerodynamique des Commandes des Avions de Combat et des Effets de Sol) (United States)


    maneuverability and short field capability. Mangold and Wedekind (ref 16) addressed some of the same issues as Ref 1, but with an emphasis on pitch...Deployment on the Transient Forces on an Aerofoil" 16. Mangold, P., Wedekind , G., "Inflight Thrust Vectoring - A Further Degree of Freedom in the...Aerodynamic/Flightmechanical Design of Modern Fighter Aicraft" 17. Holmes, M.,, "A Propulsion View of Ground Effects Research" 12 18. Wedekind , G

  6. Jungle Skippers: The 317th Troop Carrier Group in the Southwest Pacific and Their Legacy (United States)


    loaded with the whole parachute regiment. Some troopers jumped to check the timing. The pilots were already familiar with the details of the objective...after the aircraft reaches the ground. In airdrop, troops are moved by air transport and landed by means of parachutes . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...moved by air transport and landed by means of parachutes . The author assesses how the convergence of opportunity, capability, and conditions enabled

  7. United States Department of Defense Research in Robotic Unmanned Systems for Combat Casualty Care (United States)


    first responder combat casualty care, and patient evacuation under hostile fire have compounded combat losses throughout history. Force protection of military first responders is complicated by current international and coalition troop deployments for peacekeeping operations, counter terrorism, and humanitarian assistance missions that involve highly visible, politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has significantly invested in autonomous vehicles, and other robots to support its Future Force. By leveraging

  8. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.


    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  9. Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations (United States)


    Singapore quickly prospered, and in 186 that port as well as Malacca and Penang , two small port enclaves on the western Malay coast, formally became the...operations was clearly indicated in statistical analyses maintained by the British com- mand.90 The British command formed larger Gurkha headquarters...displays the density statistics for the Balkans’ deployments. 5 Ta bl e 6. T ro op D en si ty in th e B al ka ns O pe ra tio ns M ili ta ry Fo

  10. 日本出兵西伯利亚探析%A Talk on Japan’ s Dispatching Troops to Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何少伟; 陈永祥


    苏俄成立之初,遭到众多资本主义国家的武装干涉,日本即是干涉方之一。从1918年8月2日晚日本发表出兵西伯利亚宣言,到1922年10月25日撤兵(除北库页岛上兵力外),日本对苏俄的武装干涉历时四年零两个月。日本出兵西伯利亚带有明显的主动性,表面上是日苏之间的一场角斗,实际上牵涉到多方的利益,尤其是与美国的利益发生了激烈的冲突,加之受其他因素的制约,其最终失败也是必然的。%At the outset of its founding, the Soviet Union met with the armed intervention of numerous capital-istic countries, Japan being one of them. Japan’ s armed intervention against the Soviet Union lasted for four years and two months, from the evening of Aug. 2, 1918 when Japan announced its of troops to Siberia to Oct. 25, 1922 when Japan withdrew its troops-except for its troops on Northern Sakhalin. Japan’ s dispatching troops to Siberia was of a clear initiative, for though seemingly a combat between Japan and the Soviet Union, it involved the inter-ests of innumerable parties, esp. in a fierce conflict with the interest of USA, thus the act was doomed to failure, coupled with other factors.

  11. U.S. Troops Stationed in South Korea, Anachronistic? (United States)


    Mayers Publishers, 2000), 20. 2 Tim Kane, “Global US Troop Deployment,” Center for Defense Analysis Report, no. 04-11, (Heritage Center, OCT 27...accessed December 6,2011) 23 Jean -Claude Trichet “The Growing Importance of the Asia-Pacific Region”, Speech at New Year‟s Reception Asia

  12. Concise Aanlysis on Napoleon and his Forgotten Troop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    When talking about Napoleon, people always focus on his military talent, his empire, his famous code or even his final defeat- Battle of Waterloo. Few people will remember his quest for Egypt and his mysterious‘troop’. This thesis will discuss the forgotten troop of Napoleon and its influence on the development of Egypt and the world.

  13. Demo III: Department of Defense testbed for unmanned ground mobility (United States)

    Shoemaker, Chuck M.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.; Myers, Scott D.; Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.


    Robotics has been identified by numerous recent Department of Defense (DOD) studies as a key enabling technology for future military operational concepts. The Demo III Program is a multiyear effort encompassing technology development and demonstration on testbed platforms, together with modeling simulation and experimentation directed toward optimization of operational concepts to employ this technology. Primary program focus is the advancement of capabilities for autonomous mobility through unstructured environments, concentrating on both perception and intelligent control technology. The scout mission will provide the military operational context for demonstration of this technology, although a significant emphasis is being placed upon both hardware and software modularity to permit rapid extension to other military missions. The Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV) is a small (approximately 1150 kg, V-22 transportable) technology testbed vehicle designed for experimentation with multiple military operational concepts. Currently under development, the XUV is scheduled for roll-out in Summer 1999, with an initial troop experimentation to be conducted in September 1999. Though small, and relatively lightweight, modeling has shown the chassis capable of automotive mobility comparable to the current Army lightweight high-mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The XUV design couples multisensor perception with intelligent control to permit autonomous cross-country navigation at speeds of up to 32 kph during daylight and 16 kph during hours of darkness. A small, lightweight, highly capable user interface will permit intuitive control of the XUV by troops from current-generation tactical vehicles. When it concludes in 2002, Demo III will provide the military with both the technology and the initial experience required to develop and field the first generation of semi-autonomous tactical ground vehicles for combat, combat support, and logistics applications.

  14. Reaction of Combat Service Support Troops under Stress: The Small Maintenance Support Unit in a Combat Environment (United States)


    the day - Thomas Alva Edison - and proposed that he develop a device for detecting and locating submarines beneath the ocean surface. After...studying the matter for some time, Mr. Edison announced to an astonished Chief of Naval Operations, that the Navy had failed to identify the real...result of this redefining of the problem, Mr. Edison was instrumental in developing for the Navy Department the dual concepts of •convoy shipping« and

  15. Self-Reported Combat Stress among Troops Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: An Epidemiological Study (United States)


    4 Au g_ 20 04 Se p_ 20 04 Oc t_2 00 4 No v_ 20 04 De c_ 20 04 Calender Year R at e* Iraq: Depression Rate (per 10,000) Iraq: Mean Monthly Death Rate...p_ 20 04 Oc t_2 00 4 No v_ 20 04 De c_ 20 04 Calender Year R at e or C ou nt Afganistan: Depression Rate (per 10,000) Afghan: Death count Figure 2

  16. Planning of Combat Operations and Command of Troops with the Aid of Network Graphs, (United States)


    Accession For Country of origin: USSR R ---- V This document is a machine translation. NTIS GAi Requester: FTD/TQFO DTIC TAB Approved for public release...V. Proskuryakov . Network planning and control. Publ. of MVTU [MBTY - Moscow Higher Technical School] im. Baumann. 7. Basic condition/positions on

  17. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin


    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  18. Troop Takeover and Reproductive Success of Wild Male Japanese Macaques on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Hayakawa


    Full Text Available Troop takeover is common in one-male primate groups, but there are few reports in multimale groups. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata form multimale groups and males commonly join troops at the bottom rank. On Yakushima island, however, where group size is relatively small, entrance into groups at the alpha position is also observed. This paper reports on the general features of troop takeover, on the predictors of takeover events, and on the reproductive success of takeover males. Troop takeovers occurred only in the mating season; nontroop males (NTMs did not cooperate with each other; former alpha males were rarely expelled from the troop; new alpha males did not commit infanticide; new alpha male tenure in the group was usually less than two years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of NTMs associating with a troop predicted the occurrence of troop takeover. Paternity discrimination revealed that 33.3% (3/9 of takeover males succeeded in siring offspring. Contrary to this low success rate, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the takeover males can expect higher reproductive success compared to troop males. Entering a troop and out-competing the alpha male is one of many available strategies to attain reproductive success in male Japanese macaques.

  19. Combating illiteracy (United States)

    A science course for nonscientists at Columbia University's Columbia College that was created in 1981 as an experiment to combat “the national crisis of scientific illiteracy” has received major new foundation support and has achieved a permanent place in the college's curriculum.The course, The Theory and Practice of Science, has received a $240,000 grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, according to Robert E. Pollack, college dean, professor of biological sciences, and originator of the course. The grant will be used for the preparation and publication in 1985 of a textbook, titled The Scientific Experience, which will permit the course to be taught at other schools around the country.

  20. Rezultati modeliranja borbenog manevra napada aviona na zemaljski cilj iz oštrog obrušavanja / The results of combat attack maneuver modelling on ground target using aircraft steep diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pekić


    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazani su rezultati matematičkog modeliranja kretanja aviona u borbenom manevru pri napadu na zemaljski cilj iz oštrog obrušavanja. Kretanje aviona razmatrano je kao kretanje materijalne tačke u prostoru. Takođe, prikazane su prednosti aviona sa otklonom vektora potiska i njegove primene u manevru u odnosu na avion sa klasičnom pogonskom grupom i klasičnim aerodinamičkim upravljačkim površinama. / This paper presents the results of mathematical modeling of aircraft movement in combat maneuver during attack on ground target using steep diving. Aircraft movement is considered as movement of a material point in space. Also, the advantages of aircraft with thrust vector deflection and its applications during maneuver when compared to the aircraft with classical engines and classical aerodynamic controls.

  1. 34 CFR 230.1 - What is the Troops-to-Teacher program? (United States)


    ... teacher, secondary school teacher, or vocational/technical teacher and become a highly qualified teacher... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Troops-to-Teacher program? 230.1 Section... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INNOVATION FOR TEACHER QUALITY Troops-to-Teachers Program § 230...

  2. 地面无人作战系统机械臂运动学建模与仿真%Establishment and Simulation Study on Kinematics Model of Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle Robot Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 田庆民


    The correlative problem of robotic manipulators kinematics model is discussed for Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle in this paper. Considering the structure of robotic manipulators, the kinematics model is established with D-H method. Based on it,the forward and inverse kinematics equations are solved. Then,simulation and verification is performed by Robotics Toolbox of Matlab software for the structure and kinematics analysis. The results show that this method is correct and feasible.%以某地面无人作战系统中的机械臂为研究对象,探讨其运动学模型建立中的相关问题.结合该机械臂的结构特点,利用D-H方法建立其相应的运动学模型,并在该基础上求解机械臂的正、逆运动学方程.最后在Matlab环境下,借助Robotics Toolbox工具箱对该机械臂的结构和运动学问题进行验证和仿真.仿真结果表明:该设计方法是正确可行的.

  3. Food provisioning and stone handling tradition in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of ten troops. (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A


    By addressing the influence of food provisioning on stone handling (SH), a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques, this study contributes to the ongoing debate in cultural primatology by asking whether human intervention influences the emergence or propagation of behavioral traditions. SH is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation of stones by performing various behavioral patterns. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency of food provisioning affects the daily performance, form, and context of occurrence of SH by influencing a troop's feeding-related activity budget. We used a standardized observation procedure to investigate SH in ten troops of Japanese macaques. In troops provisioned several times a day, SH was more frequent, longer, and more prevalent during provisioning than nonprovisioning periods. These effects of provisioning were not significant in troops provisioned less frequently. SH was more frequently integrated with food-related activities in troops supplied with food several times a day than in the other troops. Food provisioning may be a key factor in the innovation and transformation phases of the SH tradition in Japanese macaques.

  4. Airland Combat: An Organization for Joint Warfare (United States)


    Ground Task Force Chapter 3 Organization for Airland Combat Alas! Hegel was right when he said that we learn. from history that men never learnfrom... Taylor , Jr ., eds . Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books, 1984 . Lane, John J ., Jr ., Lt Col

  5. Research on somatotype of men soldier in mobile troops with heath-carter method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhaoxin; Liu Yuanyuan; Sui Yuelin; Yin Shuai; Lu Lanhong; Wang Lei; Ding Wenfeng


    Objective:To investigate somatotype feature of soldier in mobile troops and to store up data in figure databank of China armed forces. Methods:The somatotype of 418 men soldier in mobile troops was evalua-ted with Heath-Carter method. Results:①The somatotype mean of soldier in mobile troops was 2. 4(0. 7)-4. 9 (2. 9) -2. 5(0. 9),SAM was 1. 6(0. 6). The somatotype type was balanced middle embryonic type, and 81. 3﹪was middle embryonic type in somatotype type. ②Compared to somatotype mean of students in common institution of higher learning, somatotype type [3. 8(1. 6) - 4. 3(1. 9) - 3. 5(2. 2)], factor Ⅱ was higher, and factor Ⅰand factorⅢwere lower. Compared to control group, somatotype type of soldier in mobile troops was higher for 45. 3﹪. ③Compared to soldier Belgian and Turkey, distance of somatotype point was near, and compared to soldier of Western--style dessert military academy in American and Royal military affairs college in England factorⅢwere lower. Conclusions:The somatotype characteristic of men soldier in mobile troops is skeletal muscle to become de-veloped, body to become muscular, somatotype type to concentrate main middle embryonic type.

  6. Physiological Assessment of Ground Troops under Thermal Stress Associated with Desert Warfare. (United States)


    TEMPERATURE 0C 0n COCm C7 I I I Ii C. IL I4I0 I1 ImT /0 ci 06 Oo 3unVH~dW3 IV133 26mqZ PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN AND WOMEN TO HUMID AND DRY HEAT...exercising subjects was limited to swimmers . Craig and Dvorak (3) described an electrically braked arm-leg ergometer which could be used in water while...1970. 9. Magel, 3.R. and J.A. Faulkner. Maximum oxygen uptakes of college swimmers . 3. Appl. Physiol. 22:929-933, 1967. 10. Morlock, J.F. and R.H

  7. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs and Their Appropriateness for Aviation and Ground Troops: A Meta-Analysis (United States)


    thermal extremes, altitude, and nutritional deprivation. The U.S. Army is continuously working to determine techniques and countermeasures to sustain...S. R., Lieberman, H. R., Rood , J., Hurry, M., Anderson, T., and Ryan, D. H. 2003. A comparison of tyrosine against placebo, phentermine

  8. Troops to Teachers Update: Changing, but Still Pleasing Principals with High Teaching Quality (United States)

    Owings, William A.; Kaplan, Leslie S.; Khrabrova, Iryna; Chappell, Shanan


    Prior research on Troops to Teachers (TTT) affirms that TTTs are effective instructors likely to work in high-poverty, high-minority schools, teach high-demand subjects, use research-based instructional and classroom management practices linked with student achievement, and plan to stay in the profession. A nonexperimental, mixed method design…

  9. Hail the Conquering Hero: Remembering the Troops in "The Hurt Locker," "Inglourious Basterds" and "Avatar" (United States)

    Beck, Bernard


    Three recent movies about war are examined. All have been honored by critics and welcomed by audiences. The three movies are very different from one another. They reflect different ways of thinking and feeling about war. More specifically, they represent ways we relate to the troops we send into battle and our concerns about whether we have done…

  10. Troop carriers at Normandy and Corregidor: enduring lessons for tactical airlift (United States)


    airborne mission were set at five miles visibility and ceilings of 4,000 feet over land and 3,000 feet over water.158 The 50th and 53rd Troop Carrier...steep cliffs, approximately 500 feet tall, posing a hazard along with the “bomb craters, sharp cement boulders, tin, glass , steel blown from the nearby

  11. Hail the Conquering Hero: Remembering the Troops in "The Hurt Locker," "Inglourious Basterds" and "Avatar" (United States)

    Beck, Bernard


    Three recent movies about war are examined. All have been honored by critics and welcomed by audiences. The three movies are very different from one another. They reflect different ways of thinking and feeling about war. More specifically, they represent ways we relate to the troops we send into battle and our concerns about whether we have done…

  12. 2011 Combat Vehicles Conference (United States)


    Capability-Platform (JBC-P) • Light-weight Crew-served Weapons • Joint Capability Release ( JCR ) • Combat Vehicle Improvements Mr. Scott Davis PEO...WIN-T INC 3 JTRS CREW V2 Relocation/V3 CS 11-12 OoC ( JCR ) BFT II VRC 103 & 104 CS 13-14 MSS Duke TI OSRVT (Rover 6) Nett

  13. Music and Combat Motivation (United States)


    1   AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MUSIC AND COMBAT MOTIVATION by Sally C. Maddocks, Major, USAF Master of...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.  3   Music has the power...are many historical examples from which to draw evidence of the impact of music on fielded forces. One must study not only the historical events, but

  14. Reporting social behaviours of mixed-species troops formed by Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata (Primate, Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Valença-Silva

    Full Text Available In New World primates, mixed-species troops have been reported. Here, we analysed the performance of affiliative and agonistic behaviours of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata living in mixed groups. For this purpose, we recorded the interaction of the individuals from two groups located in Bauru city, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Our data show that in both groups, affiliative behaviours appeared more frequently than agonistic ones. We concluded that there is cohesion inside the mixed-species troops observed. We suggest that a deeper knowledge about the social behaviour of mixed-species troop species certainly may be useful in projects linked with the management of the impact caused by them.

  15. Tactics and armament of the Russian troops in the capture of Derbent fortress in 1796




    The article describes the composition and armament of the Russian Imperial Army during a campaign to the South Caucasus in 1796, and analyzes the tactics of the combat operations during the capture of the heavily fortified Derbent fortress.

  16. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks. (United States)

    Heller, Jack M


    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  17. Functional and anatomical outcome in closed globe combat ocular injuries. (United States)

    Islam, Qamar Ul; Ishaq, Mazhar; Yaqub, Amer; Saeed, Muhammad Kamran


    To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops. This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with ocular injuries from January 2010 to June 2014. Record of each patient was evaluated and demography, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity, associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13. Overall, 49 eyes of 44 male participants were analysed. The overall mean age was 27.59±6.89 years. The most common mode of injury was improvised explosive device blast responsible for 22(50%) casualties. Ocular contusion was the most frequent closed-globe injury occurring in 35(71.42%) eyes. Most frequent ocular findings in all injured eyes were vitreous haemorrhage 16(32.65%), cataract 12(24.48%), retinal detachment 8(16.32%) and commotio retinae 8(16.32%). A total of 48(97.96%) intra-ocular/adnexal surgeries were performed with pars plana vitrectomy 17(34.69%), cataract surgery 16(32.65%), intraocular lens implantation 8(16.32%), and adnexal surgery 5(10.20%) being the most frequently performed procedures. Overall visual improvement at the final follow-up was statistically significant in all injured eyes irrespective of mode of treatment (p =0.001). The functional and anatomical outcome was better in closed-globe combat ocular injuries compared to open-globe injuries.

  18. The release of a troop of rehabilitated vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: outcomes and assessment. (United States)

    Guy, Amanda J; Stone, Olivia M L; Curnoe, Darren


    Rehabilitation and release have become central to the management and welfare of primate species in South Africa such as the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). However, limited research means that it is unknown whether rehabilitation is a successful management strategy for this species. This study describes the release of a troop of rehabilitated vervet monkeys and evaluates the results of 1 year of post-release monitoring. The released animals exhibited wild behaviours and established a home range. Survival could not be adequately evaluated due to the high number of untraceable animals, and troop composition was significantly different from that of wild troops. Improvement may be gained by radio-collaring more animals using improved technology, ensuring that troop composition is comparable to wild troops, excluding ex-pets from re-introduction and a more detailed assessment of the release site. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews]. (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K


    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  20. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rauber


    Full Text Available Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  1. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B


    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  2. Gas Attack of the German Troops in Ikskyulsky Fortified Area: Documents Testify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Korovin


    Full Text Available World War I has become the main testing area for test and application of the latest types of weapons, including such type of weapons of mass destruction as chemical. Despite rather detailed description of poison gases use on the battlefields in works of the military experts, newly revealed documentary sources allow to capture the public attention both to operational and tactical results of their impact and to social and humanitarian consequences of the appeal to similar methods of war. The specified circumstance gains special relevance in the modern geopolitical situation. The publication is based on the documents introduced into scientific use for the first time, gained in funds of the Russian state military and historical archive. Behavioral features of the staff of the military units, caught by gas attack of the German troops on Ikskyulsky bridgehead on September 25, 1916 are revealed in the article.

  3. Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Offensive of Soviet Troops (January — February 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ramazanov


    Full Text Available The author considers one of the many battles of the Second World War, which had a direct bearing on the liberation of Ukraine from German invaders. Analyzes the planning and preparation by the Soviet command Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Operation Ukeraine on the Right Bank. Events this operation unfolded mainly in the region of the Dnieper near Kaniv. Consider in detail the conduct of the Soviet offensive and the counterattack of the German command, which sought to rescue the encircled troops. The data of the Soviet and German historians regarding the loss of the German forces during the military operation. The author concludes that, due to implementation of Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka operations for the Soviet army has opened up new opportunities to further advance and the final liberation of Ukraine from Nazi invaders.

  4. Littoral Combat Ship Crew Scheduling (United States)


    package DON Department of the Navy F&R Fix and Relax GAMS General Algebraic Modeling System LCS Littoral Combat Ship LCSRON Littoral Combat Ship...but that can be acceptable depending on the scheduler needs. F&R produces superior long-term schedules when compared to a similar-length RH schedule...LEFT BLANK 29 IV. MODEL IMPLEMENTATION LCSS is implemented with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) using the GAMS/CPLEX (GAMS, 2014

  5. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops


    Andrew A Farke; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.


    BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat...

  6. O combate ao escorpionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães


    Full Text Available O outor estuda os processos de combate aos acidentes pelas picadas dos escorpiões, visando: a Profilaxia e b Terapêutica. Refere-se à luta nos campos e nas cidades e aqui, dentro e fora dos domicílios. Assinala os diferentes métodos para o combate a êsses artrópodos peçonhentos. Fala na luta direta, indireta, na vacinação pelo anaveneno, na propaganda pela educação racional da população contra o perigo dos acidentes. Refere-se à "cata" dos escorpiões, à luta química, ao emprêgo de animais escorpiófagos, á feitura de casas e jardins anti-escorpiões. Na primeira parte do presente trabalho o autor trata da luta química pelo d. D. T. contra os tityus bahiensis e serrulatus, concluindo que êste corpo químico é um poderoso elemento de luta contra êstes escorpiões. Na segunda parte do trabalho, o autor trata da terapêutica dos acidentes. Mostra a necessidade do emprêgo convenientemente da única terapêutica racional e eficaz contra a intoxicação escorpiônica: a soroterapia específica. Assinala a necessidade da injeção de doses maciças de um sôro de alta valência, preparado em bovídeos, para evitar o mais possível o choque anafilático, no menor tempo possível após as picadas. Aconselha o empêgo de anaveneno escorpiônico, para vacinação principalmente de crianças de baixa idade, nos lugares fortemente infestados pelos escorpiões (principalmente Tityus serrulatus, maximé quando no local não houver sôro anti-escorpiônico específico, como meio preventivo contra a gravidade das intoxicações. Cita finalmente os trabalhos recentes de Grasset, Shaasfsma e Hodgson, na África do Sul, que confirmam muitas idéias do autor e mostram a unidade universal do síndromo escorpiônico descrito no Brasil.

  7. 30 Brigade Combat Teams: Is the Army too Small (United States)


    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this...capacity. In order to increase the number of BCTs, the Army will have to increase its end strength. 14. SUBJECT TERMS simulation, Army...brigade combat teams, Army end strength, boots on the ground to dwell time ratio 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  8. Women Warriors: Why the Robotics Revolution Changes the Combat Equation (United States)


    our military’s history to include racial integration of ground forces, females joining combat aviation units, and most recently the service of openly...critics recognize the contributions of women warriors throughout history . Maginnas, Deadly Consequences, 12-18. 15. Skaine, Reference Handbook, 61...Question in Feminist International Relations: Unmanning the U.S. War on Terror,” in Feminism and International Relations, eds. J. Ann Tickner and Laura Sjoberg, (London: Routledge, 2011), 146, 162.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Kamil Ariadno


    Full Text Available Piracy at sea has been a threat to international navigation ever since the sea traverse by ships from west to east and north to south. Threat to international trade has resulted to various efforts in combating piracy regionally as well as internationally. International law has differentiated between piracy and sea-armed robbery, while the first requires regional or international cooperation due to universal jurisdiction, the second will directly fall under the jurisdiction of coastal state. Strait of Malacca has been used by international navigation and very fragile to the threat of piracy or even appropriately called as sea armed robbery since most of the time happened in the part of Indonesian territorial sea. Various efforts to combat piracy have been carried out by Indonesia including to cooperate with Malaysia and Singapore. This article discuss about piracy at sea, its legal definition and effort to combat piracy.

  10. An epidemiological investigation of gastroesophageal reflux disease among a troop stationed on the plateau%高原某部胃食管反流病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明平良; 曹永忠; 尹贤德; 陶琬珠; 汤岚; 孙桂魏


    Objective To study the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD) in a troop stationed on the plateau and to identify related diseases and risk factors of GERD. Methods 712 service men on the Sichuan -Tibet plateau were recruited to answer the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaires ( GerdQ). According to GerdQ, a cut - off score of 8 was set to discriminate between GERD patients (sum score >8) and controls (sum score <8). The software SPSS 17.0 was used to perform the Chi -square test and logistic regression analysis. Results 698 valid questionnaires were collected. The prevalence of GERD was 17. 19% in this troop, mainly in the U -20 group, the group of 30 years old or above, and the group with 10 - 14 years of service. The main symptoms included reflux(70.83% ),heartburn(51.67% ) and acid reflux(48.33% ). GERD was closely associated with extraesophageal diseases, such as pharyngitis, laryngitis,otopathy,sinusitis,asthma ,and bronchitis. Logistic regression ananlysis showed that age, length of service, overeating, drinking, stress,overwork and dyschezia were the most likely risk factors for GERD. Conclusions There is a high incidence of GERD with definite features in the plateau - stationed troop. To improve training conditions can help reduce the incidence of GERD and improve combat effectiveness of plateau troops.%目的 了解高原部队官兵胃食管反流病(gastroesophageal reflux disease,GERD)患病率及其相关疾病和危险因素.方法 对驻川藏高原某部712名官兵进行整体问卷调查.以胃食管反流病问卷(GerdQ)总分≥8分为GERD病例组,<8分为对照组.采用SPSS17.0统计软件进行x2检验和Logistic多元回归分析.结果 共回收有效问卷698份.高原某部GERD患病率为17.19%,并以年龄20岁以下和30岁以上、军龄10 ~ 14年患病率为高.主要症状分别为烧心(70.83%)、反流(51.67%)和反酸(48.33%),病例组伴发咽炎、喉炎、耳病、鼻窦炎、哮喘和支

  11. Neurologic Health in Combat Sports. (United States)

    Seifert, Tad


    Neurologic injuries of both an acute and chronic nature have been reported in the literature for various combat sport styles; however, reports of the incidence and prevalence of these injury types vary greatly. Combat sports clinicians must continue to strive for the development, implementation, and enforcement of uniform minimum requirements for brain safety. These health care providers must also seize on the honor to provide this oft-underserved population with the health care advocacy they very much deserve, but often do not receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat (United States)


    island of Morotai , instead of the heavily defended main island of Halmahera, less than 60 miles to the south. When MacArthur moved on to Leyte, he...expected the air force to keep the 30,000 Jap- anese troops on Halmahera away from Morotai .12 On an as yet unequalled scale, MacArthur made the air

  13. Integrated physical training in combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Hernández García


    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to define the concepts of embedded training (EI and integrated fitness (PFI and the importance of these concepts have in training in combat sports. And define a set of guidelines and examples of PFI in the combat sport of judo.Key words: integrated training, integrated physical training, combat sports, judo

  14. Combat Injury Coding: A Review and Reconfiguration (United States)


    characterize combat anatomic injury, and the Military Functional Incapacity Scale (MFIS), which indicates immediate tactical functional impairment, were...Combat Injury Scale and Military Functional Incapacity Scale were developed, tested and validated by teams of civilian and tri-service military expertise...characterizes the unique injuries encountered in combat, es- pecially those caused by explosions, and its derivative, the Military Functional Incapacity

  15. Decentralisation and Combating Educational Exclusion. (United States)

    van Langen, Annemarie; Dekkers, Hetty


    Describes Dutch policies to combat educational disadvantage arising from economic, social, and cultural factors by funding efforts at the local level. Compares Dutch efforts to success factors and obstacles encountered in similar initiatives in the United States, England and Wales, and Australia, where public education and local authority have…

  16. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  17. Combating corruption in global health. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn


    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  19. Assessing Combat Exposure and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Troops and Estimating the Costs to Society: Implications from the RAND Invisible Wounds of War Study (United States)


    study of 1,965 previously deployed individuals sampled from 24 geographic areas. Using well- accepted screening tools for conducting epidemiological ...physical health, cardiovascular diseases are the most frequently studied morbidity outcome among persons with psychiatric disorders. Both PTSD and...aging, including osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, periodontal disease , and frailty. Health-compromising Behaviors: The

  20. American Military Barrier War Paint, Camp Buehring, Kuwait: A Discovery of Troop Identity, Values, and Warfighting Attributes as They Deployed into Combat for Operation Iraqi Freedom (United States)


    Las Vegas is a rowdy vacation destination where for many the popular saying, “what happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas,” is applicable. In 200 photographs were chosen based on artistic merit and unit type . It was important to diversify the study by selecting photographs from

  1. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.


    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  2. Health consequences of the first Persian Gulf War on French troops. (United States)

    Salamon, R; Verret, C; Jutand, M A; Bégassat, M; Laoudj, F; Conso, F; Brochard, P


    Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War Veterans (PGWV) have been undertaken. These studies have concluded that there has been an increased mortality due to external causes, no excess of recognized diseases, and no effect on PGWV children. When compared with the non-deployed, PGWV have reported a higher frequency of infertility as well as different symptoms, but a specific Gulf War syndrome was not identified. In October 2000, the French government asked an independent working group to analyse the scientific literature on PGWV health. The group concluded that an exhaustive study of French PGWV was to be undertaken. The objectives of this study were to describe the exposures of PGWV in the operations theatre, to report on the symptoms and diseases that occurred in PGWV and their children during and after the military campaign, and to explore the possibility of a Gulf War syndrome. This exhaustive cross-sectional study, which included all civilians and troops who served in the Gulf from August 1990 to July 1991, began in January 2002. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaires. A standardized clinical evaluation was performed by 27 clinics of occupational diseases and nine military hospitals. Symptoms and diseases which appeared after the campaign are described. To date, among 20,261 PGWV, 5,666 participated in the study (28%). The most frequent symptoms described since the return from the Gulf were headaches (83%), neurological or psychological symptoms, and back pain. Apart from well-known symptoms associations (respiratory, neurocognitive, psychological and musculo-skeletal syndromes), no other cluster was highlighted by our analysis.

  3. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoom John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65% showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen

  4. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011. (United States)

    Odoom, John Kofi; Bel-Nono, Samuel; Rodgers, David; Agbenohevi, Prince G; Dafeamekpor, Courage K; Sowa, Roland M L; Danso, Fenteng; Tettey, Reuben; Suu-Ire, Richard; Bonney, Joseph H K; Asante, Ivy A; Aboagye, James; Abana, Christopher Zaab-Yen; Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Kronmann, Karl C; Oyofo, Buhari A; Ampofo, William K


    Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance and prevention in military barracks.

  5. The Problems of the Status of British Troops in Egypt After the Occupation in 1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizriev Ali Khizrievich


    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of defining the status of the British occupational troops in Egypt from 1882 to 1922 and the diplomatic struggle of the great European states of that time over this problem. This whole problem is described in detail in its development since the establishment of the “veiled protectorate” designed to hide the true purpose of the British Government in the region, to the formal approval of the Protectorate status of the British Empire. It attempts to find the motives and methods of management of the British Foreign Office in this difficult situation considering counter of such powers as Russia and France. Herewith it provides data from the archives of the British Foreign Office, confirming all these facts. The evidences of the contemporaries of those events – Lord Milner and Cromer – who were representatives of the occupation authorities and published their memoirs, complete the picture. In addition to these documents we used the archival materials of India Records Office in the British Library. All these sources indicate that the official declaration of the Protectorate in 1914 only temporarily solved the problems creating additional difficulties for those officials who were responsible for the situation in the country. This decision allowed the British officials to conceal the explicit nature of the occupation and the British military presence in the Suez Canal zone. However, such policy aroused some problems, which led to a new round of the Egyptian national liberation movement in the future, and needed new solutions which were made only after the World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

  6. Stakeholder Analysis of Integrating Women Into Ground Combat Units (United States)


    helicopter pilot who became a legend in Vietnam for his heroics. He is generally recognized as the most-decorated living veteran, and is the author of separate leagues from men (as cited in Wilstein, 2013, and Houston, 2013) - a comparison often used throughout the analytical data set by...West goes on to draw comparisons to professional sports and why women compete in separate leagues than men - a comparison often used throughout

  7. Ground Movement Modelling in the STAR Combat Model. (United States)


    Wilbur Payne, Director U.S. Army TRADOC Systems Analysis Activity White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 88002 19. Headquarters, Department of the Army...Agency 8120 Woodmont Avenue Attn: MOCA -SMS (CPT Steve Shupack) Bethesda, Maryland 20014 21. Commander U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency Attn: LTC Earl...Darden- MOCA -WG 8120 Woodmont Avenue Bethesda, MD. 20014 22. Director U.S. Army Night Vision & Electro-optical Lab. Attn: DEL-NV-VI-Mr. Bob Hermes Fort

  8. Ground Combat Training Squadron Complex Final Environmental Assessment (United States)


    Activities Areas of natural terrain with a thick understory and layers of heavy forest floor litter are important training components. Supervised...headquarters, aid and litter team, prisoner team, surveillance team, enroute recorder, compass person, and pace person. Description of the Proposed...Chapter 259 The proposed action would not affect Authorizes acquisition of Land Arquisitionfbr tourism and/or outdoor recreation. environmentally

  9. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH


    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...

  10. Enhancing Brigade Combat Team Adaptability (United States)


    participation and support of my unnamed heroes , the leaders of the Brigade Combat Team that provided such rich insight into the phenomenon of organizational... Archetype ” ARFORGEN (Short Deployment Cycles) OIF/OEF Low number of BCTs (Growing Action) (Slowing Action)(Condition) Key Terms -Trust -Confidence...Behavior – Climate - Trust Adapted from Peter Senge’s (2006) “Limits to Growth Archetype ” Key Terms -Trust -Confidence -Competence -Opportunity

  11. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz


    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  12. Study On Taking Intensive And Eliting Troops Of The Road%兵不在多在于精

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the further deepening of reform and the increasing fierce competitive environment, Profes- sion Athletic Association want to continue in competitive sports and make a difference, m we must take inten- sive, elite troops of the road. From the history of the lomotive for the development of competitive sports, especially in recent years, the transformation of the development of the locomotive sports team, discusses the inevitability that Profession Athletic Association athletic sports development go the crack troops and specific practices. This paper argues that the Profexsion Athletic Association walk the road of fewer but better troops to participate in the high level of competition, and promote Profession Athletic Association athletic sports de- velopment. It is not only of theoretical significance, but in practice it is feasible.%随着改革的进一步深入,在日趋激烈的竞争环境下,行业体协要继续在竞技体育方面有所作为,必须走集约化,精兵化的路子。从火车头竞技体育发展的历史,特别是近年来火车头体工队的发展变革出发,论述了行业体协竞技体育发展走精兵之路的必然性和具体做法。认为行业体协通过走精兵之路,参与高水平竞争,推动行业体协竞技体育发展不仅具有理论意义,而且是在实践中是可行的。

  13. A Trajectory Tracking Control Based on Immune Genetic Fuzzy Neural Sliding Mode for Ground Combat Robot%基于免疫遗传模糊神经滑模的地面作战机器人轨迹跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郁峰; 李魁武; 潘玉田; 郭保全


    提出了一种基于运动学与动力学模型的免疫遗传模糊神经滑模混合控制器用于地面作战机器人的控制。算法中利用径向基神经网络逼近滑模控制的等效部分,并通过免疫遗传算法对径向基神经网络参数进行了优化,滑模控制的增益通过模糊控制策略进行了调节。利用该算法对圆形轨迹进行了跟踪控制仿真及试验分析,与传统的滑模控制相比,该算法能够有效克服系统的不确定性因素的影响,有效抑制了滑模控制中抖振现象,系统的动态轨迹跟踪性能得到了优化。%Based on a kinematic controller and a sliding mode dynamics controller with immune gene-tic algorithm fuzzy neural network,a hybrid control algorithm is presented for ground combat robot. In this algorithm,the equivalent sliding mode control is approached by using radial basis function neural network (RBFNN),and the structure and parameters of RBFNN nonlinear hidden layers are tuned on-line according to immune genetic algorithm for the optimization of the parameters of networks with the gain of sliding mode control adjusted through the adaptive fuzzy systems. Simulation and experimental analysis of the circular trajectory tracking control are carried out by using this algorithm. Compared with the traditional sliding mode control,the proposed controller effectively overcomes the influences of uncertain factors,eliminates chattering of the sliding mode control,and optimizes the dynamic trajecto-ry tracking performance of the system.

  14. The militarisation of English schools: Troops to Teaching and the implications for Initial Teacher Education and race equality


    Chadderton, Charlotte


    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy, and Althusser’s (1971) concept of Ideological and Repressive State Apparatus, I argue that this initiative both stems from, and contributes to, a syst...

  15. Barriers to Combating Human Trafficking in Colombia (United States)


    COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN COLOMBIA by Daniel Joseph Wilcox March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rodrigo Nieto-Gómez Second Reader: Maiah Jaskoski...Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BARRIERS TO COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN COLOMBIA 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel Joseph Wilcox 7. PERFORMING...maximum 200 words) 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Despite intema.tional and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking , Colombia

  16. Application of Beidou Satellite Navigation System in Ground Surveillance System%北斗卫星导航系统在地面监视系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜思良; 杨俊峰; 王德泉


    为满足部队作战训练的应用需求,对北斗卫星导航系统在地面监视系统中的应用进行研究。在简要介绍卫星导航系统国内外应用现状的基础上,结合北斗卫星导航系统提供的定位和短消息通信能力,提出系统软件应具有定位获取与导航、图上监视、数据指挥和基于北斗的信息传递等核心功能,并分析软件设计中指挥与监视一体集成、图上位置聚合解聚展现和队形偏航告警等关键技术和实现方法。该研究可为研发基于北斗卫星导航系统的地面监视系统提供参考。%To meet the application requirements of military combat training, the paper studies the application of Beidou satellite navigation system in ground surveillance system. Based on the present research of satellite navigation system at home and abroad, position and short message communication ability of Beidou satellite, the core capability of the software system is proposed, including position and navigation ability, situation monitoring ability, data commanding ability and information delivery ability. The key technologies of software design are analyzed, which are composed of commanding and monitoring, troop position aggregation and disaggregation, vehicle off-course alarm etc. The study could provide a reference for the development of ground surveillance system based on Beidou satellite navigation system.

  17. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation (United States)


    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  18. Combat ready clamp medic technique. (United States)

    Tovmassian, Robert V; Kragh, John F; Dubick, Michael A; Baer, David G; Blackbourne, Lorne H


    Junctional hemorrhage control device use on the battlefield might be lifesaving, but little experience is reported. The purpose of the present case report is to detail prehospital use of the Combat Ready Clamp (called the CRoC by its users, Combat Medical Systems, Fayetteville, NC; Instructions for Use, 2010) in casualty care in order to increase awareness of junctional hemorrhage control. The CRoC was used to control difficult inguinal bleeding on the battlefield for an Afghani man with a hindquarter traumatic amputation. The device promptly controlled exsanguination from a critical injury when placed during rotary-wing casualty evacuation. The flight medic applied the device in 90 seconds. The device performed well without complications to control bleeding. The CRoC, a new junctional hemorrhage control device, was used as indicated on the battlefield with mechanical and physiologic success and without device problems. By controlling difficult inguinal bleeding resulting from battlefield trauma, the device facilitated casualty stabilization and delivery to a surgical facility. The device facilitated the ability of a new flight medic to focus his expertise on a critically injured battlefield casualty with demonstrable success. 2012.

  19. Mercy Killings in Combat: Ending the Suffering of Gravely Wounded Combatants -- A Brief History, Applicable Law, Recent Prosecutions, and Proposals for Much Needed Change (United States)


    the patient’s condition is thought to be an ’indignity.’ JOHN KEOWN , EUTHANASIA, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY: AN ARGUMENT AGAINST LEGALISATION 10 (2002...Results (demonstrating the divergent opinions about the morality combat-related mercy killings). 514 See supra Part IV.A. 515 Captain Stan Martin ...would have been "much more likely to contest the case" on the grounds that he acted out of mercy. Telephone Interview with Captain Stan Martin , defense

  20. Traumatic andropause after combat injury. (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Huw; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Sharma, Davendra Murray; Bowley, Douglas


    In association with lower extremity amputation, complex genitourinary injuries have emerged as a specific challenge in modern military trauma surgery. Testicular injury or loss has profound implications for the recovering serviceman, in terms of hormone production and future fertility. The initial focus of treatment for patients with traumatic testicular loss is haemostasis, resuscitation and management of concurrent life-threatening injuries. Multiple reoperations are commonly required to control infection in combat wounds; in a review of 300 major lower extremity amputations, 53% of limbs required revisional surgery, with infection the commonest indication. Atypical infections, such as invasive fungal organisms, can also complicate military wounding. We report the case of a severely wounded serviceman with complete traumatic andropause, whose symptomatic temperature swings were initially mistaken for signs of occult sepsis.

  1. Blended Training for Combat Medics (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd


    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  2. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG


    Full Text Available Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropriate parameter combination to reflect the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The comparison and analysis show that a short-range air combat mission requires a higher minimum short period mode natural frequency and a smaller maximum roll mode time constant, and allows a lower minimum pitch attitude bandwidth and a higher maximum short period mode damp ratio than those of conventional flying qualities criteria. Furthermore, a combination of the pitch attitude bandwidth, the pitch attitude magnitude at the bandwidth frequency, and the pitch attitude transfer function gain can define the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The new metric can successfully predict the flying quality levels of aircraft in a short-range air combat mission.

  3. Subject Confirmation in the Crime of Fleeing from Troops%论我国逃离部队罪的主体认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The crime of fleeing from troops is a crime related with the order of troop administration .In the pan-el code , provision on this crime is lacking details or specifics , especially the subject which can be applied to this crime is quite obscure .As a result, it is very difficult for the judicial personnel or troops management personnel to confirm the subjects of this crime .To make a more specific regulation on the confirmation of subjects for this crime is necessary for a more scientific and orderly management of the troops , and the military judicial organs can give a more accurate conviction and punishment for this criminals so as to ensure the uniformity and stability of the troops .%逃离部队罪是涉及部队人员管理秩序方面的犯罪。由于我国刑法在立法条文上对该罪的规定较为概括和笼统,特别是对该罪适用的主体要件规定不甚明了,使其部队管理人员和司法人员在适用该罪时,难以把握对该罪的主体认定。对逃离部队罪的主体要件加以明确规定,可以更加科学、规范地管理部队,军事司法机关可以对逃离部队的行为更准确地定罪量刑,从而确保军队的高度统一和安全稳定。

  4. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations? (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan


    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  5. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (Technologie avancee d’entrainement au combat urbain) (United States)


    plants and pollution ; • Signs for borders and limits; and • Fines and consequences. Handling of Equipment Describe the takeover-handling-handover...REPORT TR-MSG-063 Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (Technologie avancée d’entraînement au combat urbain) Final Report of Task Group 063...TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(MSG-063)TP/591 STO TECHNICAL REPORT TR-MSG-063 Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology

  6. CDC Updates Spending Plans to Combat Zika (United States)

    ... 161541.html CDC Updates Spending Plans to Combat Zika Some goals: prepare states for future outbreaks, and ... dollars to prepare states and cities for future Zika virus outbreaks, and to track the effects of ...

  7. New Parkinson's Drug May Combat Movement Difficulties (United States)

    ... New Parkinson's Drug May Combat Movement Difficulties Opicapone, added to ... HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that people with Parkinson's disease may achieve better and more reliable motor ...

  8. Combat climat change with competetive photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeyron, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Zietek, G.


    Photovoltaics (PV) offer a promising solution for CO2 emission reductions and climate change combat. However, before its wide spread on the market, PV needs to find new approaches to make solar cells competitive with respect to conventional electricity sources.

  9. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasum Goran; Gligorov Strašo; Nastasić-Stošković Tanja


    .... The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons...

  10. The Combat-Wireless Health Monitoring System (United States)


    not monitor concussions sustained by casualties. This article proposes the develop- ment of a new C-WHMS as an alterna- tive to the WPSM. The C-WHMS...monitoring system embedded within the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), which measures concussions sustained during the execution of combat operations. The...component of the C-WHMS, as embedded in the ACH. Concussions sus- tained by soldiers are a major concern of military leadership. The goal is to quickly

  11. Combat sports for persons with disabilities


    Kasum Goran; Gligorov Strašo; Nastasić-Stošković Tanja


    In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes onl...

  12. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini


    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.



    States might ‘exercise international police power in ‘flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence’.8 In 1912, Woodrow Wilson , a progressive leader...deployed its vessels in ‘combat-credible force packages’ to signal American resolve. Under President Wilson , the US military sustained its works to

  14. Econometric Model for Optimizing Troop Dining Facility Operations (The Army Master Menu Study). (United States)



  15. Strategies for combating dental anxiety. (United States)

    Bare, Lyndsay C; Dundes, Lauren


    Dental anxiety and subsequent avoidance of dental care and deterioration of oral health pose a significant problem for the dental profession. In an attempt to elucidate preferences of anxious dental patients, we gathered survey data from 121 persons at a small, private liberal arts college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Half of the respondents experienced dental anxiety, and most of these (66 percent) attributed anxiety to fear of anticipated pain. The majority of anxious patients preferred a dentist to be friendly (93 percent), talkative (82 percent), and to have an office with adorned walls (89 percent) and a slightly cool temperature (63 percent). Patients who identified themselves as anxious also indicated that music in the background (89 percent) and magazines and books in the dental office (75 percent) were helpful. Anxious patients were more likely than non-anxious patients to prefer a male dentist (77 percent versus 52 percent). This finding was especially marked among anxious male respondents, 93 percent of whom preferred a male dentist compared to 73 percent of anxious female respondents. These survey data may assist dental professionals in understanding and combating patients' dental anxiety, in order to increase the frequency of dental visits and to prompt a corresponding restoration or maintenance of oral health.

  16. An analysis of Common Missile and TOW 2B using the Janus combat simulation



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The US Army is currently developing a new close combat missile system, Common Missile, to replace the aging Tubelaunched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided (TOW 2B) and HELLFIRE missile systems. The Common Missile will have a greater range and improved target acquisition capability over the current missile systems. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the performance of the Common Missile and the TOW 2B missile in a simulated ground ...

  17. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission


    Wang, Lixin; Youguang GUO; Zhang, Qi; Yue, Ting


    Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropr...

  18. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  19. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng


    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  20. The Role of Officer Selection and Training on the Successful Formation and Employment of U.S. Colored Troops in the American Civil War, 1863-1865 (United States)


    regimental command of black troops. In an attempt to appease Jennison‘s ego , Lane made him chief of recruiting. Motivated by revenge, Jennison and...physical examination.126 The injury to Adams‘ ego was actually inflicted by the board‘s recommendation, rather than his administrative rejection...and have realized it many times since. The strain on me was so great through the day, that when the excitement passed over and quiet came, my nervous

  1. Prehospital Cricothyrotomy Kits Used in Combat. (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Cunningham, Cord W; Long, Adrianna N; Carter, Robert


    Surgical cricothyrotomy remains the only definitive airway management modality for the tactical setting recommended by Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines. Some units have fielded commercial cricothyrotomy kits to assist Combat Medics with surgical cricothyrotomy. To our knowledge, no previous publications report data on the use of these kits in combat settings. This series reports the the use of two kits in four patients in the prehospital combat setting. Using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and the Prehospital Trauma Registry, we identified four cases of patients who underwent prehospital cricothyrotomy with the use of commercial kits. In the first two cases, a Medic successfully used a North American Rescue CricKit (NARCK) to obtain a surgical airway in a Servicemember with multiple amputations from an improvised explosive device explosion. In case 3, the Medic unsuccessfully used an H&H Medical kit to attempt placement of a surgical airway in a Servicemember shot in the head by small arms fire. A second attempt to place a surgical airway using a NARCK was successful. In case 4, a Soldier sustained a gunshot wound to the chest. A Medic described fluid in the airway precluding bag-valve-mask ventilation; the Medic attempted to place a surgical airway with the H&H kit without success. Four cases of prehospital surgical airway cannulation on the battlefield demonstrated three successful uses of prehospital cricothyrotomy kits. Further research should focus on determining which kits may be most useful in the combat setting. 2017.

  2. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders. (United States)

    Jones, Edgar


    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise.

  3. Combat Helmets and Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wallace


    Full Text Available Background: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and the prominence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, mostly from improvised explosive devices, have focused attention on the effectiveness of combat helmets. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Method: A literature review was conducted using search terms – combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan and helmet sensors, searching PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Some new combat helmets may be able to protect against rifle rounds, but may result in injuries occurring behind body armour. Optimal combat helmet design requires a balance between the need for protection from trauma and the comfort and practicality of the helmet for the user to ensure the best outcomes.

  4. Leaders of progressions in wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached tamarins (S. mystax), with emphasis on color vision and sex. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Surridge, Alison K; Mundy, Nicholas I


    Leadership of travel progression is an important aspect of group living. It is widely believed that trichromacy evolved to facilitate the detection and selection of fruit in the dappled light of a forest. Further, it has been proposed that in New World primate species, which typically contain a range of color vision phenotypes, at least one female in a group will be trichromatic (i.e., having three types of visual pigment, in contrast to the two types of pigment found in dichromatic individuals) and will lead the group to fruiting trees. We examine progression leadership within two wild mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached (Saguinus mystax) tamarins over a complete year. As whole units, the mixed-species troops were most frequently led by a mustached tamarin. This is the first time that mixed-species group leadership and individual leadership have been quantified in these tamarin species. In terms of single-species intragroup leadership, neither the visual status (dichromatic or trichromatic) nor the sex of individuals had a consistent effect across species. Saddleback tamarin groups were led by males more frequently than females, while evidence suggests that mustached tamarins may be female-led. The notion that all groups contain at least one trichromatic female that leads the troop to feeding trees was not supported.

  5. Attitudes toward predeployment and experimental vaccinations among troops deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Patel, Shimul S; Sanders, John W; Armstrong, Adam W; Putnam, Shannon D; Schlett, Carey D; Tribble, David R


    The Department of Defense is actively engaged in the research and development of vaccine(s) to mitigate the burden of disease associated with diarrhea among deployed troops. Soldiers' attitudes and beliefs toward predeployment vaccines and participation in experimental research with vaccines are unknown. To assess these attitudes, a survey was distributed among soldiers who had been and were currently deployed to Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Sixty-one percent of soldiers believe that predeployment vaccines are important, and 21% are hesitant to receive these vaccinations. Fifteen percent of soldiers stated that they would be willing to enroll in a study evaluating experimental vaccines, and 14% stated that they would participate in military research for vaccine development. Both male and female soldiers agreed that predeployment vaccines were important (86 and 92%, respectively); however, compared to their male counterparts, females were more hesitant to receive routine vaccinations (45% vs 37%) and less likely to volunteer for an experimental vaccine study (12% vs 20%). Officers and Air Force personnel were less hesitant to receive routine vaccinations compared to enlisted and other service personnel, respectively. Furthermore, if a soldier experienced three or more episodes of diarrhea, he or she was more likely to try an experimental vaccine to prevent diarrhea (23% vs 13%, p belief that immunizations are important and the hesitancy to receive them. Future studies should be directed to understand this gap and emphasize the critical importance of vaccines for health of US personnel in garrison and on deployment.

  6. Helminth infections in British troops following an operation in Sierra Leone. (United States)

    Bailey, M S; Thomas, R; Green, A D; Bailey, J W; Beeching, N J


    One hundred and fifty-three British soldiers and 86 Royal Air Force (RAF) personnel were deployed on a hostage rescue operation in Sierra Leone. For 3 days they were exposed to various infection risks and 6 weeks later some of the soldiers presented with gastrointestinal complaints. Both groups were screened with structured questionnaires, blood investigations and (where indicated) faecal microscopy and charcoal culture for helminths. Definite and probable cases of helminth infection were treated with albendazole and all soldiers were screened again after 3 months. Among the soldiers investigated, 73/145 (50%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 70/139 (50%) had eosinophilia. Among these, 17/66 (26%) had hookworm infection, 6/66 (9%) had Strongyloides stercoralis infection and 1/66 (2%) had Giardia lamblia infection. Eosinophilia was most strongly associated with entering the enemy camp and being in the platoon that attacked the area around the camp latrines. Among RAF personnel, who were not involved in activities on the ground, 3/86 (3%) had borderline eosinophilia. Treatment of 105/153 (69%) soldiers with albendazole was well tolerated and, on follow-up screening 3 months later, 23/124 soldiers (19%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 18/121 (15%) had eosinophilia. Faecal investigations and schistosomiasis serology tests were all negative at this stage.

  7. Grounded cognition. (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W


    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  8. Anterior Segment Imaging in Combat Ocular Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. Ryan


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the use of ocular imaging to enhance management and diagnosis of war-related anterior segment ocular injuries. Methods. This study was a prospective observational case series from an ongoing IRB-approved combat ocular trauma tracking study. Subjects with anterior segment ocular injury were imaged, when possible, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, confocal microscopy (CM, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Images captured from participants with combat ocular trauma on different systems provided comprehensive and alternate views of anterior segment injury to investigators. Conclusion. In combat-related trauma of the anterior segment, adjunct image acquisition enhances slit lamp examination and enables real time In vivo observation of the cornea facilitating injury characterization, progression, and management.

  9. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P. POPA


    - A faulty legislation that allows them to circumvent the failure to pay taxes. Measures to combat tax evasion must act in the areas of legislative, administrative and educational. The legislative drafting tax legislation seeks appropriate, clear, concise, stable and consistent. It is also necessary to eliminate or withdrawal of exemptions, reductions and deductions that give rise to multiple interpretations. In terms of administrative measures aimed at creating a comprehensive and operational information system, ensuring adequate administrative structures and instruments effectively combating tax evasion and training specialists with morality and professionalism required of shapes and sizes evasion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti


    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  12. Regulation of psychic functions in combat sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko A.I.


    Full Text Available The problems of adjusting of psychical functions are considered in sport. The methods of self-regulation are rotined in sport. The groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are certain. It is set that sporting psychologists and trainers are mainly addressed to training of psychical functions. Also - the system of psychical self-regulation must be complex. It contains affecting physiological reactions and on psychical processes. Five groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are marked. They are directed on development of ability without superfluous emotions to overcome extreme situations in the process of competition activity.

  13. Switzerland and efforts to combat the financing of terrorism


    de Watteville, Jacques


    Combating international terrorism has long been one of Switzerland's main concerns. Furthermore Switzerland has worked closely with other nations in combating terrorism and will continue to do so in future, both in the context of international treaties and on the basis of the law on mutual assistance in criminal matters. International co-operation to combat the financing of terrorism is taking place at several levels. The instruments for combating money laundering are also important for comba...

  14. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar


    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  15. Young People Should Have Combatant Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nowadays,quite a few people believe that combatant spirit is essential for one'ssuccess in today's competitive world.However,some young people today think nothing of this spirit which,in their opinion,is only needed in revolutionary age.Even

  16. Air Combat Maneuvering Expert System Trainer (United States)


    AL-TP-1 991-0058....... AD-A246 459 AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING EXPERT A SYSTEM TRAINER R M S Robert J. BechtelTI T Markt Technology, incorporated ’T R...would have to be established for each segment of pilot training. The success of the air intercept trainer (AT), which shares some features with ACMEST

  17. Evolution of biomedical research during combat operations. (United States)

    Hatzfeld, Jennifer J; Childs, John D; Dempsey, Michael P; Chapman, Gail D; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Brininger, Teresa; Tamminga, Cindy; Richardson, Roxanne T; Alexander, Stefan; Chung, Kevin K


    The implementation of a human research protection program in Afghanistan and the mobilization of the combat casualty research team have made it possible to design and efficiently conduct multifaceted, multisite, and prospective research studies in a combat environment. Still, to conduct research in such an environment, several unique challenges must be overcome. This article describes the development and conduct of three ongoing trauma-related biomedical research studies in Afghanistan, highlighting the challenges and lessons learned within the context of these studies. Key challenges include the process of developing and getting approval for in-theater research protocols, the informed consent process, and logistics of conducting a biomedical research study in an austere environment. Despite these challenges, important lessons learned that can contribute to the success of a protocol include the need for clear operating procedures, judicious selection for which data points must be collected in-theater, and the importance anticipating the "fog and friction" of war. As we continue the journey toward more sophisticated research capabilities in combat, this article will help inform the design and conduct of future research performed in a theater of war. Conducting biomedical research in a combat zone is an important but difficult element of military medicine.

  18. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship (United States)


    and CAPT Jeff Kline for sparking my interest in the Littoral Combat Ship and CAPT James Stewart at Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific and CDR...Senior Lecturer of Operations Research Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 76 10. James Stewart , CAPT, USN Warfare Requirements, N8

  19. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress (United States)


    retained and codified by means of the reenactment of Section 8549 of Title 10, U.S. Code which was repealed by P.L. 102-190, Section 531 for the Air...Force, and reenactment of the provisions of 10 U.S.C. Section 6015 prohibiting women from assignment to duty on aircraft engaged in combat missions

  20. Combat modeling with partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protopopescu, V.; Santoro, R.T.; Dockery, J.; Cox, R.L.; Barnes, J.M.


    A new analytic model based on coupled nonlinear partial differential equations is proposed to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of opposing forces in combat. Analytic descriptions of combat have been developed previously using relatively simpler models based on ordinary differential equations (.e.g, Lanchester's equations of combat) that capture only the global temporal variation of the forces, but not their spatial movement (advance, retreat, flanking maneuver, etc.). The rationale for analytic models and, particularly, the motivation for the present model are reviewed. A detailed description of this model in terms of the mathematical equations together with the possible and plausible military interpretation are presented. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear differential equation model for a large variety of parameters (battlefield length, initial force ratios, initial spatial distribution of forces, boundary conditions, type of interaction, etc.) are implemented. The computational methods and computer programs are described and the results are given in tabular and graphic form. Where possible, the results are compared with the predictions given by the traditional Lanchester equations. Finally, a PC program is described that uses data downloaded from the mainframe computer for rapid analysis of the various combat scenarios. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Modelling combat strategies in fungal mycelia. (United States)

    Boswell, Graeme P


    Fungal mycelia have a well-established role in nutrient cycling and are widely used as agents in biological control and in the remediation of polluted landscapes. Competition and combat between different fungal communities is common in these contexts and its outcome impacts on local biodiversity and the success of such biotechnological applications. In this investigation a mathematical model representing mycelia as a system of partial differential equations is used to simulate combat between two fungal colonies growing into a nutrient-free domain. The resultant equations are integrated numerically and the model simulates well-established outcomes of combat between fungal communities. The outcome of pairwise combat is shown to depend on numerous factors including the suppression of advancing hyphae in rivals, the degradation of a rival's established biomass and the utilization and redistribution of available nutrient resources. It is demonstrated how non-transitive hierarchies in fungal communities can be established through switching mechanisms, mirroring observations reported in experimental studies, and how specialized defensive structures can emerge through changes in the redistribution of internal resources.

  2. Heterotopic Ossification Following Combat-Related Trauma (United States)


    residual limb pain and prosthetic fitting difficulties; ulceration, particularly when the combat- related heterotopic ossification develops beneath an...appropriately including infection, fracture non- union, internal derangement of adjacent joints, symptomatic neuromata, phantom pain , and complex...sometimes there is limitation of the natural function of the limb ... if the callus is stony hard and its removal is urgent, incise the place and cut

  3. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress (United States)


    findings, DOD adopted a “risk rule” in February 1988 that excluded women from noncombat units or missions if the risks of exposure to direct combat... homosexuals ) and that there is little or no evidence that unit effectiveness was reduced as a result of that integration. Outlook for Congress

  4. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran


    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  5. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  6. Patches of bare ground as a staple commodity for declining ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds. (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Martinez, Nicolas; Tagmann-Ioset, Aline; Weisshaupt, Nadja; Maurer, Melanie L; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Zbinden, Niklaus; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël


    Conceived to combat widescale biodiversity erosion in farmland, agri-environment schemes have largely failed to deliver their promises despite massive financial support. While several common species have shown to react positively to existing measures, rare species have continued to decline in most European countries. Of particular concern is the status of insectivorous farmland birds that forage on the ground. We modelled the foraging habitat preferences of four declining insectivorous bird species (hoopoe, wryneck, woodlark, common redstart) inhabiting fruit tree plantations, orchards and vineyards. All species preferred foraging in habitat mosaics consisting of patches of grass and bare ground, with an optimal, species-specific bare ground coverage of 30-70% at the foraging patch scale. In the study areas, birds thrived in intensively cultivated farmland where such ground vegetation mosaics existed. Not promoted by conventional agri-environment schemes until now, patches of bare ground should be implemented throughout grassland in order to prevent further decline of insectivorous farmland birds.

  7. On Making Scientific and Reasonable Operating Campaign Troops for Air Transportation Plan Optimization%战役部队航空输送总方案编制优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛同民; 李庆辉; 徐通; 任云飞; 水忠明


    着眼未来战争特点,空中投送能力已成为衡量军队战斗力的重要指标,制订科学合理的战役部队航空输送总方案,是战役条件下组织多支部队顺利实施航空输送的有效保证。结合战役部队航空输送总方案的特点,建立战役部队航空输送总方案编制优化模型,并进行案例分析。%Looking forward to the future war characteristic, the strategic ability of air transportation has already been an important standard to measure the fighting capacity, and delivering campaign troops from strategic backside into strategic forward by plane will be an important subject of Chinese army's logistical modernization. Making scientific and reasonable operating campaign troops air transportation plan is the available guarantee of campaign troops air transportation. This dissertation analyzed the characteristic of operate campaign troops air transportation plan, established the organizing optimization model of operate campaign troops air transportation plan and made the instance analyzing.

  8. Reintegrating Troops with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) into Their Communities: Understanding the Scope and Timeline of Post-Deployment Driving Problems (United States)


    Driving Problems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Erica Stern Todd Rockwood CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Minnesota...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2008 – 14 Sep 2009 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Reintegrating Troops with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) into...fUll .V’!/I./j/ Ii"", dll....’ F’’’’’’’’’ ,nldy IS n«<kd to d<t" mlM ,f"’.. accurat.1y I.Oem til. ltOlld ordlanlIe. 0< ,rdl< d,Ke..".... du.1O


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlov


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the role of information technology in daily process of training of cadets of military schools of national guard troops of theRussian Federation.Methods. The methods involve system-oriented analysis, generalization and modelling.Results and scientific novelty. Informatization of modern society is characterized by growing use of information resources for different spheres of professional activity, suggesting radical changes in the content and technologies of its organization. The problems of informatization of the Russian higher military school are revealed: absence of the uniform methodology for implementation of new information technologies in educational process; low level of cooperation and coordination of activities of educational institutions during creation of a uniform basis of the software; insufficient training of the faculty, etc. The informatization process of military service and military experts of national guard troops of theRussian Federation as members of the security institute in the structure of the state is primarily associated with the creation and maintenance of necessary level of the equipment in order to solve professional tasks in various conditions of the operational environment. Modern realias dictate the need of search of ways and means of improvement of information literacy of cadets of departmental higher education institutions of national guard troops of theRussian Federation. The author of article has designated the main directions of intensive informatization of education of future army officers. The system use of a complex of information technologies of the general and special purpose in educational process of military higher education institution is described. The options of integration of these technologies in the contents of training sections of military experts are shown. Special attention is paid to opportunities of distance learning.Practical significance. The

  10. Using agility to combat cyber attacks. (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry


    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  11. Physiological stress and performance analysis to karate combat. (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hellara, Ilhem; Ghali, Faten B; Franchini, Emerson; Neffati, Fedoua; Tabben, Montassar; Najjar, Mohamed F; Hachana, Younés


    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between physiological, and parameters of performance analysis during karate contest. Nine elite-level karate athletes participated in this study. Saliva sample was collected pre- and post-karate combat. Salivary cortisol (sC) post-combat 2 raised significantly compared to that recorded at pre-combat 1 (Δ%=105.3%; P=0.04; dz=0.78). The largest decrease of the salivary T/C ratio (sR) compared to pre-combat 1 was recorded post-combat 2 (Δ%=-43.5%; P=0.03). Moreover, blood lactate concentration post-combat 1 correlated positively to sCpost-combat 1 (r=0.66; P=0.05) and negatively to both salivary testosterone (sT) (r=-0.76; P=0.01) and sRpost-combat 1 (r=-0.76; P=0.01). There was no significant relationship between hormonal measures and parameters of match analysis. Although under simulated condition, karate combat poses large physiological stress to the karateka. Additionally, physiological strain to karate combat led to a catabolic hormonal response.

  12. Women in Combat Pros and Cons (United States)


    secondary to domestic duties. Combat is directly oppossed to a women’s nuturing role and is wrong because of both values and perceived deficient...opportunities should be equal, including the right and duty to defend your country. Discrimination for employment should be based upon objective and...bonding excludes sexual relationships of either a heterosexual or homosexual nature . Some believe that. this bonding would degenerate into sexual

  13. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks (United States)

    Cox, Anne J.


    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  14. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan (United States)


    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  15. Development of Polymer Materials for Combating Desertification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aiming respectively at the two problems in desertiflcation areas, namely water shortage and serious soil erosion, the polymer materials for combating desertiflcation may be classified as water absorbing-retaining polymers (WARPs) and sandy soil stabilizing polymers (SSSPs). Their further classifications and current researcfl situations were introduced. It is suggested that the major hindrancefor their wide appHcation is the high cost. The authors' newest research resuits on cutting cost and enhancing ef...

  16. Cohesion, the Human Element in Combat (United States)


    in trench be- hind me recall me at a bound from the terrible loneliness and fear of death by which I had been almost destroyed. They are more to me...and Roger Little, Sociology and the Military Establishment (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1965). 20. Kellet, Combat Motivation, p. 333. * 21...Charles C. Moskos, Jr., The American Enlisted Man (New York: Russell Sage, 1970), pp. 146-56. *41. Moskos, "Civic Education and the All-Volunteer Force

  17. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia


    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  18. Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project (United States)


    Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project by John Becker Denman Sweetman Shaun Cookinham Mark Wasilewski Shawn Goode Samuel D...This report was prepared by: John Becker Denman Sweetman Shaun Cookinham Mark Wasilewski Shawn Goode Samuel D. Winograd David Rhodes...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John Becker, Shaun Cookinham, Shawn Goode, David Rhodes 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Mark Wasilewski , Samuel Winograd 5e. TASK

  19. Civilian Combatants, Military Professionals? American Officer Judgments (United States)


    respectively. 25 Volker Franke and Marc von Boemcken offer a five-category typology of armed opera- tional combat support, armed security...Any job that requires them to be armed or they may be exposed to enemy fire .’ A third offered: ‘ALL MILITARY FUNCTIONS. THERE SHOULD NOT BE PRIVATE...Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP 2003) p.41. 5 Gary Schaub, Jr. and Volker Franke, Contractors as Military Professionals?’ Parameters 39/4 (2009/2010

  20. Rallying the Troops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Helth, Theresa; Andersen, Bente Lund


    support the new families during hospitalization and after discharge. METHODS: A qualitative content analysis of 2 focus group interviews involving 16 purposefully sampled extended family members, who had participated in 1½ hours of FCC group interventions. FINDINGS: The overall theme was: Accepting...... be integrated into ward practice and policy. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: The study reinforces the need for further research, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods, into age and ethnicity aspects of FCC group interventions. There is also a need to compare the new parents' perceived level of stress......BACKGROUND: Research concludes that there is a need for educational programs for grandmothers, as well as networking opportunities; educational programs for other extended family members have long been sought by parents, relatives, and nurses in neonatal intensive care unit. PURPOSE: To describe...

  1. Tanks and Tank Troops (United States)


    operational in the Bundeswehr. These include the well-known U.S. M113 APC, the HS-30 APC, developed by the Swiss company Hispano- Suiza , as well as the...powered by the Leyland L-60 engine, and the French AMX-30, powered by the Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine. The new Japanese STB-6 tank (ඒ") is...of all foreign series-produced tank engines. A complete tank engine replacement can be performed in four hours. The Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine

  2. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans. (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle


    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  3. 597 Days: A Division’s Morale During Sustained Combat (United States)


    planners, as they simply needed to defeat the Germans at any cost? As John Baynes stated in his study of morale, “The least we can do is examine the...morale and operations does not allow for a proper study of both together. 5 John Baynes , Morale...the Attitudes of American Troops, no. 1 (December 1943): 1; Baynes , Morale: A Study of Men and Courage, 92; Clausewitz, On War, 77; Marshall, Men

  4. Combat Injuries: Providing Medical Care for all Veterans (United States)


    honorably, the U.S. Government is morally responsible for providing basic health care for the treatment of combat related injuries . This obligation...the treatment of combat related injuries . This obligation extends to injuries incurred in the line of duty regardless of the service member’s...full medical benefits, but to ensure he or she gets treatment for combat injuries regardless of the discharge. If the injury occurred under

  5. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    COVERED Capstone 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) 311-124O/Team LCS...Life cycle cost LCCE Life cycle cost estimate LCS Littoral combat ship LHA Landing ship, helicopter assault LHD Landing ship, unlimited LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI- SUBMARINE WARFARE by Team LCS 311-124O June 2014 Capstone Advisors: John Green Dan

  6. Design of an Intelligent Soldier Combat Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen-Chung Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent solider combat training (ISCT system using X-Box Kinect and augmented virtual reality (AVR to improve soldier training performance through AVR-based simulation combat fields. In this human-machine interactive system, a systematic design and mechatronic approach is used to construct the overall system structure. The Kinect detects soldiers’ positions and postures, situating them in interactive combat soldier training courses. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method.

  7. The Cossack troops of Russia on the eve of "Great reforms" of Alexander II: (on materials the vsepoddanneyshikh of reports of the Ministry of Defence for 1858–1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Volvenko


    Full Text Available In article the data on a condition of the Cossack troops on the eve of "Great reforms" of Alexander II submitted in the vsepoddanneyshikh reports of the Ministry of Defence for the first fifth anniversary of their official publication from 1858 to 1862 are analyzed. The statistical materials generalized by us reflect demographic processes among the Cossacks, military and economic development of the Cossack troops, situation in education and so forth during the specified period. In article the assumption of possible influence of contents of reports on the made decisions concerning the Cossacks becomes.

  8. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying. (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt


    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa


    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  10. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa


    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  11. Combating hooliganism in the Netherlands. An evaluation of measures to combat hooliganism with longitudinal registration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, D.P.; Postma, M; Jansen, L.; Tolsma, J.


    Football hooliganism is an undesirable but widespread phenomenon. In this contribution, a range of measures to combat hooliganism in the Netherlands is evaluated. We use (logistic) multi-level models to analyze data on hooliganism from the Dutch Football Vandalism Information Office covering 3431

  12. Combating hooliganism in the Netherlands: An evaluation of measures to combat hooliganism with longitudinal registration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, D.P.; Postma, M; Jansen, L.; Tolsma, J.


    Football hooliganism is an undesirable but widespread phenomenon. In this contribution, a range of measures to combat hooliganism in the Netherlands is evaluated. We use (logistic) multi-level models to analyze data on hooliganism from the Dutch Football Vandalism Information Office covering 3431

  13. Sociedad Civil y combate a la pobreza


    López Salazar, Ricardo; Ortega, Isabel; Sandoval, Sergio


    Una de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil que ha adquirido gran relevancia en el combate a la pobreza alimentaria en el estado de Sonora es el Banco de Alimentos de Hermosillo (BAH). Su objetivo es combatir el hambre y la desnutrición mediante la distribución de alimentos a zonas marginadas. Pesqueira,  es una de las localidades en situación crítica de pobreza alimentaria y que ha sido beneficiada por los apoyos que otorga el BAH. Sin embargo, a pesar de que esos apoyos son reconocidos c...

  14. Leadership in Combat: An Historical Appraisal (United States)


    instead of instructing the reader zo look for traits that should be obvious after having read the essay on combat leadership in histoy. For the reader...Union artillery officer who had graduated from West Point in 1847. He had served in the Mexican War from Veracruz to Pueblo and campaigned against...of Stilwell’s ’family’, not by kinship but by the other great password to Stilwell’s favour; membership of the group he led out on foot from Burma

  15. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements (United States)


    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordé to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  16. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  17. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods. (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M


    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  18. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War. (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine


    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  19. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to the...

  20. Combat Leadership: To Fly or Not to Fly? (United States)


    leading his men into combat. Theories of leadership vary greatly between our individual military services and those of our allies and this is where...member to ily and lead combat missions been established to provide a credible and necessary "leadership by example" role or is It the egoism of peer

  1. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document...

  2. Combat Simulation Modeling in Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning. (United States)


    This thesis explores the potential role of combat simulation modeling in the Naval Special Warfare mission planning cycle. It discusses methods the tactical level. The thesis concludes by discussing additional applications of combat simulation modeling within the Naval Special Warfare community and makes recommendations for its effective and efficient implementation.

  3. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.


    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  4. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis


    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  5. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin


    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  6. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  7. Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism - A Comprehensive Training Guide : Workbook 6. Combating the Financing of Terrorism


    World Bank


    "Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism: a Comprehensive Training Guide" is one of the products of the capacity enhancement program on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Funding of Terrorism (AML/CFT), which has been co-funded by the Governments of Sweden, Japan, Denmark, and Canada. The program offers countries the tools, skills, and knowledge to build and strength...

  8. An observational study assessing completion time and accuracy of completing the tactical combat casualty care card by combat medic trainees. (United States)

    Therien, Sean P; Andrews, James E; Nesbitt, Michael E; Mabry, Robert


    Prehospital care documentation is crucial to improving battlefield care outcomes. Developed by United States Army Ranger Special Operations Combat Medics (SOCMs), the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is currently fielded to deployed units to record prehospital injury data. This study documents length of time and accuracy of U.S. Army Combat Medic trainees in completing the minimum preestablished required fields on the TCCC card, establishing a baseline for point-of-injury cards. This was a prospective observational study in which U.S. Army combat medic trainees were timed while recording data on the TCCC card in both the classroom and simulated combat environment. We hypothesized that trainees could complete the TCCC card in less than 1 minute with 90% or greater accuracy. We enrolled 728 U.S. Army Combat Medic trainees in the study during May?June 2011 at Fort Sam Houston, TX. We observed an average TCCC card completion time of less than 1 minute with greater than 90% accuracy in the unstressed classroom environment but an increase to nearly 2 minutes on average and a decrease to 85% accuracy in the simulated combat environment. RESULTS imply that the TCCC card is well designed to quickly and accurately record prehospital combat injury information. Further investigation and future studies may compare other prehospital data collection methods with the TCCC card in terms of timely and accurate data collection. 2014.

  9. 海岛部队远程医疗管理体系的实践%Telemedicine Management System for Island Troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞荣; 马守江; 张炜; 张想旺; 隋友乐


    In recent years, our hospital conscientiously performs her duties in the construction of island care as a systems engineering .The innovation of methods, function and mechanism in island medical service is push for-ward constantly.With the establishment of regional networks and telemedicine system , the telemedicine disease man-agement system is developed .The system can establish remote medical records for the garrison soldiers suffering from diseases, implement classification management and effective intervention , achieve dynamic management of common disease and frequently -occurring disease.The telemedicine consulting room was set up to carry out normalized re-mote clinic for the garrison soldiers .The telemedicine management system for island troops comes into being , which set the island troop's telemedicine consulting room, treatment and disease management as a whole .%本院认真履行职责使命,不断创新海岛医疗服务的方法、功能和机制,将海岛医疗作为一项系统工程来建设。在建立区域医疗网络、海岛远程医疗系统基础上,本课题开发了远程医疗疾病管理系统,为患有疾病的守岛官兵建立了远程病历,并实施分类管理和有效干预,实现常见病、多发病的动态管理。开设远程医疗诊室,常态化为海岛官兵进行远程门诊。形成集海岛部队远程诊室、远程医疗及疾病管理为一体的海岛部队远程医疗管理体系。

  10. Increased risk of alcohol dependency in a cohort of National Guard troops with PTSD: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Kline, Anna; Weiner, Marc D; Ciccone, Donald S; Interian, Alejandro; St Hill, Lauren; Losonczy, Miklos


    Studies show high rates of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) but there is no consensus on the causal direction of the relationship. Some theories suggest AUD develops as a coping mechanism to manage PTSD symptoms and others that AUD is a vulnerability factor for PTSD. A third hypothesis posits independent developmental pathways stemming from a shared etiology, such as the trauma exposure itself. We examined these hypotheses using longitudinal data on 922 National Guard soldiers, representing a subsample (56%) of a larger pre- and post-deployment cross-sectional study of New Jersey National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Measures included the PTSD Checklist (PCL), DSM-IV-based measures of alcohol use/misuse from the National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health and other concurrent mental health, military and demographic measures. Results showed no effect of pre-deployment alcohol status on subsequent positive screens for new onset PTSD. However, in multivariate models, baseline PTSD symptoms significantly increased the risk of screening positive for new onset alcohol dependence (AD), which rose 5% with each unit increase in PCL score (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Results also supported the shared etiology hypothesis, with the risk of a positive screen for AD increasing by 9% for every unit increase in combat exposure after controlling for baseline PTSD status (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.03-1.15) and, in a subsample with PCL scores <34, by 17% for each unit increase in exposure (AOR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). These findings have implications for prevention, treatment and compensation policies governing co-morbidity in military veterans.

  11. Mental health treatment utilization in OIF/OEF National Guard and Reserve troops with and without DSM diagnoses. (United States)

    Primack, Jennifer M; Borsari, Brian; Benz, Madeline B; Reddy, Madhavi K; Shea, M Tracie


    Military service members have an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) problems following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, yet only a small percentage seek mental health treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore patterns of MH service utilization within the first 12 months following return from combat deployment. Participants were 169 service members who had returned from war-zone deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan and had assessments covering a 12-month period following their homecoming. The authors first examined the prevalence of mental health diagnoses and engagement with mental health treatment (e.g., visits to the emergency room, inpatient hospitalization, individual therapy, group therapy, family or couple therapy, medication appointments, and self-help). Regression analyses explored whether distress, functioning, diagnoses, or social support predicted treatment use. Findings indicated that 28 of 50 military service members (56%) who met diagnostic criteria for a mental health disorder accessed services in the year following their return from deployment. Individual treatment was the most common modality, and those with major depressive disorder (MDD) reported the most treatment contacts. Social support was not associated with use of mental health services. Baseline functioning and psychiatric distress predicted entry into treatment whereas only psychiatric distress predicted amount of mental health service use in the 12-month postdeployment period. Findings highlight the need for enhanced strategies to link those reporting psychiatric distress with MH treatment services and increase community connectedness regardless of whether they meet full criteria for a mental health diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Post-combat invincibility: violent combat experiences are associated with increased risk-taking propensity following deployment. (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Cotting, Dave I; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; McGurk, Dennis; Vo, Alexander H; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W


    Combat exposure is associated with increased rates of mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety when Soldiers return home. Another important health consequence of combat exposure involves the potential for increased risk-taking propensity and unsafe behavior among returning service members. Survey responses regarding 37 different combat experiences were collected from 1252 US Army Soldiers immediately upon return home from combat deployment during Operation Iraqi Freedom. A second survey that included the Evaluation of Risks Scale (EVAR) and questions about recent risky behavior was administered to these same Soldiers 3 months after the initial post-deployment survey. Combat experiences were reduced to seven factors using principal components analysis and used to predict post-deployment risk-propensity scores. Although effect sizes were small, specific combat experiences, including greater exposure to violent combat, killing another person, and contact with high levels of human trauma, were predictive of greater risk-taking propensity after homecoming. Greater exposure to these combat experiences was also predictive of actual risk-related behaviors in the preceding month, including more frequent and greater quantities of alcohol use and increased verbal and physical aggression toward others. Exposure to violent combat, human trauma, and having direct responsibility for taking the life of another person may alter an individual's perceived threshold of invincibility and slightly increase the propensity to engage in risky behavior upon returning home after wartime deployment. Findings highlight the importance of education and counseling for returning service members to mitigate the public health consequences of elevated risk-propensity associated with combat exposure.

  13. Risk and Resilience Factors for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Psychopathology and Post Combat Adjustment (United States)


    Related Posttraumatic Psychopathology and Post Combat Adjustment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph R. Calabrese, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...REPORT DATE 01-05-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 07 May 2007 – 5 Apr 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...conducted using maximum likelihood estimation with a mean-adjusted chi-square ( MLM ) (the Satorra-Bentler chi-square value), which is robust to non

  14. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever. (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan


    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  15. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  16. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  17. Impact of Cumulative Combat Stress on Learning in an Academic Environment (United States)

    Shea, Kevin Peter; Fishback, Sarah Jane


    The stress of multiple combat tours has created a combat-tested but combat-weary Army. While most soldiers have coped successfully with combat stress, many return home with problems that include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, insomnia, and reduced memory and concentration skills. Education is…

  18. Interim Brigade Combat Team: Indirect distributive fires concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerard M Acosta; Christopher Menton


      The expectation that the Interim Brigade Combat Team will fight in a non-linear environment has forced units to develop new tactics to incorporate indirect fires to deliver rounds in a 360-degree zone...

  19. [Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge habitat improvement to combat botulism (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This documents discusses the possibilities of ditching the Upper Des Lacs lake as a means of combating botulism on the Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge.

  20. Technology to combat poaching: from the lab to the park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramadeen, P


    Full Text Available South Africa is home to an estimated 80% of the world's rhino population. This presentation discusses technologies to combat poaching, from laboratories to safeguard experimentation that can be taken to South African National Parks....

  1. Strategies for Combating Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    science teachers on the suggested strategies for combating global economic crisis in the country .... with what Mankiw (2001) observed that a nation's standard of living is determined ... Principles of Economics 2nd Edition fort work: Harcourt ...

  2. Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance | Whitelaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... In resource-limited settings, the costs and potential benefits of screening programmes need to be carefully weighed up.

  3. Neurologic injuries in boxing and other combat sports. (United States)

    Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A


    Many sports have neurologic injury from incidental head contact; however, combat sports allow head contact, and a potential exists for acute and chronic neurologic injuries. Although each combat sport differs in which regions of the body can be used for contact, they are similar in competitor exposure time. Their acute injury rates are similar; thus their injuries can appropriately be considered together. Injuries of all types occur in combat sports, with injuries in between one fifth to one half of all fights in boxing, karate, and tae kwon do. Most boxing injuries are to the head and neck region. In other combat sports, the head and neck region are the second (after the lower limbs) or the first most common injury site.

  4. Sleep Quality and Relative Factors in Recruits from A Troop%某部新兵睡眠质量及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春; 赵汉清; 余海鹰; 张书友; 徐进; 过伟


    目的:了解某部新兵的睡眠质量状况。方法整群抽取某部495名新兵采用自制的新兵心理卫生调查问卷及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表进行测试。结果新兵的睡眠质量异常检出率为13.54%,高于正常男性群体(χ2=7.96,P=0.005);新兵的主观睡眠质量(SSQ)、入睡潜伏时间(SL)、睡眠干扰因素(Sdi)、应用催眠药物(USM)、白天功能障碍(DD)分值及PSQI总分均高于正常男性群体(U=2.76~39.01,P<0.01);Logistic回归分析显示:非自愿入伍(P<0.001,OR=9.987,95%CI=4.609-22.866)、认为不适应部队生活(P<0.001,OR=7.001,95%CI=3.018-16.981)及认为部队管理方式严格(P<0.001,OR=3.096,95%CI=1.887-9.087)为新兵睡眠质量异常的显著危险因子。结论新兵的睡眠质量状况不容乐观,应当给予持续关注;乐观向上的心态有助于新兵睡眠质量的提升。%Objective To acquaintance the sleep quality status and relative factors of recruits from a troop .Methods By using homemade recruits mental health questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index Questionnaire (PSQI),the sleep quality status of 500 recruits from a troop were assessed .Results The suspicion positive rate of the recruits was 13.54%,which was higher than the normal male(χ2 =7.96,P=0.005);The score of subjective sleep quality (SSQ),sleep latency(SL),sleep disturbance(Sdi),use of sleeping medication(USM),daytime dysfunction(DD) and the PSQI total score of the recruits were higher than the normal male (U=2.76~39.01,P<0.01);Logistic analysis showed that the notable risk factors to low sleep quality were recruits who were forced to join the ar -my(P<0.001,OR=9.987,95%CI=4.609-22.866),recruits who did not accustomed to the army life (P<0.001,OR=7.001,95%CI=3.018-16.981)and recruits who think the management mode of army was strict (P<0.001,OR=3

  5. Exercise Design for the Joint Force 2020 Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    actual combat. EXERCISE DESIGN FOR THE JOINT FORCE 2020 BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM In the 21st century, we do not have the luxury of deciding...businesses, painting contractors, gas stations and garages, and auto dealerships. There should also be banks and money lenders, restaurants and cafes... hotels , internet cafes, public utilities and associated infrastructure, as well as newspapers and radio stations. In addition to the portrayal of

  6. The Effects of Combat Exposure on the Military Divorce Rate (United States)


    current marriages. The scale covers an array of issues, such as divorce, infidelity , abuse, and extended separation. The variable for measuring They also note that traumatic combat experience for the husband can have an emotional aftereffect that disrupts the emotional attachment and...with an indicator attached to each observation reflecting the year of marriage. In other words, there are five marriage cohorts (2001 to 2005). The

  7. Combating Conflict Related Sexual Violence: More Than a Stability Concern (United States)


    believed something was self evident but realized their belief was only shared in certain circles and wanted their understanding to spread to other...know about it (Enloe 2000, 111). If they fear they will be shamed, ostracized , or have a reduced chance for marriage or other life opportunities, or if...serves as communication between combatants. It communicates commitment, a sense of masculinity, and mutual esteem between combatants (Baaz and Stern

  8. The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM As a Combatant Command (United States)


    AU/ACSC/HELMS /AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE DIGITAL GCC: USCYBERCOM AS A COMBATANT COMMAND by...Unified Command Plan (UCP). AU/ACSC/HELMS/AY15 4 Contents The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM as a Unified Combatant Command...left USCYBERCOM open to multiple reporting up- channels headed by competing interest principals and comprised of a variety of fragmented organizations

  9. A Baseline Analysis of Combat Logistics Force Scheduling Efficiency (United States)


    only cost factors analyzed for underway periods. Maintenance, personnel, food , and consumable expenses increase the costs of CLF asset’s underway...resulting in a recommendation that the Fast Combat Support Ship (AOE) be the ship of choice due to better efficiency and cost to deliver commodity to...commodity available to customers. Efficiencies were compared before and after RASP, resulting in a recommendation that the Fast Combat Support Ship (AOE

  10. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment (United States)


    postoperative infection, had missed injuries. One was a closed bimalleolar ankle fracture that had the fibula fracture and syndesmosis inter- nally to describe the outcomes of fractures that were internally fixed in the combat environment. The records of patients who had internal fixation...analyzed. Forty-seven patients had internal fixation performed on 50 fractures in a combat theater hospital. Hip, forearm, and ankle fractures made up the

  11. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries



    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  12. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries


    Shirani Gholamreza; Motamedi Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri Alireza; Eshkevari Pooyan


    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  13. Content Analysis and the Organization of Combat Intelligence Data (United States)


    Rtstarck M«aor»4»B 78-7 CO o < CONTENT ANALYSIS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF COMBAT INTELLIGENCE DATA Murray S. Miron and Samuel W. Patten Syracuse...the Army Research Institute. y > /N u A A J^ 4 CONTENT ANALYSIS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF COMBAT INTELLIGENCE DATA \\ INTRODUCTION In order to...1966, p. 68). In content analysis , the General Inquirer functions as a well-trained clerk who assigns particular categories (specified by the

  14. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  15. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  16. Challenges and Needs Faced by Female Combat Veterans. (United States)

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R; Whitehead, Markus; Kellman-Fritz, Jennifer

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to identify stressors that may contribute to mental health issues of military female veterans. Female members in the U.S. Armed Forces currently occupy more non-traditional roles; therefore deployment to combat zones, commonly reserved for males, is being taken on by females. While at the present time females serving in the military are not allowed to serve in combat occupations, the reality is that many are being placed in combat roles or environments. Consequently, many are now confronted with stressors related to combat and multiple deployments. This study was based on a descriptive, non-probability, snowball design. In cases where participants displayed a reluctance to share some information in front of counterparts who may have been at a higher or lower rank level; subsequent semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted. The latter approach proved more effective in gathering important information, such as issues of military sexual trauma (MST) and issues of intimacy upon re-entering the home environment. This study was conducted before January 2013, when Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced the lift of the ban on women serving in combat. Therefore, future studies will need to be conducted to discern how these stressors will affect them in their new role as active combatants.

  17. Suicide attempts in U.S. Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics. (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Mash, Holly Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B


    The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Risk may vary according to occupation, which significantly influences the stressors that soldiers experience. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records for all active duty Regular Army enlisted soldiers who had a medically documented suicide attempt from 2004 through 2009 (n = 9650) and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined the association of combat occupation (combat arms [CA], special forces [SF], combat medic [CM]) with suicide attempt, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. In adjusted models, the odds of attempting suicide were higher in CA (OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.2]) and CM (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.3-1.5]), but lower in SF (OR = 0.3 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5]) compared to all other occupations. CA and CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than other occupations if never deployed (ORs = 1.1-1.5) or previously deployed (ORs = 1.2-1.3), but not when currently deployed. Occupation was associated with suicide attempt in the first ten years of service, but not beyond. In the first year of service, primarily a time of training, CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than both CA (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.2-1.6]) and other occupations (OR = 1.5 [95% CI: 1.3-1.7]). Discrete-time hazard functions revealed that these occupations had distinct patterns of monthly risk during the first year of service. Military occupation can inform the understanding suicide attempt risk among soldiers.

  18. Anything But: Joint Air-Ground Training at the U.S. Army Ground Combat Training Centers (United States)


    Antis, COL Jim Dickens , and COL (Ret) Tom Snukis. If I ever become a “world class” planner, it will be a direct result of their hard work and patience...enjoyed at the National Training Center, created the Joint 89 Burge 2009. 90 Wolf, 413. 91 Wickham, GEN John A., USA, and Gen Charles A. Gabriel...part of the US Army’s rapid advance to Baghdad, that V Corps Historian Dr. Charles E. Kirkpatrick, described the effort as an “almost flawless

  19. Combat Fluid Resuscitation Interoperable Capability (Capacite Interoperable de Liquides de Reanimation en Situation de Combat) (United States)


    confère un avantage logistique important sur le terrain. Le médecin-chef adjoint a confirmé que les Services de santé des Forces canadiennes ( tout en conférant un avantage logistique dans des environnements de combat difficiles. De nouveaux liquides de réanimation sont nécessaires pour...l’ensemble, le PDT de la CILRC a atteint ses objectifs. Plus spécifiquement, le projet a démontré : 1) l’avantage logistique potentiel des solutions

  20. A Survey of Combat Models for Use in CARF (Combat Active Replacement Factor) Value Generation (United States)


    requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CPERATIONS RESEARCH from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL darch 1985 Author: tv Approved by :... - n Z ...GENERATION OF A WARTIME ACTIVE REPLACEMENT FACTOR (WARF) 65 A. THE PREPROCESSER ................. 66 B. THE COMBAT SAMPLE GEERATOR (COSAGE) MODEL 66 C. THE...en -T,, , -T T L T 17, V 7777% T -T T K 97 7 Ř 7 T W 71 T 7 - Z W.; ., . 7. , II. THE CARF GENERA7ION SYSTEM TODAY The previous and current CARF

  1. Reverse genetics approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses. (United States)

    de la Torre, Juan C


    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, and evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Moreover, arenaviruses pose a biodefense threat. No licensed anti-arenavirus vaccines are available, and current anti-arenavirus therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with anemia and other side effects. Therefore, it is important to develop effective vaccines and better antiviral drugs to combat the dual threats of naturally occurring and intentionally introduced arenavirus infections. The development of arenavirus reverse genetic systems is allowing investigators to conduct a detailed molecular characterization of the viral cis-acting signals and trans-acting factors that control each of the steps of the arenavirus life cycle, including RNA synthesis, packaging and budding. Knowledge derived from these studies is uncovering potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention, as well as facilitating the establishment of assays to identify and characterize candidate antiviral drugs capable of interfering with specific steps of the virus life cycle. Likewise, the ability to generate predetermined specific mutations within the arenavirus genome and analyze their phenotypic expression would significantly contribute to the elucidation of arenavirus-host interactions, including the basis of their ability to cause severe HF. This, in turn, could lead to the development of novel, potent and safe arenavirus vaccines.

  2. Combating gender based violence in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Gahongayire


    Full Text Available Gender Based Violence (GBV exists in Rwanda as in many other African societies. Efforts are being made by Governments and NGOs to curb the menace and help its victims. This study examines these efforts with particular reference to the city of Kigali in Rwanda. The study reveals the prevalence and various strategies used by government and other organisations in combating the practice of GBV. According to the study effective response to the plight of GBV victims depends on the competence and expertise of various individuals and organisations involved in giving assistance to victims. The establishment of a one-stop assistance centre for GBV services in Kigali has successfully given much needed aid to victims. The study recommends that in order to eradicate GBV all the stakeholders should utilize available resources. Logistical, economic and socio-cultural constraints should be dealt with accordingly. Above all, the judiciary has a crucial role to play. An effective judicial system is needed to curb the practice.

  3. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology (United States)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.


    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  4. Nanomaterials to Combat NO(x) Pollution. (United States)

    Balbuena, J; Cruz-Yusta, M; Sánchez, L


    The presence of NO9x) gases (NO+NO2) in the atmosphere is a major concern of society because of their associated adverse and harmful effects. In order to remove the NO(x) gases from the air, photocatalysis arises as an innovative and promising technique. Through the use of photochemical oxidation processes the NO and NO2 gases are oxidised to NO3- form and thus removed from the air. In recent years new nanomaterials are being developed by researchers with the aim to enhance their photocatalytic activity to combat the NO(x) pollution. The main focus is devoted to preparing new TiO2 based compounds with the highest specific surface area (SSA), different morphology and chemical modifications. In order to increase the SSA, different substrates were used to disperse the TiO2 nanoparticles: organic and carbon fibres, mesoporous materials, clays composites and nanoporous microparticles. In the other hand, high photocatalytic performances were obtained with nanotubes, self-orderer nano-tubular films and nanoparticles with the lowest size. Conversely, when TiO2 is doped with ions the oxide exhibited a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, which is related to the creation of intermediate energy states between the conduction band and the valence band. Alternatively, visible light photocatalysts different from titanium oxide have been studied, which exhibit a good De-NO(x) efficiency working under λ > 400 nm visible light irradiation.

  5. Combative Sports Injuries: An Edmonton Retrospective. (United States)

    Karpman, Shelby; Reid, Patrick; Phillips, Leah; Qin, Ziling; Gross, Douglas P


    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an increasingly popular combative sport involving aggressive techniques that present substantial injury risk. We examined the incidence and types of injuries sustained in MMA fights and compared this with injuries sustained in boxing matches. Consecutive Case Series. We used data from post-fight medical examinations on all bouts in Edmonton, Canada, between 2000 and 2013. The participants were 1181 MMA competitors and 550 boxers. The attending physician conducted a mandatory post-fight examination of all fighters and documented the nature of injuries sustained. Boxers were significantly more likely not to experience injury (49.8% vs 59.4%, P < 0.001), whereas MMA fighters were significantly more likely to experience 1 injury (typically contusion/bruising, P < 0.001). Boxers were more likely to experience loss of consciousness (7.1% vs 4.2%, P = 0.01) and serious eye injury (1.1% vs 0.3%, P = 0.02). The overall injury incidence in MMA competitors appears slightly higher than for boxers, but MMA fighters experience more minor contusion/bruising injuries. Boxers are more likely to experience serious injury such as concussion/head trauma involving loss of consciousness or eye injury such as retinal detachment.

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries sustained in modern army combatives. (United States)

    Possley, Daniel R; Johnson, Anthony E


    Participation in martial arts has grown over the past 15 years with an estimated 8 million participants. In 2004, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed that all Initial Military Training soldiers receive Modern Army Combatives (MAC) training. The mechanical differences between the various martial arts styles incorporated into mixed martial arts/MAC pose challenges to the medical professional. We report the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries by Level 1 and 2 trained active duty soldiers participating in MAC over a 3-year period. From June 1, 2005 to January 1, 2009, the Orthopaedic Surgery service treated and tracked all injuries in MAC. Data was analyzed using the Chi(2) method of analysis. (p < 0.05). 155 of 1,025 soldiers presenting with MAC injuries reported inability to perform their military occupation specialty duties. The knee was most frequently injured followed by shoulder. Surgical intervention was warranted 24% of the time. Participants in MAC reported injuries severe enough to impact occupational duties at 15.5%. Surgical intervention was warranted only 24% of the time. The knee and shoulder are the most frequently injured body parts. Labral repair was the most frequent surgical procedure.

  7. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)


    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  8. Description of combat and operational stress control in Regional Command East, Afghanistan. (United States)

    Ogle, Alan D; Bradley, Devvon; Santiago, Patcho; Reynolds, David


    Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) continues to be a vital component of medical operations in support of military forces serving in Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom and elsewhere. Although numerous studies cover postdeployment mental health, and several cover in-theater conditions, data on behavioral health clinical service provision are presented here to elucidate from COSC provider "boots on the ground" how operations have been executed in one part of the Operation Enduring Freedom theater between 2007 and 2010. The most common types of stressors that led to care included combat, mission demands, home front concerns, and relationships with leaders and peers within units. Classes and consultation for sleep difficulties and anger management were of high interest. Frequent behavioral health diagnoses were depressive and anxiety disorders as well as exacerbation of a previously diagnosed condition. Management of suicidality and other psychiatric emergencies are discussed, as well as care outcomes. The authors present lessons learned regarding the importance of Operational Relationships/Tactical Politics, reducing stigma and barriers to care, collaboration with chaplains, and other strategies seen as supporting COSC success.

  9. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes (United States)

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. [Methods] Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop. To examine the moment difference due to an interaction of ATCN3 polymorphism and muscle imbalance, all participants were divided into 4 groups (R+MB, R+MIB, X+MB, and X+MIB). [Results] There was no significant difference of hip, knee, and ankle joint moment in R allele and X allele during V-cut jumping and stop based on ACTN3 gene polymorphism. Otherwise, muscle imbalance of knee moment in X-axis and ground reaction force of knee in Z-axis showed a higher significance in muscle imbalance during V-cut jumping and stop compared to muscle balance (p<0.05). In addition, joint analysis showed that muscle imbalance in X allele group had significantly higher knee moment of V-cut ground reaction force in X-axis and higher ankle moment of jumping ground reaction force in X and Z-axis compared to muscle balance with R and/or X group (p <0.05). [Conclusion] This study confirmed that muscle imbalance in lower extremity of combat athletes might induce higher risk factors of sports injury incidence than genetic factor and training might reduce the ratio of sports injury risk incidence. PMID:27508148

  10. Application of the Janus Combat Model for analysis of alternatives : a study of the operational effectiveness of the common missile as compared to the Hellfire



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited By 2010, 100 percent of the existing stockpile of Hellfire and TOW 2A/2B missiles will reach their design shelf life. The stock of Hellfire missiles available to support Army air-to-ground combat will be depleted by 2015. Of particular interest to the Aviation community is the Comanche first unit equipped (FUE) in 2009, which will be significantly impacted by the scarcity and condition of this primary weapon. This research employs the ...

  11. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete. (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M


    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives.

  12. 部队住院伤病员管理的难点与对策%The dififculties and Countermeasures of management of hospitalized wounded troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱甬; 秦梅红


    the management of the wounded troops is the key and difficult point in military hospital management. The author analyzes the wounded characteristics and management difficulties, introduced by measures to strengthen medical staff awareness of service and the sick and wounded of ideological education, perfect management mechanism, carrying out high-quality care etc., high quality completed the task of the sick and wounded were, to realize the safety management of the sick and wounded.%部队伤病员管理是部队医院管理的重点和难点。笔者剖析了伤病员特点和管理难点,介绍了通过强化医务人员服务意识和伤病员思想教育、完善管理机制、开展优质护理等措施,高质量地完成了伤病员收治任务,实现了伤病员的安全管理。

  13. The Military Route of 24 th Infantry Division within the Troops of North-Western, Western and Northern Fronts. 1914–1917

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    Mikhaylov Andrey


    Full Text Available The article presents the operational record of 24th infantry division during the First World War within the troops of three fronts (North-Western, Northern and Western. This division was formed in 1863, and in 1892-1895 three of its four regiments were located in Pskov, an old city in the North-West of Russia. The officer staff (their social origin and education by the eve of the First World War as well as the mobilization course at the beginning of the War have been reviewed in the article. On the example of one military unit, typical of the Russian Army, the author analyzes the peculiar features of military operations during the First World War and the role of the division’s participation in several major operations in 1914-1917. They include the Russian Army’s dramatic offensive in East Prussia (summer and autumn 1914, the defensive fighting on the Ravca river (in the beginning of 1915, the offensive of the Russian army in Galicia in 1916 (known as Brusilov Offensive. The article has been finished with the story about the division’s way during the Russian Army’s disintegration in the period of the revolution of 1917. The article is based on the unpublished documents from Russian Military and Historic Archive (Moscow as well as on the press materials.

  14. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of Cadets in the Russian Interio Ministry Troops According to the Deviance Disposition: Comparative Analysis

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    L. I. Dorfman


    Full Text Available The demand for the moral psychological training in military higher schools is enforced by the changing situation both in our country and globally. The potential officers should posses such qualities as fortitude, stability, self-regulation, self-direction, and ability to restrain the undesirable emotions. The paper deals with the psychological investigation of motivational profile of junior cadets at the Military Higher School of the Russian Interior Ministry Troops. The author undertakes the comparative analysis of the cadets’ psychological resistance to adverse situations according to the deviance disposition level. The research methodology combines the psychometrical approach, meta-individual world concept and plural self theory. The research objectives include: studying the self-concept and poly-modal achievement motives of cadets; and comparative analysis of their personal traits with regard to their deviance disposition level – explicit or implicit. The research findings can be applied by psychologists and personnel officers in military higher schools of the Russian Interior Ministry for diagnosing the deviance disposition and its prevention. The materials can be implied in further investigation of personal motivational profiles of potential officers. 

  15. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of Cadets in the Russian Interio Ministry Troops According to the Deviance Disposition: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorfman


    Full Text Available The demand for the moral psychological training in military higher schools is enforced by the changing situation both in our country and globally. The potential officers should posses such qualities as fortitude, stability, self-regulation, self-direction, and ability to restrain the undesirable emotions. The paper deals with the psychological investigation of motivational profile of junior cadets at the Military Higher School of the Russian Interior Ministry Troops. The author undertakes the comparative analysis of the cadets’ psychological resistance to adverse situations according to the deviance disposition level. The research methodology combines the psychometrical approach, meta-individual world concept and plural self theory. The research objectives include: studying the self-concept and poly-modal achievement motives of cadets; and comparative analysis of their personal traits with regard to their deviance disposition level – explicit or implicit. The research findings can be applied by psychologists and personnel officers in military higher schools of the Russian Interior Ministry for diagnosing the deviance disposition and its prevention. The materials can be implied in further investigation of personal motivational profiles of potential officers. 

  16. Improvement of optical and acoustical technologies for the protection: Project IMOTEP: Network of heterogeneous sensor types for the protection of camps or mobile troops (United States)

    Hengy, Sébastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Zimpfer, Véronique; Schneider, Armin


    Snipers have emerged as a major threat to troops in recent conflicts. To reduce this menace, the objective of the French- German Research Institute of Saint Louis (ISL) research project "IMOTEP" is to improve the detection of snipers on the battlefield. Our basic approach is to combine several sources of information for a fast and appropriate reaction when an unusual signal (e.g. a flash or a shot) is detected. The project includes several technologies developed at ISL: acoustical detection, fusion of distributed sensor network data, active imaging and 3D audio communication. The protection of camps, convoys or dismounted soldiers rests on a distributed acoustical sensor network that detects and localizes sniper attacks. An early estimation of the threat position is transmitted through a network to an active imaging system in order to confirm and refine this position by 3D imaging. The refined position is then sent to the control center which generates an alert message that displays the threat position using two formats: a tactical map and a 3D audio signal. In addition, the camp is protected by an ad-hoc sensor network used for intruder detection.

  17. 对川军出川参加广德抗日战斗的历史考证%The Historical Research in Sichuan Army leaving Sichuan and Participating in the Guangde Anti-Japanese Combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the end of 1937 , the Sichuan 23 rd Army marched far away to Guangde County , Anhui Province to participate in the Guangde anti -Japanese battle , which delayed time to attack the Japanese invaders in China's capital Nanjing .In this paper , in historical textual research the line of march of Sichuan army left from Sichuan , weapons and equipments in Guangde anti -Japanese battle , fighting , sacrifice place of Rao Ganhua , mapping to clearly indicate that the Sichuan Army marched far away to Guangde area and experienced hardship ;Through his-torical pictures and records , it reproduced clothing and the primitive weaponry of war of Sichuan Army when Si-chuan troops left and flight in Guangde in order to highlight the tough battle; Contacting staff in Guangde History Office , clearing combat places in Guangde combat , and summarizing about RaoGuoHua sacrifice sites and memorial activities in academic ideas , carefully studying Sichuan Army attend GuangDe Anti -Japanese battle troops .%1937年底,川军二十三集团军千里迢迢行军至安徽省广德县,参加广德抗日战斗,迟滞日本侵略军进攻当时中国首都南京。本文主要从川军出川参加广德抗日战斗的行军路线、武器装备以及饶国华将军战斗、牺牲地点等问题进行历史考证,绘制地图以清晰表明川军千里迢迢行军至广德一带作战的艰辛;通过历史图片与史料,再现川军出川在广德作战的衣着、武器装备之简陋,凸显作战之艰难;联系广德县党史办工作人员,明确饶国华在广德的作战地点,总结学术界关于饶国华牺牲地点的说法与纪念活动,细致地研究参加广德抗日战斗的川军。

  18. Projecting of process of cultivating of olympic values and valuable orientation of students youth by the eastern combat sports means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenko E. V.


    Full Text Available The application of eastern combat sports in project of the education of the students youth in grounded. In the research took part 65 people (37 males and 28 females aged 17-25 years. It was established that process of education of olympic values and those of orientation specific in some king and needs constant perfection. It is established that application of means of the eastern combat sports raises the level of self-perfection of students youth. Revealed are the most important olympic values for students (prestige, perfection, friendship. It is established that in educational process the trends to perfection of personality and enhancing efficiency of impact of the eastern combat sports weans on inspiring olympic values and values of orientation is observed. It in established that the biggest influence in the process project of inspiring olympic values of youth belongs to the contraction of the process itself of education of students youth with in determined by efficiency, success, creative approach.

  19. Patches of bare ground as a staple commodity for declining ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schaub

    Full Text Available Conceived to combat widescale biodiversity erosion in farmland, agri-environment schemes have largely failed to deliver their promises despite massive financial support. While several common species have shown to react positively to existing measures, rare species have continued to decline in most European countries. Of particular concern is the status of insectivorous farmland birds that forage on the ground. We modelled the foraging habitat preferences of four declining insectivorous bird species (hoopoe, wryneck, woodlark, common redstart inhabiting fruit tree plantations, orchards and vineyards. All species preferred foraging in habitat mosaics consisting of patches of grass and bare ground, with an optimal, species-specific bare ground coverage of 30-70% at the foraging patch scale. In the study areas, birds thrived in intensively cultivated farmland where such ground vegetation mosaics existed. Not promoted by conventional agri-environment schemes until now, patches of bare ground should be implemented throughout grassland in order to prevent further decline of insectivorous farmland birds.

  20. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (United States)

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H


    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience. (United States)

    Enstrom, James E


    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience."

  2. Sustainability Action Planning and Initiatives at Twentynine Palms Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) (United States)


    sources by FY 2020 7.5% 11.5% 18.3% Currently at 6.2%; photovoltaic and geothermal targeted Use of petroleum products by vehicle fleets reduced 30% by... teleworking at least once per week, on a regular, recurring basis, by FY 2020 15% 21% 30% Need policy 50% of non-hazardous waste diverted from disposal...electronic products disposed in environmentally sound manner 100% 100% 100% Compliant 100% of DoD personnel and contractors who apply pesticides are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Maucec


    Full Text Available The article provides for a critical overview of international and in particular EU human rights and non-discrimination frameworks relevant and applicable to unequal treatment of persons with disabilities. Having considered the contents and scope of relevant international human rights and non-discrimination provisions the author turns to the questions as to how these provisions might be exercised, who the rights holders and duty bearers would be and what the challenges of balancing different rights and needs are. The article also includes the definition of the concept of disability in the context of non-discrimination law and examines the dimensions of disability discrimination as defined in international and EU law. The author concludes that international and especially modern EU non-discrimination law establish a wide and inclusive legal framework for dealing with disability discrimination. However, the actual scope of the realization of international and European legal standards on disability discrimination in each state will depend on the consistency and effectiveness of their national implementation and on the manner of putting them into practice.

  4. Maintaining the Legal High Ground: The Legal Implications of Using Armed Force to Combat Terrorists (United States)


    2001, also demonstrated the codependent relationship between the Taliban and Usama Bin Laden’s organization. “Bin Laden could not operate his...STRIKES ON TERRORISTS In leading the campaign against terrorism, we are forging new, productive international relationships and redefining existing... relationship between the target (or lack there of) and the terrorist act was unclear. And, the failure to support the claim that the plant produced chemical

  5. Technical Challenges of the U.S. Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle Program (United States)


    GCV contractors must design for and test high road speed during the vehicle’s development. The ability of a hybrid electrical drivetrain to sustain...Bradley required heavier-duty drivetrain components because the smooth suspensions encouraged drivers to stress the mechanical limits of the drivetrain

  6. A Revolutionary Approach for the Development of Future Ground Combat System Specifications (United States)


    2012a). BlitzerTM Railgun . Retrieved May 21, 2013 from railgun General Atomics & Affiliated Companies. (2012b). Railgun ...capabilities and benefits. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from railgun - capabilities-and-benefits General Dynamics Armament and Technical

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces (United States)

    2015-03-01 articles /SLAMRAAM-Dies-From-Loneliness-2- 5-2011.asp. Federation of American Scientists . 2000. “M6 Bradley Linebacker...MANPADS-under-armor (MUA) concept was adopted to provide mobile air defense to maneuver forces (Federation of American Scientists 2000). This involved... swim in water. The functional hierarchy for the Move function is shown in Figure 17. 39 Figure 17. Functional Hierarchy for F.3 Move d

  8. Policy and Policy Formulation Considerations for Incorporation of Secure Mobile Devices in USMC Ground Combat Units (United States)


    network usage and health (Office of the Department of Defense Chief Information Officer, 2012). 22 Objective c. Educate and train mobile device users...perform beyond your wildest dreams.” These two concepts are not merely part of a “feel-good” speech during a relaxing yoga session. In design...LIST OF REFERENCES Ahmed, M., & Ahamad, M. (2012). Protecting health information on mobile devices. Proceedings of the Second ACM Conference on

  9. Understanding why a Ground Combat Vehicle that Carries Nine Dismounts is Important to the Army (United States)


    cites a quote by GEN Donn Starry, TRADOC commander from 1977 to 1981, in which he notes, “We in TRADOC . . . decided to put the TOW on the MICV because...Carmichael, John M., “Devising Doctrine for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Platoon Dismount Element—Finding the Right Starting Point,” Fort...Mahon, John K., and Romana Danysh, Army Lineage Series: Infantry, Part I: Regular Army, Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, United

  10. Transforming America’s Military: Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations (United States)


    the Vietnam War, Operation Desert One (the failed Iranian hostage rescue attempt), and Operation Urgent Fury (the disjointed Grenada operation) was...airpower could have in the upcoming operation to liberate Kuwait. The former commander of JSOC , Army General (Ret.) Wayne Downing, believed that “no...Operations Air Component Commander JSOC —Joint Special Operations Command JSOTF—Joint Special Operations Task Force 22 JSTARS—Joint Surveillance Target

  11. Preliminary Geothermal Exploration at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California (United States)


    several Mesozoic orogenies, the sedimentary series was folded during the formation of low-angle thrust faults and high-angle faults. In the central and...called quartz-conductive-cooling), quartz maximum steam loss, chalcedony, a- cristobalite , {- cristobalite , and amorphous silica (Fournier, 1981). All... hydrothermal history of the area and provide an indication of the northern limit and the subsurface temperature of the geothermal resource in the Main Camp

  12. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.


    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to ``calibrate`` the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  13. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  14. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review. (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim


    Slimani, M, Davis, P, Franchini, E, and Moalla, W. Rating of perceived exertion for quantification of training and combat loads during combat sport-specific activities: a short review. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2889-2902, 2017-The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during

  15. Respuesta orgánica en una simulación de combate Organic response to a combat simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Clemente Suárez


    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: El análisis de la respuesta orgánica durante el combate es un campo de estudio poco tratado en la bibliografía específica, por ello se planteo como objetivo de este trabajo el analizar el efecto de una simulación de combate en el organismo de los combatientes. Material y Métodos: Se analizó el umbral de frecuencia crítica de fusión (UFCF como medio de detectar fatiga del sistema nervioso central (SNC, fuerza explosiva de piernas, fuerza isométrica, lactato sanguíneo y percepción subjetiva de esfuerzo en 20 combatientes antes y después de realizar una simulación de combate. Resultados: Después de la simulación los sujetos mostraron un aumento significativo (pBackground and Objectives: Analysis of organic response in combat is a bit field of study specifically studied in specific literature, for this reason the objective of this work is to analyze the effect of a combat simulation in the organism of soldiers. Material and Methods: We analyzed the critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF as a means of detecting fatigue of central nervous system (CNS, leg explosive strength, isometric strength, blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion in 20 soldiers before and after performing a combat simulation. Results: After combat simulation, soldiers showed a significant increase (p<0,05 in lactate levels (2,57±0,62 mmol/l vs. 4,92±2,18 mmol/l and isometric strength and a decrease in legs explosive strength. CFFF values decreased, showing signs of fatigue of CNS. Conclusions: Combat simulation was highly stressful, showing signs of fatigue of the CNS, are carried out in anaerobic conditions, despite the low speed o execution, and the subjective perception of effort does not correspond to the organic response obtained. These data could use to adapting current training systems for current missions in combat zones.

  16. Advertisement and combat calls of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi (Anura: Centrolenidae, with notes on combat and reproductive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dautel


    Full Text Available We describe the advertisement and combat calls, combat behavior, and reproductive behavior of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi, an endemic species of the cloud forests of Ecuador. The typical advertisement call consists of a tonal note and 1–3 peaked notes, each with 1–3 pulses. Variations on this advertisement call include the addition of a short note before the tonal note, as well as the absence of the tonal note. These modifications may be similar to thedescribed call modifications of other anurans in response to the presence of conspecific females and males, potential predators and/or changes in the sound environment. Additionally, we describe the combat call emitted during previously undescribed venter-toventercombat between males. The discovery of this combat behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that venter-to-venter combat behavior is a shared derived trait of the subfamily Centroleninae. Finally, we describe male reproductive habits and development of the species, including egg attendance by males and implied male parental care.

  17. Arctic Health Research Center report no. 101: Combating mosquitoes in arctic Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers combating mosquitoes in Arctic Alaska. The physiology and biology of mosquitoes is discussed, followed by techniques to combated mosquitoes.

  18. Mass media relevance in combating insecurity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Nwabueze, C.


    Full Text Available This work examines the critical role of the mass media in combating the upsurge of crime which has led to a state of insecurity in the country, especially in the North, South Eastern and South Southern parts of the country. This discourse adopts the qualitative approach in appraising the correlation between the mass media and the insecurity in Nigeria with emphasis on practical measures relevant in this direction. The recommends that journalists should be trained regularly on terrorism and conflict reporting to always keep them abreast of modern techniques that could be used in ensuring effective use of the mass media in combating insecurity in Nigeria.

  19. The Transition to the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care. (United States)

    Giebner, Stephen D


    The original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines were published in a special supplement to Military Medicine in 1996 as the terminal deliverable of a 2-year development project funded by the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Two years later, the USSOCOM Biomedical Initiatives Steering Committee (BISC) promulgated its Task Statement 5-98, in which it called for the formation of a panel of subject matter experts to update the TCCC guidelines. This article discusses the formation of the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC) and the changes to the original guidelines that constituted the first update. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Contracted Advisory and Assistance Services for the U.S. Army Future Combat Systems (United States)


    troops to support material release and assessments for DOT&E  Act as PM NLOS-LS IV&V for NLOS-LS C2 requirement testing  Support IOT &E training and...across the following commodity areas: Tank- automotive, armament, Soldier, Command Control Communications ( C3 ), Intelligence Electronic Warfare (IEW





    Introduction: Several studies have shown noradrenergic system hyperactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Four Vietnam combat veterans with chronic PTSD, prescribed prazosin ?1 adrenergic receptor antagonist reported reduction or completely elimination of combat trauma nightmares. This study prompted an open trial of prazosin for Iran & Iraq combat PTSD patients nightmares. Method: Twenty two male and married patients with chronic DSM N PTSD and combat trauma related nightmares p...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rheault


    Full Text Available En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.

  3. A review of time-motion analysis and combat development in mixed martial arts matches at regional level tournaments. (United States)

    del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Hirata, Sérgio Masashi; Franchini, Emerson


    Mixed martial arts (MMA) have become a fast-growing worldwide expansion of martial arts competition, requiring high level of skill, physical conditioning, and strategy, and involving a synthesis of combat while standing or on the ground. This study quantified the effort-pause ratio (EP), and classified effort segments of stand-up or groundwork development to identify the number of actions performed per round in MMA matches. 52 MMA athletes participated in the study (M age = 24 yr., SD = 5; average experience in MMA = 5 yr., SD = 3). A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements was conducted to compare the type of action across the rounds. A chi-squared test was applied across the percentages to compare proportions of different events. Only one significant difference (p < .05) was observed among rounds: time in groundwork of low intensity was longer in the second compared to the third round. When the interval between rounds was not considered, the EP ratio (between high-intensity effort to low-intensity effort plus pauses) was 1:2 to 1:4. This ratio is between ratios typical for judo, wrestling, karate, and taekwondo and reflects the combination of ground and standup techniques. Most of the matches ended in the third round, involving high-intensity actions, predominantly executed during groundwork combat.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress in U.S. Marines: The Role of Unit Cohesion and Combat Exposure (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Johnston, Scott L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Ecklund, Christofer J.


    Combat exposure is a consistent predictor of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Understanding factors that might buffer the effects of combat exposure is crucial for helping service members weather the stress of war. In a study of U.S. Marines returning from Iraq, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that unit cohesion and combat exposure…

  5. Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, and Time Effectiveness Algorithm Based Air Combat Intelligence Simulation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪钊; 成冀; 安欣; 方礼明


    This paper introduces a new Air Combat Intelligence Simulation System (ACISS) in a 32 versus 32 air combat, describes three methods: Genetic Algorithms (GA) in the multi-targeting decision and Evading Missile Rule Base learning, Neural Networks (NN) in the maneuvering decision, and Time Effectiveness Algorithm (TEA) in the adjudicating an air combat and the evaluating evading missile effectiveness.

  6. Telerehabilitation for Veterans with Combat Related TBI/PTSD (United States)


    signed by a proxy. Veterans and/or care givers must also possess basic computer literacy such as being able to access a web page and making entrees in...with Combat Related TBI/PTSD RTO-MP-HFM-205 15 - 7 or intervention ( diabetes , CHF, dementia etc), our cohort exhibits a very diverse population in

  7. Natural Medicine: Wilderness Experience Outcomes for Combat Veterans (United States)

    Dietrich, Zachary Clayborne; Joye, Shauna Wilson; Garcia, Joseph Amos


    Wilderness Experience Programs (WEPs) have been shown to enhance psychological well-being for numerous populations. However, among veteran populations, these studies have historically evaluated programs that are short-term experiences, usually less than 1 week. The current research sought to evaluate a WEP for post-9/11 combat veterans engaging in…

  8. School Administrators Strategies for Combating Corruption in Universities in Nigeria (United States)

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma


    The purpose of this study was to examine corruption in universities with the aim of finding out the types/forms, causes, effects and measures for combating the menace. Four research questions guided the investigation. The study is a survey research, ex-post facto in nature. A sample of 780 comprising of students, academic staff and administrative…

  9. Combating enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections: the way forward


    Michael S Donnenberg; Finlay, B. Brett


    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains continue to cause severe and sometimes fatal infantile diarrhea, particularly in Africa. Increased efforts at diagnosis, defining the clinical spectrum of disease, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, and delineating immune responses are desperately needed to develop new strategies to combat EPEC.

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons. (United States)


    ... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or... bondage, or slavery. Sex trafficking means the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combating Trafficking...

  11. Millennial Combat Veterans: How Identity Shapes Experience in College (United States)

    Hammond, Shane Patrick


    The purpose of this study was to build upon the growing foundational base of knowledge on the academic and social transitions of student combat veterans and contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of this population and how their perception of identity may influence their experience as college students. The researcher conducted a…

  12. Impacts of the Fleet Response Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance (United States)


    Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance Roland J. Yardley, Raj Raman, Jessie Riposo, James Chiesa, John F. Schank Prepared for the United States Navy...Command; CDR Robert Johnson, Kevin Alexander, and LCDR Tony Glover of Commander, Naval Surface Forces Atlantic; and CAPT Larry Olsen and Steve Reynolds

  13. Lessons from the Army’s Future Combat Systems Program (United States)


    Combat Team),” January 11, 2007. 20 Will Brooks, Phil Beavers, and Robert Miele , FCS Platform Capabilities for AoA (Block 1 Unconstrained vs. Increment 1...October 19, 2011: Brooks, Will, Phil Beavers, and Robert Miele , FCS Platform Capabilities for AoA (Block

  14. the army of alexander the great and combat stress syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zone), is influenced by the following factors: the degree of combat trauma ... The success of Alexander's ... Alexander's driving passion was to reach the “end of the world”, the coast of the Eastern .... Was a key component of Alex- ander's army ...

  15. Emergent interfacility evacuation of critical care patients in combat. (United States)

    Franco, Yvonne E; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Salyer, Steven W


    During the Second Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom), high-intensity, low-utilization medical and surgical services, such as neurosurgical care, were consolidated into a centralized location within the combat zone. This arrangement necessitated intra-theater air medical evacuation of critically ill or injured patients from outlying combat support hospitals (CSH) to another combat zone facility having the needed services. A case series is presented of intratheater transfer of neurosurgical patients in Iraq during 2005-06. Ninety-eight patients are included in the series, with typical transfer distances of 40 miles (approximately 20-25 minutes of flight time). All patients were transported with a CSH nurse in addition to the standard Army EMT-B flight medic. Seventy-six percent of cases were battle injury, 17% were non-battle injuries, and the balance were classified as non-injury mechanisms. Seventy-six percent of cases were head injuries, with the balance involving burns, stroke, and other injuries. At 30 days, 12% of the patients had died, and 9% remained hospitalized in a critical care setting. None of the patients died during evacuation. Intratheater and interfacility transfer of critical care patients in the combat theater often involves severely head-injured and other neurosurgical cases. Current Army staffing for helicopter transport in these case requires a nurse or other advanced personnel to supplement the standard EMT-B flight medic. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Joint Doctrine for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    successful operations to combat WMD are: command, control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; IO; interoperability; readiness; mobility ...Detection and Early Warning Support United States Government CP Efforts Interdict transfer of WMD and Related Technolgies Eliminate WMD Capability...proliferation, exfiltrations of sensitive plans and personnel or mobile labs that are not in the vicinity of the actual sensitive site exploitation. (b

  17. Combat Stress and Its Impacts for Fighter Squadron Commanders. (United States)


    experience great anxiety in the form of insomnia, loss of weight, and anorexia . He became sullen, kept to himself, and decided to request...University Quarterly Review, Vol III, No. 1, (Summer 1948), pp.26-33. 16. Lifton, Robert J., " Psychotherapy With Combat Fliers." US Armed Forces Medical

  18. Natural Medicine: Wilderness Experience Outcomes for Combat Veterans (United States)

    Dietrich, Zachary Clayborne; Joye, Shauna Wilson; Garcia, Joseph Amos


    Wilderness Experience Programs (WEPs) have been shown to enhance psychological well-being for numerous populations. However, among veteran populations, these studies have historically evaluated programs that are short-term experiences, usually less than 1 week. The current research sought to evaluate a WEP for post-9/11 combat veterans engaging in…

  19. E-Cheating: Combating a 21st Century Challenge. (United States)

    McMurtry, Kim


    Discusses electronic cheating in higher education made possible by new technologies. Highlights include statistics on plagiarism; using Web search engines and paper mills; and ways to combat cheating, including academic honesty policies, designing writing assignments with specific goals and instructions, being aware of what is available on the…

  20. International efforts to combat the financing of terrorism


    Ken Matthews


    Following the terrorist attacks in September 2001, there have been a number of developments in measures to combat the financing of terrorism. This article discusses the characteristics of terrorist financing and summarises the international initiatives to counter the financing of terrorist activities, including measures taken by the United Nations, Financial Action Task Force, regional bodies and national authorities, including New Zealand.

  1. Basic Combat Unit of the Slovenian Armed Forces (United States)


    sight , there is no significant difference between the R1 and R2. However, through the analysis, the author determined that the R2 needs to be based on...with vehicles, the size of the basic combat unit would rise 80 to about 210 personnel, which is beyond company commander’s ability to conduct sound

  2. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Computer viruses and methods of combatting them (United States)

    Landsberg, G. L.


    This article examines the current virus situation for personal computers and time-sharing computers. Basic methods of combatting viruses are presented. Specific recommendations are given to eliminate the most widespread viruses. A short description is given of a universal antiviral system, PHENIX, which has been developed.

  3. Anything, Anywhere, Any Time: Combat Cargo in the Korean War (United States)


    end all scenes for most any man, even a military man. . . . 20 Ten thousand pictures could not convey the composite sensations to the viewer...significantly the smell—a horrible, pungent combination of blood on filthy combat fatigues, unwashed bodies, spent gunpower, and vehicle exhaust fumes—all

  4. Outdoor Education: A Neglected Resource for Combating Internal Pollution (United States)

    Gemake, Josephine Stahl; Patti, Anthony V.


    Defining internal pollution as "the contamination and abuse of the human body through the habitual use of substances taken to relieve anxieties and tensions", this article asserts that outdoor education experiences can combat internal pollution through active physical, social, and intellectual involvement, promoting the security of belonging,…

  5. Combat Airpower: Design Versus Use in a Limited War (United States)


    War Over Korea (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973), 12-14. 42 teach combat air tactics to the North Korean Air Force (NKAF).68 This...propagation of a pressure pulse of infinitesimal strength through a fluid. This is a thermodynamic property of a fluid. Subsonic. Air speed travel

  6. Nonoperative Management of Splenic Injury in Combat: 2002-2012 (United States)


    MILITARY MEDICINE, 180, 3:29, 2015 Nonoperative Management of Splenic Injury in Combat: 2002–2012 CPT Thomas A. Mitchell, MC USA*; Timothy E. Wallum...n = 9), abdominal compartment syndrome (n = 6), intra-abdominal abscess (n = 3), and dehiscence/evisceration (n = 3). The incidence of deep venous

  7. The Americans with Disabilities Act: A Tool to Combat Poverty. (United States)

    Kopels, Sandra


    Employment provisions of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and their use in combating poverty for individuals with disabilities are examined. ADA is viewed as a useful tool for both advocacy and education and can help in understanding and alleviating poverty, oppression, and discrimination. Suggestions for incorporating this…

  8. Concomitant cranial and ocular combat injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Cho, Raymond I; Bakken, Hans E; Reynolds, Mark E; Schlifka, Brett A; Powers, David B


    Concomitant cranial and ocular injuries were frequently seen in combat casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The incidence of these injuries is reported along with an interventional case series. A retrospective review was conducted of all surgical patients treated by U.S. Army neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in Iraq from December 2005 to April 2006. Out of 104 patients with cranial trauma and 158 patients with ocular trauma, 34 had both cranial and ocular injuries (32.7 and 21.5% of patients with cranial and ocular injuries, respectively). Neurosurgical procedures included exploratory craniotomy, decompressive craniectomy, and frontal sinus surgery. Ophthalmologic surgical procedures included globe exploration, open globe repair, primary enucleation, orbital fracture repair, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, and repair of lid and periocular lacerations. Patients with cranial trauma had a higher incidence of orbital fracture, orbital compartment syndrome, and multiple ocular injuries compared with patients without cranial trauma (odds ratio 6.4, 3.9, and 3.3, respectively). A strong association exists between cranial and ocular trauma in combat casualties treated during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Combat health support personnel should maintain a high level of suspicion for one of these injuries when the other is present. Co-locating neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in support of combat operations facilitates the optimal treatment of patients with these combined injuries.

  9. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian. (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel


    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls.

  10. Combating cancer one step at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N Sugitha Nadarajah


    widespread consequences, not only in a medical sense but also socially and economically,” says Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “We need to put in every effort to combat this fatal disease,” he adds.Tackling the spread of cancer and the increase in the number of cases reported every year is not without its challenges, he asserts. “I see the key challenges as the unequal availability of cancer treatments worldwide, the increasing cost of cancer treatment, and the increased median age of the population in many parts of the world, which carries with it a consequent increase in the risk of certain cancers,” he says. “We need to reassess the current pace and orientation of cancer research because, with time, cancer research is becoming industry-oriented rather than academia-oriented — which, in my view, could be very dangerous to the future of cancer research,” adds Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “Governments need to provide more research funding to improve the outcome of cancer patients,” he explains.His efforts and hard work have led to him receiving a number of distinguished awards, namely the UICC International Cancer Technology Transfer (ICRETT fellowship in 2014 at the Investigational New Drugs Unit in the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; EACR travel fellowship in 2015 at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; and also several travel grants to Ireland, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, and many other countries where he attended medical conferences. Dr. Abdel-Rahman is currently engaged in a project to establish a clinical/translational cancer research center at his institute, which seeks to incorporate various cancer-related disciplines in order to produce a real bench-to-bedside practice, hoping that it would “change research that may help shape the future of cancer therapy”.Dr. Abdel-Rahman is also an active founding member of the clinical research unit at his institute and is a representative to the prestigious European Organization for Research and

  11. Diretrizes do combate à peste no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Barros Barreto


    Full Text Available Depois de relembrarem as condições da extensa região, em que é a peste endêmica no Brasil, e que dificultam a aplicação, em sua plenitude, das medidas profiláticas recomendadas para o combate à doença, sumariam os A. A. a legislação brasileira em vigor e discriminam o que tem realizado com aquele fim o Serviço Nacional de Peste. Aludindo aos benefícios do sôro, das sulfas e possìvelmente da estreptomicina para os doentes acentuam a precária possibilidade do seu isolamento, o que tem levado o Serviço à maior intensificação das práticas de anti-ratização e das que visam a destruição de roedores e pulgas. Mostram, quanto às primeiras medidas, o que tem sido possível fazer, intensa e progressivamente, não só para a proteção das habitações rurais, aí incluídas as praticas de desratização, limpeza dos terrenos e cuidados com o lixo, como no tocante à instalação de silos e giraus à prova de ratos, e a outras providências concernentes à adequada disposição de gêneros alimentícios e dos diversos materiais, que podem servir de alimento e ninho aos roedores. Detêm-se mais no particular das medidas de desratização, salientando o valor do cianogás, que veio, para aquela finalidade, tomando o passo ao envenenamento com iscas raticidas, tendo o arsênico por base, largamente empregadas pelo Serviço ate 1942. Mostram como tem crescido, de ano para ano, o percentual de ratos, destruídos por elas e pelo cianogás, em relação ao total de ratos mortos; e apontam a decorrente limitação do uso de armadilhas. Quanto aos lança-chamas, também largamente empregados, reputam-nos mais perigosos e menos eficientes e econômicos que o cianogás, com idênticas indicações, salientando porém a grande vantagem do uso do DDT, como agente despulizante, inclusive pela sua ação residual. Mostram o valor da utilização, em larga escala, do DDT também para a defesa do homem são, que se limitava, até há pouco, pr


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane


    Full Text Available Combat Sports Special Issue Editorial INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE ON COMBAT SPORT The World heavyweight professional boxing championship is arguable the biggest prize in sport. Why is this the case? It is not just the glamour that is appealing, but also the intriguing appeal of two combatants in a fixed environment. All combat sports share this similarity and in doing so, combat sports become appealing for spectators to watch, provide competitors with their ultimate challenge, and provide sport scientists and medics with a rich environment to apply their work. The role of research and theory driven interventions is key to the credibility of sport science and sports medicine. An intervention and/or treatment must be based on sound reason and the effects should be considered beforehand, both positive and negative. Equally, the nature of combat sport, where the aim is to strike, throw, or grapple with an opponent which can lead to injury, invariably raises questions on whether it is morally acceptable for these activities to be called a sport. Therefore, thorough investigation of the nature of medical issues is needed. The case for banning boxing in inextricably linked to the notion that the aim of the sport is to cause harm to the opponent; if harm was minimized and injury became less of an injury, the case for banning boxing would be weak. Quite clearly there are a plethora of arguments that point to a need for theory driven research in combat sport, and plugging this gap in the literature is an aim of this special issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Possibly the most convincing argument for me to get involved in driving this issue stems from experiences in applied work with professional boxers (Hall and Lane, 2001; Lane and Hall, 2003, amateur boxers (Lane, 2002, kickboxers (Lane, et al., 1999 and tae-kwon-do athletes (Chapman et al., 1997 in which a raft of situations and issues were presented that required answers based

  13. Crashworthy Troop Seat Testing Program (United States)


    the strut. The wire ends were clamped in the test machine for the tests. A method for terminating the wires had not been determined at the time of...transmitted from sled-borne transducers to track- side signal conditioners through an umbilical cable attached at one end of the sled and which...wherever they are suitable for the purpose. 3.4.8 Resti-int construction. Stitch pattern and cord size. Stitch pattern and cord size shall

  14. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.


    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  15. 河北省高校外语教师队伍现状调查与发展策略%Research and developing strategy on current situation of college foreign language teachers troop in Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A survey was conducted on the current situation of the construction of foreign language teachers troop in some universities of Hebei province.By analyzing the structure of teaching staff,the situation of teaching,scientific research and teaching staff training,the existing problems has been found,and the issues such as completing the structure of teacherstroop,improving teachers' teaching and researching quality and strengthening teaching staff training are discussed.Based on this survey,the essay tentatively suggests that,in order to promote the construction of college foreign language teachers troop,the government should provide strong policy support,the college should implement developing strategies and the whole society should also make its efforts.%对河北省部分高校外语教师队伍建设的现状进行调研,分析了教师队伍结构、教学科研和培训状况,查找出存在的问题,对进一步完善教师队伍结构、提高教师科研素质、加强教师队伍培训等进行了思考,提出了政府政策支持、高校实施发展战略、全社会多管齐下,推动高校外语教师队伍建设的建议。

  16. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  17. [Introduction to grounded theory]. (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy


    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  18. Towards a theory of ex-combatant reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Torjesen


    Full Text Available This paper encourages the development of a theoretical framework for the study of the reintegration of ex-combatants after war. It takes the first steps towards this by proposing a new definition of reintegration, where the processes ex-combatants experience, rather than the programmatic support offered by international and national agencies, take centre stage. The article links the study of reintegration to two broader disciplines; political economy and sociology, and in particular to the two disciplines’ account of power and group belonging. It argues that a political economy approach is particularly useful for making sense of the context in which reintegration processes unfold. The article also suggests some relevant research questions and highlights methodological concerns related to research on reintegration.

  19. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking. (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking.

  20. Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  1. An Evaluation of a Combat Conditioning Trial Program (United States)


    conditioning. The CCTP was developed by the U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts Center for Excellence (MACE), with input from other Marine Corps and civilian...Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) with input from various subject matter experts. Information on the general concepts involved and examples...available from the U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts Center of Excellence, Quantico, VA, to aid units in implementing combat conditioning programs. The

  2. Hearing Loss Associated with US Military Combat Deployment (United States)

    To define the risk of hearing loss among military members in relation to their deployment experiences, data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort...reported new-onset hearing loss . Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures...New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77). Among

  3. Target distribution in cooperative combat based on Bayesian optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhifu; Zhang An; Wang Anli


    Target distribution in cooperative combat is a difficult and emphases. We build up the optimization model according to the rule of fire distribution. We have researched on the optimization model with BOA. The BOA can estimate the joint probability distribution of the variables with Bayesian network, and the new candidate solutions also can be generated by the joint distribution. The simulation example verified that the method could be used to solve the complex question, the operation was quickly and the solution was best.

  4. I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports


    Ruiz, Montse C.


    This report presents a summary of the I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports held in Madrid, May 27, 2017. The symposium, organized by the Faculty of Sport Sciences-INEF of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, aimed to bring science closer to practice. A panel of highly successful athletes involved in karate, fencing, and taekwondo shared their experiences. The speakers presented crucial topics for an optimal preparation and high level performance such as strength training, sport ...

  5. Return to Duty and Disability After Combat Related Hindfoot Injury (United States)


    San Antonio, Texas 78234 (e-mail: Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins e258 | J Orthop...highest and second highest impact scores in the J Orthop Trauma Volume 28, Number 11, November 2014 Combat-Related Hindfoot Injury 2014 Lippincott ...2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins surgeons. Although multiple scoring systems that incorporate a variety of clinical parameters have been proposed

  6. Simulation of Dismounted Infantry Combat in Urban Terrain (United States)


    New Mexico 88002 20. Headquarters, Department of the Army Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans ATTN: DA-MO-2D Washington, D. C...20310 21. Commander US Army Concepts and Analysis Agency ATTN: MOCA -WG (LTC Earl Darden) 8120 Woodmont Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20014 22. Director...Missile Range, New Mexico 88002 25. Commander MICOM ATTN: DRSMI-YC (MAJ Hagewood) Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35809 26. Director Combat Developments

  7. Utilization of a virtual environment for combat information center training


    Kapp, John J


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Recent fiscal and personnel cutbacks have placed significant restrictions on surface ship training opportunities. As a result, additional methods of training must be established in order to maintain current operational readiness. This thesis research investigates the use of a workstation based shipboard virtual environment (VE) as complementary training for naval personnel, in particular, in the combat information center (CIC). The app...

  8. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A


    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  9. Future Capabilities and Roles of Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV) (United States)

    2007-11-02> [8 May 2004]. John W. Flade. “Teaching a New Dog Old Trick: Replacing Man with Artificial Intelligence in...Combat Aircraft.” USAWC Strategy Research Project. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 01 April 2000. David Glade . “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles... John P. Jumper. “Statement of

  10. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat-Specific PTSD Treatment (United States)


    based interventions for treating PTSD, however, were not developed for military trauma and thus may be suboptimal for this population. This conducting pre- and post-treatment psychosocial assessments that will be used to determine treatment efficacy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active-duty...behavioral therapy strategies packaged and sequenced to target the three high base-rate combat and operational traumas , namely, life-threat trauma

  11. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 4, Fall/Winter 2009 (United States)


    Installation costs for either unit remain under $1000. Mr. Boswell also has a hybrid wind/solar technology for powering streetlights and parking lot...sufficient time and re- Combating WMD Journal Issue 4 20 Mr. Boswell’s streetlights line a street in fog at approximately 3 a.m. in China. search...Middle East has developed elaborate networks of organized white collar crime schemes as well as investment in legitimate businesses. Their fund- ing is

  12. Innovations in the En Route Care of Combat Casualties (United States)


    capability of CCATT, some patients exceed that level of care in the ERC setting, particularly because of lung injuries and inadequate ventilation . To meet...remained in place for 16 days with no complications (Buckenmaier & Bleckner, 2008). One of the primary advantages of preoperative regional anesthesia ...constant innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous

  13. Prehospital analgesia with ketamine for combat wounds: a case series. (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Rippee, Bryan; Shehan, Heath; Conklin, Curtis; Mabry, Robert L


    No data have been published on the use of ketamine at the point of injury in combat. To provide adequate pain management for severely injured Rangers, ketamine was chosen for its analgesic and dissociative properties. Ketamine was first used in the 75th Ranger Regiment in 2005 but fell out of favor because medical providers had limited experience with its use. In 2009, with new providers and change in medic training at the battalion level, the Regiment implemented a protocol using doses of ketamine that exceed the current Tactical Combat Casualty Care recommendations. Medical after-action reports were reviewed for all Ranger casualties who received ketamine at the point of injury for combat wounds from January 2009 to October 2014. Patients and medics were also interviewed. Unit medical protocols authorize ketamine for tourniquet pain, amputations, long-bone fractures, and pain refractory to other agents. Nine of the 11 patients were US Forces; two were local nationals (one female, one male). The average initial dose given intramuscularly was 183 mg, about 2 to 3 mg/kg and intravenously 65 mg, about 1 mg/kg. The patients also received an opioid, a benzodiazepine, or both. There was one episode of apnea that was corrected quickly with stimulus. Eight of the 11 patients required the application of at least one tourniquet; four patients needed between two and four tourniquets to control hemorrhage. Pain was assessed with a subjective 1-10 scale. Before ketamine, the pain was rated as 9-10, with one patient claiming a pain level of 8. Of the US Forces, seven of the nine had no pain after receiving ketamine and two had a pain level of four. Two of the eight had posttraumatic stress disorder. In this small, retrospective sample of combat casualties, ketamine appeared to be a safe and effective battlefield analgesic. 2014.

  14. Combat Drug Zone 2010: The United States Southwest Border (United States)


    become highly successful. The support resources and mechanisms are already in place throughout the country. Most US cities and towns 15 now...other violent crimes. The mechanism to support such a strategy of legalization would be revolutionary. Far ranging statue reforms would have to be...manufactures of the drug Ecstasy in Europe. This has forced government officials to combat this trend with law enforcement methods. 19 use is

  15. Applying the Combatant Command Construct to the DHS Command Structure (United States)


    human trafficking, insurgency, narcotics smuggling, and even narco -terrorism. As described in a Strategic Studies Institute publication “…Unrestrained...of El Chapo ,” The Virginian-Pilot, October 29, 2011. 39 Naler, “Are We Ready for and Interagency Combatant Command?”, p. 26. 63 concerns...Publication 1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 2, 2007. William Booth and Nick Miroff, “The Ballad of El Chapo ,” The Virginian Pilot

  16. Status of Efforts to Initiate an Amphibious Combat Vehicle Program (United States)


    the ACV program until 2018. the Department of Defense (DOD) canceled the Marine Corps’ Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle acquisition program due to...concerns regarding its affordability. The Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) is a potential, but not yet initiated, successor program to the Expeditionary...findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. This is the first of the mandated GAO reports. It discusses (1) the current status of the ACV

  17. Graphics development of DCOR: Deterministic combat model of Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Azmy, Y.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    DCOR is a user-friendly computer implementation of a deterministic combat model developed at ORNL. To make the interpretation of the results more intuitive, a conversion of the numerical solution to a graphic animation sequence of battle evolution is desirable. DCOR uses a coarse computational spatial mesh superimposed on the battlefield. This research is aimed at developing robust methods for computing the position of the combative units over the continuum (and also pixeled) battlefield, from DCOR`s discrete-variable solution representing the density of each force type evaluated at gridpoints. Three main problems have been identified and solutions have been devised and implemented in a new visualization module of DCOR. First, there is the problem of distributing the total number of objects, each representing a combative unit of each force type, among the gridpoints at each time level of the animation. This problem is solved by distributing, for each force type, the total number of combative units, one by one, to the gridpoint with the largest calculated number of units. Second, there is the problem of distributing the number of units assigned to each computational gridpoint over the battlefield area attributed to that point. This problem is solved by distributing the units within that area by taking into account the influence of surrounding gridpoints using linear interpolation. Finally, time interpolated solutions must be generated to produce a sufficient number of frames to create a smooth animation sequence. Currently, enough frames may be generated either by direct computation via the PDE solver or by using linear programming techniques to linearly interpolate intermediate frames between calculated frames.

  18. A Predictive Model for Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualty Patients (United States)


    A Predictive Model for Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualty Patients Daniel F . McLaughlin, MD, Sarah E. Niles, MD, MPH, Jose Salinas, PhD, Jeremy G...Silver Springs, Maryland. Address for reprints: Daniel F . McLaughlin, MD, United States Insti- tute of Surgical Research, 3400 Rawley E. Chambers...see that here? Thank you again for an excellent study, which I believe should alter practice for many of us. Dr. Daniel F . McLaughlin (US Army

  19. MH-60S Fleet Combat Support Helicopter (MH-60S) (United States)


    Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng...Current estimate for AMCM IOC has changed from Oct 2014 to Sep 2015. This will align AMCM IOC with the LCS Mine Countermeasures Mission Package IOT &E...20A - Sonar Mine Detection Set IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation LCS - Littoral Combat Ship MS - Milestone NAV SAE FRP - Navy Service

  20. Enhancements to the Animated Tutor for Air Combat Simulation (United States)


    1979 (30:11). Ada is named in honor of Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace , who is reported to have been the first programmer (29:44). The first...Introduction. .. .. .. .. .... .... .... .... ......... 2-1 2.2 War Games .. .. .. .. .... .... .... .... ........... 2-1 2.3 History of Ada ...2-2 2.4 Ada Structures. .. .. .. .... .... .... .... ......... 2-3 2.5 Ada in Combat Modeling, Wargaming and Simulations 2-5 2.6

  1. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  2. Scavenging nucleic acid debris to combat autoimmunity and infectious disease (United States)

    Holl, Eda K.; Shumansky, Kara L.; Borst, Luke B.; Burnette, Angela D.; Sample, Christopher J.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.; Sullenger, Bruce A.


    Nucleic acid-containing debris released from dead and dying cells can be recognized as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or pattern-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the innate immune system. Inappropriate activation of the innate immune response can engender pathological inflammation and autoimmune disease. To combat such diseases, major efforts have been made to therapeutically target the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize such DAMPs and PAMPs, or the downstream effector molecules they engender, to limit inflammation. Unfortunately, such strategies can limit the ability of the immune system to combat infection. Previously, we demonstrated that nucleic acid-binding polymers can act as molecular scavengers and limit the ability of artificial nucleic acid ligands to activate PRRs. Herein, we demonstrate that nucleic acid scavengers (NASs) can limit pathological inflammation and nucleic acid-associated autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice. Moreover, we observe that such NASs do not limit an animal’s ability to combat viral infection, but rather their administration improves survival when animals are challenged with lethal doses of influenza. These results indicate that molecules that scavenge extracellular nucleic acid debris represent potentially safer agents to control pathological inflammation associated with a wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases.

  3. Evaluation of a combat medic skills validation test. (United States)

    Hemman, Eileen Ann; Gillingham, David; Allison, Nancy; Adams, Richard


    The purpose of this study was to describe validity and reliability of a skills-based test (the Semi-Annual Combat Medic Skills-Validation Test) used by the Army to determine combat medic competency. An instrumentation design was used in which a panel of experts completed a content validity index on all skills. Simulation testing was used to determine criterion validity, intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability. Findings revealed that needle chest decompression, Combitube insertion, and automatic external defibrillator were the only skills with low validity (content validity index skill test. The validity criterion of a modified postcourse Emergency Medical Technician-Basic examination score was significantly related to the Semi-Annual Combat Medic Skills-Validation Test scores (r = 0.409, p = 0.006, two tailed). There was high intra- and interrater agreement on performance steps and skills. Higher subject scores were seen on the medical skills than on the trauma skills. When retested, there was significant improvement (t = 3.268, df = 7, p < 0.014, two tailed).

  4. Psychiatric nursing liaison in a combat zone: an autoethnography. (United States)

    Whybrow, D


    Military mental health nurses are tasked with providing psychiatric liaison to British forces deployed to combat zones. This forms part of a wider effort to maintain the combat effectiveness of the fighting force. During a recent deployment, I maintained a reflexive journal of my experience of liaising with the British Chain of Command. I then used line by line coding via the NVIVO 9 software package to formulate the core themes that became a framework for this autoethnography. My personality and social anxieties shaped how I performed the psychiatric liaison role. I was able to develop a template for liaison that accounted for both 'me' and my need to feel authentic or credible as a nurse, yet still enabled me to communicate effectively with the Chain of Command. One template for psychiatric nursing liaison with British combat forces is to focus upon key stakeholders within the Chain of Command, specifically, the Officer Commanding, the Sergeant Major, the Trauma Risk Management co-ordinator (usually the Sergeant Major) and the embedded medical asset. Further research is needed to establish how other nurses approach psychiatric nursing liaison.

  5. Combat near-death experiences: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Goza, Tracy H; Holden, Janice M; Kinsey, Lee


    The purpose of this study was to add to the professional literature regarding combat near-death experiences (cNDEs) and to help clinicians and experiencers (cNDErs) recognize this phenomenon as an experience that is not indicative of mental illness. cNDErs were military personnel whose NDEs occurred during active combat or sequelae. Sixty-eight self-reported survivors of combat-related close brushes with death completed an online survey that included the Near-Death Experience Scale(1) (NDE Scale), the Life-Changes Inventory-Revised(2), and a few open-ended questions. Respondents were 20 cNDErs-participants who scored at least 7 on the NDE Scale-and 48 non-NDErs. Compared to NDErs from two methodologically similar studies, cNDErs scored lower on Bonferroni corrected t-tests than NDErs on the NDE Scale overall(3) (p < 0.0003) and on Affective and Transcendental subscales; they scored higher on the Cognitive subscale(1) (p < 0.0007). In Life-Changes Inventory-Revised total change and six of seven value clusters, cNDErs, compared to non-NDErs, scored in the same direction as numerous other studies of NDE aftereffects, but none of the differences were statistically significant and all reflected small effect sizes except total change and changes in spirituality that reflected medium effect sizes--a finding that corresponded to analysis of narrative responses.

  6. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Daniel S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT. Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group. Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF. Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p -1, respectively, p Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

  7. Combat veterans and the death penalty: a forensic neuropsychiatric perspective. (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Arciniegas, David B


    With our nation's present conflicts, a new generation of veterans are returning home, many of whom have substantial psychopathology and are encountering significant barriers in accessing care. Headlines from around the nation reflect that some of these wounded warriors go on to commit offenses that are potentially punishable by death. Existing circumstances speak to the urgency with which the subject of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or both facing capital crimes ought to be addressed. This publicity has led to a recent call for a legislatively or judicially enacted, narrow, categorical exclusion for combat veterans who were affected by either PTSD or TBI at the time of their capital offenses. In the present article, we illustrate the reality that combat veterans who commit capital offenses may face execution, summarize legal arguments offered in favor of a categorical exclusion, and provide a neuropsychiatric perspective on PTSD, TBI, and aggression, to help inform further dialogue on this weighty subject.

  8. Graphics development of DCOR: Deterministic combat model of Oak Ridge. [Deterministic Combat model of Oak Ridge (DCOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Azmy, Y.Y. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    DCOR is a user-friendly computer implementation of a deterministic combat model developed at ORNL. To make the interpretation of the results more intuitive, a conversion of the numerical solution to a graphic animation sequence of battle evolution is desirable. DCOR uses a coarse computational spatial mesh superimposed on the battlefield. This research is aimed at developing robust methods for computing the position of the combative units over the continuum (and also pixeled) battlefield, from DCOR's discrete-variable solution representing the density of each force type evaluated at gridpoints. Three main problems have been identified and solutions have been devised and implemented in a new visualization module of DCOR. First, there is the problem of distributing the total number of objects, each representing a combative unit of each force type, among the gridpoints at each time level of the animation. This problem is solved by distributing, for each force type, the total number of combative units, one by one, to the gridpoint with the largest calculated number of units. Second, there is the problem of distributing the number of units assigned to each computational gridpoint over the battlefield area attributed to that point. This problem is solved by distributing the units within that area by taking into account the influence of surrounding gridpoints using linear interpolation. Finally, time interpolated solutions must be generated to produce a sufficient number of frames to create a smooth animation sequence. Currently, enough frames may be generated either by direct computation via the PDE solver or by using linear programming techniques to linearly interpolate intermediate frames between calculated frames.

  9. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  10. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries. (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr


    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  11. 阅兵部队炊事人员卫生知识知晓情况调查%Nvestigation of the Health Knowledge of Cooking Personnel Review Troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高戎; 邓兵; 王民; 王征; 李亚品


    目的 调查阅兵部队炊事人员卫生知识知晓情况,为开展针对性培训提供参考. 方法 设计统一的调查问卷,随机抽取参加纪念抗战胜利70周年阅兵饮食保障的炊事人员进行现场集中答卷. 结果 190 名调查对象平均得分72.60分,其中优、良、中、差分别占24.74%、38.41%、26.84%、10.00%;"食品卫生法规、营养卫生基础、食品安全管理、食品加工制作、食物中毒预防"五个部分的得分率分别为78.31%、86.63%、73.05%、68.40%、60.96%,不同"考核内容"间的得分率差异无统计学意义;不同文化程度、从业年限、受训时间的炊事人员卫生知识知晓率差异无统计学意义.结论 在安排炊事人员培训内容时,在做好基础性、全面性的基础上,应结合受训人员实际,增强系统性和创新性,尤其应结合部队任务、驻训环境及饮食供应状况,开展针对性专项培训,有必要加强食物中毒预防等方面知识的培训.%Objective The investigation of health knowledge awareness to kitchen staff to review troops, to carry out target-ed training to provide reference. Methods to design a unified questionnaire, randomly selected to participate in to commem-orate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the war of resistance against Japan military diet support of cooking personnel were on the scene of the answer. Results 190 respondents scoring average 72.60 points, including excellent, good, fair, poor accounted for 24.74%and 38.41, 26.84%, 10.00%, respectively; "making regulations on food hygiene, nutrition and health foundation, food safety management, food processing, food poisoning prevention"five parts of the scoring rate were 78.31%, 86.63%, 73.05%, 68.40%, 60.96%, assessment content between the score rate, there was a significant difference; different culture degree, working years, training time of cooking personnel health knowledge awareness rate of no significant differ-ence. Conclusion In the

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  14. Mountain Warfare and Other Lofty Problems: Foreign Perspectives on High-Altitude Combat (United States)


    rope. The two primary ropes should be thoroughly tested when crossing along a rope with a climbing harness and pulley or carabiner. Gear should be...consequently, the Russian Army has a long history of mountain troops, production of specialized mountain warfare gear , and mountain training centers...The mountain units of foreign armies have spent years developing a well-worked-out technique for training Jägers. What gear should you to take to the

  15. Communication, concepts and grounding. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  16. Stochastic ground motion simulation (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan


    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  17. Ground energy coupling (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  18. Proceedings of the 7th Annual TARDEC Ground Vehicle Survivability Symposium, March 26-28, 1996, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA Volume 1 - Unclassified Session Papers (United States)


    Submitted J. Cardenas , U.S. Army TARDEC P-10 Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability Database Vol. 1 517 J. Olejar, C. Glausier, D. Brassard, K. Gantt, N. Funk... algebra . This change in methodology should go a long way toward alleviating the sampling problem that has been identi- fied in the IDA and SIRVICE studies

  19. Ignoring the Innocent: Non-combatants in Urban Operations and in Military Models and Simulations (United States)


    of non- combatants. Increasing the number of non-combatants and introducing more realistic non-combatant behavior would add realism to military...discussed, Schelling (1978) uses ABM to _________________ 41 New Line Cinema , Lord of the Rings: the Two Towers Extended DVD, 2003. See the feature on...effectiveness of a certain weapon system may have a high degree of visual realism but still make for a poor model if there are significant oversights

  20. Women in Combat -- When the Best Man for the Job is a Woman. (United States)


    person, male or female, in each position. There is no need to compromise physical standards to Pccommodate women. Those of either sex who do not meet...realistic physical criteria should not be selected for combat positions; those who do should be eligible irrespective of their sex . The exclusion combat activities and defines combat as using weapons against an enemy while "exposed to direct enemy fire" with a "high probability of direct

  1. Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Tibia Fracture (United States)


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fracture Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A...soldiers sustaining combat-related Gustilo–Anderson type III open tibia fractures. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary trauma center...Patients: Service Members with combat-related type III open tibia fractures occurring between 2003 and 2007 treated definitively in a US military medical

  2. Joint Interagency Task Forces; the Right Model to Combat Transnational Organized Crime (United States)


    South/Central Asia focused on terrorism, piracy , infectious disease, WMD development. 67 In the article, “Death of a Combatant Command,” the authors...administration/eop/nsc/transnational-crime/definition; Internet ; Accessed March 20, 2015. 2 Ibid. 3 The White House Office of the Press Secretary...strategy-combat- transnational-organized-crime; Internet ; Accessed March 20, 2015. 4 Gerald A. Boston, "The United States Military’s Role in Combating

  3. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.


    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  4. Prazosin for military combat-related PTSD nightmares: a critical review. (United States)

    Writer, Brian W; Meyer, Eric G; Schillerstrom, Jason E


    Military combat is a common trauma experience associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-related nightmares are a hallmark symptom of PTSD. They can be resistant to label-pharmacological PTSD treatment, and they are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate prazosin therapy for combat-related PTSD nightmares. Consistent with available literature for all-causes PTSD nightmares, prazosin is an effective off-label option for combat-related PTSD nightmares. Future trials may further instruct use in specific combat-exposure profiles.

  5. Collision-free Multiple Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles Cooperative Trajectory Planning for Time-critical Missions using Differential Flatness Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Gu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the cooperative trajectory planning for multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. Firstly, the collision-free cooperative trajectory planning problem for time-critical missions is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTP-OCP, which is based on an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraints model, and a multi-criteria objective function. Next, a planning algorithm based on the differential flatness, B-spline curves and nonlinear programming is designed to solve the CTP-OCP. In particular, the notion of the virtual time is introduced to deal with the temporal constraints. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by two typical scenarios and the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed planning approach.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.2999

  6. From the combat medic to the forward surgical team: the Madigan model for improving trauma readiness of brigade combat teams fighting the Global War on Terror. (United States)

    Sohn, Vance Y; Miller, Joseph P; Koeller, Craig A; Gibson, Steven O; Azarow, Kenneth S; Myers, Jerome B; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James A; Christensen, Jon B; Rush, Robert M


    Medics assigned to combat units have a notable paucity of trauma experience. Our goal was to provide intense trauma refresher training for the conventional combat medic to better prepare them for combat casualty care in the War on Terror. Our Tactical Combat Casualty Care Course (TC3) consisted of the following five phases: (1) One and one-half-day didactic session; (2) Half-day simulation portion with interactive human surgical simulators for anatomical correlation of procedures and team building; (3) Half-day of case presentations and triage scenarios from Iraq/Afghanistan and associated skills stations; (4) Half-day live tissue lab where procedures were performed on live anesthetized animals in a controlled environment; and (5) One-day field phase where live anesthetized animals and surgical simulators were combined in a real-time, field-training event to simulate realistic combat injuries, evacuation problems, and mass casualty scenarios. Data collection consisted of surveys, pre- and posttests, and after-action comments. A total of 1317 personnel participated in TC3 from October 2003 through May 2005. Over the overlapping study period from December 2004 to April 2005, 327 soldiers participated in the formal five-phase course. Three hundred four (94%) students were combat medics who were preparing for combat operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Of those completing the training, 97% indicated their confidence and ability to treat combat casualties were markedly improved. Moreover, of those 140 medics who took the course and deployed to Iraq for 1 year, 99% indicated that the principles taught in the TC3 course helped with battlefield management of injured casualties during their deployment. The hybrid training model is an effective method for training medical personnel to deal with modern battle injuries. This course increases the knowledge and confidence of combat medics deploying and fighting the Global War on Terrorism.

  7. Male combat veterans' narratives of PTSD, masculinity, and health. (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra


    This article uniquely examines the ways a group of male combat veterans talk about masculinity and how, following post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they performed masculinities in the context of a surfing group, and what effects this had upon their health and wellbeing. Participant observations and life history interviews were conducted with a group of combat veterans who belonged to a surfing charity for veterans experiencing PTSD. Data were rigorously explored via narrative analysis. Our findings revealed the ways in which veterans enacted masculinities in accordance with the values that were cultivated during military service. These masculine performances in the surfing group had important effects both on and for the veterans' wellbeing. Significantly, the study highlights how masculine performances can be seen alternately as a danger and as a resource for health and wellbeing in relation to PTSD. The article advances knowledge on combat veterans and mental health with critical implications for the promotion of male veterans' mental health. These include the original suggestion that health-promoting masculine performances might be recognised and supported in PTSD treatment settings. Rather than automatically viewing masculinity as problematic, this article moves the field forward by highlighting how hegemonic masculinities can be reconstructed in positive ways which might improve veterans' health and wellbeing. A video abstract of this article can be found at: © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes. (United States)

    Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan


    Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks.

  9. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D


    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  10. To explore Micro-lecture construction adapt to the learning needs of the troops%适应部队学习需求的“微课”建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国栋; 王尚强; 王颖颖; 苏媛媛


    For the troops "fragmented" learning needs, this paper discusses the construction principle of micro-lecture platform to adapt to environmental forces, the function of the platform settings, problems of course content construction methods of micro forces, has certain reference value and significance in micro-lecture construction.%针对部队官兵“碎片化时间”学习的需求,文章讨论了适应部队环境的微课平台建设原则,平台的功能设置,微课内容建设方法等问题,对部队在“微课”建设上具有一定的参考价值和意义。

  11. The correlation study of mental fatigue and Chinese medicine constitution in escort troops%长航人员心理疲劳与中医体质的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤芝; 李峰; 马捷; 韩晨霞; 张雯; 毛萌; 郭思媛; 李傅尧; 张丽雯; 魏宁颐


    Objective To observe the correlation of mental fatigue, demographic characteristics, and Chinese medicine constitution in escort troops.Methods Fatigue self-assessment scale ( FSAS ) and Chinese medicine constitution scales were used in this study to conduct sectional survey on 139 members of escort troops.Results 139 members of escort troops were divided into mental fatigue group and non-mental fatigue group, involving 97 cases of mental fatigue (69.8%), and most of which were bias con-stitution, and 42 cases of non-mental fatigue ( 30.2%) .In mental fatigue group, scores of physical fatigue, fatigue consequences, total score of fatigue degree, fatigue reactions to sleep/rest and situationality of fatigue were all higher than that of non-mental fatigue group, there were significant differences between them ( P<0.05).Different constitution types had different rate of mental fatigue. People who had qi deficiency, phlegm-dampness and yang deficiency were easier to get mental fatigue. Correlation analyses of FSAS factors and Chinese medicine constitution indicated that FSAS factors had negative correlation with balanced constitution, and positive correlation with bias constitution.Logistic regression analysis indicated there was correlation between length of military service and mental fatigue. Conclusions Chinese medicine constitutions, length of military service have inner relationship with mental fatigue of escort troops.%目的:了解长航人员心理疲劳状况及其与人口学特征、中医体质的相关性。方法采用疲劳自评量表( FSAS)与中医体质量表对139名长航人员进行横断面调查。结果将139例分为心理疲劳组、无心理疲劳组,其中心理疲劳组97例,占69.8%,无心理疲劳组42例,占30.2%。心理疲劳组的FSAS中躯体疲劳、疲劳后果、疲劳程度总分、疲劳对睡眠/休息的反应及疲劳的情境性均高于无心理疲劳组,2组比较差

  12. 跨区机动部队车辆器材保障对策研究%Study on Vehicle Equipment Support Strategy for Cross-Regional Mobile Troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任聪; 王凤忠; 王亮


    The paper points out that for mobile troops on various cross-regional military missions, long distance and the multitudinal roles and often-times transition between these roles of the support objects pose considerable difficulty and then its proposes corresponding countermeasures from the aspects of support flexibility, timeliness, sustainability and scientific support means, etc.%指出了部队执行多样化军事任务时在跨区机动过程中器材保障面临机动距离远、保障对象角色转换多元等诸多问题,并从增强保障灵活性、时刻性、持续性以及运用科学保障手段几方面提出了解决对策.

  13. Is the Stryker Brigade Combat Team Still Relevant (United States)


    accomplish their mission, he wrote that they must have a vehicle to ride into battle, which he described as a “stretch” M113 Armored Personnel Carrier ... Carrier . Loughlin argued that the M113 was a better alternative.19 The first Stryker BCT deployed to Iraq in the fall of 2003. It was the first unit to...leadership and Development, September 2013), 17. 34 Christopher R. Willis , “Stryker Brigade Combat Team Formation Assessment ‘4th update’” (Fort

  14. Venous Thromboembolism during Combat Operations: A 10-y Review (United States)


    7.0%) were having PE, and 29 (2.9%) were found to have both a DVT and a PE. Risk factors found to be independently associated with VTE in amputees ...were multiple ampu tations (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.35 3.42) and above the knee amputation (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.3 3.32). Conclusions: Combat wounded are at a...high risk for thromboembolic complications with the highest risk associated with multiple or above the knee amputations. Published by Elsevier Inc. 1

  15. Improving the Trainee Socialization Process in Basic Combat Training (United States)


    fitness activities (e.g. gym membership, martial arts, running). They also indicated that an average of 3.29 (SD = 3.15) Family members had served or...Sports Captain or Coach Other Fitness Activities (e.g., gym membership, karate, running) Student Government Peer Counselor Peer Tutor School...1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Age (T1) 11.74 4.47 n/a 2. Sex a (T1) 0.21 0.41 -0.01 n/a 3. Combat Armsb (T1) 0.21 0.40

  16. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A


    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  17. An Informative Experience of Combative Unionism: The Semanario CGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Caruso


    Full Text Available This work will analyzethe weekly publication Semanario CGT in relation to its projection as a communicative and organizational nexus between the workplace and political proposals put forth by the leadership of the CGT de los Argentinosduring 1968 and 1969. We will examine the tensions expressed in the publication between its political program and the existing limitations for its implementation, considering the political expectations of the leadership structured around the traditions and tenets of combative unionism, as well as the existing conflicts between the different tendencies of local trade unions competing for the leadership of the central


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  19. Amputation: Not a failure for severe lower extremity combat injury. (United States)

    van Dongen, Thijs T C F; Huizinga, Eelco P; de Kruijff, Loes G M; van der Krans, Arie C; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoencamp, Rigo


    The use of improvised explosive devices is a frequent method of insurgents to inflict harm on deployed military personnel. Consequently, lower extremity injuries make up the majority of combat related trauma. The wounding pattern of an explosion is not often encountered in a civilian population and can lead to substantial disability. It is therefore important to study the impact of these lower extremity injuries and their treatment (limb salvage versus amputation) on functional outcome and quality of life. All Dutch repatriated service members receiving treatment for wounds on the lower extremity sustained in the Afghan theater between august 2005 and August 2014, were invited to participate in this observational cohort study. We conducted a survey regarding their physical and mental health using the Short Form health survey 36, EuroQoL 6 dimensions and Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaires. Results were collated in a specifically designed electronic database combined with epidemiology and hospital statistics gathered from the archive of the Central Military Hospital. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences between combat and non-combat related injuries and between limb salvage treatment and amputation. In comparison with non-battle injury patients, battle casualties were significantly younger of age, sustained more severe injuries, needed more frequent operations and clinical rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome scores in areas concerning well-being, social and cognitive functioning, were significantly lower. Regarding treatment, amputees experienced higher physical well-being and less pain compared to those treated with limb salvage surgery. Sustaining a combat injury to the lower extremity can lead to partial or permanent dysfunction. However, wounded service members, amputees included, are able to achieve high levels of activity and participation in society, proving a remarkable resilience. These long-term results demonstrate

  20. Aptamers: cutting edge technology to combat HIV/AIDS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khati, M


    Full Text Available .g. Heart diseases (21%YLLs) Injuries (16% YLLs) Bradshaw et al. 2003. Initial Burden of disease estimates for South Africa. SAMJ. 76(9): 682- 8 Page 3 © CSIR 2006 Common Denominator in the African burden of disease... to Combat HIV/AIDS Makobetsa Khati (MScMed, DIC, DPhil, MPH) 27th September 2006 Page 2 © CSIR 2006 South African Burden of Diseases HIV/AIDS (38% YLLs) Diseases of poverty, e.g. TB (25%YLLs) Chronic diseases, e...

  1. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance (United States)


    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820

  2. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press. (United States)

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza


    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  3. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackey Tim K


    Full Text Available Abstract Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  4. Can an intercultural education model combat discrimination and xenophobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisès Esteban Guitart


    Full Text Available In this article we present a qualitative study conducted with six indigenous and six mestizos from Intercultural University of Chiapas. The aim of the study is to exemplify the mutual perception between different ethno-linguistic groups, as well as the possible change occurred after the admission to the University. That is, opinions about the other group after and before entering the University. We conclude that a higher education intercultural model can promote mutual understanding and relationship between indigenous and mestizos and thus combat prejudices and stereotypes.     

  5. Variations in Health Communication Needs Among Combat Veterans (United States)

    Schneiderman, Aaron I.; Lincoln, Andrew E.; Curbow, Barbara; Kang, Han K.


    In this cross-sectional study of US military combat veterans, we assessed the helpfulness of different media for providing health risk communication messages. We have provided preliminary results from a postal survey of 5000 veterans sampled because of their deployment to Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, or Bosnia–Kosovo. Respondents endorsed the primary care provider as the most helpful source of health information. Access to the Internet and use of this medium for seeking health information differed by race, age, and cohort. PMID:15569954

  6. Rechargeable battery which combats shape change of the zinc anode (United States)

    Cohn, E. M. (Inventor)


    A rechargeable cell or battery is provided in which shape change of the zinc anode is combatted by profiling the ionic conductivity of the paths between the electrodes. The ion flow is greatest at the edges of the electrodes and least at the centers, thereby reducing migration of the zinc ions from edges to the center of the anode. A number of embodiments are disclosed in which the strength and/or amount of electrolyte, and/or the number and/or size of the paths provided by the separator between the electrodes, are varied to provide the desired ionic conductivity profile.

  7. Impact of emerging technologies on future combat aircraft agility (United States)

    Nguyen, Luat T.; Gilert, William P.


    The foreseeable character of future within-visual-range air combat entails a degree of agility which calls for the integration of high-alpha aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, intimate pilot/vehicle interfaces, and advanced weapons/avionics suites, in prospective configurations. The primary technology-development programs currently contributing to these goals are presently discussed; they encompass the F-15 Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator Program, the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program, the High Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, and the X-29 Technology Demonstrator Program.

  8. A Small-Unit Amphibious Operation Combat Model. (United States)



  9. Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded (United States)


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded Michael Nesbitt , DSc, PA-C, Paul Allen, DSc, PA-C, Alec...reprints: Mike Nesbitt , PA-C, 4511 Star Grove, San Antonio, TX 78259; email: DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e45b83 S162 The Journal...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nesbitt M., Allen P., Beekley A., Butler F., Eastridge B., Blackbourne L. H., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  10. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation (United States)


    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  11. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A


    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department.

  12. 某部蟑螂种群密度与侵害状况调查分析%Investigation of the density and infestation of the cockroach in one certain troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海水; 第五进学; 唐裕杰


    目的 了解某部蟑螂侵害率和密度水平,为蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 采用粘蟑纸粘捕法调查餐饮区、疗养区、体检中心、居住区、附属医院蟑螂侵害率和密度水平.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1173只,均为德国小蠊,平均侵害率为13.33%,密度为1.96只/张.侵害率及密度:餐饮区>疗养区>体检中心>居住区>附属医院.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮区、疗养区密度较高,应加强该区域蟑螂监测和防治工作.%Objective To investigate the density and infestation rate of cockroach and provide evidence for preventing and controlling cockroach in one certain troops. Methods The density and infestation rate, of dinning area, sanitarium area,physical examination center, residential area and affiliated hospital were monitored by sticky traps. Results All traped 1 173 cockroaches were Blattella germanica. The average infestation rate was 13. 33 % and the average index of density was 1. 96 pieces. The infestation rate and density was as follows: dinning area > sanitarium area > physical examination center > residential area > affiliated hospital. Conclusion Blallella germanica is the dominant species in this troops. The density and infestation rate of dining area and sanitarium area is higher and the investigation,prevention and control of regional cockroach should be improved.

  13. Operações de Paz: novos mandatos e suas implicações para os países contribuintes com tropas * Peace operations: new mandates and their implications for troops contributing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo apresenta as alterações nas operações de paz contemporâneas conduzidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU e suas implicações para o Brasil. Baseada em bibliografia sobre o assunto e documentos das Nações Unidas o texto apresenta o apoio conceitual e jurídico para a implementação dessas operações e descreve a evolução dos mandatos e do uso da força pelo componente militar. Com base nas alterações recentes, o texto discorre sobre tendências na aprovação e condução das operações e suas implicações para os países contribuintes com tropa. Palavras-chave: Operações de Paz; Nações Unidas; Segurança Internacional. Abstract: The article presents the changes in contemporary peacekeeping operations conducted by the United Nations (UN in a historical perspective and its implications for the troops contributing countries. Based on literature of the subject and UN documents the text presents the conceptual and legal support for the implementation of these operations and describes the evolution of mandates and the use of force by the military component. Based on recent changes, we discuss trends in the approval and conduct of operations and their implications for the troops contributing countries.Keywords: Peace Operations; United Nations; International Security.

  14. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar


    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  15. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India. (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar


    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  16. Ground Systems Integration Domain (GSID) Materials for Ground Platforms (United States)


    18-24 months from Concept to Build • 12 month Tech Discovery phase • 12 months from Design to Build 40,000 - 60,000 lbs Medium Combat • S-MOD/MPC...durability to last until needed Synergetic effects of armor metallic (AL, STL, TI) laminated with ballistic liners ( Kevlar , E-glass, S-glass

  17. The Millennium Cohort Study: Answering Long-Term Health Concerns of US Military Service Members by Integrating Longitudinal Survey Data with Military Health System Records. Part 2. Pre-Deployment (United States)


    determining if diagnoses of pulmonary diseases are changing over time. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are major causes of cardiovascular disease...deployment, combat exposures, and mental health conditions were studied in relationship to newly reported diabetes mellitus . A total of 44,754...chronic bronchitis or emphysema (1% vs. 1 %) and asthma (1% vs. 1 %) among deployers compared to nondeployers. These data suggest that ground-troop

  18. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  19. Ground Enterprise Management System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  20. The mental health of UK ex-servicemen with a combat-related or a non-combat-related visual impairment: does the cause of visual impairment matter? (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Gill, Pashyca C; Fear, Nicola T


    Since the start of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the numbers of young service personnel who have sustained a combat-related visual impairment have increased. This cross-sectional study examined the mental well-being of ex-servicemen (aged 22-55 years) with a visual impairment and determined if the mental health of those with a combat-related visual impairment differed from those whose visual impairment is not combat-related. Male ex-service personnel with a visual impairment completed a telephone interview assessing the presence of depressive symptomatology, probable anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and alcohol misuse. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 77 participants were included in the study, reflecting a response rate of 76.2%. Of those with complete data (n=74), 20 ex-servicemen had a combat-related visual impairment. Among ex-service personnel with a combat-related visual impairment, 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) screened positive for a probable depression, 25.0% (95% CI 6.0 to 44.0) for probable anxiety and 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable depression and probable PTSD differed among those with a non-combat-related visual impairment, namely 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) and 16.7% (95% CI 6.8 to 26.7), respectively. Probable anxiety was 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) among non-combat-related visually impaired ex-service personnel. 45.0% (95% CI 23.2 to 66.8) of combat-related visually impaired personnel reported hazardous drinking, compared with 20.4% (95% CI 9.7 to 31.2) of those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Mental health problems were prevalent among visually impaired younger ex-servicemen. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems among ex-servicemen with a combat-related visual impairment compared with those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  1. A Comparison of Four Year Health Outcomes following Combat Amputation and Limb Salvage (United States)


    JW VB ER VFS MG. References 1. Owens BD, Kragh JF Jr, Wenke JC, Macaitis J, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. Combat wounds in operation Iraqi Freedom and operation...injuries VIII: sequelae of combat injuries. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2014 Jan; 22 (1):57–62. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-22-01-57 PMID: 24382880 34. Flint LJ, Wade CA

  2. Modern Tactics in the Moral Domain: Smart Weapons and the Production of the Combat Stress Reaction (United States)


    Kubie , Karl A. Menninger, John Romano, and John C. Whitehorn, "Combat Exhaustion," The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v. 104 (July-Dec, 1946), pp...Bartemeier, Leo H., Kubie , Lawrence, Menninger, Karl A.,Romano, John, & Whitehorn, John C., "Combat Exhaustion." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v

  3. 75 FR 56558 - Office of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods... (United States)


    ... of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in Egypt and Jordan AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... to combat exploitative child labor by promoting educational and training opportunities for target...

  4. Correlation Among the Army Combat Identifier, Personality Type, and Career Satisfaction (United States)


    58 Table 20. INFP ...feeling good about themselves and getting along with each other. Dr. Myers, an INFP herself, sees her fellow NFs as “humane,” “sympathetic...Functional Areas 1 0 1 0 Table 20. INFP Happy Unhappy In Preferred Branch Not In Preferred Branch Combat Arms 6 0 6 0 Combat Support 1

  5. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat-Exposed Veterans (United States)


    suicidal ideation. 2. KEYWORDS: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), military sexual trauma (MST), suicide , combat-exposed veterans, PTSD... affects employment in our sample longitudinally; how different types of combat affect rates of PTSD; factors that influence treatment seeking better understand how PTSD affects other outcomes across time. For example, our interim analyses have provided insight into how psychopathology

  6. Associations between Types of Combat Violence and the Acquired Capability for Suicide (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.


    Research suggests that combat exposure might increase risk for suicide. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that exposure to painful and provocative experiences such as combat contribute to fearlessness about death and increased pain tolerance, which serve to enhance the individual's capability to attempt suicide.…

  7. The Struggle after Combat. The role of NGOs in DDR processes: Afganistan Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Gompelman, G.; Laar, van de S.; Klem, B.


    Onderzoeksverslag met de vraag wat de rol van NGO's (non gouvermental organisations) in DDR processen (disarment, demobilisation and reintegration of ex-combatants)It has come to be well-recognised that effective DDR (Disarmant, Demobilisation and Reinregration of ex-combatants) is crucial for

  8. The Struggle after Combat. The role of NGOs in DDR processes: Afganistan Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Gompelman, G.; Laar, van de S.; Klem, B.


    Onderzoeksverslag met de vraag wat de rol van NGO's (non gouvermental organisations) in DDR processen (disarment, demobilisation and reintegration of ex-combatants)It has come to be well-recognised that effective DDR (Disarmant, Demobilisation and Reinregration of ex-combatants) is crucial for build

  9. Complex Perceptions of Identity: The Experiences of Student Combat Veterans in Community College (United States)

    Hammond, Shane Patrick


    This qualitative study illustrates how complex perceptions of identity influence the community college experience for student veterans who have been in combat, creating barriers to their overall persistence. The collective experiences of student combat veterans at two community colleges in northwestern Massachusetts are presented, and a Combat…

  10. Does Combat Exposure Make You a More Violent or Criminal Person? Evidence from the Vietnam Draft (United States)

    Rohlfs, Chris


    This study exploits the differential effects of the Vietnam War across birth cohorts to measure the effects of combat exposure on later violence and crime. Combat exposure and violent acts are measured using self-reports from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. I find large positive effects on violence for blacks, suggestive evidence…

  11. European standards in the field of combating cyber crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijašević-Obradović Jelena


    Full Text Available Cyber crime is a phenomenon which is often written and spoken about, ever since its inception, in theory, judicial and legislative practice of developed countries and international institutions. It had rapidly developed in the last decade of the 20th century, and in the 21st century its evolution has become even more evident. Countries have responded by introducing new measures in their criminal legislation, in an effort to reconcile traditional criminal law with the demands for perception, investigation and demonstration of new criminal acts. This paper presents and analyzes the most significant European standards adopted in order to create more effective national legislation in the field of combating cyber crime. Standards given in the Convention of the Council of Europe but also the European Union Directives have to a large extent been a guide for national legislations in order to regulate the new situations regarding the misuse of information and communication technologies in the most adequate manner. Among other things, this paper pays special attention to the most important Convention in the field of combating cyber crime, which is the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime, whose objectives include: harmonization of national legislations with regard to substantive provisions in the field of cyber crime, introduction of adequate instruments in national legislations with regard to process provisions in order to create the necessary basis for investigation and prosecution of offenders in this field and establishment of quick and efficient institutions and procedures for international cooperation.

  12. Methods of body mass reduction by combat sport athletes. (United States)

    Brito, Ciro José; Roas A, Fernanda Castro Martins; Brito I, Surian Souza; Marins J, Carlos Bouzas; Córdova, Claudio; Franchini, Emerson


    The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers.

  13. Tourniquet use in combat trauma: U.K. military experience. (United States)

    Brodie, Steven; Hodgetts, Timothy J; Ollerton, Jo; McLeod, Judith; Lambert, Paul; Mahoney, Peter


    To determine the prevalence of tourniquet use in combat trauma, the contribution to lives saved and the complications of their use in this environment. All casualties treated at U.K. field hospital facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and meeting criteria for entry into U.K. Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) from 04 Feb 03 to 30 Sep 07. Cases were identified from U.K. JTTR. Casualties from Permanent Joint Overseas Bases (PJOBs) were excluded. ISS, NISS, TRISS and ASCOT were calculated automatically within JTTR from AIS 2005 (Military) codes. 1375 patients met U.K. JTTR entry criteria for the period specified (excluding PJOBs). 70/1375 patients (5.1%) were treated with one or more tourniquets (total 107 tourniquet applications). 61/70 (87%) survived their injuries. 17/70 (24%) patients had 2 or more tourniquets applied. 64/70 patients received a tourniquet after April 2006, when tourniquets were introduced as an individual first aid item. 43/70 (61%) patients were U.K. military. ISS and TRISS are poorly representative of injury severity and outcome for combat trauma involving isolated multiple limb injuries and cannot be used to discriminate whether a tourniquet is life-saving. The presence of severe isolated limb injuries, profound hypovolaemic shock and the requirement for massive transfusion reasonably identifies a cohort where the use of one or more tourniquets pre-hospital to control external bleeding can be said to be life-saving.

  14. Disciplinamento social e combate à vadiagem no antigo regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon


    Full Text Available O combate à vadiagem assume, emdiferentes épocas, distintas feições. Inspirandoseno início da Idade Moderna fortemente namoral religiosa, centrava-se então no combateao jogo, à bebida e ao livre deslocamento damão-de-obra, vistos como fontes de pecadose “desordens”. No final da Idade Moderna, aspreocupações de cunho econômico tornaramsecentrais, impulsionando uma mudança dasformas de controle social. O Liberalismo viriaa demandar, por sua vez, a busca de uma novajustificação para o combate à “vadiagem” e paraa manutenção do aparato estatal de controle. The control of vagrancy takesdifferent faces throughout different ages.The police legislation in the beginning ofthe early modern times, inspired by religiousmorality, focused on the restraint of gambling,drunkenness and migration of workers, whichwere regarded as sources of sins and socialdisturbances. The age of Reform Absolutismchanged these forms of social restraint whenthe economical factor assumed a centralrole. Under liberalism, a new vindicationwas needed for the maintenance of vagrancycontrol apparatus.

  15. Automatic Intruder Combat System: A way to Smart Border Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Security and safeguard of international borders have always been a dominant issue for every nation. A large part of a nation’s budget is provided to its defense system. Besides wars, illegal intrusion in terms of terrorism is a critical matter that causes severe harm to nation’s property. In India’s perspective, border patrolling by Border Security Forces (BSF has already been practiced from a long time for surveillance. The patrolling parties are equipped with high-end surveillance equipments but yet an alternative to the ply of huge manpower and that too in harsh environmental conditions hasn’t been in existence. An automatic mechanism for smart surveillance and combat is proposed in this paper as a solution to the above-discussed problems. Smart surveillance requires automatic intrusion detection in the surveillance video, which is achieved by using optical flow information as motion features for intruder/human in the scene. The use of optical flow in the proposed smart surveillance makes it robust and more accurate. Use of a simple horizontal feature for fence detection makes system simple and faster to work in real-time. System is also designed to respond against the activities of intruders, of which auto combat is one kind of response.

  16. Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation. (United States)

    Bürger-Mendonça, Marcos; de Oliveira, João Carlos; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Bielavsky, Monica; Azevedo, Paulo


    The aim of this study was to analyze blood lactate response before, during and after simulated taekwondo fight in young male athletes. The experiment was composed of simulated official taekwondo fight. During the experiment a total of 7 blood samples (25 μL) were collected that following: at rest, after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds, and 3, 5, and 10 min after the end of combat. The results showed that blood lactate concentrations [Lac]B increased significantly after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds of the combat compared to the rested values. The [Lac]B after 3rd round was higher when compared to 3, 5, and 10 min of recovery. After 10 min of passive recovery, the [Lac]B was significantly lesser than 3 and 5 min of recovery, and 2nd round. These data showed that taekwondo requires high activation of anaerobic lactic metabolism, and improves the ability to rapidly remove the lactate from blood.

  17. Enhancing US-Japan cooperation to combat antimicrobial resistance. (United States)

    Gerbin, C Sachi


    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes "[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms." Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem.

  18. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Wells


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69 with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77, as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73 and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54. These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

  19. Lessons Learned: Employment and Tactical Use of The Combat Medic During Stability Support Operations. (United States)

    Eldred, Michael S


    It is the intent of this article to define the strategy by which Combat Medics have been employed in contemporary stability operations and counterinsurgency conflicts. This article describes the advances in training based on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and how training evolved into an evidence-based model. Training platforms evolved with shifts in mission requirements, new technology, improved medical techniques, and changing protocols. The last portion of this article details recommendations in doctrine, materiel, and training that could enable optimal sustainment standards while retaining operational capability across a wide variety of combat and peace operations. Lessons learned and changes adapted for Medics that are addressed: (1) advances in training and employment of the Combat Medic necessitated by tactics and strategy of current conflicts, (2) Combat Medic regulatory requirements and centralized, just-in-time training, and (3) changes in sustainment training driven by certification requirements and use of medical simulation training centers.

  20. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David


    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  1. Incidence of weapon injuries not related to interfactional combat in Afghanistan in 1996: prospective cohort study (United States)

    Michael, Markus; Meddings, David R; Ramez, Salah; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis


    Objective To examine the descriptive epidemiology of weapon injuries not directly attributable to combat during armed conflict. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nangarhar region of Afghanistan, which experienced effective peace, intense fighting, and then peace over six months in 1996. Subjects 608 people admitted to Jalalabad hospital because of weapon injuries. Main outcome measures Estimated incidence of injuries from combat or otherwise (non-combat injury) before, during, and after the fall of Kabul. Results Incidence of non-combat injury was initially 65 per 100 000. During the intense military campaign for Kabul the incidence declined dramatically, and then differentially increased dependent on injury subcategory—that is, whether injuries were accidental or intentional and whether they were inflicted by firearms or fragmenting munitions. Non-combat injuries accounted for 51% of weapon injuries observed over the study period. Civilians were more likely to have non-combat injuries than combat injuries. Conclusions Weapon injuries that are not attributable to combat are common. Social changes accompanying conflict and widespread availability of weapons may be predictive of use of weapons that persists independently of conflict. Key messagesA region in Afghanistan experienced peace, intense combat, and then peace in 1996During peace the incidence of injury from weapons was high, the incidence of injury from firearms being similar to that in the United StatesOver half of all weapon injuries were not attributable to interfactional combatWeapon availability and social breakdown accompanying conflict may be important factors in the occurrence of weapon injuries that persist independently of conflict PMID:10445923

  2. Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir


    Full Text Available Background: Dissociation is a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control. A limited number of studies investigated combat-related dissociation. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dissociative symptoms and combat-related trauma. Method: This study included 184 individuals, including 84 patients who were exposed to combat and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD (Group I, 50 subjects who were exposed to combat but were not diagnosed with PTSD (Group II, and 50 healthy subjects without combat exposure (Group III. The participants were evaluated using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES to determine their total and sub-factor (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption dissociative symptom levels. In addition, Group I and Group II were compared with respect to the relationship between physical injury and DES scores. Results: The mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors of Group I were higher than those of Group II (p30 was highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. When we compared combat-exposed subjects with high total DES scores, Group I had higher scores than Group II. In contrast, no relationship between the presence of bodily injury and total DES scores could be demonstrated. In addition, our results demonstrated that high depersonalization/derealization factor scores were correlated with bodily injury in PTSD patients. A similar relationship was found between high absorption factor scores and bodily injury for Group II. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of dissociation was significantly higher in subjects with combat-related PTSD than in subjects without combat-related PTSD. In addition, combat-exposed subjects without PTSD also had higher dissociation levels than

  3. Ground water in Oklahoma (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.


    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  4. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok


    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  5. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;


    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  6. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  7. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  8. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  9. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD


    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  10. Grounding in Instant Messaging (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.


    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  11. Informed Grounded Theory (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert


    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  12. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  13. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem


    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  14. Vitamin D status in female military personnel during combat training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health. Recent data suggest that vitamin D and calcium supplementation might affect stress fracture incidence in military personnel. Although stress fracture is a health risk for military personnel during training, no study has investigated changes in vitamin D status in Soldiers during United States (US Army basic combat training (BCT. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the effects of BCT on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in female Soldiers. Serum 25(OHD and PTH were assessed in 74 fasted Soldier volunteers before and after an 8-week BCT course conducted between August and October in Columbia, South Carolina. In the total study population, 25(OHD levels decreased (mean ± SD from 72.9 ± 30.0 to 63.3 ± 19.8 nmol/L (P P P P

  15. Resilience to traumatic exposure among soldiers deployed in combat. (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John M; Riolli, Laura T; Peng, Ann Chunyan; Spain, Everett S


    We examined the influence of positive psychological capital (PsyCap), a metaconstruct that combines established psychological predispositions to be resilient to stress, on the well-being of soldiers during combat deployment. Among U.S. Army personnel deployed in Iraq, cognitive appraisal of stress mediated the effects of trait PsyCap on health symptoms. The indirect effects through appraisal were moderated by levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stimuli. Trait PsyCap covaried more strongly with cognitive appraisals, and had stronger indirect effects through appraisal on health, among soldiers in units with higher levels of potentially traumatic exposures. We discuss implications for research on resilience to trauma in the workplace and for helping workers cope with potentially traumatic exposures.

  16. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training. (United States)

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M


    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel.

  17. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation (United States)

    Hawley, L. R.


    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  18. Nanotechnology as a therapeutic tool to combat microbial resistance. (United States)

    Pelgrift, Robert Y; Friedman, Adam J


    Use of nanoparticles is among the most promising strategies to overcome microbial drug resistance. This review article consists of three parts. The first part discusses the epidemiology of microbial drug resistance. The second part describes mechanisms of drug resistance used by microbes. The third part explains how nanoparticles can overcome this resistance, including the following: Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO NPs), chitosan-containing nanoparticles (chitosan NPs), and metal-containing nanoparticles all use multiple mechanisms simultaneously to combat microbes, thereby making development of resistance to these nanoparticles unlikely. Packaging multiple antimicrobial agents within the same nanoparticle also makes development of resistance unlikely. Nanoparticles can overcome existing drug resistance mechanisms, including decreased uptake and increased efflux of drug from the microbial cell, biofilm formation, and intracellular bacteria. Finally, nanoparticles can target antimicrobial agents to the site of infection, so that higher doses of drug are given at the infected site, thereby overcoming resistance. © 2013.

  19. Design of an Intelligent Combat Robot for war fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to minimize human casualties in terrorist attack such as 26/11. The combat robot [1] has been designed to tackle such a cruel terror attacks. This robot is radio operated, self- powered, and has all the controls like a normal car. A wireless camera has been installed on it, so that it can monitor enemy remotely when required. It can silently enter into enemy area and send us all the information through its’ tiny Camera eyes. This spy robot can be used in star hotels, shopping malls, jewellary show rooms, etc where there can be threat from intruders or terrorists. Since human life is always precious, these robots are the replacement of fighters against terrorist in war areas.

  20. Inhibition of mutation and combating the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Cirz


    Full Text Available The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria poses a serious threat to human health. In the case of several antibiotics, including those of the quinolone and rifamycin classes, bacteria rapidly acquire resistance through mutation of chromosomal genes during therapy. In this work, we show that preventing induction of the SOS response by interfering with the activity of the protease LexA renders pathogenic Escherichia coli unable to evolve resistance in vivo to ciprofloxacin or rifampicin, important quinolone and rifamycin antibiotics. We show in vitro that LexA cleavage is induced during RecBC-mediated repair of ciprofloxacin-mediated DNA damage and that this results in the derepression of the SOS-regulated polymerases Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V, which collaborate to induce resistance-conferring mutations. Our findings indicate that the inhibition of mutation could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Spinal cord injuries due to close combat weapons. (United States)

    Fares, Youssef H; Fares, Jawad Y; Gebeily, Souheil E; Khazim, Rabi M


    A 17-year-old patient was aggressively attacked and stabbed in the dorsal region of his back by a knife. He was admitted to the emergency room of the Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Saida, Lebanon lying in the prone position. The neurological examination revealed that the stabbing object was fixed at the dorsal spine level at the T-7 level, where it was inserted inside the vertebral body. Luckily, the blade of the knife was parallel to the nervous tracts of the spinal cord; thus, he showed no neurological deficits. This case provides an overview of how neurosurgical principles can be applied to trauma patients with spine injuries due to close combat weapons.

  2. Machine learning: novel bioinformatics approaches for combating antimicrobial resistance. (United States)

    Macesic, Nenad; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Tatonetti, Nicholas P


    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible. To date, it has been used for antimicrobial susceptibility genotype/phenotype prediction, development of AMR clinical decision rules, novel antimicrobial agent discovery and antimicrobial therapy optimization. Application of machine learning to studying AMR is feasible but remains limited. Implementation of machine learning in clinical settings faces barriers to uptake with concerns regarding model interpretability and data quality.Future applications of machine learning to AMR are likely to be laboratory-based, such as antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype prediction.

  3. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prakash


    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  4. Communities of Color Creating Healthy Environments to Combat Childhood Obesity. (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra


    Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color.

  5. Burial No. 67 of the Keliysky Burial Ground (Ingushetia Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narozhny Evgeniy I


    Full Text Available Martial burial No, 67 from excavations of Keliyskiy burial ground in Ingushetia highlands is introduced into scientific use. The grave goods contained in the burial are quite traditional: a knife, arrowheads, belt buckles dating from the Golden Horde epoch. An iron helmet with a visor is a find standing apart. Helmets of the kind are similar not only to those found in burial sites of Ingushetia, but also to the helmets discovered in the burials of the Golden Horde nomads, which makes it possible to match the item with the circle of combat helmets of Mongol origin. Burial No. 67 repeatedly gives reason for claiming a dominant warfare influence of the Golden Horde on the warfare of the North Caucasus mountaineers.

  6. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports. (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices.

  7. Emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants and its relationship with empathy and executive functions. (United States)

    Tobón, Carlos; Ibañez, Agustín; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ochoa, John; Trujillo, Natalia; Decety, Jean; Pineda, David


    In this work, the neural correlates of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants with different empathy profiles were compared to normal controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Forty ex-combatants and 20 non ex-combatants were recruited for this study. Empathy levels as well as executive functions were measured. Empathy level was used to create three groups. Group 1 (G1) included ex-combatants with normal empathy scores, and Group 2 included ex-combatants with low scores on at least one empathy sub-scales. In control group (Ctrl), participants with no antecedents of being combatants and with normal scores in empathy were included. Age, gender, educational and intelligence quotients level were controlled among groups. event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while individuals performed an affective picture processing task that included positive, neutral and negative emotional stimuli, which elicit an early modulation of emotion categorization (Early Posterior Negativity (EPN)) and late evaluative process (LPP). EPN differences were found among affective categories, but no group effects were observed at this component. LPP showed a main effect of category and group (higher amplitudes in ex-combatants). There was an inverse correlation between empathy and executive functions scores and ERPs. Results are discussed according to the impact of emotional processing on empathy profile.

  8. Gender differences in combat medic mental health services utilization, barriers, and stigma. (United States)

    Elnitsky, Christine A; Chapman, Paula L; Thurman, Ryan M; Pitts, Barbara L; Figley, Charles; Unwin, Brian


    Military health care providers experience considerable stressors related to their exposure to death and traumatic injuries in others. This study used survey data from 799 active duty U.S. Army Combat Medics deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Military experiences, combat exposures, and mental health care seeking of active duty Combat Medics were explored and compared across both genders. Barriers to care were also assessed. Male and female Combat Medics reported surprisingly similar experiences, exposures, and health issues. Overall, results indicate no striking differences in barriers for females compared to their male counterparts, suggesting the barriers to utilization of mental health services may be consistent across gender. Although medics endorsed barriers and stigma related to mental health counseling services, they still sought these health services. Female and male medics who endorsed barriers were more likely to report seeking services than those who did not endorse barriers. This study provides an initial description of utilization of mental health counseling services for U.S. Army Combat Medics, the majority of whom were involved in combat operations in Afghanistan or Iraq. Our findings indicate that comprehensive assessment of the military experiences and combat exposures is needed to appreciate their potential influence on military health care providers. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. Combat Chronology 1941-1945 (United States)


    1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no...Armies, hit troop and gun concentra- tions and comm in Rocca and Palena areas. Other NATAF aircraft bomb town of Rocca, Bussi sul Tirino explosive works...of Rome. P-47’s bomb munitions factory at Bussi sul Tirino. P-40’s and A-36’s, in spt of US Fifth Army Forces, bomb positions in Anzio beach- head are

  10. 某工程部队士兵心理健康水平调查分析%Questionnaire survey on the mental health of military personnel in one energine troop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柱; 张继刚; 张蕾; 张洁; 杨蕾; 杨维玲


    ObjectiveTo investigate the mental health status of military personnel in one engineering troop. MethodsA questionnaire survey was carried out with the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90) in 784 military personnel in one engineering troop, and was compared with SCL-90 norm of Chinese military personnel.Results The positive solider was 261 cases,the positive rate was 33.29% .The general mean score of SCL-90 and the scores of obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoid ideation and somatization about military personnel in the engineering group were significantly lower than that of SCL-90 norm of Chinese military personnel (P0.05). The SCL-90 total and all the factor scores of soldiers from rural areas was not statistically significantly different than those from urban areas (P>0.05). The factor scores of SCL-90 total and other the factor scores except somatization of only-child soldiers were significantly higher than those non-only-child soldiers(P6 h(P<0.01 ).ConclusionThe mental health status of military personnel in the engineering troop is good, while mental intervention should be strengthened for some high scores(somatization) and some population group(only-child soldiers, long working-time soldiers).%目的:调查分析某工程部队士兵心理健康水平。方法采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)对某工程部队784名士兵进行心理健康水平进行调查分析,并与中国军人常模比较。结果共筛查出阳性261例,阳性率为33.29%。某工程部队士兵SCL-90总分和强迫症状、人际敏感、抑郁、焦虑、偏执、精神病性因子分值低于中国军人常模(P<0.01),躯体化因子分值高于中国军人常模(P<0.01),而敌对和恐怖因子分值与中国军人常模比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。农村士兵SCL-90总分及各因子分值与城镇士兵相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);独生子女士兵除躯体化外,SCL-90总分及其余8

  11. Infrasonic induced ground motions (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  12. Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post-Traumatic Headache (United States)


    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0366 TITLE: Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post-Traumatic...Dissecting the Roles of Brain Injury and Combat-Related Stress in Post- Traumatic Headache 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0366 5c...geared to either or both. The goal of this proposal is to determine the respective roles of traumatic brain injury and combat-related stress in

  13. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.


    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  14. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.


    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  15. Implications of Women in the Infantry: Will This Improve Combat Efficiency? (United States)

    2013-04-22 for-the-front-line.html. 38 Lolita Baldor , “Death Highlights Women’s Role In...Argument Against Female Combatants,” 248. 110 Lolita Baldor , “Women In Combat: Panetta Says It Will Strengthen U.S. Military,”, last...Evidence that Women Should Not Fight the Nation’s Wars, 100. 115 Tuten, “The Argument Against Female Combatants,” 252. 116 Lolita Baldor , “Panetta

  16. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa


    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  17. Estudos em modalidades esportivas de combate: estado da arte Studies in combat sports: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini


    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente texto foi apresentar o estado da arte dos estudos sobre as modalidades esportivas de combate (MEC. Inicialmente, é destacada a relevância destas modalidades, tanto do ponto de vista histórico, quanto em relação à sua representatividade em competições internacionais, como os Jogos Olímpicos. Também são apresentadas as áreas mais comuns de atuação do profissional de Esporte nas MEC, bem como as iniciativas de organização de eventos, publicações, grupos de estudos e instituições científicas direcionadas às MEC. Posteriormente, estudos com possibilidade de aplicação em diferentes áreas de intervenção - preparação física, técnica e tática, gestão e organização - por parte do profissional do Esporte foram destacados. Finalmente, perspectivas de novos estudos e aspectos relacionados à preparação profissional são evidenciados.The objective of the present text was to present the state of art of studies related to combat sports (CS. Initially, it is presented the relevancy of these sports, from a historical perspective to its representativeness in international competitions, as the Olympic Games. The common areas of Sport's professional intervention, the initiatives of events, publications, research groups and scientific organizations related to the CS are also presented. Additionally, studies applied to different areas of Sport's professional intervention - physical training, technical and tactical preparation, management and organization - were also illustrated. Finally, perspectives of new studies and aspects related to professional preparation were reported.

  18. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens


    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  19. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)


    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  1. Outdoor ground impedance models. (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram


    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  2. Radiotelemetry Study of a Desert Tortoise Population: Sand Hill Training Mea, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California (United States)


    monitoring landscape integrity and ecological viability. Desert Tortoise Ecology and Behavior The desert tortoise is a herbivorous reptile ...specialized invertebrates. The burrows provide permanent homes, escape from predators, thermoregulation and maintenance of homeostasis, and hiberna...desert reptiles has long been appreciated (Cowles and Bogert 1944). The importance of burrow microclimates to desert vertebrates and invertebrates, and

  3. Analysis of Operational Pace Versus Logistical Support Rate in the Ground Combat Element of a Marine Expeditionary Brigade (United States)


    following model and statistics. Results of the regression model are displayed in Table 16. Whole Model Test Model -Log Likelihood DF ChiSquare Prob...Estimates Term Estimate Std Error ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq Intercept[0] 30.967429 2.7677038 125.19 <.0001 DOS -5.9330294 0.5448835 118.56 <.0001

  4. Occupational Health Screenings of the Virtual Warrior: Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Operators Compared with Non-Combatant Support Personnel (United States)


    exercise/training each week (e.g., 20-30 minutes of walking, moderate cycling, moderate speed sport or aerobic activity)? Response options were hours) and problematic health behaviors (e.g., poor sleep hygiene , excessive caffeine use). The findings of this study provide insight into the...intelligence operators have more restriction (such as reduced access to base facilities and physical training time built into work routines) for

  5. Ground Dog Day: Lessons Don’t Have to be Relearned in the Use of Dogs in Combat (United States)


    WORLD WAR II With the emergence of Adolf Hitler as the leader of Germany and his invasions of countries in Europe, it appeared by 1938 that the...24. Were you and your dog trained for numerous infiltration and exfiltration methods, such as helicopter, military or


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Mihai Adrian


    Full Text Available Given the purpose of the research and the expectations, we formulated the following hypotheses: 1. Combativity is a component of the mental capacity that promotes / limits athletic performance in judo. 2. In the preparatory process the combativity is an independent variable of the mental capacity. To conduct this research we used the questionnaire method. Thus we developed a questionnaire entitled "Questionnaire for discovering the combative spirit level", which contains 25 questions. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of 12 judo athletes aged 11 to 14 years, which is the experimental group of the present research and who are legitimated at Royal Judo Club Bacău. The implementation of a strategy to optimize the combativity of judoka 11-14 years at the experimental level, ended with good results and was reflected in the evolution of the judoka, achieving good and very good results in the competitive period.

  7. Tualatin River - Surveying, Monitoring and Combating Invasive Plant Species through Volunteers and Outreach (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge, through a Cooperative Agreement with our Friends of the Tualatin River Refuge, proposes to build volunteer capacity for combating invasive species on the...

  8. Strengthening the EU Legal and Institutional Framework to Combat Transnational Financial Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    The report examines the development of adequate legal tools and practices to combat transnational financial crimes such as money laundering, terrorism financing, corruption, transnational financial fraud, and investigates measures directed at strengthening the overall legal and institutional...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown noradrenergic system hyperactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Four Vietnam combat veterans with chronic PTSD, prescribed prazosin ?1 adrenergic receptor antagonist reported reduction or completely elimination of combat trauma nightmares. This study prompted an open trial of prazosin for Iran & Iraq combat PTSD patients nightmares. Method: Twenty two male and married patients with chronic DSM N PTSD and combat trauma related nightmares participated in an 8-week Before - After open trial. The exclusion criteria included current substance abuse or dependency, psychotic disorders and any medical condition that contraindicated the use of prazosin. Results: Six patients were withdrown from the study because of Prazosin side effects. In reminders average of nightmare severity reduced from 6.75 to 3.56 which was statistically significant (p<0.001. Dicussion & Conclusion: The association between prazosin administration and reduction of PTSD nightmare severity suggested possible efficacy of ?1- adrenergic recptor blockade for this PTSD symptom.

  10. Advice for Combating Campus Bigotry and Fostering Respect in the Academic Community. (United States)

    ADFL Bulletin, 2002


    The Modern Language Association's committee on academic freedom has published this document for English and foreign language faculty on combating campus bigotry and fostering respect in the academic community. (Author/VWL)

  11. "Shell Shock": An Entity that Predated Combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragul Ganesh


    Full Text Available In the last century, numerous soldiers had been diagnosed with various post combat disorders. The terminology that has been utilized to describe such patients include combat fatigue, combat stress reaction, soldier′s heart, effort syndrome, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of agent orange and gulf war syndrome. The initial description of such post combat disorder was probably ′shell shock′ which came into vogue during the World War I. The soldiers, undergoing unyielding artillery bombardment, in the trenches suffered persistent symptoms of headache, behavioural changes and memory impairment, and was designated at the time as ′shell shock′. Myers and Mott, independently studied numerous soldiers to elucidate the features and aetiology of the entity. An attempt was made to restrict the usage of the term, but the psychological distress of the soldiers persisted to be addressed in some manner or the other, culminating in the genesis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  12. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species (United States)

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  13. Legal Principles and Solutions to Combat Money Laundering in the International System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karimi


    Full Text Available This study focuse on combat money laundering legal principles and solutions to in the International System. As its clear Money laundering is the attempt to disguise the proceeds of illegal activity so that they appear to come from legitimate sources. Money is laundered through banking systems and credit institutions, non financial institutions and non financial economic activities. Combating money laundering phenomenon dates back to the 1980s. In 1989, Financial Action Task Force was set up to combat money laundering which published forty recommendations pertaining to money laundering in 1990. In 1997, it published an important document titled as Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision. Also Basel Committte on Banking Supervision offered its ninth special recommendation to further reinforce international stadndards of anti- money laundering in 2004. At the end of the study, experiences of U.S., European Union and jurisdictions pertaining to combating money laundering are presented.

  14. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  15. The Crimean War (1855–1856: the Combat Operations in Rioni Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla G. Vazerova


    Full Text Available The article discusses the fighting in the Rioni region in the period of the Crimean war, 1855–1856 years. The attention is paid to the climatic and geographical description of the territory where the fighting took place. Rioni region was a secondary theater of operations during the Crimean war. The task of the allied troops consisted of having landed in Abkhazia to start a vigorous attack on Kutais and Tiflis in order to divert the Russian army from the besieging of the Kars fortress. Among the materials are the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia. The scientific publications on the topic of the study, published in pre-revolutionary and modern periods, have a significant importance. The authors conclude that the airborne operation in Rioni region began in the best terms for the allies, but the slowness of the Turkish troops and the active defense of russian led to delays in the operation before the onset of autumn rains. As a result of deterioration of the sanitary situation the landing operation was terminated without reaching the success.

  16. Fear and Loathing in the Air: Combat Fear and Stress in the Air Force (United States)


    such as phobic fear of flying and acquired fear of flying to describe fear and anxiety related to aviation in a non-combat environment, but, for...describe three terms that relate specifically to anxiety and flying: manifestations of apprehension (MOA), fear of flying (FOF), and phobic fear of...fear and stress. Background In addition to its more obvious physical destruction, combat has also produced casualties of the mind. Fear, anxiety

  17. Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8) (United States)


    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8) Defense Acquisition... Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED GCSS-J Inc 8 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for...375-5277 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 2, 2010 Program Information Program Name Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8

  18. Detecting Intelligent Agent Behavior with Environment Abstraction in Complex Air Combat Systems (United States)


    by concept explorations, “wh optimizations of the models co y at multiple levels, the onceptual framework also 12, 13]. Starting from the tual...l with the modeling layer – where we have in frameworks as well as dynamic system forma Finally, the pragmatic level includes use of ON A: Approved...levels N (EA) rm and the DIS nal capabilities, on in a combat he entire combat formation to the orm level. The frastructure) are m2DIS API as

  19. Experience modulates the psychophysiological response of airborne warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump


    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; Vega Marcos, Ricardo de la; Robles Pérez, José Juan; Lautenschlaeger, Mario; Fernández Lucas, Jesús


    We aimed to analyse the effect of experience level in the psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skills of novel and expert parachute warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, salivary cortisol, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand-grip strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confident before and after a tactical combat para...

  20. Evaluation of the Department of Defense Combating Trafficking in Persons Program (United States)


    DODIG-2014-079 │ 1 Introduction Prior to 2000, allegations of sexual slavery, sex with minors, and human trafficking involving U.S. contractors in...1 6 , 2 0 1 4 Evaluation of the Department of Defense Combating Trafficking in Persons Program Report No. DODIG-2014-079 Report Documentation...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of the Department of Defense Combating Trafficking in Persons

  1. Characterization of Airborne Permethrin During the Manufacture of Army Combat Uniforms Using Pre-Treated Fabric (United States)



  2. Perspectives on Sexual Health and Function of Recent Male Combat Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Helmer, MD, MS


    Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction in recent combat veterans can have important negative effects on their health and relationships. Our findings elucidate perceived contributory factors and preferred solutions, which can be applied by health‐care providers to improve the management of sexual dysfunction in these patients. Helmer DA, Beaulieu G, Powers C, Houlette C, Latini D, and Kauth M. Perspectives on sexual health and function of recent male combat veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. Sex Med 2015;3:137–146.

  3. From ex-combatants to citizens: connecting everyday citizenship and social reintegration in Colombia



    Citizenship can be understood as a form of civic participation and a means of developing social relations with members of the broader community and, therefore, can act as an important means to help reintegrate ex-combatants back into mainstream society. This paper discusses an exploratory research project conducted with a sample of 23 Colombian ex-combatants from non-state armed groups who are current participants of the national programme of reintegration in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. By ...

  4. Preparing for Combat Readiness for the Fight: Physical Performance Profile of Female US Marines (United States)


    combat arms’ positions would thus be well served by targeting upper body strength, while maintaining overall physical fitness. KEY WORDS gender ...positions, many current efforts are directed toward defining and quantifying the physical demands of combat arms’ positions. A second, and equally ... important goal, is then to quantify the extent to which women meet these demands. One important , and robust conclusion emerging from these efforts, is

  5. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat Exposed Veterans (United States)


    care and provider gender preferences among veteran men who have experienced military sexual trauma: A qualitative analysis. Psychological services, 10...diagnosis by chart and diagnostic interview assessments in combat-exposed men and women. 2. Examine the nature and extent of military sexual trauma...KEYWORDS: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), military sexual trauma (MST), suicide, combat-exposed veterans, PTSD trajectory, longitudinal, VA

  6. Evaluation of combat service support logistics concepts for supplying a USMC Regimental Task Force



    One of the primary responsibilities of a Marine Corps Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) is to provide water, fuel, and ammunition requirements for the primary task forces and other Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) elements. This thesis evaluates existing and proposed concepts on how to best use the CSSE resources of a Force Service Support Group to transport supplies to Regimental Combat Teams over constrained networks with time constraints. A model was developed that optimizes the use of...

  7. Adaptations to a New Physical Training Program in the Combat Controller Training Pipeline (United States)


    hydrating, using sports drinks instead of water, maximizing glycogen stores by eating a diet rich in complex carbohydrates , and replenishing and hands- on practice on the most effective ways to physically train CCTs. Creation of the Combat Athlete Training Cell at STTS. Prior to our...truly comprehensive PT plan for the trainees. Following AFRL’s suggestion, the STTS formed the Combat Athlete Training Cell with two instructors

  8. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles (United States)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.


    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  9. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Lovejoy


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  10. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota (United States)


    noise for the M870 and M9 in accordance with Air Force Occupational Safety and Health (AFOSH) Standard 48-20 due to acoustical reflections. Conversely...15. SUBJECT TERMS Impulse noise , impact noise , continuous noise , decay time, Combat Arms, CATM, firing range, hearing, acoustics , noise , firearms...Combat Arms instructors wearing dual hearing protection. Note: Moldex Camo ear plugs have a noise reduction rating of 33 decibels A-Weighted (dBA

  11. Analysis of combat sports players’ injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research


    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan


    [Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were fe...

  12. The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


    Mladonova, Anna


    This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

  13. Defense Health: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Combat Casualty Care Research Achieves Goals (United States)


    Department of Health and Human Services JPC -6 Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care MRMC Army Medical Research and...and development.) Note: The JPC -6 includes representatives from each military service (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and is, which is managed by the Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care ( JPC -6). The JPC -6 includes representatives from the DOD biomedical

  14. A qualitative analysis of the experience and impact of killing in hand-to-hand combat. (United States)

    Jensen, Peter R; Simpson, Duncan


    A growing body of research suggests that killing during military combat is closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as a number of other adverse mental health related conditions (e.g., dissociative experiences, violent behavior, functional impairment). This article provides first-person perspectives on the experiences and impact of killing by service members with the goal of expanding our understanding of the impact of taking a life during war. In audio-recorded phenomenological interviews, 9 service members described their experiences and the subsequent impact of killing during hand-to-hand combat. A description, supported by participant quotations, was constructed to represent the participants' experiences. Results suggest the experience and aftermath of taking a life in hand-to-hand combat was disturbing, psychologically stressful, and necessitated some form of coping after the event. Service members who killed in hand-to-hand combat viewed their actions as necessary to preserve their life and that killing in hand-to-hand combat was more emotionally taxing than killing by shooting. Our findings may help to improve providers' understanding of service members' first-person experiences of killing in hand-to-hand combat and thus provide the basis for the development of a connected and genuine relationship with such military clients.

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  16. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  17. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;


    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  18. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;


    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  19. Combate ao Panstrongylus megistus com o Malathion concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo A. Sherlock


    Full Text Available O Malathion concentrado (0-0 dimetilfosforo ditioato de dietil mercapto - succinato foi usado para combater o Panstrongylus megistus, principal vector da doença de Chagas, numa zona endêmica do Estado da Bahia. A eficácia do malathion no controle desse triatomíneo foi constatada após ter sido aplicado três vezes, no período de um ano e meio, em intervalos senjestrais. A ação letal do inseticida tanto se faz sobre as formas ambulantes, como sobre os ovos de P. megistus. Em vista da eficácia para o controle do triatomíneo, de não terem sido observados efeitos tóxicos colaterais para o homem e do custo operacional ser relativamente baixo, os Autores concluem que o malathion é uma arma valiosa para uso nas campanhas contra os transmissores da doença de Chagas.

  20. Combate ao niilismo e ao totalitarismo em Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Ricardo Germano


    Full Text Available A partir de uma leitura da peça Calígula, elaborada entre 1941 e 1943, procurar-se-á contribuir na restituição das preocupações éticas, políticas e filosóficas em cena no teatro de Albert Camus, analisando o sentido de sua expressão teatral no contexto de dois combates,ao niilismo filosófico e ao totalitarismo político de seu tempo. Observaremos em Calígula um importante registro do amadurecimento das leituras de duas heranças filosóficas relevantes na formação intelectual de Camus, Nietzsche e Heráclito, à luz da experiência do totalitarismo, observando e ressaltando com isso a amplitude de seu intertexto filosófico e a importância do aporte ético e político de Camus como pensador multifacetado, engajado nos enfrentamentos históricos e solicitações críticas de seu tempo.

  1. Health effects of combat: a life-course perspective. (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W


    Armed combat (also termed war or armed conflict) has profound direct and indirect impacts on the long-term physical and mental health of both military personnel and noncombatant civilians. Although most research has focused on immediate and short-term health consequences of war, an increasing number of studies have focused on the long-term health consequences for both veterans of military service and noncombatant civilians. However, these long-term studies focus almost entirely on posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems; relatively few long-term studies have focused on physical injuries due to war and the impact of those injuries on relationships, work, and other aspects of life. This article reviews illustrative examples of the existing literature on these long-term health consequences of war, focusing not only on military veterans of several different armed conflicts but also on noncombatant civilian populations, including spouses and children of military veterans as well as refugees and internally displaced persons. Public health professionals can help address these problems.

  2. Employer strategies to combat health care plan fraud. (United States)

    Pflaum, B B; Rivers, J S


    Each year health care fraud drains millions of dollars from employer-sponsored health plans. Historically, employers have taken a rather tolerant view of fraud. As the pressure to manage health plan costs increases, however, many employers are beginning to see the detection and prosecution of fraud as an appropriate part of a cost management program. Fraud in medical insurance covers a wide range of activities in terms of cost and sophistication--from misrepresenting information on a claim, to billing for services never rendered, to falsifying the existence of an entire medical organization. To complicate matters, fraudulent activities can emanate from many, many sources. Perpetrators can include employees, dependents or associates of employees, providers and employees of providers--virtually anyone able to make a claim against a plan. This article addresses actions that employers can take to reduce losses from fraud. The first section suggests policy statements and administrative procedures and guidelines that can be used to discourage employee fraud. Section two addresses the most prevalent form of fraud--provider fraud. To combat provider fraud, employers should set corporate guidelines and should enlist the assistance of employees in identifying fraudulent provider activities. Section three suggests ways to improve fraud detection through the claims payment system--often the first line of defense against fraud. Finally, section four discusses the possibility of civil and criminal remedies and reviews the legal theories under which an increasing number of fraud cases have been prosecuted.

  3. Combating iodine deficiency: lessons from China, Indonesia, and Madagascar. (United States)

    Goh, Chor-ching


    This study investigated the factors contributing to a successful and sustainable elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders, drawing from salt fortification experiences in China, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Government officials, salt farmers, salt producers, and wholesalers were interviewed to collect data during field visits. Analyses used in the study include simple correlation, and wherever data permit, regression. The study found that measures crucial for combating iodine deficiency include raising public awareness of the disorders, ensuring easy access to iodated salt, promoting compliance in the salt industry, and monitoring and enforcement. Factors that ensure a reliable supply of iodated salt are equally important as those that create the demand for it. Governments must ensure that surveillance and enforcement mechanisms are functioning right from the time that salt iodation is made compulsory. For sustainability during later years, the adequacy of iodine in iodated salt must be monitored, and incentives must be modified as needed to increase compliance rates in the salt industry. Once national coverage of iodated salt reaches over 90%, the government can concentrate on fine-tuning and targeting resources at areas with a low consumption of iodated salt. Elimination of micronutrient deficiencies has a long-term impact on public health; moreover, poorer segments of the population, who are more vulnerable to such deficiencies, have more to gain from fortification programs. Thus, lessons from the successful elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders are valuable for future similar micronutrient activities.

  4. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal


    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  5. Genetics-directed drug discovery for combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (United States)

    Quan, Yuan; Xiong, Le; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Yu


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the pathogen of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the most infectious bacteria in the world. The traditional strategy to combat TB involves targeting the pathogen directly; however, the rapid evolution of drug resistance lessens the efficiency of this anti-TB method. Therefore, in recent years, some researchers have turned to an alternative anti-TB strategy, which hinders Mtb infection through targeting host genes. In this work, using a theoretical genetic analysis, we identified 170 Mtb infection-associated genes from human genetic variations related to Mtb infection. Then, the agents targeting these genes were identified to have high potential as anti-TB drugs. In particular, the agents that can target multiple Mtb infection-associated genes are more druggable than the single-target counterparts. These potential anti-TB agents were further screened by gene expression data derived from connectivity map. As a result, some agents were revealed to have high interest for experimental evaluation. This study not only has important implications for anti-TB drug discovery, but also provides inspirations for streamlining the pipeline of modern drug discovery.

  6. Combating antimicrobial resistance: antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan. (United States)

    Tseng, Shu-Hui; Lee, Chun-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Yen, Che-Chieh; Chang, Feng-Yee


    Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Healthcare-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance are also current challenges to the treatment of infectious diseases in Taiwan. Government health policies and the health care systems play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of interventions to contain antimicrobial resistance. National commitment to understand and address the problem is prerequisite. We analyzed and reviewed the antibiotic resistance related policies in Taiwan, USA, WHO and draft antimicrobial stewardship program to control effectively antibiotic resistance and spreading in Taiwan. Antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan includes establishment of national inter-sectoral antimicrobial stewardship task force, implementing antimicrobial-resistance management strategies, surveillance of HAI and antimicrobial resistance, conducting hospital infection control, enforcement of appropriate regulations and audit of antimicrobial use through hospital accreditation, inspection and national health insurance payment system. No action today, no cure tomorrow. Taiwan CDC would take a multifaceted, evidence-based approach and make every effort to combat antimicrobial resistance with stakeholders to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reduce the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  7. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.


    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  8. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.


    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  9. Opposition games: new approaches to teaching combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Carlos dos Santos


    Full Text Available AbstractThis research is motivated by our interest in knowing the importance of the Opposition Games, a new methodology where education struggles disclaim violence, through activities related to play, to take pleasure in doing and can be developed by students various age groups. Opposition Games are an end in itself - Leisure activity does not require extrinsic goals, on the contrary, it represents but the means to enjoy, have fun with their participation and overcome. Here we have a paradox: the game is an end in the meantime we use it as educational content. Meanwhile, the solution is in the analysis of the participants, who find the game as an end and we, educators use it as a learning tool.These methodological contents have been worked by the students of the Bachelor of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana (UFPR in Brazil and experienced in various public schools in Curitiba, Paraná, with total success.Key words: Games, Opposition combat sports

  10. Contemporary strategies in combating microbial contamination in food chain. (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Smigic, Nada; Devlieghere, Frank


    The objective of this review has been to disclose collected information on benefits and risks of selected "less-than - sterilizing" processes applied to control microbial hazards in food that was meticulously collected and critically reviewed during five years of EU Sixth framework project "Pathogen Combat". The target organisms of the project, and thus of this review, too, were Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. Due to their specific response and high relevancy to the food safety, foodborne viruses and spores, were also discussed within the scope of this review. Selected treatments comprised High Pressure Processing, Intense Light Pulses, treatments with organic acids, treatments with chlorine dioxide and for their relevancy also mild heat treatments and Pulsed Electric Field processing were included. The main aspects included in this review were principles of the processes used and their application, sub-lethal injury and its consequences on microbial food safety, and legal platform and its impact on wide use of the treatments. Finally a reflection has been made to combined application of different hurdles and accompanying risks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental health symptoms in combat medic training: a longitudinal examination. (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Teyhen, Deydre S; Wu, Samuel S; Dugan, Jessica L; Wright, Alison C; Childs, John D; Yang, Guijun; George, Steven Z


    Mental health symptoms in military populations are rising and constitute a significant health concern. This study examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in soldiers (N = 3,792) undergoing combat medic training. At the start of training, 10.4%, 15.5%, and 4.1% of soldiers had clinically significant depression, anxiety, or suicidal ideation, respectfully. These percentages increased to 12.2%, 20.3%, and 5.7% at completion of training, respectfully. Worsening of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation occurred for 7.7%, 11.4%, and 4% of soldiers. Higher percentages of symptoms were associated with females, lower education, and lower income. Active duty personnel were more likely to worsen following training with respect to suicidal ideation (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) compared to reservists. The identification of these significant predictors of mental health status may serve to identify individuals at risk. Additional work to examine the relative contribution of anticipatory (impending deployment) factors vs. training-related factors is warranted.

  12. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C.; Ferreira, Sam M.


    The onslaught on the World’s wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking—coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking. PMID:27870917

  13. Implementation of Combat Simulation Through Expert Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Subramanian


    Full Text Available The battlefield simulation is often faced with a bewildering array of conflicting stresses and challenges. Communication is currently slower and more costly than computation. Expert System technologies such as production rule systems allow one to acquire and represent the collection of heuristic rules in computer compatible form. The system also include master control programs that determine the order in which these rules should be applied against the monitored system performance to arrive at appropriate system control. These expert systems are used in two nodes, both as an intelligence assistant to the expert, amplifying the capacity and quality of his work, and as a surrogate for an expert when he is not available. An Expert support System (ESS designed and developed for combat simulation has been enumerated in this article. The quality and the reliability of the inferred tactical situation is improved by using PROLOG. This formal AI language is used for validating and checking sensor detections for consistency and logical plausibility. The supremacy of PROLOG for creating and interrogating a data base helps maintaining a reasonably coherent feature of the tactical situation. The perils and pitfalls of tackling with expert systems have also been underscored.

  14. Anger intensification with combat-related PTSD and depression comorbidity. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Oscar I; Novaco, Raymond W; Reger, Mark A; Gahm, Gregory A


    Anger is becoming more widely recognized for its involvement in the psychological adjustment problems of current war veterans. Recent research with combat veterans has found anger to be related to psychological distress, psychosocial functioning, and harm risk variables. Using behavioral health data for 2,077 treatment-seeking soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, this study examined whether anger disposition was intensified for those who met screen-threshold criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Anger was assessed with a 7-item screening measure previously validated with the study population. The study tested the hypothesis that anger would be highest when "PTSD & MDD" were conjoined, compared with "PTSD only," "MDD only," and "no PTSD, no MDD." PTSD and depression were assessed with well-established screening instruments. A self-rated "wanting to harm others" variable was also incorporated. Age, gender, race, military component, military grade, and military unit social support served as covariates. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis, which was confirmed. Anger was intensified in the PTSD & MDD condition, in which it was significantly higher than in the other 3 conditions. Convergent support was obtained for "wanting to harm others" as an exploratory index. Given the high prevalence and co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD among veterans, the results have research and clinical practice relevance for systematic inclusion of anger assessment postdeployment from risk-assessment and screening standpoints. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias. (United States)

    Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Richeson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D


    Five experiments investigated the hypothesis that perspective taking--actively contemplating others' psychological experiences--attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias. Across the first 3 experiments, participants who adopted the perspective of a Black target in an initial context subsequently exhibited more positive automatic interracial evaluations, with changes in automatic evaluations mediating the effect of perspective taking on more deliberate interracial evaluations. Furthermore, unlike other bias-reduction strategies, the interracial positivity resulting from perspective taking was accompanied by increased salience of racial inequalities (Experiment 3). Perspective taking also produced stronger approach-oriented action tendencies toward Blacks (but not Whites; Experiment 4). A final experiment revealed that face-to-face interactions with perspective takers were rated more positively by Black interaction partners than were interactions with nonperspective takers--a relationship that was mediated by perspective takers' increased approach-oriented nonverbal behaviors (as rated by objective, third-party observers). These findings indicate that perspective taking can combat automatic expressions of racial biases without simultaneously decreasing sensitivity to ongoing racial disparities.

  16. [Combating smoking in Brazil: the strategic importance of government actions]. (United States)

    Silva, Sandra Tavares da; Martins, Mariana Campos; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre


    Brazil is a world benchmark in combating smoking and promoting actions through the National Program for Tobacco Control and other Risk Factors for Cancer (PNCTOFR). This literature review was conducted in order to outline the actions of PNCTOFR and identify evidence of their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of smoking in Brazil. The documents available in the electronic portals of INCA, the National Policy on Health Promotion, the National Tobacco Control Observatory, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization were used, in addition to the Lilacs, PubMed Central, SciELO and ScienceDirect databases. The reference bases for analysis of the actions were the areas/dimensions proposed by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. The restriction of the availability, control of marketing and commercialization, educational activities in schools, assistance in primary care for health professionals and the general population, control of consumption in public places and work are some of the actions that contributed to reduction in the prevalence of smoking in Brazil from 32.7% in 1997 to 14.8% in 2011. The results indicate the effectiveness of the actions of PNCTOFR, albeit smoking is still a public health problem and needs to be curbed.

  17. Combating the corporate paper war: Electronic mail abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Botha


    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research was to investigate the mailing practices and filing methods in a computer support or administrative environment involving the resulting abuse of paper. In applied research, an exploratory investigation focused on selected higher education institutions in Gauteng with a structured questionnaire as measuring instrument. In the analysis and interpretations of the findings, correlation and cross-tabulation on all sets of variables determined whether any meaningful associations could be found. The investigation indicated that the war against paper abuse is not over by any means. Perceptions regarding a paperless office and assumptions that technology could assist organisations to combat paper abuse were unfounded, mainly because of a lack of guidance, training interventions and control measures. Consequently, follow-up research is presently conducted whereby models will be designed and implemented concomitant with specified computer software features in order to counteract the abuse of paper and facilitate the effective use of information and communication technology interfaced work processes and procedures. This article focuses only on the electronic mail and filing components of the investigation.

  18. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.


    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  19. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S


    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  20. Soldier Capability - Army Combat Effectiveness (SCACE). Volume 2. Selected Bibliography (United States)


    Ground, MD: US Army Human Engineering Laboratories, 1964. 228. Highsmith , Raymond Carl. Proposed Measures of Effectiveness for Human Resource Availability...A079Z33. Washington: US Army Personnel Research Office, April 1964. 564. Thomas, Patricia J., and Thomas E. D. School Validation of theBasic Test Battery