WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground clutter processing

  1. Mine detection using SF-GPR: A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Larsen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Proper clutter reduction is essential for Ground Penetrating Radar data since low signal-to-clutter ratio prevent correct detection of mine objects. A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction used on Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) data is pr....... The clutter reduction method is based on basis function decomposition of the SF-GPR time-series from which the clutter and the signal are separated....

  2. Cluttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood relatives who stutter or clutter. Social or vocational problems resulting from cluttering symptoms. Learning disability not ... toll-free at 800-992-9392. The Special Interest Division of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ...

  3. Ground clutter cancellation in incoherent radars: solutions for EISCAT Svalbard radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Turunen

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars measure ionosphere parameters using modified Thomson scatter from free electrons in the target (see e.g. Hagfors, 1997. The integrated cross section of the ionospheric scatterers is extremely small and the measurements can easily be disturbed by signals returned by unwanted targets. Ground clutter signals, entering via the antenna side lobes, can render measurements at the nearest target ranges totally impossible. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, which started measurements in 1996, suffers from severe ground clutter and the ionosphere cannot be measured in any simple manner at ranges less than about 120–150 km, depending on the modulation employed. If the target and clutter signals have different, and clearly identifiable, properties then, in principle, there are always ways to eliminate the clutter. In incoherent scatter measurements, differences in the coherence times of the wanted and unwanted signals can be used for clutter cancellation. The clutter cancellation must be applied to all modulations, usually alternating codes in modern experiments, used for shorter ranges. Excellent results have been obtained at the ESR using a simple pulse-to-pulse clutter subtraction method, but there are also other possibilities.Key words: Radio science (ionospheric physics; signal processing; instruments and techniques

  4. Arta process model of maritime clutter and targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McDonald_2013_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1370 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McDonald_2013_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 IET... Radar 2012, International conference on radar systems, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 22-25 October 2012 ARTA PROCESS MODEL OF MARITIME CLUTTER AND TARGETS Andre McDonald and Jacques Cilliers Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Meiring...

  5. Robust Adaptive Signal Processing Methods for Heterogeneous Radar Clutter Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangaswamy, Muralidhar; Lin, Freeman C; Gerlach, Karl R

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, we present the performance of the normalized matched filter test in a background of disturbance consisting of clutter having a covariance matrix with known structure and unknown scaling...

  6. Effects of clutter on information processing deficits in individuals with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Amanda M; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Current cognitive behavioral models of hoarding view hoarding as a multifaceted problem stemming from various information processing deficits. However, there is also reason to suspect that the consequences of hoarding may in turn impact or modulate deficits in information processing. The current study sought to expand upon the existing literature by manipulating clutter to examine whether the presence of a cluttered environment affects information processing. Participants included 34 individuals with hoarding disorder. Participants were randomized into a clutter or non-clutter condition and asked to complete various neuropsychological tasks of memory and attention. Results revealed that hoarding severity was associated with difficulties in sustained attention. However, individuals in the clutter condition relative to the non-clutter condition did not experience greater deficits in information processing. Limitations include the cross-sectional design and small sample size. The current findings add considerably to a growing body of literature on the relationships between information processing deficits and hoarding behaviors. Research of this type is integral to understanding the etiology and maintenance of hoarding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcarrier-based Processing for Clutter Rejection in CP-OFDM Signal-based Passive Radar Using SFN Configuration (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jian-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clutter rejection is a key technique used by passive radars for target detection. Especially when using Single Frequency Network (SFN configuration, the multipath clutter and ground clutter increase several times more than during a single illuminator situation, which means that the clutter extends in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. The high amount of clutter occupies numerous degrees of freedom when conventional spatial or temporal processing is used, leading to a large array requirement, a huge computational cost, or even a complete failure. This paper investigates a novel subcarrier-based processing technique that is tailored for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM modulation with a Cyclic Prefix (CP-OFDM to avoid the abovementioned predicament. The algorithm principle is initially illustrated and followed by a discussion about the unique characteristics of Subcarrier-based Spatial Adaptive Processing (SSAP, which include the Doppler response and its unusual main-lobe clutter case. Then, the robustness is researched by evaluating the performance under relaxed basic assumptions. The conclusions are demonstrated by conducting test using simulated and real data sets.

  8. Detection of Ground Clutter from Weather Radar Using a Dual-Polarization and Dual-Scan Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Golbon-Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-polarization and dual-scan (DPDS classification algorithm is developed for clutter detection in weather radar observations. Two consecutive scans of dual-polarization radar echoes are jointly processed to estimate auto- and cross-correlation functions. Discriminants are then defined and estimated in order to separate clutter from weather based on their physical and statistical properties. An optimal Bayesian classifier is used to make a decision on clutter presence from the estimated discriminant functions. The DPDS algorithm is applied to the data collected with the KOUN polarimetric radar and compared with the existing detection methods. It is shown that the DPDS algorithm yields a higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rate in clutter detection.

  9. Performance limits for exo-clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-09-01

    The performance of a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to 'get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall GMTI radar system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the 'seek time'.

  10. Comparison of PCA and ICA based clutter reduction in GPR systems for anti-personal landmine detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches...

  11. Advances in the realtime simulation of synthetic clutter for radar testing and evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available measures. Recent developments in processing power have allowed for a ground clutter simulation capability to be added to this list. RadaR ClutteR Simulation Radar clutter simulation is computationally expensive as a single range line can contain... and correlation functions require more processing power to simulate. RefeRenCeS [1] B. Manz, ?DRFMs Grow to Meet New Threats,? The Journal of Electronic Defense, August 2010, pp. 43-48. K-8430 [www.kashan.co.za] Advances in the Realtime Simulation...

  12. Articulatory variability in cluttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Mariam; Mooshammer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory processes of the hasty and mumbled speech in cluttering, the kinematic variability was analysed by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography. In contrast to persons with stuttering, those with cluttering improve their intelligibility by concentrating on their speech task. Variability has always been an important criterion in comparable studies of stuttering and is discussed in terms of the stability of the speech motor system. The aim of the current study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in the speech of three persons with cluttering (PWC) and three control speakers. All participants were native speakers of German. The speech material consisted of repetitive CV syllables and loan words such as 'emotionalisieren', because PWC have the severest problems with long words with a complex syllable structure. The results showed a significantly higher coefficient of variation for PWC in loan word production, both in the temporal and in the spatial domain, whereas the means of displacements and durations did not differ between groups. These findings were discussed in terms of the effects of the linguistic complexity, since for the syllable repetition task, no significant differences between PWC and controls were found. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  14. New clutter-rejection algorithm for Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Guy; Chen, Danmin; Durand, Louis-Gilles

    2002-04-01

    Several strategies, known as clutter or wall Doppler filtering, were proposed to remove the strong echoes produced by stationary or slow moving tissue structures from the Doppler blood flow signal. In this study, the matching pursuit (MP) method is proposed to remove clutter components. The MP method decomposes the Doppler signal into wavelet atoms that are selected in a decreasing energy order. Thus, the high-energy clutter components are extracted first. In the present study, the pulsatile Doppler signal s(n) was simulated by a sum of random-phase sinusoids. Two types of high-amplitude clutter signals were then superimposed on s(n): a time-varying low frequency component (type 1), covering systole and early diastole, and short transient clutter signals (type 2), distributed within the whole cardiac cycle. The Doppler signals were modeled with the MP method and the most dominant atoms were subtracted until the signal-to-clutter (S/C) ratio reached a maximum. For the type 1 clutter signal, the improvement in the S/C ratio was 19.0 +/- 0.6 dB, and 72.0 +/- 4.5 atoms were required to reach this performance. For the transient type 2 clutter signal, exactly 10 atoms were required and the maximum improvement in S/C ratio was 5.5 +/- 0.5 dB. These results suggest the possibility of using this signal processing approach to implement clutter rejection filters on ultrasound commercial instruments.

  15. Limits to Clutter Cancellation in Multi-Aperture GMTI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Multi-aperture or multi-subaperture antennas are fundamental to Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar systems in order to detect slow-moving targets with Doppler characteristics similar to clutter. Herein we examine the performance of several subaperture architectures for their clutter cancelling performance. Significantly, more antenna phase centers isn’t always better, and in fact is sometimes worse, for detecting targets.

  16. Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p 10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the

  17. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non-combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague-to-crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly-cluttered scenarios and results in an orders-of-magnitude improvement in signal-to-clutter ratio.

  18. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  19. Modeling of GPR Clutter Caused by Soil Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In small-scale measurements, ground-penetrating radar (GPR often uses a higher frequency to detect a small object or structural changes in the ground. GPR becomes more sensitive to the natural heterogeneity of the soil when a higher frequency is used. Soil heterogeneity scatters electromagnetic waves, and the scattered waves are in part observed as unwanted reflections that are often referred to as clutter. Data containing a great amount of clutter are difficult to analyze and interpret because clutter disturbs reflections from objects of interest. Therefore, modeling GPR clutter is useful to assess the effectiveness of GPR measurements. In this paper, the development of such a technique is discussed. This modeling technique requires the permittivity distribution of soil (or its geostatistical properties and gives a nominal value of clutter power. The paper demonstrates the technique with the comparison to the data from a GPR time-lapse measurement. The proposed technique is discussed in regard to its applicability and limitations based on the results.

  20. Entropy-Based Clutter Rejection for Intrawall Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Solimene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrawall diagnostic problem of detecting localized inhomogeneities possibly present within the wall is addressed. As well known, clutter arising from masonry structure can impair detection of embedded scatterers due to high amplitude reflections that wall front face introduces. Moreover, internal multiple reflections also can make it difficult ground penetrating radar images (radargramms interpretation. To counteract these drawbacks, a clutter rejection method, properly tailored on the wall features, is mandatory. To this end, here we employ a windowing strategy based on entropy measures of temporal traces “similarity.” Accordingly, instants of time for which radargramms exhibit entropy values greater than a prescribed threshold are “silenced.” Numerical results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the entropy-based clutter rejection algorithm. Moreover, a comparison with the standard average trace subtraction is also included.

  1. Research on Strong Clutter Suppression for Gaofen-3 Dual-Channel SAR/GMTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, moving targets are almost buried in ground clutter due to the wide clutter Doppler spectrum and the restricted pulse repetition frequency (PRF, which increases the difficulty of moving target detection. Clutter suppression is one of the key issues in the spaceborne SAR moving target indicator operation. In this paper, we describe the clutter suppression principle and analyze the influence of amplitude and phase error on clutter suppression. In the following, a novel dual-channel SAR clutter suppression algorithm is proposed, which is suitable for the Gaofen-3(GF-3 SAR sensor. The proposed algorithm consists of three technique steps, namely adaptive two-dimensional (2D channel calibration, refined amplitude error correction and refined phase error correction. After channel error is corrected by these procedures, the clutter component, especially a strong clutter component, can be well suppressed. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by GF-3 SAR real data which demonstrates the ground moving-target indication (GMTI capability of GF-3 SAR sensor.

  2. Artificial Neural Network-Based Clutter Reduction Systems for Ship Size Estimation in Maritime Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Jarabo-Amores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of clutter in maritime radars deteriorates the estimation of some physical parameters of the objects detected over the sea surface. For that reason, maritime radars should incorporate efficient clutter reduction techniques. Due to the intrinsic nonlinear dynamic of sea clutter, nonlinear signal processing is needed, what can be achieved by artificial neural networks (ANNs. In this paper, an estimation of the ship size using an ANN-based clutter reduction system followed by a fixed threshold is proposed. High clutter reduction rates are achieved using 1-dimensional (horizontal or vertical integration modes, although inaccurate ship width estimations are achieved. These estimations are improved using a 2-dimensional (rhombus integration mode. The proposed system is compared with a CA-CFAR system, denoting a great performance improvement and a great robustness against changes in sea clutter conditions and ship parameters, independently of the direction of movement of the ocean waves and ships.

  3. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data o...

  4. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  5. Global Infrasound Association Based on Probabilistic Clutter Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Nimar; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    The IDC advances its methods and continuously improves its automatic system for the infrasound technology. The IDC focuses on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold by identifying ways to refine signal characterization methodology and association criteria. An objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the automatic bulletins when generating the reviewed event bulletins. Indeed, a considerable number of signal detections are due to local clutter sources such as microbaroms, waterfalls, dams, gas flares, surf (ocean breaking waves) etc. These sources are either too diffuse or too local to form events. Worse still, the repetitive nature of this clutter leads to a large number of false event hypotheses due to the random matching of clutter at multiple stations. Previous studies, for example [1], have worked on categorization of clutter using long term trends on detection azimuth, frequency, and amplitude at each station. In this work we continue the same line of reasoning to build a probabilistic model of clutter that is used as part of NETVISA [2], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The resulting model is a fusion of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. References: [1] Infrasound categorization Towards a statistics based approach. J. Vergoz, P. Gaillard, A. Le Pichon, N. Brachet, and L. Ceranna. ITW 2011 [2] NETVISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013

  6. Adaptation of Rejection Algorithms for a Radar Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the algorithms for adaptive rejection of a radar clutter are synthesized for the case of a priori unknown spectral-correlation characteristics at wobbulation of a repetition period of the radar signal. The synthesis of algorithms for the non-recursive adaptive rejection filter (ARF of a given order is reduced to determination of the vector of weighting coefficients, which realizes the best effectiveness index for radar signal extraction from the moving targets on the background of the received clutter. As the effectiveness criterion, we consider the averaged (over the Doppler signal phase shift improvement coefficient for a signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR. On the base of extreme properties of the characteristic numbers (eigennumbers of the matrices, the optimal vector (according to this criterion maximum is defined as the eigenvector of the clutter correlation matrix corresponding to its minimal eigenvalue. The general type of the vector of optimal ARF weighting coefficients is de-termined and specific adaptive algorithms depending upon the ARF order are obtained, which in the specific cases can be reduced to the known algorithms confirming its authenticity. The comparative analysis of the synthesized and known algorithms is performed. Significant bene-fits are established in clutter rejection effectiveness by the offered processing algorithms compared to the known processing algorithms.

  7. Intelligent systems for KSC ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1992-01-01

    The ground processing and launch of Shuttle vehicles and their payloads is the primary task of Kennedy Space Center. It is a process which is largely manual and contains little inherent automation. Business is conducted today much as it was during previous NASA programs such as Apollo. In light of new programs and decreasing budgets, NASA must find more cost effective ways in which to do business while retaining the quality and safety of activities. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence could cut manpower and processing time. This paper is an overview of the research and development in Al technology at KSC with descriptions of the systems which have been implemented, as well as a few under development which are promising additions to ground processing software. Projects discussed cover many facets of ground processing activities, including computer sustaining engineering, subsystem monitor and diagnosis tools and launch team assistants. The deployed Al applications have proven an effectiveness which has helped to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing intelligent software in the ground processing task.

  8. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Process for storing radioactive waste in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gouvenot, D.; Pagny, P.

    1983-01-01

    A process for storing radioactive waste in a cavity in the ground is claimed. The waste is conditioned and isolated from the ground by at least one retention barrier. A grout consisting of 1000 parts by weight of water, 40 to 400 parts by weight of cement, 80 to 1000 parts by weight of at least one clay chosen from the group including montmorillonite, illite and vermiculite, as well as 25 to 1200 parts by weight of kieselguhr and/or natural or artificial pozzuolanas is introduced into gaps in the soil areas surrounding the cavity

  10. RCS Matrix Studies of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    clutter and sea clutter with targets. The study was motivated in part by the requirement to improving radar detect- ability of targets in sea clutter...ISO0 M DatiA 10111t. Sol jl 0 50 S SI (1 no 0 905 1 01 tV i VI i h WII 1111 ’uhlti .11 ŕ pS4 IV VIIIr OF -- LB -18 lob~l~ *- .4 - L it V1 1 I l a

  11. Detection of range migrating targets in compound-Gaussian clutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, N.; le Chevalier, F.; Yarovyi, O.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of fast moving targets in a high range resolution mode. In particular, we are focusing on the spiky clutter modeled as a compound Gaussian process with rapidly varying power along range. Additionally, a fast moving target of interest has

  12. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  13. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Jerolmack, Douglas; Lancaster, Nicholas; Nikolich, George; Reverdy, Paul; Roberts, Sonia; Shipley, Thomas; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Zobeck, Ted M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists' efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science

  14. A Clinical Delineation of Tachyphemia (Cluttering)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orders of speech, language and communication in general. The majority of .... of cluttering', and left a cluttering-like residue when cured. ... General rate of speech. Vegetative manifestations. Emotions. Respiration. Singing ... (a) In some families men in different generations show ... women as well as men being affected.

  15. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  16. Hardware in the loop simulation of arbitrary magnitude shaped correlated radar clutter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple process for the generation of arbitrary probability distributions of complex data with correlation from sample to sample, optimized for hardware in the loop radar environment simulation. Measured radar clutter is used...

  17. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  18. The Aesthetics of Junkyards and Roadside Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A little more than thirty years ago, Allen Carlson argued that although the concept of "Camp" would seem to allow for the aesthetic redemption of roadside clutter and junkyards, it does not.[1] He opposes those who claim that if one takes the right attitude to roadside clutter it can be seen as aesthetic. In this essay I argue that that there is nothing wrong with this, although I will not base my argument on the idea of Camp sensibility.

  19. Mars radar clutter and surface roughness characteristics from MARSIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Whitten, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    Radar sounder studies of icy, sedimentary, and volcanic settings can be affected by reflections from surface topography surrounding the sensor nadir location. These off-nadir ;clutter; returns appear at similar time delays to subsurface echoes and complicate geologic interpretation. Additionally, broadening of the radar echo in delay by surface returns sets a limit on the detectability of subsurface interfaces. We use MARSIS 4 MHz data to study variations in the nadir and off-nadir clutter echoes, from about 300 km to 1000 km altitude, R, for a wide range of surface roughness. This analysis uses a new method of characterizing ionospheric attenuation to merge observations over a range of solar zenith angle and date. Mirror-like reflections should scale as R-2, but the observed 4 MHz nadir echoes often decline by a somewhat smaller power-law factor because MARSIS on-board processing increases the number of summed pulses with altitude. Prior predictions of the contributions from clutter suggest a steeper decline with R than the nadir echoes, but in very rough areas the ratio of off-nadir returns to nadir echoes shows instead an increase of about R1/2 with altitude. This is likely due in part to an increase in backscatter from the surface as the radar incidence angle at some round-trip time delay declines with increasing R. It is possible that nadir and clutter echo properties in other planetary sounding observations, including RIME and REASON flyby data for Europa, will vary in the same way with altitude, but there may be differences in the nature and scale of target roughness (e.g., icy versus rocky surfaces). We present global maps of the ionosphere- and altitude-corrected nadir echo strength, and of a ;clutter; parameter based on the ratio of off-nadir to nadir echoes. The clutter map offers a view of surface roughness at ∼75 m length scale, bridging the spatial-scale gap between SHARAD roughness estimates and MOLA-derived parameters.

  20. Wavelet based methods for improved wind profiler signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply wavelet thresholding for removing automatically ground and intermittent clutter (airplane echoes from wind profiler radar data. Using the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which allow us to identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and to suppress them in order to obtain filtered reconstructions.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  1. Grounding line processes on the Totten Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.; Watson, C. S.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Peters, L. E.; Coleman, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Totten Glacier has been an area of recent interest due to its large drainage basin, much of which is grounded below sea level and has a history of large scale grounding line movement. Reports that warm water reaches the sub-ice shelf cavity have led to speculation that it could be vulnerable to future grounding line retreat. Over the Antarctic summer 2016/17 an array of 6 GPS and autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) units were deployed in the grounding zone of the Totten Glacier. These instruments measure changes in ice velocity and thickness which can be used to investigate both ice dynamics across the grounding line, and the interaction between ice and ocean in the subglacial cavity. Basal melt rates calculated from the ApRES units on floating ice range from 1 to 17 m/a. These values are significantly lower than previous estimates of basal melt rate produced by ocean modelling of the subglacial cavity. Meanwhile, GPS-derived velocity and elevation on the surface of the ice show a strong tidal signal, as does the vertical strain rate within the ice derived from internal layering from the ApRES instruments. These results demonstrate the significance of the complex grounding pattern of the Totten Glacier. The presence of re-grounding points has significant implications for the dynamics of the glacier and the ocean circulation within the subglacial cavity. We discuss what can be learned from our in situ measurements, and how they can be used to improve models of the glacier's future behaviour.

  2. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ''PSRV'' code. 39 figs

  3. Adaptive sidelobe control for clutter rejection of atmospheric radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Clutter rejection is among the most important issues in radar signal processing, for which the adaptive antenna technique can be a powerful means. Compared to other applications of the adaptive antenna, however, atmospheric radars require strict conditions, which have prevented application of this technique; the main antenna beam pattern should not be altered since the target region is defined by its shape. In particular, the loss of the antenna gain should be kept to no more than about 0.5dB, in order to maintain the high sensitivity of the system. Also, clutter from surrounding mountains is often stronger than the desired weak scattering from atmospheric turbulence. We introduce a new algorithm which satisfies the above conditions, and confirms its capability by applying it to actual data taken by the MU radar. This paper presents the first report that demonstrates the effectiveness of the adaptive antenna technique in atmospheric radar applications. Despite the fact that no information is given on the spectral features of the desired and undesired signals, only the clutter echoes from surrounding mountains were effectively cancelled without affecting the desired echoes from atmospheric turbulence.

  4. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  5. Statistical problems with weather-radar images, I: Clutter identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Duran, Juan-Jose; Upton, Graham

    2003-01-01

    A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure is presented for the identification of clutter in weather-radar images. The key attributes of the image are the spatial coherence of the areas of clutter (noise) and cloud and the high spatial autocorrelation of the values in areas of cloud. A form of simulated annealing provides the possibility of fast clutter removal

  6. Where's Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Where’s Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where's Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, and superior colliculus.

  7. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These d...

  8. Figure-Ground Processing: A Reassessment of Gelb and Granit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf; Hebda, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment. Experiment 1 found that, contrary to Gelb and Granit's findings, a detection advantage was found for the figural over the ground region. Experiment 2 indicated that explicit contours might have played a role in detection.

  9. Insights into Ground-Motion Processes from Intensity Data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of intensity data gathered from the on-line “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) questionnaire program (Wald et al., 1999, Seism. Res. L.) provides new insights into both contemporary and historical ground-motion processes; this is particularly important for sparsely-instrumented regions. The value of the DYFI data lies in their vast quantities and large spatial coverage. With thousands to tens of thousands of respondents providing information on the felt and damage characteristics of widely-felt earthquakes, DYFI intensity data provide surprisingly high resolution of ground-motion features. The large data quantities allow techniques such as binning to be used to bring out these features in a statistically-stable way (Atkinson and Wald, 2007, Seism. Res. L.), while correlations of the statistics of DYFI intensities with instrumental ground motions provide the link between intensity and engineering ground-motion parameters (Wald et al., 1999, Earthquake Spectra). This link is largely independent of region if its dependence on earthquake magnitude and distance is taken into account (Kaka and Atkinson, 2007, BSSA). Thus DYFI data provide a valuable tool with which ground motions can be estimated, if their felt and damage effects have been reported. This is useful both for understanding contemporary events in sparsely-instrumented regions, and for re-evaluating historical events, for which only intensity data are available. By using calibrated intensity observations, a number of ground-motion processes can be investigated based on DYFI and/or historical intensity data. For example, intensity data shed light on source scaling issues, and whether source parameters vary regionally. They can also be used to document regional attenuation features, such as the attenuation rate and its variation with distance (Atkinson and Wald, 2007). A key uncertainty in these investigations concerns the effect of spectral shape on intensity; the spectral shape is influenced by site

  10. Quantifying clutter: A comparison of four methods and their relationship to bat detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy M. O’Keefe; Susan C. Loeb; Hoke S. Hill Jr.; J. Drew Lanham

    2014-01-01

    The degree of spatial complexity in the environment, or clutter, affects the quality of foraging habitats for bats and their detection with acoustic systems. Clutter has been assessed in a variety of ways but there are no standardized methods for measuring clutter. We compared four methods (Visual Clutter, Cluster, Single Variable, and Clutter Index) and related these...

  11. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  12. Influence of visual clutter on the effect of navigated safety inspection: a case study on elevator installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pin-Chao; Sun, Xinlu; Liu, Mei; Shih, Yu-Nien

    2018-01-11

    Navigated safety inspection based on task-specific checklists can increase the hazard detection rate, theoretically with interference from scene complexity. Visual clutter, a proxy of scene complexity, can theoretically impair visual search performance, but its impact on the effect of safety inspection performance remains to be explored for the optimization of navigated inspection. This research aims to explore whether the relationship between working memory and hazard detection rate is moderated by visual clutter. Based on a perceptive model of hazard detection, we: (a) developed a mathematical influence model for construction hazard detection; (b) designed an experiment to observe the performance of hazard detection rate with adjusted working memory under different levels of visual clutter, while using an eye-tracking device to observe participants' visual search processes; (c) utilized logistic regression to analyze the developed model under various visual clutter. The effect of a strengthened working memory on the detection rate through increased search efficiency is more apparent in high visual clutter. This study confirms the role of visual clutter in construction-navigated inspections, thus serving as a foundation for the optimization of inspection planning.

  13. Effects of Video Exposure to Cluttering on Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of a Person Who Clutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lindsey M.; Blanchet, Paul G.; Tillery, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests a negative stereotype toward people with fluency disorders (i.e. stuttering and/or cluttering), although recent findings suggest that exposure to an actual person who stutters (e.g. a live or video presentation) leads to more positive perceptions of some personality traits. However, there is a paucity of…

  14. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  15. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  16. SAR Imagery Simulation of Ship Based on Electromagnetic Calculations and Sea Clutter Modelling for Classification Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, K F; Zhao, Z; Xing, X W; Zou, H X; Zhou, S L

    2014-01-01

    Ship detection and classification with space-borne SAR has many potential applications within the maritime surveillance, fishery activity management, monitoring ship traffic, and military security. While ship detection techniques with SAR imagery are well established, ship classification is still an open issue. One of the main reasons may be ascribed to the difficulties on acquiring the required quantities of real data of vessels under different observation and environmental conditions with precise ground truth. Therefore, simulation of SAR images with high scenario flexibility and reasonable computation costs is compulsory for ship classification algorithms development. However, the simulation of SAR imagery of ship over sea surface is challenging. Though great efforts have been devoted to tackle this difficult problem, it is far from being conquered. This paper proposes a novel scheme for SAR imagery simulation of ship over sea surface. The simulation is implemented based on high frequency electromagnetic calculations methods of PO, MEC, PTD and GO. SAR imagery of sea clutter is modelled by the representative K-distribution clutter model. Then, the simulated SAR imagery of ship can be produced by inserting the simulated SAR imagery chips of ship into the SAR imagery of sea clutter. The proposed scheme has been validated with canonical and complex ship targets over a typical sea scene

  17. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  18. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.; Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. CFD Investigation of Flow Past Idealized Engine Nacelle Clutter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casper, Matthew S

    2007-01-01

    ...), to resolve the flow-field dynamics inside the clutter element and determine mechanisms accounting for the failure of suppressant spray droplets from traversing the array under low-speed, free-stream conditions (ReD = 1, 575...

  20. Numerical method for IR background and clutter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Carlo; Daniele, Gina; Balzarotti, Giorgio

    1997-06-01

    The paper describes a fast and accurate algorithm of IR background noise and clutter generation for application in scene simulations. The process is based on the hypothesis that background might be modeled as a statistical process where amplitude of signal obeys to the Gaussian distribution rule and zones of the same scene meet a correlation function with exponential form. The algorithm allows to provide an accurate mathematical approximation of the model and also an excellent fidelity with reality, that appears from a comparison with images from IR sensors. The proposed method shows advantages with respect to methods based on the filtering of white noise in time or frequency domain as it requires a limited number of computation and, furthermore, it is more accurate than the quasi random processes. The background generation starts from a reticule of few points and by means of growing rules the process is extended to the whole scene of required dimension and resolution. The statistical property of the model are properly maintained in the simulation process. The paper gives specific attention to the mathematical aspects of the algorithm and provides a number of simulations and comparisons with real scenes.

  1. High Grazing Angle and High Resolution Sea Clutter: Correlation and Polarisation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    the azimuthal correlation. The correlation between the HH and VV sea clutter data is low. A CA-CFAR ( cell average constant false-alarm rate...to calculate the power spectra of correlation profiles. The frequency interval of the traditional Discrete Fourier Transform is NT1 Hz, where N and...sea spikes, the Entropy-Alpha decomposition of sea spikes is shown in Figure 30. The process first locates spikes using a cell -average constant false

  2. Drama techniques as part of cluttering therapy according to the verbotonal method

    OpenAIRE

    Hercigonja Salamoni, Darija; Rendulić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Cluttering is a syndrome characterised by a wide range of symptoms. It always contains one or more key elements such as abnormally fast speech rate, greater than expected number of disfluencies, reduced intelligibility due to over-coarticulation and indistinct articulation, inappropriate brakes in speech pattern, monotone speech, disturbance in language planning, etc. Drama activities and storytelling share a number of features that allow spontaneous use during therapy process and detachment ...

  3. The Cryosat Payload Data Ground Segment and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommknecht, B.; Mizzi, L.; Parrinello, T.; Badessi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The main CryoSat-2 mission objectives can be summarised in the determination of the regional and basin-scale trends in perennial Arctic sea ice thickness and mass, and in the determination of regional and total contributions to global sea level of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice. Therefore, the observations made over the life time of the mission will provide conclusive evidence as to whether there is a trend towards diminishing polar ice cover and consequently improve our understanding of the relationship between ice and global climate change.Scope of this paper is to describe the Cryosat Ground Segment and its main function to satisfy the Cryosat mission requirements. In particular, the paper will discuss the current status of the L1b and L2 processing in terms of completeness and availability. An outlook will be given on planned product and processor updates, the associated reprocessing campaigns will be discussed as well.

  4. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  5. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vanegas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP, so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV, to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  6. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-05-10

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  7. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  8. Low-Altitude and Slow-Speed Small Target Detection Based on Spectrum Zoom Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spectrum zoom processing based target detection algorithm for detecting the weak echo of low-altitude and slow-speed small (LSS targets in heavy ground clutter environments, which can be used to retrofit the existing radar systems. With the existing range-Doppler frequency images, the proposed method firstly concatenates the data from the same Doppler frequency slot of different images and then applies the spectrum zoom processing. After performing the clutter suppression, the target detection can be finally implemented. Through the theoretical analysis and real data verification, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can obtain a preferable spectrum zoom result and improve the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR with a very low computational load.

  9. Developing the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on maximum entropy for multitarget tracking in a cluttered environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Li, Yaan; Yu, Jing; Li, Yuxing

    2018-01-01

    For fast and more effective implementation of tracking multiple targets in a cluttered environment, we propose a multiple targets tracking (MTT) algorithm called maximum entropy fuzzy c-means clustering joint probabilistic data association that combines fuzzy c-means clustering and the joint probabilistic data association (PDA) algorithm. The algorithm uses the membership value to express the probability of the target originating from measurement. The membership value is obtained through fuzzy c-means clustering objective function optimized by the maximum entropy principle. When considering the effect of the public measurement, we use a correction factor to adjust the association probability matrix to estimate the state of the target. As this algorithm avoids confirmation matrix splitting, it can solve the high computational load problem of the joint PDA algorithm. The results of simulations and analysis conducted for tracking neighbor parallel targets and cross targets in a different density cluttered environment show that the proposed algorithm can realize MTT quickly and efficiently in a cluttered environment. Further, the performance of the proposed algorithm remains constant with increasing process noise variance. The proposed algorithm has the advantages of efficiency and low computational load, which can ensure optimum performance when tracking multiple targets in a dense cluttered environment.

  10. Segmentation of vessels cluttered with cells using a physics based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, Stephen J; Keller, Steve; Nguyen, Nhat; Souvenir, Richard; Huynh, Toan; Clemens, Mark; Shin, Min C

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation of vessels in biomedical images is important as it can provide insight into analysis of vascular morphology, topology and is required for kinetic analysis of flow velocity and vessel permeability. Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool as it enables in vivo imaging of both vasculature and circulating cells. However, the analysis of vasculature in those images is difficult due to the presence of cells and their image gradient. In this paper, we provide a novel method of segmenting vessels with a high level of cell related clutter. A set of virtual point pairs ("vessel probes") are moved reacting to forces including Vessel Vector Flow (VVF) and Vessel Boundary Vector Flow (VBVF) forces. Incorporating the cell detection, the VVF force attracts the probes toward the vessel, while the VBVF force attracts the virtual points of the probes to localize the vessel boundary without being distracted by the image features of the cells. The vessel probes are moved according to Newtonian Physics reacting to the net of forces applied on them. We demonstrate the results on a set of five real in vivo images of liver vasculature cluttered by white blood cells. When compared against the ground truth prepared by the technician, the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of segmentation with VVF and VBVF was 55% lower than the method without VVF and VBVF.

  11. Introduction to ground penetrating radar inverse scattering and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Persico, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of ground penetrating radar using both forward and inverse scattering mathematical techniques. Use of field data instead of laboratory data enables readers to envision real-life underground imaging; a full color insert further clarifies understanding. Along with considering the practical problem of achieving interpretable underground images, this book also features significant coverage of the problem's mathematical background. This twofold approach provides a resource that will appeal both to application oriented geologists and testing specialists,

  12. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 2: Ground Processing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Alternate ground processing options are summarized, including installation and test requirements for payloads, space processing, combined astronomy, and life sciences. The level 4 integration resource requirements are also reviewed for: personnel, temporary relocation, transportation, ground support equipment, and Spacelab flight hardware.

  13. Space-polarization Collaborative Suppression Method for Ionospheric Clutter in HFSWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yunlong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR is able to receive surface target and low-flying aircraft echoes at a long-distance, but it suffers severely from ionospheric clutter. In this paper, a spacepolarization collaborative-based filter is introduced to mitigate ionospheric clutter. For parameter estimation on ionospheric clutter used for filters, a spatial parameter estimation algorithm based on compressive sensing is introduced to the DOA estimation of ionospheric clutter. In addition, a polarized parameter estimation algorithm based on statistical characteristics is proposed for ionospheric clutter in the range-Doppler spectrum. Higher estimation accuracy is achieved as a result of the range-Doppler spectrum; therefore, these two estimation algorithms enhance the performance of the space-polarization collaborative suppression method for ionospheric clutter. Experimental results of practical dual-polarized HFSWR data show the effectiveness of the two algorithms and the above mentioned filter for ionospheric clutter suppression.

  14. Effects of Compound K-Distributed Sea Clutter on Angle Measurement of Wideband Monopulse Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement of wideband monopulse radar are investigated in this paper. We apply the conditional probability density function (pdf of monopulse ratio (MR error to analyze these effects. Based on the angle measurement procedure of the wideband monopulse radar, this conditional pdf is first deduced in detail for the case of compound K-distributed sea clutter plus noise. Herein, the spatial correlation of the texture components for each channel clutter and the correlation of the texture components between the sum and difference channel clutters are considered, and two extreme situations for each of them are tackled. Referring to the measured sea clutter data, angle measurement performances in various K-distributed sea clutter plus noise circumstances are simulated, and the effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement are discussed.

  15. Active Listening in a Bat Cocktail Party: Adaptive Echolocation and Flight Behaviors of Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Foraging in a Cluttered Acoustic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Michaela; Chiu, Chen; Engelberg, Jonathan; Moss, Cynthia F

    2015-09-01

    In their natural environment, big brown bats forage for small insects in open spaces, as well as in vegetation and in the presence of acoustic clutter. While searching and hunting for prey, bats experience sonar interference, not only from densely cluttered environments, but also from calls of conspecifics foraging in close proximity. Previous work has shown that when two bats compete for a single prey item in a relatively open environment, one of the bats may go silent for extended periods of time, which can serve to minimize sonar interference between conspecifics. Additionally, pairs of big brown bats have been shown to adjust frequency characteristics of their vocalizations to avoid acoustic interference in echo processing. In this study, we extended previous work by examining how the presence of conspecifics and environmental clutter influence the bat's echolocation behavior. By recording multichannel audio and video data of bats engaged in insect capture in open and cluttered spaces, we quantified the bats' vocal and flight behaviors. Big brown bats flew individually and in pairs in an open and cluttered room, and the results of this study shed light on the different strategies that this species employs to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  17. Performance of Distributed CFAR Processors in Pearson Distributed Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messali Zoubeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the distributed constant false alarm rate (CFAR radar detection of targets embedded in heavy-tailed Pearson distributed clutter. In particular, we extend the results obtained for the cell averaging (CA, order statistics (OS, and censored mean level CMLD CFAR processors operating in positive alpha-stable (P&S random variables to more general situations, specifically to the presence of interfering targets and distributed CFAR detectors. The receiver operating characteristics of the greatest of (GO and the smallest of (SO CFAR processors are also determined. The performance characteristics of distributed systems are presented and compared in both homogeneous and in presence of interfering targets. We demonstrate, via simulation results, that the distributed systems when the clutter is modelled as positive alpha-stable distribution offer robustness properties against multiple target situations especially when using the "OR" fusion rule.

  18. Performance of Distributed CFAR Processors in Pearson Distributed Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Soltani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the distributed constant false alarm rate (CFAR radar detection of targets embedded in heavy-tailed Pearson distributed clutter. In particular, we extend the results obtained for the cell averaging (CA, order statistics (OS, and censored mean level CMLD CFAR processors operating in positive alpha-stable (P&S random variables to more general situations, specifically to the presence of interfering targets and distributed CFAR detectors. The receiver operating characteristics of the greatest of (GO and the smallest of (SO CFAR processors are also determined. The performance characteristics of distributed systems are presented and compared in both homogeneous and in presence of interfering targets. We demonstrate, via simulation results, that the distributed systems when the clutter is modelled as positive alpha-stable distribution offer robustness properties against multiple target situations especially when using the “OR” fusion rule.

  19. Multi-contact Variable-Compliance Manipulation in Extreme Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    house to find eggs and young. (b) When noodling , people find catfish holes from which to pull fish out. (c)-(d) A person makes contact along his...Figure 7: Haptic Map of detected rigid contacts. by mapping all the rigid taxels at every time- instant . For visualizing the haptic map, we use point...the environment while reaching into clutter. (a) A raccoon reaches into a bird house to find eggs and young. (b) When noodling , people find catfish

  20. Specification for a standard radar sea clutter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Richard A.

    1990-09-01

    A model for the average sea clutter radar cross section is proposed for the Oceanographic and Atmospheric Master Library. This model is a function of wind speed (or sea state), wind direction relative to the antenna, refractive conditions, radar antenna height, frequency, polarization, horizontal beamwidth, and compressed pulse length. The model is fully described, a FORTRAN 77 computer listing is provided, and test cases are given to demonstrate the proper operation of the program.

  1. High Grazing Angle Sea-Clutter Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    exact nature of this variation is complicated and involves the difference in temperature between the ocean surface and the surrounding air layer...distributions [80-83]. This work showed that the form of the optimal KK detector is extremely complicated and not feasible in a real radar system, while...the optimal Pareto detector is far simpler. Also, for coherent multi-look detection in a Pareto clutter environment, the whitening matched filter

  2. Trade Mark Cluttering: An Exploratory Report Commissioned by UKIPO

    OpenAIRE

    von Graevenitz, Georg; Greenhalgh, Christine; Helmers, Christian; Schautschick, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the problem of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The report consists of two parts: the first presents a conceptual discussion of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The second part provides an exploratory empirical analysis of trade mark applications at the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) and the European trade mark office (OHIM). This part contains results of a descriptive and an econometric analysis. According to our definition, cluttering arises where fir...

  3. Performance of Distributed CFAR Processors in Pearson Distributed Clutter

    OpenAIRE

    Messali Zoubeida; Soltani Faouzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the distributed constant false alarm rate (CFAR) radar detection of targets embedded in heavy-tailed Pearson distributed clutter. In particular, we extend the results obtained for the cell averaging (CA), order statistics (OS), and censored mean level CMLD CFAR processors operating in positive alpha-stable (P&S) random variables to more general situations, specifically to the presence of interfering targets and distributed CFAR detectors. The receiver operating ...

  4. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  5. Socially Grounded Analysis of Knowledge Management Systems and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, R.S.S.; Perini, A.; Dignum, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the struggle to survive and compete in face of constant technological changes and unstable business environments, organizations recognize knowledge as its most valuable asset. Consequently, these organizations often invest on Knowledge Management (KM), seeking to enhance their internal processes

  6. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented

  7. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  8. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Gunawan [The Earth Physics and Complex Systems Research Group (Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung Indonesia) gunawanhandayani@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  9. Enhancing Ground Based Telescope Performance with Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    called the hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) that is based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with another process to perform phase-unwraping [36, 45...47]. The HDA requires phase diversity similar to the LM least squares method used for characterizing the HST [32]. The problem of generating...addition, the new phase retrieval algorithm proposed in this chapter has the advantage over NASA’s hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) planned for use on JWST

  10. Phenomenology and Signal Processing for UXO/Clutter Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    29 Figure 25. (a) Pasion -Oldenburg model fit to the EMI response of a 4.2 inch mortar aligned transverse to the primary field...b) Comparison between the two-component and Pasion - Oldenburg model fits to the 4.2 inch mortar response...30 Figure 26. Pasion -Oldenburg exponent γ compared to the magnetic crossover time τM for model fits to EMI data collected

  11. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a curing process for canned ground ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Jo, Kyung; Lim, Yubong; Jeon, Hee Joon; Choe, Jun Ho; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment as a curing process for canned ground ham. APP treatment for 60min while mixing increased the nitrite content in the meat batters from 0.64 to 60.50mgkg -1 while the pH and the total content of aerobic bacteria in the meat batters were unchanged. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment for 30min displayed no difference in their physicochemical qualities, such as nitrosyl hemochrome, color, residual nitrite, texture, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation, compared with those of canned ground hams cured with sodium nitrite or celery powder at 42mgkg -1 of nitrite. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment received a higher score in taste and overall acceptability than those cured with sodium nitrite. Canned ground ham can be cured by the APP treatment without nitrite additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lazaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  13. Grounding Context in Face Processing: Color, Emotion and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eGil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (versus green, mixed red/green and achromatic background–known to be valenced−on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder’s gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension.

  14. Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    for obtaining vector flow measurements, since the spectra overlaps at high beam-to-flow angles. In this work a distinct approach is proposed, where the energy of the velocity spectrum is used to differentiate among the two signals. The energy based method is applied by limiting the amplitude of the velocity...... spectrum function to a predetermined threshold. The effect of the clutter filtering is evaluated on a plane wave (PW) scan sequence in combination with transverse oscillation (TO) and directional beamforming (DB) for velocity estimation. The performance of the filter is assessed by comparison...

  15. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl

    2006-01-01

    In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...

  16. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications. The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters. The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models. An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field. Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function. A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms. The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island, Virginia (SPANDAR). Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles, (ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated. This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  17. Wind turbine clutter mitigation in coastal UHF radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Pan, Chao; Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang

    2014-01-01

    Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness.

  18. The Development of the ITU-R Terrestrial Clutter Loss Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medbo, Jonas; Larsson, Christina; Olsson, Bengt Erik

    2018-01-01

    The ITU-R has recently published a new Recommendation giving methods for the estimation of clutter loss at frequencies between 30 MHz and 100 GHz. This paper provides an overview of the methods. In particular, the derivation and form of the new clutter model for terrestrial paths is described in ...

  19. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  20. Object Recognition in Clutter: Cortical Responses Depend on the Type of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eHegdé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that the visual system uses prior knowledge of visual objects to recognize them in visual clutter, and posit that the strategies for recognizing objects in clutter may differ depending on whether or not the object was learned in clutter to begin with. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of human subjects. We trained subjects to recognize naturalistic, yet novel objects in strong or weak clutter. We then tested subjects’ recognition performance for both sets of objects in strong clutter. We found many brain regions that were differentially responsive to objects during object recognition depending on whether they were learned in strong or weak clutter. In particular, the responses of the left fusiform gyrus reliably reflected, on a trial-to-trial basis, subjects’ object recognition performance for objects learned in the presence of strong clutter. These results indicate that the visual system does not use a single, general-purpose mechanism to cope with clutter. Instead, there are two distinct spatial patterns of activation whose responses are attributable not to the visual context in which the objects were seen, but to the context in which the objects were learned.

  1. Enhanced Algorithms for EO/IR Electronic Stabilization, Clutter Suppression, and Track-Before-Detect for Multiple Low Observable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    , and these objects may not always be resolvable in individual data frames. In the present paper, the performance of the developed algorithms is demonstrated using real-world data containing resident space objects observed from the MSX platform, with backgrounds varying from celestial to combined celestial and earth limb, with instances of extremely bright aurora clutter. Simulation results are also presented for parameterized variations in signal-to-clutter levels (down to 1/1000) and signal-to-noise levels (down to 1/6) for simulated targets against real-world terrestrial clutter backgrounds. We also discuss algorithm processing requirements and C++ software processing capabilities from our on-going MDA- and AFRL-sponsored development of an image processing toolkit (iPTK). In the current effort, the iPTK is being developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 by mid-2010, in preparation for possible integration with STSS-like, SBIRS high-like and SBSS-like surveillance suites.

  2. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  3. Ground processing of the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. E.; Maclean, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The payload assist module (PAM) ground processing operations which have evolved since they were started in 1982 are described. The objective of the changes was to reduce the prelaunch testing of the airborne support equipment to increase the throughput of PAM systems while not compromising the reliability of the system when functioned on-orbit. The changes that resulted from the initial cargo element ground processing, the on-orbit performance of the systems, plus the postflight refurbishment and recertification of the airborne support equipment resulted in significant reductions in labor expenditures and work shifts required to prepare a PAM system for flight.

  4. Door recognition in cluttered building interiors using imagery and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Lagüela, S.; Armesto, J.; Khoshelham, K.

    2014-06-01

    Building indoors reconstruction is an active research topic due to the importance of the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected, from architecture and furniture design, to movies and video games editing, or even crime scene investigation. Among the constructive elements defining the inside of a building, doors are important entities in applications like routing and navigation, and their automated recognition is advantageous e.g. in case of large multi-storey buildings with many office rooms. The inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process is increased by the presence of clutter and occlusions, difficult to avoid in indoor scenes. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors using information acquired in the form of point clouds and images. The methodology goes in depth with door detection and labelling as either opened, closed or furniture (false positive)

  5. Door recognition in cluttered building interiors using imagery and lidar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Díaz-Vilariño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Building indoors reconstruction is an active research topic due to the importance of the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected, from architecture and furniture design, to movies and video games editing, or even crime scene investigation. Among the constructive elements defining the inside of a building, doors are important entities in applications like routing and navigation, and their automated recognition is advantageous e.g. in case of large multi-storey buildings with many office rooms. The inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process is increased by the presence of clutter and occlusions, difficult to avoid in indoor scenes. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors using information acquired in the form of point clouds and images. The methodology goes in depth with door detection and labelling as either opened, closed or furniture (false positive

  6. A positioning system with no line-of-sight restrictions for cluttered environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Eric A.

    Accurate sensing of vehicle location and attitude is a fundamental requirement in many mobile-robot applications, but is a very challenging problem in the cluttered and unstructured environment of the real world. Many existing indoor positioning systems are limited in workspace and robustness because they require clear lines of sight or do not provide absolute, drift-free measurements. Examples include overhead vision systems, where an unobstructed view must be maintained between robot and camera, and inertial systems, where the measurements drift over time. The research presented in this dissertation provides a new location- and attitude-sensing system designed specifically to meet the challenges of operation in a realistic, cluttered indoor environment, such as that of an office building or warehouse. The system is not limited by line-of-sight restrictions and produces drift-free measurements throughout a three-dimensional operating volume that can span a large building. Accuracy of several centimeters and a few degrees is delivered at 10 Hz, and any number of the small sensor units can be in operation, all providing estimates in a common reference frame. This positioning system is based on extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, which have excellent characteristics for penetrating line-of-sight obstructions. Beacons located throughout the workspace create the low-level fields. A sensor unit on the mobile robot samples the local magnetic field and processes the measurements to determine its location and attitude. This research overcomes limitations in existing magnetic-based systems. The design of the signal structure, based on pseudorandom codes, enables the use of multiple, distributed L-beacons and greatly expands coverage volume. The development of real-time identification and correction methods mitigates the impact of distortions caused by materials in the environment. A novel solution algorithm combats both challenges, providing increased coverage volume

  7. Quality Improvement of Ground Works Process with the Use of Chosen Lean Management Tools - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Paslawski, Jerzy; Wysocki, Bartosz

    2017-12-01

    Ground works are one of the first processes connected with erecting structures. Based on ground conditions like the type of soil or level of underground water different types and solutions for foundations are designed. Foundations are the base for the buildings, and their proper design and execution is the key for the long and faultless use of the whole construction and might influence on the future costs of the eventual repairs (especially when ground water level is high, and there is no proper water insulation made). Article presents the introduction of chosen Lean Management tools for quality improvement of the process of ground works based on the analysis made on the construction site of vehicle control station located in Poznan, Poland. Processes assessment is made from different perspectives taking into account that 3 main groups of workers were directly involved in the process: blue collar-workers, site manager and site engineers. What is more comparison is made on the 3 points of view to the problems that might occur during this type of works, with details analysis on the causes of such situation? Authors presents also the change of approach of workers directly involved in the mentioned processes regarding introduction of Lean Management methodology, which illustrates the problem of scepticism for new ideas of the people used to perform works and actions in traditional way. Using Lean Management philosophy in construction is a good idea to streamline processes in company, get rid of constantly recurring problems, and in this way improve the productivity and quality of executed activities. Performed analysis showed that different groups of people have very different idea and opinion on the problems connected with executing the same process - ground works and only having full picture of the situation (especially in construction processes) management can take proper problems-preventing actions that consequently can influence on the amount of waste generated on

  8. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lind

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.

  9. Rapid visual grouping and figure-ground processing using temporally structured displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Samuel; Usher, Marius; Müller, Hermann J

    2010-08-23

    We examine the time course of visual grouping and figure-ground processing. Figure (contour) and ground (random-texture) elements were flickered with different phases (i.e., contour and background are alternated), requiring the observer to group information within a pre-specified time window. It was found this grouping has a high temporal resolution: less than 20ms for smooth contours, and less than 50ms for line conjunctions with sharp angles. Furthermore, the grouping process takes place without an explicit knowledge of the phase of the elements, and it requires a cumulative build-up of information. The results are discussed in relation to the neural mechanism for visual grouping and figure-ground segregation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Outdoor School Ground Lessons on Students' Science Process Skills and Scientific Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kan Lin; Siew, Nyet Moi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of outdoor school ground lessons on Year Five students' science process skills and scientific curiosity. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, one subjected to the experimental treatment, defined as…

  11. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  12. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  13. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  14. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ten-See Wang

    Full Text Available A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process. Keywords: Hydrogen decomposition reactions, Hydrogen recombination reactions, Hydrogen containment process, Nuclear thermal propulsion, Ground testing

  15. Modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple object recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the non-linear interpolation and generalization abilities of the hybrid optical neural network filter between the reference and non-reference images of the true-class object we designed the modifiedhybrid optical neural network filter. We applied an optical mask to the hybrid optical neural network's filter input. The mask was built with the constant weight connections of a randomly chosen image included in the training set. The resulted design of the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter is optimized for performing best in cluttered scenes of the true-class object. Due to the shift invariance properties inherited by its correlator unit the filter can accommodate multiple objects of the same class to be detected within an input cluttered image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the general hybrid optical neural network filter allows the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input cluttered image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. The filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously out-of-plane rotation, shift invariance and good clutter tolerance. It is able to successfully detect and classify correctly the true-class objects within background clutter for which there has been no previous training.

  16. Modern Approaches to the Computation of the Probability of Target Detection in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzler, Thomas J.

    The field of computer vision interacts with fields such as psychology, vision research, machine vision, psychophysics, mathematics, physics, and computer science. The focus of this thesis is new algorithms and methods for the computation of the probability of detection (Pd) of a target in a cluttered scene. The scene can be either a natural visual scene such as one sees with the naked eye (visual), or, a scene displayed on a monitor with the help of infrared sensors. The relative clutter and the temperature difference between the target and background (DeltaT) are defined and then used to calculate a relative signal -to-clutter ratio (SCR) from which the Pd is calculated for a target in a cluttered scene. It is shown how this definition can include many previous definitions of clutter and (DeltaT). Next, fuzzy and neural -fuzzy techniques are used to calculate the Pd and it is shown how these methods can give results that have a good correlation with experiment. The experimental design for actually measuring the Pd of a target by observers is described. Finally, wavelets are applied to the calculation of clutter and it is shown how this new definition of clutter based on wavelets can be used to compute the Pd of a target.

  17. Hyperspectral target detection analysis of a cluttered scene from a virtual airborne sensor platform using MuSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Klein, Mark D.

    2017-10-01

    The ability to predict spectral electro-optical (EO) signatures for various targets against realistic, cluttered backgrounds is paramount for rigorous signature evaluation. Knowledge of background and target signatures, including plumes, is essential for a variety of scientific and defense-related applications including contrast analysis, camouflage development, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development and scene material classification. The capability to simulate any desired mission scenario with forecast or historical weather is a tremendous asset for defense agencies, serving as a complement to (or substitute for) target and background signature measurement campaigns. In this paper, a systematic process for the physical temperature and visible-through-infrared radiance prediction of several diverse targets in a cluttered natural environment scene is presented. The ability of a virtual airborne sensor platform to detect and differentiate targets from a cluttered background, from a variety of sensor perspectives and across numerous wavelengths in differing atmospheric conditions, is considered. The process described utilizes the thermal and radiance simulation software MuSES and provides a repeatable, accurate approach for analyzing wavelength-dependent background and target (including plume) signatures in multiple band-integrated wavebands (multispectral) or hyperspectrally. The engineering workflow required to combine 3D geometric descriptions, thermal material properties, natural weather boundary conditions, all modes of heat transfer and spectral surface properties is summarized. This procedure includes geometric scene creation, material and optical property attribution, and transient physical temperature prediction. Radiance renderings, based on ray-tracing and the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model, are coupled with MODTRAN for the inclusion of atmospheric effects. This virtual hyperspectral/multispectral radiance prediction methodology has been

  18. Figure-ground organization and object recognition processes: an interactive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    1998-04-01

    Traditional bottom-up models of visual processing assume that figure-ground organization precedes object recognition. This assumption seems logically necessary: How can object recognition occur before a region is labeled as figure? However, some behavioral studies find that familiar regions are more likely to be labeled figure than less familiar regions, a problematic finding for bottom-up models. An interactive account is proposed in which figure-ground processes receive top-down input from object representations in a hierarchical system. A graded, interactive computational model is presented that accounts for behavioral results in which familiarity effects are found. The interactive model offers an alternative conception of visual processing to bottom-up models.

  19. The process of accepting breast cancer among Chinese women: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qin; Liu, Jun-E; Li, Zhi; Su, Ya-Li

    2017-06-01

    To describe the process by which Chinese women accept living with breast cancer. Individual interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese women who completed breast cancer treatment. Data were collected from September 2014 to January 2015 at a large tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. In this grounded theory study, data were analyzed using constant comparative and coding analysis methods. In order to explain the process of accepting having breast cancer among women in China through the grounded theory study, a model that includes 5 axial categories was developed. Cognitive reconstruction emerged as the core category. The extent to which the women with breast cancer accepted having the disease was found to increase with the treatment stage and as their treatment stage progressed with time. The accepting process included five stages: non-acceptance, passive acceptance, willingness to accept, behavioral acceptance, and transcendence of acceptance. Our study using grounded theory study develops a model describing the process by which women accept having breast cancer. The model provides some intervention opportunities at every point of the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  1. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Building bridges to observational perspectives: a grounded theory of therapy processes in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette

    2008-06-01

    This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.

  3. Seeking Humanizing Care in Patient-Centered Care Process: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.

  4. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in ground chicken breast meat during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R Y; Marks, B P; Johnson, E R; Johnson, M G

    1999-09-01

    Thermal inactivation of six Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua was evaluated in ground chicken breast and liquid medium. Survival of Salmonella and Listeria was affected by the medium composition. Under the same thermal process condition, significantly more Salmonella and Listeria survived in chicken breast meat than in 0.1% peptone-agar solution. The thermal lethality of six tested Salmonella spp. was additive in chicken meat. Survival of Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing was not affected by the presence of the six Salmonella spp. Sample size and shape affected the inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing.

  6. Using FDFD Technique in Two-Dimensional TE Analysis for Modeling Clutter in Wall Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Insana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference frequency domain (FDFD computational electromagnetic modeling is implemented to perform a two-dimensional TEz analysis for the application of wall penetrating radar (WPR. Resolving small targets of interest, embedded in a strong clutter environment of unknown configuration, is difficult. Field interaction between clutter elements will dominate the received fields back-scattered from the scene. Removing the effects of clutter ultimately relies on the accuracy of the model. Analysis starts with a simple model that continues to build based on the dominant scattering features of the scene. FDFD provides a steady state frequency response to a discrete excitation. Taking the fast Fourier transform of the wideband response of the scene, at several external transmit/receive locations, produces 2D images of the clutter, which are used to mature the model.

  7. Improved Shape Parameter Estimation in Pareto Distributed Clutter with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem faced by naval radars is the elimination of the clutter input which is a distortion signal appearing mixed with target reflections. Recently, the Pareto distribution has been related to sea clutter measurements suggesting that it may provide a better fit than other traditional distributions. The authors propose a new method for estimating the Pareto shape parameter based on artificial neural networks. The solution achieves a precise estimation of the parameter, having a low computational cost, and outperforming the classic method which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE. The presented scheme contributes to the development of the NATE detector for Pareto clutter, which uses the knowledge of clutter statistics for improving the stability of the detection, among other applications.

  8. COMPARING IMAGE-BASED METHODS FOR ASSESSING VISUAL CLUTTER IN GENERALIZED MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Touya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization abstracts and simplifies geographic information to derive maps at smaller scales. The automation of map generalization requires techniques to evaluate the global quality of a generalized map. The quality and legibility of a generalized map is related to the complexity of the map, or the amount of clutter in the map, i.e. the excessive amount of information and its disorganization. Computer vision research is highly interested in measuring clutter in images, and this paper proposes to compare some of the existing techniques from computer vision, applied to generalized maps evaluation. Four techniques from the literature are described and tested on a large set of maps, generalized at different scales: edge density, subband entropy, quad tree complexity, and segmentation clutter. The results are analyzed against several criteria related to generalized maps, the identification of cluttered areas, the preservation of the global amount of information, the handling of occlusions and overlaps, foreground vs background, and blank space reduction.

  9. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze ...

  10. Mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main task of mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchanger (BHE-Borehole Heat Exchanger is to determine the unit of borehole depth heat flux obtainable or transferred during the operation of the installation. This assignment is indirectly associated with finding the circulating fluid temperature flowing out from the U-tube at a given inlet temperature of fluid in respect to other operational parameters of the installation.

  11. Advances in the testing and evaluation of airborne radar through realtime simulation of synthetic clutter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and Evaluation of Airborne Radar through Realtime Simulation of Synthetic Clutter Presenter: Jurgen Strydom Systems Engineer & Signal Analyst Experimental EW Systems, CSIR Email: jjstrydom@csir.co.za Co-authors: Jacques Cilliers, CSIR 48th AOC Conference... environment simulation domain ? CSIR 2011 Slide 2 ? Technological advancements and challenges in the simulation of clutter for an airborne radar platform is discussed Where we are from: South Africa ? CSIR 2011 Slide 3 Health Natural Environment...

  12. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  13. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  14. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  15. Managing Clutter in a High Pulse Rate Echolocation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Isbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of echolocation for navigating in dense, cluttered environments is a challenge due to the need for rapid sampling of nearby objects in the face of delayed echoes from distant objects. In the wild, echolocating bats frequently encounter this situation when leaving the roost or while hunting. If long-delay echoes from a distant object are received after the next pulse is sent out, these “aliased” echoes appear as close-range phantom objects. Little is known about how bats cope with these situations. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy to manage aliasing in cases where a single target is actively being tracked at close range. This paper presents three reactive strategies for a high pulse-rate sonar system to combat aliased echoes: (1 changing the interpulse interval to move the aliased echoes away in time from the tracked target, (2 changing positions to create a geometry without aliasing, and (3 a phase-based, transmission beam-shaping strategy to illuminate the target and not the aliasing object.

  16. Shape-assisted body reorientation enhances trafficability through cluttered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew; Haldane, Duncan; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Many birds and fishes have slender, streamlined bodies that reduce fluid dynamic drag and allow fast and efficient locomotion. Similarly, numerous terrestrial animals run through cluttered terrain where 3-D, multi-component obstacles like grass, bushes, trees, walls, doors, and pillars also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role. Here, we challenged discoid cockroaches that possess a rounded, thin, nearly ellipsoidal body to run through tall, narrowly spaced, grass-like beams. The animals primarily rolled their body to the side to maneuver through the obstacle gaps. Reduction of body roundness by artificial shells inhibited this side roll maneuver, resulting in a lower traversal probability and a longer traversal time (P exoskeleton shell to a legged robot of a nearly cuboidal body. The rounded shell enabled the robot to use passive side rolling to maneuver through beams. To explain the mechanism, we developed a simple physics model to construct an energy landscape of the body-terrain interaction, which allowed estimation of body forces and torques exerted by the beams. Our model revealed that, by passive interaction with the terrain, a rounded body (ellipsoid) rolled more easily than an angular body (cuboid) to access energy valleys between energy barriers caused by obstacles. Our study is the first to demonstrate that a terradynamically ``streamlined'' shape can reduce terrain resistance and enhance trafficability by assisting body reorientation.

  17. Trait-specific processes of convergence and conservatism shape ecomorphological evolution in ground-dwelling squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Goodwin, H Thomas; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity. Using four ecologically relevant trait datasets (body size, cranial, mandibular, and molariform tooth shape), we compared and contrasted variation, covariation, and disparity patterns in a new phylogenetic framework. Strong correlations existed between body size and two skull traits (allometry) and among skull traits themselves (integration). Inferred evolutionary modes were also concordant across traits (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck with two adaptive regimes). However, despite these broad similarities, we found divergent dynamics on the macroevolutionary landscape, with phenotypic disparity being differentially shaped by convergence and conservatism. Such among-trait heterogeneity in process (but not always pattern) reiterates the mosaic nature of morphological evolution, and suggests ground squirrel evolution is poorly captured by single process descriptors. Our results also highlight how use of single traits can bias macroevolutionary inference, affirming the importance of broader trait-bases in understanding phenotypic evolutionary dynamics. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  19. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  20. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.; Zander, M.; Brown, S.; Sandoval, D.; Gilpatrick, D.; Gibson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) is discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. (Author) (3 figs., 4 refs.)

  1. A Grounded Theory of the Process of Spiritual Change Among Homicide Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon K; Zitzmann, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Grounded theory was used to generate a mid-range theory of the process of spiritual change in the lives of survivors of homicide victims. Theoretical sampling guided the selection of 30 participants from a larger study of spiritual change after homicide ( N = 112). Individual interviews were analyzed using a four-step sequence of line-by-line, focused, axial, and selective coding. Analysis generated a closed theory consisting of three fluids, consecutive but nonlinear stages. Each stage consisted of an overarching process and a state of being in the world: (a) Disintegrating: living in a state of shock; (b) Reckoning: living in a state of stagnation; (c) Recreating and reintegrating the self: living in a state of renewal. Movement through the stages was fueled by processes of spiritual connection that yielded changes that permeated the theory. Findings can be used to help practitioners address the processes that drive spiritual change in the lives of homicide survivors.

  2. Cascade air stripping: Techno-economic evaluation of a new ground water treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakhandan, N.; Peace, G.L.; Shanbhag, A.R.; Speece, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A simple modification of the conventional air-stripping process introduced as cascade air stripping is proposed for efficient and economical removal of semivolatile and low volatility contaminants from ground water. The technical feasibility and economic viability of this process are evaluated using field test results and cost model simulations. The field tests enabled the process model to be verified at various water flow rates ranging from 150 gpm to 400 gpm. The field study also demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed system at a near full-scale level. Cost models were used to compare the proposed process to conventional air stripping and granular-activated carbon adsorption in removing a range of contaminants. This analysis showed that the treatment cost (cents/1,000 gal) of cascade air stripping is about 15% lower than conventional air stripping and about 40% lower than granular-activated carbon adsorption

  3. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  4. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick Roseboom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  5. Neural dynamics of feedforward and feedback processing in figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W; Mingolla, Ennio; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedback plays a crucial role in disambiguating a figure's interior and exterior. We introduce a processing strategy whereby jitter in RF center locations and variation in RF sizes is exploited to enhance and suppress neural activity inside and outside of figures, respectively. Feedforward projections emanate from units that model cells in V4 known to respond to the curvature of boundary contours (curved contour cells), and feedback projections from units predicted to exist in IT that strategically group neurons with different RF sizes and RF center locations (teardrop cells). Neurons (convex cells) that preferentially respond when centered on a figure dynamically balance feedforward (bottom-up) information and feedback from higher visual areas. The activation is enhanced when an interior portion of a figure is in the RF via feedback from units that detect closure in the boundary contours of a figure. Our model produces maximal activity along the medial axis of well-known figures with and without concavities, and inside algorithmically generated shapes. Our results suggest that the dynamic balancing of feedforward signals with the specific feedback mechanisms proposed by the model is crucial for figure-ground segregation.

  6. Neural Dynamics of Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Figure-Ground Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Layton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedback plays a crucial role in disambiguating a figure’s interior and exterior. We introduce a processing strategy whereby jitter in RF center locations and variation in RF sizes is exploited to enhance and suppress neural activity inside and outside of figures, respectively. Feedforward projections emanate from units that model cells in V4 known to respond to the curvature of boundary contours (curved contour cells, and feedback projections from units predicted to exist in IT that strategically group neurons with different RF sizes and RF center locations (teardrop cells. Neurons (convex cells that preferentially respond when centered on a figure dynamically balance feedforward (bottom-up information and feedback from higher visual areas. The activation is enhanced when an interior portion of a figure is in the RF via feedback from units that detect closure in the boundary contours of a figure. Our model produces maximal activity along the medial axis of well-known figures with and without concavities, and inside algorithmically generated shapes. Our results suggest that the dynamic balancing of feedforward signals with the specific feedback mechanisms proposed by the model is crucial for figure-ground segregation.

  7. Neural dynamics of feedforward and feedback processing in figure-ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W.; Mingolla, Ennio; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedback plays a crucial role in disambiguating a figure's interior and exterior. We introduce a processing strategy whereby jitter in RF center locations and variation in RF sizes is exploited to enhance and suppress neural activity inside and outside of figures, respectively. Feedforward projections emanate from units that model cells in V4 known to respond to the curvature of boundary contours (curved contour cells), and feedback projections from units predicted to exist in IT that strategically group neurons with different RF sizes and RF center locations (teardrop cells). Neurons (convex cells) that preferentially respond when centered on a figure dynamically balance feedforward (bottom-up) information and feedback from higher visual areas. The activation is enhanced when an interior portion of a figure is in the RF via feedback from units that detect closure in the boundary contours of a figure. Our model produces maximal activity along the medial axis of well-known figures with and without concavities, and inside algorithmically generated shapes. Our results suggest that the dynamic balancing of feedforward signals with the specific feedback mechanisms proposed by the model is crucial for figure-ground segregation. PMID:25346703

  8. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  9. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  10. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  11. Site Effect Assessment of Earthquake Ground Motion Based on Advanced Data Processing of Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; He, K.; Mehl, R.; Wang, W.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution near-surface geologic information is essential for earthquake ground motion prediction. The near-surface geology forms the critical constituent to influence seismic wave propagation, which is known as the local site effects. We have collected microtremor data over 1000 sites in Beijing area for extracting the much needed earthquake engineering parameters (primarily sediment thickness, with the shear wave velocity profiling at a few important control points) in this heavily populated urban area. Advanced data processing algorithms are employed in various stages in assessing the local site effect on earthquake ground motion. First, we used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), also known as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), to enhance the microtremor data analysis by excluding the local transients and continuous monochromic industrial noises. With this enhancement we have significantly increased the number of data points to be useful in delineating sediment thickness in this area. Second, we have used the cross-correlation of microtremor data acquired for the pairs of two adjacent sites to generate a 'pseudo-reflection' record, which can be treated as the Green function of the 1D layered earth model at the site. The sediment thickness information obtained this way is also consistent with the results obtained by the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method (HVSR). For most sites in this area, we can achieve 'self consistent' results among different processing skechems regarding to the sediment thickness - the fundamental information to be used in assessing the local site effect. Finally, the pseudo-spectral time domain method was used to simulate the seismic wave propagation caused by a scenario earthquake in this area - the 1679 M8 Sanhe-pinggu earthquake. The characteristics of the simulated earthquake ground motion have found a general correlation with the thickness of the sediments in this area. And more importantly, it is also in agreement

  12. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus

    2017-08-01

    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  13. A clutter removal method for the Doppler ultrasound signal based on a nonlinear diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Xin Pengcheng; Bian Zhengzhong; Yu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Strong clutter components produced by stationary and slow-moving tissue structures render the lower frequency part of the spectrogram useless and degrade the accuracy of clinical ultrasound indices. An adaptive method based on the nonlinear forward-and-backward diffusion equation (FAB-DE) is proposed to remove strong clutter components from the contaminated Doppler signal. The clutter signal is extracted first by the FAB-DE accurately, in which the nonlinear diffusion coefficient function of the FAB-DE locally adjusts according to signal features and the diffusion adaptively switches between forward and backward mode. The present method has been validated by simulated and realistic pulse wave Doppler signals, and compared with the conventional high pass filter and the matching pursuit method. The simulation results, including spectrogram, mean velocity error, standard deviation of mean velocity and signal-to-clutter ratio of a decontaminated signal, demonstrate that the present FAB-DE method can remove clutter sufficiently and retain more low blood components simultaneously as compared with the other two methods. Results of the realistic Doppler blood signal, including spectrogram and low-frequency part of the spectrum, support the conclusion drawn from simulation cases

  14. Signs of depth-luminance covariance in 3-D cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccia, Milena; Langer, Michael S

    2018-03-01

    In three-dimensional (3-D) cluttered scenes such as foliage, deeper surfaces often are more shadowed and hence darker, and so depth and luminance often have negative covariance. We examined whether the sign of depth-luminance covariance plays a role in depth perception in 3-D clutter. We compared scenes rendered with negative and positive depth-luminance covariance where positive covariance means that deeper surfaces are brighter and negative covariance means deeper surfaces are darker. For each scene, the sign of the depth-luminance covariance was given by occlusion cues. We tested whether subjects could use this sign information to judge the depth order of two target surfaces embedded in 3-D clutter. The clutter consisted of distractor surfaces that were randomly distributed in a 3-D volume. We tested three independent variables: the sign of the depth-luminance covariance, the colors of the targets and distractors, and the background luminance. An analysis of variance showed two main effects: Subjects performed better when the deeper surfaces were darker and when the color of the target surfaces was the same as the color of the distractors. There was also a strong interaction: Subjects performed better under a negative depth-luminance covariance condition when targets and distractors had different colors than when they had the same color. Our results are consistent with a "dark means deep" rule, but the use of this rule depends on the similarity between the color of the targets and color of the 3-D clutter.

  15. Three-dimensional model-based object recognition and segmentation in cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Ajmal S; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Owens, Robyn

    2006-10-01

    Viewpoint independent recognition of free-form objects and their segmentation in the presence of clutter and occlusions is a challenging task. We present a novel 3D model-based algorithm which performs this task automatically and efficiently. A 3D model of an object is automatically constructed offline from its multiple unordered range images (views). These views are converted into multidimensional table representations (which we refer to as tensors). Correspondences are automatically established between these views by simultaneously matching the tensors of a view with those of the remaining views using a hash table-based voting scheme. This results in a graph of relative transformations used to register the views before they are integrated into a seamless 3D model. These models and their tensor representations constitute the model library. During online recognition, a tensor from the scene is simultaneously matched with those in the library by casting votes. Similarity measures are calculated for the model tensors which receive the most votes. The model with the highest similarity is transformed to the scene and, if it aligns accurately with an object in the scene, that object is declared as recognized and is segmented. This process is repeated until the scene is completely segmented. Experiments were performed on real and synthetic data comprised of 55 models and 610 scenes and an overall recognition rate of 95 percent was achieved. Comparison with the spin images revealed that our algorithm is superior in terms of recognition rate and efficiency.

  16. Reflective processes of practitioners in head and neck cancer rehabilitation: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caty, Marie-Ève; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Doyle, Philip C

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically examined how experienced Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) use the processes of reflection to develop knowledge relevant for practice in the context of head and neck cancer (HNC) rehabilitation. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 SLPs working in HNC rehabilitation in North America. Grounded theory methodology was adopted for data collection and analysis. The findings inform a preliminary reflective practice model that depicts the processes of reflection used by practitioners interviewed. Nine categories of reflective processes were identified by participant SLPs in terms of the processes of reflection: ongoing questioning, experimenting through trial and error, integrating knowledge from past cases, embracing surprise, thinking out of the box, being in the moment, consulting with colleagues, putting oneself in the patients' shoes, and discerning ethical issues. These findings provide empirical evidence that supports Schön's theory of reflective practice and contribute to knowledge about the ways in which SLPs use processes of reflection in the context of HNC rehabilitation. The findings of this study have implications for how SLPs perceive and consider their role as knowledge-users and knowledge producers in their day-to-day clinical work, as well as for building capacity for reflective practice.

  17. Facial expression, size, and clutter: Inferences from movie structure to emotion judgments and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E; Armstrong, Kacie L

    2016-04-01

    The perception of facial expressions and objects at a distance are entrenched psychological research venues, but their intersection is not. We were motivated to study them together because of their joint importance in the physical composition of popular movies-shots that show a larger image of a face typically have shorter durations than those in which the face is smaller. For static images, we explore the time it takes viewers to categorize the valence of different facial expressions as a function of their visual size. In two studies, we find that smaller faces take longer to categorize than those that are larger, and this pattern interacts with local background clutter. More clutter creates crowding and impedes the interpretation of expressions for more distant faces but not proximal ones. Filmmakers at least tacitly know this. In two other studies, we show that contemporary movies lengthen shots that show smaller faces, and even more so with increased clutter.

  18. Simulation and Prediction of Weather Radar Clutter Using a Wave Propagator on High Resolution NWP Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...

  19. A biophysical process based approach for estimating net primary production using satellite and ground observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    An approach is presented for calculating interannual variation of net primary production (C) of terrestrial plant communities at regional scale using satellite and ground measurements. C has been calculated as the difference of gross photosynthesis (A g) and respiration (R), recognizing that different biophysical factors exert major control on these two processes. A g has been expressed as the product of radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis by an unstressed canopy and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, which is then adjusted for stresses due to soil water shortage and temperature away from optimum. R has been calculated as the sum of growth and maintenance components (respectively, R g and R m. The R m has been determined from nitrogen content of plant tissue per unit ground area, while R g has been obtained as a fraction of the difference of A g and R m. Model parameters have not been determined by matching the calculated fluxes against observations at any location. Results are presented for cultivated and temperate deciduous forest areas over North America for five consecutive years (1986-1990) and compared with observations.

  20. Electron pumping of the ground state of 21Ne. Transfers and multiple diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, F.; Lombardi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron-pumping process of the ground state of 21 Ne has been studied. It is demonstrated how in a neon cell at a pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -2 torr, a high frequency discharge can create a nuclear spin alignment in the fundamental level (I=3/2) when the excited levels are themselves aligned. The nuclear alignment is observed by monitoring the change of the linear polarization of several optical transitions during the magnetic resonance of the fundamental level. Various transfers of the alignments are investigated and a detailed study of the influence of the multiple diffusion is carried out. The multiple diffusion produces a depolarization and a relaxation of the nuclear spin. A theoretical calculation has been made for a two-level system with a J=1 radiative level and a J=0 ground state. Experimentally a relaxation time of the nuclear alignment varying from 37 ms to 240 ms is observed when the neon pressure decreases from 10 -2 to 10 -4 torr [fr

  1. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. Results: In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Conclusions: Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems. PMID:24627750

  2. The process of adopting and incorporating simulation into undergraduate nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -band Airborne Land Clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa J.J. de Witt and J.J. Strydom Abstract: This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types...

  4. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP

  5. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail: bradywang@hit.edu.cn; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  6. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 132 I, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h −1 per initial 137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 , whereas it was 100 μGy h −1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively

  7. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  8. Explaining of chronic pain management process in older people: A grounded theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Manouchehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Materials and Method: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.

  9. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  10. Explaining of chronic pain management process in older people: A grounded theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Shirazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Methods: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.

  11. The process of patient enablement in general practice nurse consultations: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Phillips, Christine; Mills, Jane

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. This study used a constructivist grounded theory design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 general practice nurses and 23 patients from 21 general practices between September 2013 - March 2014. Data generation and analysis were conducted concurrently using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling focussing on the process and outcomes of patient enablement. Use of the storyline technique supported theoretical coding and integration of the data into a theoretical model. A clearly defined social process that fostered and optimised patient enablement was constructed. The theory of 'developing enabling healthcare partnerships between nurses and patients in general practice' incorporates three stages: triggering enabling healthcare partnerships, tailoring care and the manifestation of patient enablement. Patient enablement was evidenced through: 1. Patients' understanding of their unique healthcare requirements informing their health seeking behaviours and choices; 2. Patients taking an increased lead in their partnership with a nurse and seeking choices in their care and 3. Patients getting health care that reflected their needs, preferences and goals. This theoretical model is in line with a patient-centred model of health care and is particularly suited to patients with chronic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oxidation-reduction processes in ground water at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Braun, Christopher L.; Lee, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of trichloroethene in ground water at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in Dallas, Texas, indicate three source areas of chlorinated solvents?building 1, building 6, and an off-site source west of the facility. The presence of daughter products of reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene, which were not used at the facility, south and southwest of the source areas are evidence that reductive dechlorination is occurring. In places south of the source areas, dissolved oxygen concentrations indicated that reduction of oxygen could be the dominant process, particularly south of building 6; but elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations south of building 6 might be caused by a leaking water or sewer pipe. The nitrite data indicate that denitrification is occurring in places; however, dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that iron reduction is the dominant process south of building 6. The distributions of ferrous iron indicate that iron reduction is occurring in places south-southwest of buildings 6 and 1; dissolved hydrogen concentrations generally support the interpretation that iron reduction is the dominant process in those places. The generally low concentrations of sulfide indicate that sulfate reduction is not a key process in most sampled areas, an interpretation that is supported by dissolved hydrogen concentrations. Ferrous iron and dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that ferric iron reduction is the primary oxidation-reduction process. Application of mean first-order decay rates in iron-reducing conditions for trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride yielded half-lives for those solvents of 231, 347, and 2.67 days, respectively. Decay rates, and thus half-lives, at the facility are expected to be similar to those computed. A weighted scoring method to indicate sites where reductive dechlorination might be likely to occur indicated strong evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents at six sites

  13. Processing grounded-wire TEM signal in time-frequency-pseudo-seismic domain: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Y.; Xue, G. Q.; Chen, W.; Huasen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grounded-wire TEM has received great attention in mineral, hydrocarbon and hydrogeological investigations for the last several years. Conventionally, TEM soundings have been presented as apparent resistivity curves as function of time. With development of sophisticated computational algorithms, it became possible to extract more realistic geoelectric information by applying inversion programs to 1-D & 3-D problems. Here, we analyze grounded-wire TEM data by carrying out analysis in time, frequency and pseudo-seismic domain supported by borehole information. At first, H, K, A & Q type geoelectric models are processed using a proven inversion program (1-D Occam inversion). Second, time-to-frequency transformation is conducted from TEM ρa(t) curves to magneto telluric MT ρa(f) curves for the same models based on all-time apparent resistivity curves. Third, 1-D Bostick's algorithm was applied to the transformed resistivity. Finally, EM diffusion field is transformed into propagating wave field obeying the standard wave equation using wavelet transformation technique and constructed pseudo-seismic section. The transformed seismic-like wave indicates that some reflection and refraction phenomena appear when the EM wave field interacts with geoelectric interface at different depth intervals due to contrast in resistivity. The resolution of the transformed TEM data is significantly improved in comparison to apparent resistivity plots. A case study illustrates the successful hydrogeophysical application of proposed approach in recovering water-filled mined-out area in a coal field located in Ye county, Henan province, China. The results support the introduction of pseudo-seismic imaging technology in short-offset version of TEM which can also be an useful aid if integrated with seismic reflection technique to explore possibilities for high resolution EM imaging in future.

  14. Breaking through the clutter : Benefits of advertisement originality and familiarity for brand attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R; Warlop, L; Wedel, M

    Rising levels of advertising competition have made it increasingly difficult to attract and hold consumers' attention and to establish strong memory traces for the advertised brand. A common communication strategy to break through this competitive clutter is to increase ad originality However, ad

  15. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  16. Spectral Polarimetric Features Analysis of Wind Turbine Clutter in Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Krasnov, O.A.; Unal, C.M.H.; Medagli, S.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbine clutter has gradually become a concern for the radar community for its increasing size and quantity worldwide. Based on the S-band polarimetric Doppler PARSAX radar measurements, this paper demonstrates the micro-Doppler features and spectral-polarimetric characteristic of wind turbine

  17. A clinical delineation of tachyphemia (cluttering) | Op't Hof | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cluttering constitutes one of the most important disorders of speech, language and communication in general. The majority of c1utterers are themselves unaware of the disorder. The problems of definition, symptomatology, aetiology and relationship to stuttering and hereditary aspects, are discussed. A preliminary case ...

  18. Realtime generation of K-Distributed sea clutter for hardware in the loop radar evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, Johannes R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a practical implementation for the generation of real-time K-Distributed correlated sea-clutter in firmware. The method uses a dual cumulative distribution function (CDF) based look-up method to transpose a complex uniformly...

  19. Analysis of high resolution land clutter using an X-band radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Melebari, A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . Measurements were performed with an X-band radar system with two instantaneous bandwidths of 40 MHz and 400 MHz. The clutter data was analyzed by fitting the amplitude Probability Distribution Function (PDF) to different distributions using the Method...

  20. Modelling ground deformation patterns associated with volcanic processes at the Okataina Volcanic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.

    2017-09-01

    The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the

  1. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are frequently implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D-10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 individua...

  2. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2018-01-01

    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rindell, PhD.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

  4. Neural Dynamics of Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Figure-Ground Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver W. Layton; Ennio eMingolla; Arash eYazdanbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedba...

  5. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman

    2010-01-01

    The United States NASA Space Shuttle has long been considered an extremely capable yet relatively expensive rocket. A great part of the roughly US $500 million per launch expense was the support footprint: refurbishment and maintenance of the space shuttle system, together with the long list of resources required to support it, including personnel, tools, facilities, transport and support equipment. NASA determined to make its next rocket system with a smaller logistics footprint, and thereby more cost-effective and quicker turnaround. The logical solution was to adopt a standard Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process based on GEIA-STD-0007 http://www.logisticsengineers.org/may09pres/GEIASTD0007DEXShortIntro.pdf which is the successor of MIL-STD-1388-2B widely used by U.S., NATO, and other world military services and industries. This approach is unprecedented at NASA: it is the first time a major program of programs, Project Constellation, is factoring logistics and supportability into design at many levels. This paper will focus on one of those levels NASA ground support equipment for the next generation of NASA rockets and on building a Logistics Support Analysis Record (LSAR) for developing and documenting a support solution and inventory of resources for. This LSAR is actually a standards-based database, containing analyses of the time and tools, personnel, facilities and support equipment required to assemble and integrate the stages and umbilicals of a rocket. This paper will cover building this database from scratch: including creating and importing a hierarchical bill of materials (BOM) from legacy data; identifying line-replaceable units (LRUs) of a given piece of equipment; analyzing reliability and maintainability of said LRUs; and therefore making an assessment back to design whether the support solution for a piece of equipment is too much work, i.e., too resource-intensive. If one must replace or inspect an LRU too much, perhaps a modification of

  6. Web Monitoring of EOS Front-End Ground Operations, Science Downlinks and Level 0 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Wilkinson, Chris; McLemore, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the efforts undertaken and the technology deployed to aggregate and distribute the metadata characterizing the real-time operations associated with NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS) high-rate front-end systems and the science data collected at multiple ground stations and forwarded to the Goddard Space Flight Center for level 0 processing. Station operators, mission project management personnel, spacecraft flight operations personnel and data end-users for various EOS missions can retrieve the information at any time from any location having access to the internet. The users are distributed and the EOS systems are distributed but the centralized metadata accessed via an external web server provide an effective global and detailed view of the enterprise-wide events as they are happening. The data-driven architecture and the implementation of applied middleware technology, open source database, open source monitoring tools, and external web server converge nicely to fulfill the various needs of the enterprise. The timeliness and content of the information provided are key to making timely and correct decisions which reduce project risk and enhance overall customer satisfaction. The authors discuss security measures employed to limit access of data to authorized users only.

  7. CryoSat-2 Payload Data Ground Segment and Data Processing Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badessi, S.; Frommknecht, B.; Parrinello, T.; Mizzi, L.

    2012-04-01

    Selected as the first Earth Explorer Opportunity mission and following the launch failure of Cryosat-1 in 2005, the Cryosat-2 mission was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a baseline 3-year period. The main CryoSat-2 mission objectives can be summarised in the determination of the regional and basin-scale trends in perennial Arctic sea ice thickness and mass, and in the determination of regional and total contributions to global sea level of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice. Therefore, the observations made over the life time of the mission will provide conclusive evidence as to whether there is a trend towards diminishing polar ice cover and consequently improve our understanding of the relationship between ice and global climate change. Scope of this paper is to describe the Cryosat-2 Ground Segment present configuration and its main function to satisfy the Cryosat-2 mission requirements. In particular, the paper will highlight the current status of the processing of the SIRAL instrument L1b and L2 products in terms of completeness and availability. Additional information will be also given on the PDGS current status and planned evolution, the latest product and processor updates and the status of the associated reprocessing campaign.

  8. The Role of Sexual Disorder in FormingDivorce Process: a Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H enayat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: consequences resulting in the increase of the divorce rate in the Iranian society, which surrounded all individuals, families and society, has prepared the background of the present study. The main purpose of the present study was demonstrating a paradigm model of the role of sexual disorder in forming the divorce process among men in Iran. Method: The present study was conducted by applying a qualitative method using the grounded theory approach in Gachsaran, Iran, in 2014. The participants of the study were 15 divorced men who were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were gathered using depth interview, and were analyzed with coding paradigm. Results: according to the coding paradigm, men's sexual dysfunctional as a causal condition, physical disease, mind stress, and age difference between couples as a contextual condition, culture of drug abuse for satisfaction of sexual relation, and infidelity as an interventional condition, caused disorder in their sexual relationship. These men and their wives applied various strategies, such as drug abuse, disconnected sexual relation with each other, and latent violence in order to counteract this phenomenon. Conclusion: The narrative of participants of the present study revealed that disorder in their sexual relation led to other social problems, such as drug abuse, domestic violence, and infidelity in their families. Moreover, these problems led to other disorders in their sexual relationship with their wives, which eventually ended to emotional, sexual and legal divorce.

  9. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  10. The CRYOSAT-2 Payload Ground Segment: Data Processing Status and Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, T.; Frommknecht, B.; Gilles, P.

    2010-12-01

    Selected as the first Earth Explorer Opportunity mission and following the launch failure of Cryosat-1 in 2005, the Cryosat-2 mission was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. The main CryoSat-2 mission objectives can be summarised in the determination of the regional and basin-scale trends in perennial Arctic sea ice thickness and mass, and in the determination of regional and total contributions to global sea level of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice. Therefore, the observations made over the life time of the mission will provide conclusive evidence as to whether there is a trend towards diminishing polar ice cover and consequently improve our understanding of the relationship between ice and global climate change. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Scope of this paper is to describe the Cryosat Ground Segment and its main function to satisfy the Cryosat mission requirements. In particular, the paper will discuss the processing steps necessary to produce SIRAL L1b waveform power data and the SIRAL L2 geophysical elevation data from the raw data acquired by the satellite. The papers will also present the current status of the data processing in terms of completeness, availability and data access to the scientific community.

  11. Decision making process and factors contributing to research participation among general practitioners: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Lee, Ping Yein; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Khoo, Ee Ming; Tahir, Noor Azizah; Idris, Iliza; Ismail, Mastura; Abdullah, Adina

    2018-01-01

    The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs' decision-making process to participate in research. We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels. The GPs' decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs' decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs' participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs' confidence in taking part in future research. The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs' social

  12. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps

  13. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  14. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion

  15. A Grounded Theory of Adolescent High School Women's Choir Singers' Process of Social Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the process of social identity development for adolescent high school women's choir participants. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to identify three public high school women's choirs where 54 interviews were conducted with 40 different public school singers. Three waves of data…

  16. Below-ground process responses to elevated CO2 and temperature: a discussion of observations, measurement methods, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elise Pendall; Scott Bridgham; Paul J. Hanson; Bruce Hungate; David W. Kicklighter; Dale W. Johnson; Beverly E. Law; Yiqi Luo; J. Patrick Megonigal; Maria Olsrud; Michael G. Ryan; Shiqiang Wan

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 and temperatures are probably altering ecosystem carbon cycling, causing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate. Below-ground processes play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle because they regulate storage of large quantities of C, and are potentially very sensitive to direct and indirect effects of elevated...

  17. The effect of recognizability on figure-ground processing: does it affect parsing or only figure selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David

    2011-03-01

    Though figure-ground assignment has been shown to be probably affected by recognizability, it appears sensible that object recognition must follow at least the earlier process of figure-ground segregation. To examine whether or not rudimentary object recognition could, counterintuitively, start even before the completion of the stage of parsing in which figure-ground segregation is done, participants were asked to respond, in a go/no-go fashion, whenever any out of 16 alternative connected patterns (that constituted familiar stimuli in the upright orientation) appeared. The white figure of the to-be-attended stimulus-target or foil-could be segregated from the white ambient ground only by means of a frame surrounding it. Such a frame was absent until the onset of target display. Then, to manipulate organizational quality, the greyness of the frame was either gradually increased from zero (in Experiment 1) or changed abruptly to a stationary level whose greyness was varied between trials (in Experiments 2 and 3). Stimulus recognizability was manipulated by orientation angle. In all three experiments the effect of recognizability was found to be considerably larger when organizational quality was minimal due to an extremely faint frame. This result is argued to be incompatible with any version of a serial thesis suggesting that processing aimed at object recognition starts only with a good enough level of organizational quality. The experiments rather provide some support to the claim, termed here "early interaction hypothesis", positing interaction between early recognition processing and preassignment parsing processes.

  18. A Grounded Theory of Preservice Music Educators' Lesson Planning Processes within Field Experience Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Bond, Vanessa L.; Powell, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the process of field experience lesson planning for preservice music educators enrolled in choral, general, and instrumental music education courses within three university contexts. Data sources included multiple interviews, written responses, and field texts from 42 participants. Four…

  19. Persymmetric Adaptive Detectors of Subspace Signals in Homogeneous and Partially Homogeneous Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of adaptive radar detection, an effective strategy to improve the detection performance is to exploit the structural information of the covariance matrix, especially in the case of insufficient reference cells. Thus, in this study, the problem of detecting multidimensional subspace signals is discussed by considering the persymmetric structure of the clutter covariance matrix, which implies that the covariance matrix is persymmetric about its cross diagonal. Persymmetric adaptive detectors are derived on the basis of the one-step principle as well as the two-step Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT in homogeneous and partially homogeneous clutter. The proposed detectors consider the structural information of the covariance matrix at the design stage. Simulation results suggest performance improvement compared with existing detectors when reference cells are insufficient. Moreover, the detection performance is assessed with respect to the effects of the covariance matrix, signal subspace dimension, and mismatched performance of signal subspace as well as signal fluctuations.

  20. Improvement of Automated Identification of the Heart Wall in Echocardiography by Suppressing Clutter Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    For the facilitation of analysis and elimination of the operator dependence in estimating the myocardial function in echocardiography, we have previously developed a method for automated identification of the heart wall. However, there are misclassified regions because the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) function of echo signals, which is one of the features in the previous method, is sensitively affected by the clutter components such as multiple reflection and off-axis echo from external tissue or the nearby myocardium. The objective of the present study is to improve the performance of automated identification of the heart wall. For this purpose, we proposed a method to suppress the effect of the clutter components on the MSC of echo signals by applying an adaptive moving target indicator (MTI) filter to echo signals. In vivo experimental results showed that the misclassified regions were significantly reduced using our proposed method in the longitudinal axis view of the heart.

  1. An Improved Sequential Initiation Method for Multitarget Track in Clutter with Large Noise Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiong Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved sequential method for underwater multiple objects tracks initiation in clutter, estimating the initial position for the trajectory. The underwater environment is complex and changeable, and the sonar data are not very ideal. When the detection distance is far, the error of measured data is also great. Besides that, the clutter has a grave effect on the tracks initiation. So it is hard to initialize a track and estimate the initial position. The new tracks initiation is that when at least six of ten points meet the requirements, then we determine that there is a new track and the initial states of the parameters are estimated by the linear least square method. Compared to the conventional tracks initiation methods, our method not only considers the kinematics information of targets, but also regards the error of the sonar sensors as an important element. Computer simulations confirm that the performance of our method is very nice.

  2. Analysis of calibrated sea clutter and boat reflectivity data at C- and X-band in South African coastal waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, PLR

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available datasets of sea clutter returns at different frequencies, range resolutions, grazing angles, look angles and environmental conditions to validate the state-of-the-art sea clutter models on South African coastal seawaters. Secondly, the aim was to record... boat reflectivity datasets for a number of small boats to investigate its detectability with state-of-the-art detectors. This will lead to the development of improved detection algorithms for radar systems employing adaptive dwell times. Figure 1...

  3. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration

  4. An Investigation of the Pareto Distribution as a Model for High Grazing Angle Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    radar detection schemes under controlled conditions. Complicated clutter models result in mathematical difficulties in the determination of optimal and...a population [7]. It has been used in the modelling of actuarial data; an example is in excess of loss quotations in insurance [8]. Its usefulness as...UNCLASSIFIED modified Bessel functions, making it difficult to employ in radar detection schemes. The Pareto Distribution is amenable to mathematical

  5. Clasificación del clutter marino utilizando redes neuronales artificiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argel Gonzalez Padilla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La detección de radar bajo la acción del clutter marino es un problema actual. La efectividad de esta detección puede ser mejorada o aún optimizada si el comportamiento estadístico de los parámetros de las señales dispersadas por la superficie del mar (clutter marino es conocida. En el presente trabajo, la mayoría de los modelos estadísticos del clutter marino bajo diferentes condiciones es dada y se logra en un solo documento de manera sintética agrupar un gran volumen de información, difícil de encontrar, y en muchos casos, de interpretar. La mayor contribución investigativa de este trabajo es la presentación de los fundamentos de un sistema auto adaptativo  para la detección de blancos de radar, basado en el reconocimiento de diferentes distribuciones que modelan las mediciones de amplituddelclutter marino, obtenida en un intervalo de tiempo dado. Realizando una clasificación más fina al especificar el rango de valores que toman los parámetros de la distribución, para el intervalo de tiempo que se analiza. Este sistema fue simulado satisfactoriamente utilizando redes neuronales.Los resultados revelaron que se puede realizar de forma efectiva el reconocimiento de distribuciones de mediciones de amplitud del clutter marino y de los parámetros de la distribución.

  6. Strong systematicity through sensorimotor conceptual grounding: an unsupervised, developmental approach to connectionist sentence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.

  7. Age differences in search of web pages: the effects of link size, link number, and clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Michael; Laberge, Jason; Scialfa, Charles T

    2004-01-01

    Reaction time, eye movements, and errors were measured during visual search of Web pages to determine age-related differences in performance as a function of link size, link number, link location, and clutter. Participants (15 young adults, M = 23 years; 14 older adults, M = 57 years) searched Web pages for target links that varied from trial to trial. During one half of the trials, links were enlarged from 10-point to 12-point font. Target location was distributed among the left, center, and bottom portions of the screen. Clutter was manipulated according to the percentage of used space, including graphics and text, and the number of potentially distracting nontarget links was varied. Increased link size improved performance, whereas increased clutter and links hampered search, especially for older adults. Results also showed that links located in the left region of the page were found most easily. Actual or potential applications of this research include Web site design to increase usability, particularly for older adults.

  8. A New Conflict Resolution Method for Multiple Mobile Robots in Cluttered Environments With Motion-Liveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadali; Biglarbegian, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new conflict resolution methodology for multiple mobile robots while ensuring their motion-liveness, especially for cluttered and dynamic environments. Our method constructs a mathematical formulation in a form of an optimization problem by minimizing the overall travel times of the robots subject to resolving all the conflicts in their motion. This optimization problem can be easily solved through coordinating only the robots' speeds. To overcome the computational cost in executing the algorithm for very cluttered environments, we develop an innovative method through clustering the environment into independent subproblems that can be solved using parallel programming techniques. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach through performing extensive simulations. Simulation results showed that our proposed method is capable of resolving the conflicts of 100 robots in less than 1.23 s in a cluttered environment that has 4357 intersections in the paths of the robots. We also developed an experimental testbed and demonstrated that our approach can be implemented in real time. We finally compared our approach with other existing methods in the literature both quantitatively and qualitatively. This comparison shows while our approach is mathematically sound, it is more computationally efficient, scalable for very large number of robots, and guarantees the live and smooth motion of robots.

  9. Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Takeda, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) in March 2011 spread over a large area, increasing the atmospheric electric conductivity by their ionizing effect, and reducing the vertical (downward) component of the DC electric field near the ground, or potential gradient (PG). PG data at Kakioka, 150 km away from the FNPP, showed independent changes compared to the radiation dose rate, and a comparison of these data revealed the local dynamics of the radioactive dust. (1) The initial drop of the PG to almost zero during 14-15 March is most likely due to radioactive dust suspended in the air near the ground during cloudy weather. (2) An episode of PG increase to more than 50 V m-1 on 16 March is most likely due to the re-suspension of the radioactive dust from the surface and subsequent removal from Kakioka by the strong wind from the non-contaminated area. (3) Low but finite values of the PG during 16-20 March most likely reflect a reduced amount of radioactive material near the ground after the above wind transported away the majority of the suspended radioactive dust. (4) Very low values of the PG after substantial rain on 20-22 March most likely reflect settlement of the radioactive material by rain-induced fallout. (5) Temporal recovery of daily variations from the end of March to the middle of April with low nighttime fair-weather baseline PG most likely reflects re-suspension of the radioactive dust into the air from the ground and trees, and subsequent transport to the other region or fallout to the ground until late April. (6) Weakening of the daily variation and gradual recovery of the nighttime fair-weather baseline after mid-April suggests a complete settlement of the radioactive material to the ground with partial migration to the subsurface.

  10. Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in March 2011 spread over a large area, increasing the atmospheric electric conductivity by their ionizing effect, and reducing the vertical (downward component of the DC electric field near the ground, or potential gradient (PG. PG data at Kakioka, 150 km away from the FNPP, showed independent changes compared to the radiation dose rate, and a comparison of these data revealed the local dynamics of the radioactive dust. (1 The initial drop of the PG to almost zero during 14–15 March is most likely due to radioactive dust suspended in the air near the ground during cloudy weather. (2 An episode of PG increase to more than 50 V m−1 on 16 March is most likely due to the re-suspension of the radioactive dust from the surface and subsequent removal from Kakioka by the strong wind from the non-contaminated area. (3 Low but finite values of the PG during 16–20 March most likely reflect a reduced amount of radioactive material near the ground after the above wind transported away the majority of the suspended radioactive dust. (4 Very low values of the PG after substantial rain on 20–22 March most likely reflect settlement of the radioactive material by rain-induced fallout. (5 Temporal recovery of daily variations from the end of March to the middle of April with low nighttime fair-weather baseline PG most likely reflects re-suspension of the radioactive dust into the air from the ground and trees, and subsequent transport to the other region or fallout to the ground until late April. (6 Weakening of the daily variation and gradual recovery of the nighttime fair-weather baseline after mid-April suggests a complete settlement of the radioactive material to the ground with partial migration to the subsurface.

  11. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  12. Improving mine recognition through processing and Dempster-Shafer fusion of ground-penetrating radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milisavljević, N.; Bloch, I.; Broek, S.P. van den; Acheroy, M.

    2003-01-01

    A methodfor modeling andcombination of measures extractedfrom a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in terms of belief functions within the Dempster-Shafer framework is presentedandillustratedon a real GPR data set. A starting point in the analysis is a preprocessed C-scan of a sand-lane containing some

  13. Tracking the footsteps: a constructivist grounded theory of the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    To construct a grounded theory that explains the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium while caring for older adults in acute care settings. Delirium is often under-recognised in acute care settings; this may stem from underdeveloped clinical reasoning processes. Little is known about registered nurses' clinical reasoning processes in complex situations such as delirium recognition. Seventeen registered nurses working in acute care settings were interviewed. Concurrent data collection and analysis, constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were conducted in 2013-2014. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse interview data about the clinical reasoning processes of registered nurse in acute hospital settings. The core category that emerged from data was 'Tracking the footsteps'. This refers to the common clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses in this study used to recognise delirium in older adults in acute care settings. It depicted the process of continuously trying to catch the state of delirium in older adults. Understanding the clinical reasoning processes that contribute to delirium under-recognition provides a strategy by which this problem can be brought to the forefront of awareness and intervention by registered nurses. Registered nurses could draw from the various processes identified in this research to develop their clinical reasoning practice to enhance their effective assessment strategies. Delirium recognition by registered nurses will contribute to quality care to older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ground facility for information reception, processing, dissemination and scientific instruments management setup in the CORONAS-PHOTON space project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.

  15. Methods of extending signatures and training without ground information. [data processing, pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R. G.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of performing signature extension, using LANDSAT-1 data, are explored. The emphasis is on improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of large area wheat surveys. Two methods were developed: ASC, and MASC. Two methods, Ratio, and RADIFF, previously used with aircraft data were adapted to and tested on LANDSAT-1 data. An investigation into the sources and nature of between scene data variations was included. Initial investigations into the selection of training fields without in situ ground truth were undertaken.

  16. Physical and mathematical modeling of process of frozen ground thawing under hot tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Y.; Shastunova, U.; Shabarov, A.; Kislitsyn, A.; Shuvaev, A.

    2018-05-01

    A description of a new non-stationary thermophysical model in the “hot tank-frozen ground” system is given, taking into account mass transfer of pore moisture. The results of calculated and experimental data are presented, and the position of the thawing front is shown to be in good agreement with the convective heat transfer due to moisture migration in the thawed ground.

  17. Process induced sub-surface damage in mechanically ground silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; De Munck, Koen; Teixeira, Ricardo Cotrin; Swinnen, Bart; De Wolf, Ingrid; Verlinden, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy, atomic force microscopy and preferential etching were used to characterize the sub-surface damage induced by the rough and fine grinding steps used to make ultra-thin silicon wafers. The roughly and ultra-finely ground silicon wafers were examined on both the machined (1 0 0) planes and the cross-sectional (1 1 0) planes. They reveal similar multi-layer damage structures, consisting of amorphous, plastically deformed and elastically stressed layers. However, the thickness of each layer in the roughly ground sample is much higher than its counterpart layers in the ultra-finely ground sample. The residual stress after rough and ultra-fine grinding is in the range of several hundreds MPa and 30 MPa, respectively. In each case, the top amorphous layer is believed to be the result of sequential phase transformations (Si-I to Si-II to amorphous Si). These phase transformations correspond to a ductile grinding mechanism, which is dominating in ultra-fine grinding. On the other hand, in rough grinding, a mixed mechanism of ductile and brittle grinding causes multi-layer damage and sub-surface cracks

  18. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  19. Robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter noise reduction of ultrasonic signals using multiple sub-spectrum phase coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongzhang, R.; Xiao, B.; Lardner, T.; Gachagan, A. [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Li, M. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    This paper presents a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for clutter reduction in ultrasonic A-scan waveforms. The performance of conventional spectral-temporal techniques like Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) is highly dependent on the parameter selection, especially when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low. Although spatial beamforming offers noise reduction with less sensitivity to parameter variation, phased array techniques are not always available. The proposed algorithm first selects an ascending series of frequency bands. A signal is reconstructed for each selected band in which a defect is present when all frequency components are in uniform sign. Combining all reconstructed signals through averaging gives a probability profile of potential defect position. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, Full Matrix Capture is applied on the austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples with 5MHz transducer arrays. When processing A-scan signals with unrefined parameters, the proposed algorithm enhances SNR by 20dB for both samples and consequently, defects are more visible in B-scan images created from the large amount of A-scan traces. Importantly, the proposed algorithm is considered robust, while SSP is shown to fail on the austenitic steel data and achieves less SNR enhancement on the HNA data.

  20. Professional Socialization: A Grounded Theory of the Clinical Reasoning Processes That RNs and LPNs Use to Recognize Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra; Osuji, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition. It affects half of older adults in acute care settings and is a cause of increasing mortality and costs. Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) frequently fail to recognize delirium. The goals of this research were to identify the reasoning processes that RNs and LPNs use to recognize delirium, to compare their reasoning processes, and to generate a theory that explains their clinical reasoning processes. Theoretical sampling was employed to elicit data from 28 participants using grounded theory methodology. Theoretical coding culminated in the emergence of Professional Socialization as the substantive theory. Professional Socialization emerged from participants' responses and was based on two social processes, specifically reasoning to uncover and reasoning to report. Professional Socialization makes explicit the similarities and variations in the clinical reasoning processes between RNs and LPNs and highlights their main concerns when interacting with delirious patients.

  1. Generating Correlated Gamma Sequences for Sea-Clutter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    generation of correlated Gamma random fields via SIRP theory is examined in [Conte et al. 1991, Armstrong & Griffiths 1991]. In these papers , the Gamma...2 〉2 + |〈x[n]x∗[n+ k]〉|2 . (4) Because 〈 |x|2 〉2 = z̄2 and |〈x[n]x∗[n+ k]〉|2 ≥ 0, this results in 〈z[n]z[n+ k]〉 ≥ z̄2 if the real- isation of z[n] is...linear map- ping. In a practical situation, a process with a given auto-covariance function would be specified. It is shown that by using an

  2. Chasing the Mirage: a grounded theory of the clinical reasoning processes that Registered Nurses use to recognize delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a grounded theory that explains the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognize delirium in older adults in acute care hospitals. Delirium is under-recognized in acute hospital settings, this may stem from underdeveloped clinical reasoning processes. Little is known about registered nurses' (RNs) clinical reasoning processes in complex situations such as delirium recognition. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse interview data about the clinical reasoning processes of RNs in acute hospital settings. Seventeen RNs were recruited. Concurrent data collection and comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were conducted in 2013-2014. The core category to emerge from the data was 'chasing the mirage', which describes RNs' clinical reasoning processes to recognize delirium during their interaction with older adults. Understanding the reasoning that contributes to delirium under-recognition provides a strategy by which, this problem can be brought to the forefront of RNs' awareness and intervention. Delirium recognition will contribute to quality care for older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Processing convexity and concavity along a 2-D contour: figure-ground, structural shape, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-04-01

    Interest in convexity has a long history in vision science. For smooth contours in an image, it is possible to code regions of positive (convex) and negative (concave) curvature, and this provides useful information about solid shape. We review a large body of evidence on the role of this information in perception of shape and in attention. This includes evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, imaging, and developmental studies. A review is necessary to analyze the evidence on how convexity affects (1) separation between figure and ground, (2) part structure, and (3) attention allocation. Despite some broad agreement on the importance of convexity in these areas, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of specific claims--for example, on the contribution of convexity to metric depth and on the automatic directing of attention to convexities or to concavities. The focus is on convexity and concavity along a 2-D contour, not convexity and concavity in 3-D, but the important link between the two is discussed. We conclude that there is good evidence for the role of convexity information in figure-ground organization and in parsing, but other, more specific claims are not (yet) well supported.

  4. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.; Birch, Phil M.

    2009-04-01

    θThe window unit in the design of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter can allow multiple objects of the same class to be detected within the input image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter becomes attractive for accommodating the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the overall filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously in-plane rotation, out-of-plane rotation, scale, log r-θ map translation and shift invariance, and good clutter tolerance by recognizing correctly the different objects within the cluttered scenes. We record in our results additional extracted information from the cluttered scenes about the objects' relative position, scale and in-plane rotation.

  5. Detectability of underground electrical cables junction with a ground penetrating radar: electromagnetic simulation and experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; serhir, mohammed; kameni, abelin; lambert, marc; pichon, lionel

    2016-04-01

    For a company like Electricity De France (EDF), being able to detect accurately using non-destructive methods the position of the buried junction between two underground cables is a crucial issue. The junction is the linking part where most maintenance operations are carried out. The challenge of this work is to conduct a feasibility study to confirm or deny the relevance of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to detect these buried junctions in their actual environment against clutter. Indeed, the cables are buried in inhomogeneous medium at around 80cm deep. To do this, the study is conducted in a numerical environment. We use the 3D simulation software CST MWS to model a GPR scenario. In this simulation, we place the already optimized bowtie antennas operating in the frequency band [0.5 GHz - 3 GHz] in front of wet soil (dispersive) and dry soil where the underground cable is placed at 80cm deep. We collect the amplitude and phase of the reflected waves in order to detect the contrast provoked by the geometric dimensions variation of the cable [1] (diameter of the cable is 48mm and the diameter of the junction 74mm). The use of an ultra-wideband antenna is necessary to reconcile resolution and penetration of electromagnetic waves in the medium to be characterized. We focus on the performance of the GPR method according to the characteristics of the surrounding medium in which the electric cables are buried, the polarization of the Tx and Rx antennas. The experimental measurement collected in the EDF site will be presented. The measured data are processed using the clutter reduction method based on digital filtering [2]. We aim at showing that using the developed bowtie antennas that the GPR technique is well adapted for the cable junction localization even in cluttered environment. References [1] D. J. Daniels, "Surface-Penetrating Radar", London, IEE 1996. [2] Potin, D.; Duflos, E.; Vanheeghe, P., "Landmines Ground-Penetrating Radar Signal Enhancement by Digital

  6. Simplified formulae for the estimation of offshore wind turbines clutter on marine radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Olatz; Cañizo, Josune; Angulo, Itziar; Jenn, David; Danoon, Laith R; Guerra, David; de la Vega, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact that offshore wind farms may cause on nearby marine radars should be considered before the wind farm is installed. Strong radar echoes from the turbines may degrade radars' detection capability in the area around the wind farm. Although conventional computational methods provide accurate results of scattering by wind turbines, they are not directly implementable in software tools that can be used to conduct the impact studies. This paper proposes a simple model to assess the clutter that wind turbines may generate on marine radars. This method can be easily implemented in the system modeling software tools for the impact analysis of a wind farm in a real scenario.

  7. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  8. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  9. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  10. Thermal power and heat energy of cloud-to-ground lightning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Yuan, Ping; Xue, Simin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Cen, Jianyong [School of Physics and Information Engineering, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A cloud-to-ground lightning flash with nine return strokes has been recorded using a high speed slitless spectrograph and a system composed of a fast antenna and a slow antenna. Based on the spectral data and the synchronous electric field changes that were caused by the lightning, the electrical conductivity, the channel radii, the resistance per unit length, the peak current, the thermal power at the instant of peak current, and the heat energy per unit length during the first 5 μs in the discharge channel have all been calculated. The results indicate that the channel radii have linear relationships with the peak current. The thermal power at the peak current time increases with increasing resistance, but exponential decays with the square of the peak current.

  11. Guiding the Process of Culturally Competent Care With Hispanic Patients: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Metzler Sawin, Erika

    2016-05-01

    To explore nursing care actions that lead to culturally competent care for Hispanic patients. Nurses report apprehension when delivering nursing care because of language barriers and a lack of Hispanic cultural understanding. Research is needed to inform culturally aware nursing practice actions for Hispanic patients. The study used a qualitative, grounded theory design to address the questions: (a) What cultural knowledge should nurses have when caring for Hispanic patients and families and (b) What nursing actions should nurses take to provide culturally competent care? Hispanic lay health promoters and Hispanic community members were interviewed to make recommendations for care. A model was identified that informs culturally competent nursing care. "Connectedness," the central phenomenon, describes nursing actions and contains subthemes explaining influences on nursing care. "Up to You" and "At the Mercy of the System" are descriptive themes influencing connectedness. Connectedness is central to culturally well-informed nurse-patient interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. VHF/UHF imagery and RCS measurements of ground targets in forested terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesman, Andrew J.; Beaudoin, Christopher J.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E.

    2002-08-01

    The monostatic VV and HH-polarized radar signatures of several targets and trees have been measured at foliage penetration frequencies (VHF/UHF) by using 1/35th scale models and an indoor radar range operating at X-band. An array of high-fidelity scale model ground vehicles and test objects as well as scaled ground terrain and trees have been fabricated for the study. Radar measurement accuracy has been confirmed by comparing the signature of a test object with a method of moments radar cross section prediction code. In addition to acquiring signatures of targets located on a smooth, dielectric ground plane, data have also been acquired with targets located in simulated wooded terrain that included scaled tree trunks and tree branches. In order to assure the correct backscattering behavior, all dielectric properties of live tree wood and moist soil were scaled properly to match the complex dielectric constant of the full-scale materials. The impact of the surrounding tree clutter on the VHF/UHF radar signatures of ground vehicles was accessed. Data were processed into high-resolution, polar-formatted ISAR imagery and signature comparisons are made between targets in open-field and forested scenarios.

  13. Forecasting of a ground-coupled heat pump performance using neural networks with statistical data weighting pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) with a statistical weighted pre-processing (SWP) method to learn to predict ground source heat pump (GCHP) systems with the minimum data set. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Air temperatures entering/leaving condenser unit, water-antifreeze solution entering/leaving the horizontal ground heat exchangers and ground temperatures (1 and 2 m) were used as input layer, while the output is coefficient of performance (COP) of system. Some statistical methods, such as the root-mean squared (RMS), the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) and the coefficient of variation (cov) is used to compare predicted and actual values for model validation. It is found that RMS value is 0.074, R{sup 2} value is 0.9999 and cov value is 2.22 for SCG6 algorithm of only ANN structure. It is also found that RMS value is 0.002, R{sup 2} value is 0.9999 and cov value is 0.076 for SCG6 algorithm of SWP-ANN structure. The simulation results show that the SWP based networks can be used an alternative way in these systems. Therefore, instead of limited experimental data found in literature, faster and simpler solutions are obtained using hybridized structures such as SWP-ANN. (author)

  14. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  15. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  16. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  17. Mathematics Education as a Proving-Ground for Information-Processing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian, Ed.; Verschaffel, Lieven, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Five papers discuss the current and potential contributions of information-processing theory to our understanding of mathematical thinking as those contributions affect the practice of mathematics education. It is concluded that information-processing theories need to be supplemented in various ways to more adequately reflect the complexity of…

  18. Executing Quality: A Grounded Theory of Child Care Quality Improvement Engagement Process in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchosin, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Executing Quality describes the perceived process experienced by participants while engaging in Keystone Standards, Training, Assistance, Resources, and Support (Keystone STARS) quality rating improvement system (QRIS). The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to understand the process of Keystone STARS engagement in order to generate a…

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground chicken using High Pressure Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective process for improving the microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. Salmonella is a common contaminant in poultry meat and is frequently responsible for foodborne illness associated with contaminated poultry meat. In this study the inactivation...

  20. Coordinate-Based Clustering Method for Indoor Fingerprinting Localization in Dense Cluttered Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS. Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much interest from researchers because of its pervasive deployment, flexibility and robustness to dense cluttered indoor environments. One challenge, however, is the deployment of Access Points (AP, which would bring a significant influence on the system positioning accuracy. This paper concentrates on WLAN based fingerprinting indoor location by analyzing the AP deployment influence, and studying the advantages of coordinate-based clustering compared to traditional RSS-based clustering. A coordinate-based clustering method for indoor fingerprinting location, named Smallest-Enclosing-Circle-based (SEC, is then proposed aiming at reducing the positioning error lying in the AP deployment and improving robustness to dense cluttered environments. All measurements are conducted in indoor public areas, such as the National Center For the Performing Arts (as Test-bed 1 and the XiDan Joy City (Floors 1 and 2, as Test-bed 2, and results show that SEC clustering algorithm can improve system positioning accuracy by about 32.7% for Test-bed 1, 71.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 1 and 73.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 2 compared with traditional RSS-based clustering algorithms such as K-means.

  1. Coordinate-Based Clustering Method for Indoor Fingerprinting Localization in Dense Cluttered Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Zhongliang

    2016-12-02

    Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS). Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much interest from researchers because of its pervasive deployment, flexibility and robustness to dense cluttered indoor environments. One challenge, however, is the deployment of Access Points (AP), which would bring a significant influence on the system positioning accuracy. This paper concentrates on WLAN based fingerprinting indoor location by analyzing the AP deployment influence, and studying the advantages of coordinate-based clustering compared to traditional RSS-based clustering. A coordinate-based clustering method for indoor fingerprinting location, named Smallest-Enclosing-Circle-based (SEC), is then proposed aiming at reducing the positioning error lying in the AP deployment and improving robustness to dense cluttered environments. All measurements are conducted in indoor public areas, such as the National Center For the Performing Arts (as Test-bed 1) and the XiDan Joy City (Floors 1 and 2, as Test-bed 2), and results show that SEC clustering algorithm can improve system positioning accuracy by about 32.7% for Test-bed 1, 71.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 1 and 73.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 2 compared with traditional RSS-based clustering algorithms such as K-means.

  2. PMHT Approach for Multi-Target Multi-Sensor Sonar Tracking in Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Li, Yaan; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiao; Dai, Miao

    2015-11-06

    Multi-sensor sonar tracking has many advantages, such as the potential to reduce the overall measurement uncertainty and the possibility to hide the receiver. However, the use of multi-target multi-sensor sonar tracking is challenging because of the complexity of the underwater environment, especially the low target detection probability and extremely large number of false alarms caused by reverberation. In this work, to solve the problem of multi-target multi-sensor sonar tracking in the presence of clutter, a novel probabilistic multi-hypothesis tracker (PMHT) approach based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed. The PMHT can efficiently handle the unknown measurements-to-targets and measurements-to-transmitters data association ambiguity. The EKF and UKF are used to deal with the high degree of nonlinearity in the measurement model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the target tracking performance in a cluttered environment greatly, and its computational load is low.

  3. The CryoSat-2 Payload Data Ground Segment and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommknecht, Bjoern; Parrinello, Tommaso; Badessi, Stefano; Mizzi, Loretta; Torroni, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Selected as the first Earth Explorer Opportunity mission and following the launch failure of Cryosat-1 in 2005, the Cryosat-2 mission was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a baseline 3-year period. The main CryoSat-2 mission objectives can be summarised in the determination of the regional and basin-scale trends in perennial Arctic sea ice thickness and mass, and in the determination of regional and total contributions to global sea level of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice. Therefore, the observations made over the life time of the mission will provide conclusive evidence as to whether there is a trend towards diminishing polar ice cover and consequently improve our understanding of the relationship between ice and global climate change. Scope of this paper is to describe the Cryosat-2 Ground Segment present configuration and its main function to satisfy the Cryosat-2 mission requirements. In particular, the paper will highlight the current status of the pro- cessing of the SIRAL instrument L1b and L2 products, both for ocean and ice products, in terms of completeness and availability. Additional information will be also given on the PDGS current status and planned evolutions, including product and processor updates and associated reprocessing campaigns.

  4. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seismic monitoring of ground caving processes associated with longwall mining of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatherly, P.; Luo, X.; Dixon, R.; McKavanagh, B.

    1997-01-01

    At the Gordonstone Coal Mine in Central Queensland, Australia, a microseismic monitoring study was undertaken to investigate the extent of ground failure caused by longwall mining. Twenty seven triaxial geophones were deployed in three vertical boreholes and over a six week period more than 1200 events were recorded. The seismicity correlated with periods of longwall production and occurred mainly within the 250 m wide mining panel. There was an arcuate zone of activity which extended from behind the face, at the sides of the panel and up to 70 m ahead of the face in the middle. There was lesser activity to a depth of about 30 m into the floor. The focal mechanisms show that reverse faulting was dominant. The presence of activity and reverse faulting ahead of the face was an unexpected result. However, piezometer readings at the time of the study and subsequent numerical modelling have supported this finding. This was the first detailed microseismic monitoring study of caving in an Australian underground coal mine. 9 refs., 6 figs

  6. Becoming Therapeutic Agents: A Grounded Theory of Mothers' Process When Implementing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy at Home with an Anxious Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishva, Rana

    2017-05-01

    The premise of parent-centred programmes for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement, however, does not address the systemic, parent or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one's child in one's home. A grounded theory goes beyond the description of a process, offering an explanatory theory that brings taken-for-granted meanings and processes to the surface. The theory that emerged from the analysis suggests that CBT implementation by mothers of anxious children is characterized by the evolution of mothers' perception of their child and mothers' perception of their role as well as a shift from reacting with emotion to responding pragmatically to the child. Changes occur as mothers recognize the crisis, make links between the treatment rationale, child's symptoms and their own parenting strategies, integrate tenets of CBT for anxiety and eventually focus on sustaining therapeutic gains through natural life transitions. The theory widens our understanding of mothers' role, therapeutic engagement, process, and decision-making. The theory also generates new hypotheses regarding parent involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders and proposes novel research avenues that aim to maximize the benefits of parental involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Mothers of anxious youth who take part in parent-centred programmes experience a shift in their perception of the child and of their role. Parental strategy after CBT implementation shifts from emotional empathy to cognitive empathy. Mothers experience significant challenges and require additional support in prevention

  7. The process of community health nursing clinical clerkship: A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The performance of the community health nurse depends on a combination of scientific and practical competencies acquired by educational experiences during the nursing course. Curriculum planners of nursing education need to understand nursing education to train professional and community-oriented nurses. The aim of this article is to explore the experiences of nursing students during their community health nursing clinical clerkship courses. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. Twelve nursing students, 13 health-care staff members, and 10 nursing instructors were interviewed individually in 2011-2012. The interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the method of Strauss and Corbin. AMBIVALENCE OF MOTIVATION WAS THE MAIN CATEGORY AND INCLUDED FIVE SUBCATEGORIES: Professional identity, educational atmosphere, educational management, motivation-based approaches, and inadequate productivity. This paper presents the aspects of the community health nursing clerkship course from the viewpoint of students in areas such as the role of the community health nurse, attitude toward the course, medical orientation, prerequisite skills/knowledge, poor administrative planning, rotation of students, insufficient activity for students, passiveness, providing service to clients, responsibility, and inproductivity. These categories could explain the nature of the community health nursing clerkship of the Mashhad Faculty of Nursing and probably others in Iran. The findings revealed inadequate productivity of the community health nursing education; so, it is suggested to define a position for nurses in this setting and remove barriers and provide conditions for them to play more important roles in the promotion of community health.

  8. Figure-ground processing during fixational saccades in V1: indication for higher-order stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ariel; Pesoa, Yair; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Slovin, Hamutal

    2014-02-26

    In a typical visual scene we continuously perceive a "figure" that is segregated from the surrounding "background" despite ongoing microsaccades and small saccades that are performed when attempting fixation (fixational saccades [FSs]). Previously reported neuronal correlates of figure-ground (FG) segregation in the primary visual cortex (V1) showed enhanced activity in the "figure" along with suppressed activity in the noisy "background." However, it is unknown how this FG modulation in V1 is affected by FSs. To investigate this question, we trained two monkeys to detect a contour embedded in a noisy background while simultaneously imaging V1 using voltage-sensitive dyes. During stimulus presentation, the monkeys typically performed 1-3 FSs, which displaced the contour over the retina. Using eye position and a 2D analytical model to map the stimulus onto V1, we were able to compute FG modulation before and after each FS. On the spatial cortical scale, we found that, after each FS, FG modulation follows the stimulus retinal displacement and "hops" within the V1 retinotopic map, suggesting visual instability. On the temporal scale, FG modulation is initiated in the new retinotopic position before it disappeared from the old retinotopic position. Moreover, the FG modulation developed faster after an FS, compared with after stimulus onset, which may contribute to visual stability of FG segregation, along the timeline of stimulus presentation. Therefore, despite spatial discontinuity of FG modulation in V1, the higher-order stability of FG modulation along time may enable our stable and continuous perception.

  9. The Basic Social Process in the Culture of the Self-Sufficient Organization. An Application of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia CHIRICĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hereby research encompasses the results of an analysis conducted based on the grounded theory methodology over the qualitative data that were gathered through a national project regarding the organizational development of the mental health institutions. After the finalization of the project, the interest for the grounded theory methodology and the reconsideration of the organizational development notion and of the role of the consultant in this process have all lead to a re-analysis of the qualitative data procured in one of the hospitals included in the project. Our approach resulted in an explanatory model of how the organization works and the factors that can affect various changes during its development. This explanatory model holds at its center a basic psychological and social process that represents the perception of the organizational system as closed on certain coordinates, although structurally open. This very perception and the behavior of maintaining the system within closed coordinates allow only for a dual functioning and so the natural result is the emergence of a self-sufficient culture. The central feature of this particular culture is the replacement of the formal organization and its goal of caring for the mentally challenged with an organization reduced to its sole goal of survival.

  10. Effect of different rates of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on composting process, gaseous emissions and quality of end-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia; Fonseca, João; Aires, Alfredo; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) in composting for organic farming is a viable way of valorising these agro-industrial residues. In the present study, four treatments with different amounts of spent coffee grounds (SCG) were established, namely, C 0 (Control), C 10 , C 20 and C 40 , containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% of SCG (DM), respectively; and their effects on the composting process and the end-product quality characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were completed with Acacia dealbata L. shoots and wheat straw. At different time intervals during composting, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions were measured and selected physicochemical characteristics of the composts were evaluated. During the composting process, all treatments showed a substantial decrease in total phenolics and total tannins, and an important increase in gallic acid. Emissions of greenhouse gases were very low and no significant difference between the treatments was registered. The results indicated that SCG may be successfully composted in all proportions. However C 40 , was the treatment which combined better conditions of composting, lower GHG emissions and better quality of end product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashista, M.; Paul, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: → The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. → A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. → Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. → These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  12. Multiwaveband simulation-based signature analysis of camouflaged human dismounts in cluttered environments with TAIThermIR and MuSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Klein, Mark D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Hepokoski, Mark A.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to predict electro-optical (EO) signatures of diverse targets against cluttered backgrounds is paramount for signature evaluation and/or management. Knowledge of target and background signatures is essential for a variety of defense-related applications. While there is no substitute for measured target and background signatures to determine contrast and detection probability, the capability to simulate any mission scenario with desired environmental conditions is a tremendous asset for defense agencies. In this paper, a systematic process for the thermal and visible-through-infrared simulation of camouflaged human dismounts in cluttered outdoor environments is presented. This process, utilizing the thermal and EO/IR radiance simulation tool TAIThermIR (and MuSES), provides a repeatable and accurate approach for analyzing contrast, signature and detectability of humans in multiple wavebands. The engineering workflow required to combine natural weather boundary conditions and the human thermoregulatory module developed by ThermoAnalytics is summarized. The procedure includes human geometry creation, human segmental physiology description and transient physical temperature prediction using environmental boundary conditions and active thermoregulation. Radiance renderings, which use Sandford-Robertson BRDF optical surface property descriptions and are coupled with MODTRAN for the calculation of atmospheric effects, are demonstrated. Sensor effects such as optical blurring and photon noise can be optionally included, increasing the accuracy of detection probability outputs that accompany each rendering. This virtual evaluation procedure has been extensively validated and provides a flexible evaluation process that minimizes the difficulties inherent in human-subject field testing. Defense applications such as detection probability assessment, camouflage pattern evaluation, conspicuity tests and automatic target recognition are discussed.

  13. Interrelated Processes toward Quality of Life in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, Miranda; McDougall, Janette; Mandich, Angela; Irwin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Past research has not adequately addressed the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study was to understand how QOL is experienced for individuals who have survived childhood cancer. Specific research questions included: (a) How do childhood cancer survivors define the concept of QOL and (b) What processes do…

  14. The Process of Professional School Counselor Multicultural Competency Development: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Professional School Counselors who work in schools with a range of student diversity are posed with a unique set of challenges which require them to develop their multicultural competencies. The following qualitative study examined the process of developing multicultural competence for four professional school counselors. The four professional…

  15. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, X. F.; Saunders, S. M.; Fan, S. J.; Zuo, H. C.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site downwind of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv), while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in situ production. The O3 production was in a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-limited regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2) on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO), were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  16. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  17. Application of a distributed systems architecture for increased speed in image processing on an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam A.; Momin, Orko; Shin, Young Ho; Shakya, Rahul; Nepal, Kumud; Ahlgren, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a distributed systems architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle, Q, that participates in both the autonomous and navigation challenges of the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. In the autonomous challenge the vehicle is required to follow a course, while avoiding obstacles and staying within the course boundaries, which are marked by white lines. For the navigation challenge, the vehicle is required to reach a set of target destinations, known as way points, with given GPS coordinates and avoid obstacles that it encounters in the process. Previously the vehicle utilized a single laptop to execute all processing activities including image processing, sensor interfacing and data processing, path planning and navigation algorithms and motor control. National Instruments' (NI) LabVIEW served as the programming language for software implementation. As an upgrade to last year's design, a NI compact Reconfigurable Input/Output system (cRIO) was incorporated to the system architecture. The cRIO is NI's solution for rapid prototyping that is equipped with a real time processor, an FPGA and modular input/output. Under the current system, the real time processor handles the path planning and navigation algorithms, the FPGA gathers and processes sensor data. This setup leaves the laptop to focus on running the image processing algorithm. Image processing as previously presented by Nepal et. al. is a multi-step line extraction algorithm and constitutes the largest processor load. This distributed approach results in a faster image processing algorithm which was previously Q's bottleneck. Additionally, the path planning and navigation algorithms are executed more reliably on the real time processor due to the deterministic nature of operation. The implementation of this architecture required exploration of various inter-system communication techniques. Data transfer between the laptop and the real time processor using UDP packets

  18. Embedded parallel processing based ground control systems for small satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael L.; Hazra, Tushar K.; Troendly, Gregory M.; Nickum, William G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of networked terminals which utilize embedded processing techniques results in totally integrated, flexible, high speed, reliable, and scalable systems suitable for telemetry and data processing applications such as mission operations centers (MOC). Synergies of these terminals, coupled with the capability of terminal to receive incoming data, allow the viewing of any defined display by any terminal from the start of data acquisition. There is no single point of failure (other than with network input) such as exists with configurations where all input data goes through a single front end processor and then to a serial string of workstations. Missions dedicated to NASA's ozone measurements program utilize the methodologies which are discussed, and result in a multimission configuration of low cost, scalable hardware and software which can be run by one flight operations team with low risk.

  19. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women′s experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grou...

  20. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model w...

  1. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  2. OPTIMAL SELECTION OF THE CA-CFAR ADJUSTMENT FACTOR FOR K POWER SEA CLUTTER WITH STATISTICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la señal interferente de clutter marino establece limitaciones en la calidad de la detección de radar en ambientes costeros y de alta mar. El procesador CA-CFAR es la solución clásica para detectar blancos de radar. Usualmente mantiene su factor de ajuste constante todo el período de operación. Como consecuencia, el esquema no toma en consideración las variaciones estadísticas de la señal de fondo cuando realiza la discriminación del clutter . Para resolver este problema, los autores realizaron un procesamiento intensivo de 40 millones de muestras de clutter de intensidad, generadas en computadora a través de MATLAB. Como resultado, encontraron los valores óptimos del factor de ajuste a ser aplicados para 40 posibles estados estadísticos del clutter , sugiriendo el uso de la arquitectura CA-CFAR con un factor de ajuste variable. Adicionalmente, fue llevado a cabo un ajuste de curvas, obteniéndose expresiones matemáticas que generalizan los resultados en todo el intervalo de considerado de estados estadísticos del clutter . Los experimentos se ejecutaron con un CA-CFAR de 64 celdas y apuntaron a encontrar los valores del factor de ajuste para tres probabilidades de falsa alarma comunes. La distribución K fue elegida como el modelo usado para el clutter , gracias a su amplia popularidad. Este artículo facilita el manejo de la distribución K de intensidad, evitando el uso de funciones Gamma y Bessel, comúnmente encontradas en desarrollos relacionados con el modelo K. Además, fueron cumplidos los requerimientos necesarios para construir un detector adaptativo en clutter de potencia K con conocimiento previo del parámetro de forma. Al mismo tiempo, fueron dadas varias recomendaciones para continuar el desarrollo de una solución más general que también incluirá la estimación del parámetro de forma.

  3. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  4. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  5. The use of grounded theory in studies of nurses and midwives' coping processes: a systematic literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.

  6. Some processes affecting the mobility of thorium in natural ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesthols, E.

    1994-04-01

    Thorium is a useful model element for tetravalent actinides such as U(IV), Pu(IV) and Np(IV) which are important constituents of spent nuclear fuel. Thorium is also an important tracer element for particle pathways in natural environments. In order to correctly model the transport of Th in the environment, it is important to have quantitative models for processes that effect its mobility. Some of these processes have been experimentally investigated in laboratory studies, and interpreted with quantitative models where possible. The carbonate complexation in aqueous solution of Th has been investigated through solubility studies of ThO 2 in carbonate media. It is shown, that thorium carbonate complexes are likely to be predominant in many natural waters. They also increase solubility of the oxide significantly, and hence the mobility of Th. Carbonate also increases the dissolution rate of thorium oxide. This effect will only be important in environments with a pH and total carbonate alkalinity higher than those of most natural aquatic environments. Solubility studies of thorium oxide in phosphate media show that phosphate does not significantly increase the mobility of Th in aqueous media. The presence of phosphate may cause the precipitation of sparingly soluble thorium phosphates which will decrease the mobility of Th. The pentahydroxo complex for Th is shown to be significant up to pH 13. Potentiometric studies of Th sorption on amorphous colloidal silica indicate, that pure aluminosilicates will probably not be efficient scavengers of tetravalent actinides above pH values of approximately 6. In neutral to alkaline solutions, iron (hydr)oxides are likely to be the predominant sorbents. Th binds to the silica surface through corner-sharing bonds, where Th and Si share one, but not more oxygen atoms. 72 refs

  7. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  8. Infrared maritime target detection using a probabilistic single Gaussian model of sea clutter in Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anran; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong; Chen, Yapei

    2018-02-01

    For ship targets detection in cluttered infrared image sequences, a robust detection method, based on the probabilistic single Gaussian model of sea background in Fourier domain, is put forward. The amplitude spectrum sequences at each frequency point of the pure seawater images in Fourier domain, being more stable than the gray value sequences of each background pixel in the spatial domain, are regarded as a Gaussian model. Next, a probability weighted matrix is built based on the stability of the pure seawater's total energy spectrum in the row direction, to make the Gaussian model more accurate. Then, the foreground frequency points are separated from the background frequency points by the model. Finally, the false-alarm points are removed utilizing ships' shape features. The performance of the proposed method is tested by visual and quantitative comparisons with others.

  9. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 3 - Electromagnetic modelling, inversion, imaging and data-processing techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sesnic, Silvestar; Randazzo, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien; Benedetto, Francesco; Economou, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 3 "Electromagnetic methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. Among the most interesting achievements of WG3, we wish to mention the following ones: (i) A new open-source version of the finite-difference time-domain simulator gprMax was developed and released. The new gprMax is written in Python and includes many advanced features such as anisotropic and dispersive-material modelling, building of realistic heterogeneous objects with rough surfaces, built-in libraries of antenna models, optimisation of parameters based on Taguchi's method - and more. (ii) A new freeware CAD was developed and released, for the construction of two-dimensional gprMax models. This tool also includes scripts easing the execution of gprMax on multi-core machines or network of computers and scripts for a basic plotting of gprMax results. (iii) A series of interesting freeware codes were developed will be released by the end of the Action, implementing differential and integral forward-scattering methods, for the solution of simple electromagnetic problems by buried objects. (iv) An open database of synthetic and experimental GPR radargrams was created, in cooperation with WG2. The idea behind this initiative is to give researchers the

  10. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Muchhala

    Full Text Available Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts.

  11. Path Planning for Non-Circular, Non-Holonomic Robots in Highly Cluttered Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Ricardo; Lopez, Joaquin; Vazquez, Fernando

    2017-08-15

    This paper presents an algorithm for finding a solution to the problem of planning a feasible path for a slender autonomous mobile robot in a large and cluttered environment. The presented approach is based on performing a graph search on a kinodynamic-feasible lattice state space of high resolution; however, the technique is applicable to many search algorithms. With the purpose of allowing the algorithm to consider paths that take the robot through narrow passes and close to obstacles, high resolutions are used for the lattice space and the control set. This introduces new challenges because one of the most computationally expensive parts of path search based planning algorithms is calculating the cost of each one of the actions or steps that could potentially be part of the trajectory. The reason for this is that the evaluation of each one of these actions involves convolving the robot's footprint with a portion of a local map to evaluate the possibility of a collision, an operation that grows exponentially as the resolution is increased. The novel approach presented here reduces the need for these convolutions by using a set of offline precomputed maps that are updated, by means of a partial convolution, as new information arrives from sensors or other sources. Not only does this improve run-time performance, but it also provides support for dynamic search in changing environments. A set of alternative fast convolution methods are also proposed, depending on whether the environment is cluttered with obstacles or not. Finally, we provide both theoretical and experimental results from different experiments and applications.

  12. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems

  13. The Process of Parents' Decision-Making to Discharge Their Child against Medical Advice (DAMA: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discharge against medical advice (DAMA refers to the phenomenon that patient or the patient’s surrogate decides to leave the hospital before the attending physician confirms the patient is discharged. Children are much more vulnerable to such discharges. This process occurs with different mechanisms that identifying them can be helpful in reducing this phenomenon. We aimed to explore the process of parents' decision-making to discharge their child against medical advice. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 fathers, 10 mothers, 6 nurses and 3 physician assistants and the data were collected to the point of saturation. Grounded theory methodology was adopted for data collection and analysis. The results of qualitative analysis in the field of the parents' decisionmaking on the DAMA revealed 4 main themes: "lack of family-centered care", "disruption of the parenting process", "distrust to the medical team and center" and "psychological strategy of shirk responsibility for child care and treatment ". By providing family-centered care, adopting measures to empowering the families, developing the trust of parents to the health care team and developing a discharge plan from the beginning of children hospitalization with the cooperation of health care team and parents and considering all factors such as child's special health condition and parent's health related perceptions and beliefs, children will not be discharged against medical advice and will experience better outcomes.

  14. The evolution of discharge current and channel radius in cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xuejuan; Cen, Jianyong; Chang, Xuan; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    The spectra of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharge processes with multi-return strokes are obtained by a slit-less high-speed spectrograph, which the temporal resolution is 110 μs. Combined with the synchronous electrical observation data and theoretical calculation, the physical characteristics during return strokes process are analysed. A positive correlation between discharge current and intensity of ionic lines in the spectra is verified, and based on this feature, the current evolution characteristics during four return strokes are investigated. The results show that the time from peak current to the half-peak value estimated by multi point-fitting is about 101 μs-139 μs. The Joule heat in per unit length of four return strokes channel is in the order of 105J/m-106 J/m. The radius of arc discharge channel is positively related to the discharge current, and the more intense the current is, the greater the radius of channel is. Furthermore, the evolution for radius of arc core channel in the process of return stroke is consistent with the change trend of discharge current after the peak value. Compared with the decay of the current, the temperature decreases more slowly.

  15. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Man Shrestha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform, has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method, which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  16. Theorizing the Process of Coping with Sexual Disorders Leading to Marital Conflicts based on Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alikhani*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to theorize about the process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts. The process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts was examined with 12 couples based on grounded theory. The focus of the study was on the period from commencing of symptoms up to start of treatment. Data were collected through semi-organized interviews and were analyzed through constant comparisons. It was recognized that problem solving skills was the main variable in the process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts. The main variable consisted of two levels including ‘single-couple’ and ‘interactional’ and five main categories named as recognizing sexual disorder symptoms, personal assessment, self-attempt, threat feeling, consulting with others which ultimately led to searching help, consultation, and treatment. The preliminary individual decision to decrease the symptoms resulted in self-treatment which consequently defered the treatment period. Age, gender, education level, socio-economical status and pre-knowledge of disorders affected people`s decision making time. Individuals with sexual disorders defer the start of treatment and this can bring a family to separation. Couples should take pre-marriage counseling sessions in order to make decision for treatment at the right time when faced by sexual disorders.

  17. Experience with remediating radiostrontium-contaminated ground water and surface water with versions of AECL's CHEMIC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous approaches have been developed for the remediation of radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) contaminated ground water and surface water. Several strontium-removal technologies have been assessed and applied at AECL's (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) Chalk River Laboratories. These include simple ion exchange (based on non-selective natural zeolites or selective synthetic inorganic media), and precipitation and filtration with or without ion exchange as a final polishing step. AECL's CHEMIC process is based on precipitation-microfiltration and ion-exchange steps. This paper presents data related to radiostrontium removal performance and other operational experiences including troubleshooting with two round-the-clock, pilot-scale water remediation plants based on AECL's CHEMIC process at the Chalk River Laboratories site. These plants began operation in the early 1990s. Through optimization of process chemistry and operation, high values for system capability and system availability factors, and low concentrations of 90 Sr in the discharge water approaching drinking water standard can be achieved. (author)

  18. Coordinated polar spacecraft, geosynchronous spacecraft, and ground-based observations of magnetopause processes and their coupling to the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present in-situ observations of processes occurring at the magnetopause and vicinity, including surface waves, oscillatory magnetospheric field lines, and flux transfer events, and coordinated observations at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft, and on the ground by CANOPUS and 210° Magnetic Meridian (210MM magnetometer arrays. On 7 February 2002, during a high-speed solar wind stream, the Polar spacecraft was skimming the magnetopause in a post-noon meridian plane for ~3h. During this interval, it made two short excursions and a few partial crossings into the magnetosheath and observed quasi-periodic cold ion bursts in the region adjacent to the magnetopause current layer. The multiple magnetopause crossings, as well as the velocity of the cold ion bursts, indicate that the magnetopause was oscillating with an ~6-min period. Simultaneous observations of Pc5 waves at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft and on the ground by the CANOPUS magnetometer array reveal that these magnetospheric pulsations were forced oscillations of magnetic field lines directly driven by the magnetopause oscillations. The magnetospheric pulsations occurred only in a limited longitudinal region in the post-noon dayside sector, and were not a global phenomenon, as one would expect for global field line resonance. Thus, the magnetopause oscillations at the source were also limited to a localized region spanning ~4h in local time. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and/or fluctuations in the solar wind dynamic pressure were the direct driving mechanisms for the observed boundary oscillations. Instead, the likely mechanism for the localized boundary oscillations was pulsed reconnection at the magnetopause occurring along the X-line extending over the same 4-h region. The Pc5 band pressure fluctuations commonly seen in high-speed solar wind streams may modulate the reconnection rate as an

  19. Optimising UAV topographic surveys processed with structure-from-motion: Ground control quality, quantity and bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Niethammer, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms are greatly facilitating the production of detailed topographic models based on images collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, SfM-based software does not generally provide the rigorous photogrammetric analysis required to fully understand survey quality. Consequently, error related to problems in control point data or the distribution of control points can remain undiscovered. Even if these errors are not large in magnitude, they can be systematic, and thus have strong implications for the use of products such as digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo approach to (1) improve the accuracy of products when SfM-based processing is used and (2) reduce the associated field effort by identifying suitable lower density deployments of ground control points. The method highlights over-parameterisation during camera self-calibration and provides enhanced insight into control point performance when rigorous error metrics are not available. Processing was implemented using commonly-used SfM-based software (Agisoft PhotoScan), which we augment with semi-automated and automated GCPs image measurement. We apply the Monte Carlo method to two contrasting case studies - an erosion gully survey (Taurodont, Morocco) carried out with an fixed-wing UAV, and an active landslide survey (Super-Sauze, France), acquired using a manually controlled quadcopter. The results highlight the differences in the control requirements for the two sites, and we explore the implications for future surveys. We illustrate DEM sensitivity to critical processing parameters and show how the use of appropriate parameter values increases DEM repeatability and reduces the spatial variability of error due to processing artefacts.

  20. From Negligence to Perception of Complexities in Adherence to Treatment Process in People with Diabetes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Mousavizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to treatment is one of the most complex and important clinical concerns. It is the main issue of the present decade and acknowledged as a challenge to control and treat diabetes. This study was carried out to explore and understand how adherence to treatment process occurs among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The present study is qualitative with grounded theory approach. The data were collected from December 2015 to July 2016 in Tehran (Iran through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, field notes, and memos from 21 patients with type 2 diabetes; combined with two members of their families and a healthcare professional. The data were analyzed based on Corbin and Strauss constant comparative analysis (2008. Results: Adherence to treatment is a transitional, interactive, and continuous process. For patients with diabetes, this process includes unperceived threat in diagnosis time (poor knowledge and skills, bottleneck of dependencies, superficial understanding of the new situation, bitter belief (downhill quality of life, physical and emotional treatment feedbacks, and adaptation to treatment (self-care dominance, regimen integration in daily activities. The process of adherence to treatment was influenced by knowledge and skill, social support, beliefs and values, psychological characteristics of people, and the nature of diabetes. Conclusion: Adherence to treatment in Iranian people with diabetes depends on the family and social context, which is challenging for the patient and leads to the negligence of health behaviors. It is vital for healthcare providers to identify these factors to encourage patients to adhere and commit to treatment in order to prevent irreversible complications of diabetes.

  1. Reclaiming life on one's own terms: a grounded theory study of the process of breast cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Deborah Witt; Rosedale, Mary; Haber, Judith

    2012-05-01

    To develop a substantive theory of the process of breast cancer survivorship. Grounded theory. A LISTSERV announcement posted on the SHARE Web site and purposeful recruitment of women known to be diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. 15 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Constant comparative analysis. Breast cancer survivorship. The core variable identified was Reclaiming Life on One's Own Terms. The perceptions and experiences of the participants revealed overall that the diagnosis of breast cancer was a turning point in life and the stimulus for change. That was followed by the recognition of breast cancer as now being a part of life, leading to the necessity of learning to live with breast cancer, and finally, creating a new life after breast cancer. Participants revealed that breast cancer survivorship is a process marked and shaped by time, the perception of support, and coming to terms with the trauma of a cancer diagnosis and the aftermath of treatment. The process of survivorship continues by assuming an active role in self-healing, gaining a new perspective and reconciling paradoxes, creating a new mindset and moving to a new normal, developing a new way of being in the world on one's own terms, and experiencing growth through adversity beyond survivorship. The process of survivorship for women with breast cancer is an evolutionary journey with short- and long-term challenges. This study shows the development of an empirically testable theory of survivorship that describes and predicts women's experiences following breast cancer treatment from the initial phase of recovery and beyond. The theory also informs interventions that not only reduce negative outcomes, but promote ongoing healing, adjustment, and resilience over time.

  2. From Negligence to Perception of Complexities in Adherence to Treatment Process in People with Diabetes: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavizadeh, Seyedeh Narjes; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Zandi, Mitra

    2018-03-01

    Poor adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to treatment is one of the most complex and important clinical concerns. It is the main issue of the present decade and acknowledged as a challenge to control and treat diabetes. This study was carried out to explore and understand how adherence to treatment process occurs among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study is qualitative with grounded theory approach. The data were collected from December 2015 to July 2016 in Tehran (Iran) through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, field notes, and memos from 21 patients with type 2 diabetes; combined with two members of their families and a healthcare professional. The data were analyzed based on Corbin and Strauss constant comparative analysis (2008). Adherence to treatment is a transitional, interactive, and continuous process. For patients with diabetes, this process includes unperceived threat in diagnosis time (poor knowledge and skills, bottleneck of dependencies, superficial understanding of the new situation), bitter belief (downhill quality of life, physical and emotional treatment feedbacks), and adaptation to treatment (self-care dominance, regimen integration in daily activities). The process of adherence to treatment was influenced by knowledge and skill, social support, beliefs and values, psychological characteristics of people, and the nature of diabetes. Adherence to treatment in Iranian people with diabetes depends on the family and social context, which is challenging for the patient and leads to the negligence of health behaviors. It is vital for healthcare providers to identify these factors to encourage patients to adhere and commit to treatment in order to prevent irreversible complications of diabetes.

  3. A MARKED POINT PROCESS MODEL FOR VEHICLE DETECTION IN AERIAL LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Börcs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automated method for vehicle detection in LiDAR point clouds of crowded urban areas collected from an aerial platform. We assume that the input cloud is unordered, but it contains additional intensity and return number information which are jointly exploited by the proposed solution. Firstly, the 3-D point set is segmented into ground, vehicle, building roof, vegetation and clutter classes. Then the points with the corresponding class labels and intensity values are projected to the ground plane, where the optimal vehicle configuration is described by a Marked Point Process (MPP model of 2-D rectangles. Finally, the Multiple Birth and Death algorithm is utilized to find the configuration with the highest confidence.

  4. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  5. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  6. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  7. Predicting performance of a ground-source heat pump system using fuzzy weighted pre-processing-based ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The goal of this work is to predict the daily performance (COP) of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with the minimum data set based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with a fuzzy weighted pre-processing (FWP) method. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal (FWP-ANFIS), a computer simulation is developed on MATLAB environment. The comparison of the proposed hybridized system's results with the standard ANFIS results is carried out and the results are given in the tables. The efficiency of the proposed method was demonstrated by using the 3-fold cross-validation test. The statistical methods, such as the root-mean squared (RMS), the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) and the coefficient of variation (cov), are given to compare the predicted and actual values for model validation. The average R{sup 2} values is 0.9998, the average RMS value is 0.0272 and the average cov value is 0.7733, which can be considered as very promising. The data set for the COP of GSHP system available included 38 data patterns. The simulation results show that the FWP-based ANFIS can be used in an alternative way in these systems. The prediction results of the proposed structure were much better than the standard ANFIS results. Therefore, instead of limited experimental data found in the literature, faster and simpler solutions are obtained using hybridized structures such as FWP-based ANFIS. (author)

  8. Application of a Statistical Linear Time-Varying System Model of High Grazing Angle Sea Clutter for Computing Interference Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-08

    STATISTICAL LINEAR TIME-VARYING SYSTEM MODEL OF HIGH GRAZING ANGLE SEA CLUTTER FOR COMPUTING INTERFERENCE POWER 1. INTRODUCTION Statistical linear time...beam. We can approximate one of the sinc factors using the Dirichlet kernel to facilitate computation of the integral in (6) as follows: ∣∣∣∣sinc(WB...plotted in Figure 4. The resultant autocorrelation can then be found by substituting (18) into (28). The Python code used to generate Figures 1-4 is found

  9. Using pedagogical approaches to influence evidence-based practice integration - processes and recommendations: findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to explore the processes undertaken by nurse academics when integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) into their teaching and learning practices. This article focuses on pedagogical approaches employed by academics to influence evidence-based practice integration into undergraduate programs across Australian universities. Nursing academics are challenged to incorporate a variety of teaching and learning strategies to teach evidence-based practice and determine their effectiveness. However, literature suggests that there are limited studies available focusing on pedagogical approaches in evidence-based practice education. A constructivist grounded theory methodology, informed by Charmaz was used for this study. Data were collected during 2014 from 23 nurse academics across Australian universities through semi-structured interviews. Additionally, nine were observed during teaching of undergraduate students. Twenty subject outlines were also analysed following Charmaz's approach of data analysis. 'Influencing EBP integration' describes the pedagogical approaches employed by academics to incorporate EBP knowledge and skills into undergraduate curricula. With the use of various teaching and learning strategies, academics attempted to contextualize EBP by engaging students with activities aiming to link evidence to practice and with the EBP process. Although, some strategies appeared to be engaging, others were traditional and seemed to be disengaging for students due to the challenges experienced by participants that impeded the use of the most effective teaching methods. Study findings offer valuable insights into the teaching practices and identify some key challenges that require the adoption of appropriate strategies to ensure future nurses are well prepared in the paradigm of evidence-based practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expertise Effects in Face-Selective Areas are Robust to Clutter and Diverted Attention, but not to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Van Gulick, Ana E; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Expertise effects for nonface objects in face-selective brain areas may reflect stable aspects of neuronal selectivity that determine how observers perceive objects. However, bottom-up (e.g., clutter from irrelevant objects) and top-down manipulations (e.g., attentional selection) can influence activity, affecting the link between category selectivity and individual performance. We test the prediction that individual differences expressed as neural expertise effects for cars in face-selective areas are sufficiently stable to survive clutter and manipulations of attention. Additionally, behavioral work and work using event related potentials suggest that expertise effects may not survive competition; we investigate this using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects varying in expertise with cars made 1-back decisions about cars, faces, and objects in displays containing one or 2 objects, with only one category attended. Univariate analyses suggest car expertise effects are robust to clutter, dampened by reducing attention to cars, but nonetheless more robust to manipulations of attention than competition. While univariate expertise effects are severely abolished by competition between cars and faces, multivariate analyses reveal new information related to car expertise. These results demonstrate that signals in face-selective areas predict expertise effects for nonface objects in a variety of conditions, although individual differences may be expressed in different dependent measures depending on task and instructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ship Detection in Gaofen-3 SAR Images Based on Sea Clutter Distribution Analysis and Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Quanzhi; Pan, Zongxu; You, Hongjian

    2018-01-24

    Target detection is one of the important applications in the field of remote sensing. The Gaofen-3 (GF-3) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite launched by China is a powerful tool for maritime monitoring. This work aims at detecting ships in GF-3 SAR images using a new land masking strategy, the appropriate model for sea clutter and a neural network as the discrimination scheme. Firstly, the fully convolutional network (FCN) is applied to separate the sea from the land. Then, by analyzing the sea clutter distribution in GF-3 SAR images, we choose the probability distribution model of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector from K-distribution, Gamma distribution and Rayleigh distribution based on a tradeoff between the sea clutter modeling accuracy and the computational complexity. Furthermore, in order to better implement CFAR detection, we also use truncated statistic (TS) as a preprocessing scheme and iterative censoring scheme (ICS) for boosting the performance of detector. Finally, we employ a neural network to re-examine the results as the discrimination stage. Experiment results on three GF-3 SAR images verify the effectiveness and efficiency of this approach.

  12. Object Extraction in Cluttered Environments via a P300-Based IFCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues for robot navigation is to extract an object of interest from an image. The biggest challenges for extracting objects of interest are how to use a machine to model the objects in which a human is interested and extract them quickly and reliably under varying illumination conditions. This article develops a novel method for segmenting an object of interest in a cluttered environment by combining a P300-based brain computer interface (BCI and an improved fuzzy color extractor (IFCE. The induced P300 potential identifies the corresponding region of interest and obtains the target of interest for the IFCE. The classification results not only represent the human mind but also deliver the associated seed pixel and fuzzy parameters to extract the specific objects in which the human is interested. Then, the IFCE is used to extract the corresponding objects. The results show that the IFCE delivers better performance than the BP network or the traditional FCE. The use of a P300-based IFCE provides a reliable solution for assisting a computer in identifying an object of interest within images taken under varying illumination intensities.

  13. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  14. A Low-Complexity Algorithm for Static Background Estimation from Cluttered Image Sequences in Surveillance Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the purposes of foreground estimation, the true background model is unavailable in many practical circumstances and needs to be estimated from cluttered image sequences. We propose a sequential technique for static background estimation in such conditions, with low computational and memory requirements. Image sequences are analysed on a block-by-block basis. For each block location a representative set is maintained which contains distinct blocks obtained along its temporal line. The background estimation is carried out in a Markov Random Field framework, where the optimal labelling solution is computed using iterated conditional modes. The clique potentials are computed based on the combined frequency response of the candidate block and its neighbourhood. It is assumed that the most appropriate block results in the smoothest response, indirectly enforcing the spatial continuity of structures within a scene. Experiments on real-life surveillance videos demonstrate that the proposed method obtains considerably better background estimates (both qualitatively and quantitatively than median filtering and the recently proposed "intervals of stable intensity" method. Further experiments on the Wallflower dataset suggest that the combination of the proposed method with a foreground segmentation algorithm results in improved foreground segmentation.

  15. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  16. Modeling the inactivatin of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E. coli in ground beef by high pressure processing and citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in ground beef using High Pressure Processing...

  17. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  18. Statistical Signal Processing in Humanitarian Mine Clerance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Larsen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Denne artikel beskriver kortfattet metoder og resultater relateret til clutterreduktion (clutter: uønskede reflekterede signaler) i jordradar- (eng. ground penetrating radar, GPR) signaler vha. statistiske signalbehandlingsmetoder baseret på Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Formålet ved denne...

  19. The role of oscillatory brain activity in object processing and figure-ground segmentation in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, K; Anderson, S J; Hadjipapas, A; Holliday, I E

    2011-03-01

    'figure/ground' stimulation suggest a possible dual role for gamma rhythms in visual object coding, and provide general support of the binding-by-synchronization hypothesis. As the power changes in alpha and beta activity were largely independent of the spatial location of the target, however, we conclude that their role in object processing may relate principally to changes in visual attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of size, clutter, and complexity on vanishing-point distances in visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, T L; Baird, J C

    1993-01-01

    The portrayal of vanishing-point distances in visual imagery was examined in six experiments. In all experiments, subjects formed visual images of squares, and the squares were to be oriented orthogonally to subjects' line of sight. The squares differed in their level of surface complexity, and were either undivided, divided into 4 equally sized smaller squares, or divided into 16 equally sized smaller squares. Squares also differed in stated referent size, and ranged from 3 in. to 128 ft along each side. After subjects had formed an image of a specified square, they transformed their image so that the square was portrayed to move away from them. Eventually, the imaged square was portrayed to be so far away that if it were any further away, it could not be identified. Subjects estimated the distance to the square that was portrayed in their image at that time, the vanishing-point distance, and the relationship between stated referent size and imaged vanishing-point distance was best described by a power function with an exponent less than 1. In general, there were trends for exponents (slopes on log axes) to increase slightly and for multiplicative constants (y intercepts on log axes) to decrease as surface complexity increased. No differences in exponents or in multiplicative constants were found when the vanishing-point was approached from either subthreshold or suprathreshold directions. When clutter in the form of additional imaged objects located to either side of the primary imaged object was added to the image, the exponent of the vanishing-point function increased slightly and the multiplicative constant decreased. The success of a power function (and the failure of the size-distance invariance hypothesis) in describing the vanishing-point distance function calls into question the notions (a) that a constant grain size exists in the imaginal visual field at a given location and (b) that grain size specifies a lower limit in the storage of information in

  1. Knowledge Base Applications to Adaptive Space-Time Processing, Volume 5: Knowledge-Based Tracker Rule Book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ... processing algorithm can be applied. The proactive knowledge-based tracker uses information from other sources such as digital terrain maps, radar clutter and interference maps, and target priority assessments to determine the nature...

  2. Being Yourself and Thinking About the Future in People With Motor Neuron Disease: A Grounded Theory of Self-care Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassola, Barbara; Sansone, Valeria Ada; Lusignani, Maura

    2018-06-01

    Self-care is a crucial aspect in the management of people with motor neuron disease (MND). Nurses and healthcare professionals must know the processes used by patients in performing self-care to identify problems and help them. Decision-making processes, self-understanding, and political and social support influence the self-care process in chronic diseases. Little is known about the self-care process in MND. The aim of this study was to gain insight on the self-care processes in people with MND. A grounded theory method was chosen for this study. Data from interviews were gathered, and a simultaneous comparative analysis was conducted to identify categories and codes. Twenty-one people with spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis participated in the study. Five categories were identified as grounded in the data. The process starts from "being yourself in the care," and it develops thanks to "growing and changing" and with a "thinking about the future" approach. "Family role" and "you and who helps you" categories affect the process itself. The self-care process in people with MND is not seen in a daily perspective but changes with the evolution of the disease. For the growing patients with MND, changing, accepting and controlling the disease while deciding autonomously are the foundations of the process.

  3. Observations of the ground-attachment process in natural lightning in the absence of tall strike objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Synchronized high-speed (124 or 210 kiloframes per second) video images and wideband electromagnetic field records of the attachment process were obtained for 4 negative strokes in natural lightning at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida. The apparent strike objects were trees, whose heights were less than 30 m or so. Upward connecting leaders (UCLs) and multiple upward unconnected leaders were imaged in multiple frames. The majority of these upward positive leaders exhibited a pulsating behavior (brightening/fading cycles). UCLs, whose maximum extent ranged from 11 to 25 m, propagated at speeds ranging from 1.8×105 to 6.0×105 m/s with a mean of 3.4×105 m/s. Within about 100 m of the ground, the ratio of speeds of the downward negative leader and the corresponding UCL was about 3-4 for 2 events and 0.5 for 1 event. The breakthrough phase (BTP), corresponding to leader extensions inside the common streamer zone (CSZ), was imaged for 2 events. The initial length of CSZ was estimated to be about 30-40 m. For 2 events, estimated speeds of positive and negative leaders inside the CSZ were found to be between 2.4×106 and 3.7×106 m/s. For 1 event, opposite polarity leaders were observed to accelerate inside the CSZ. Further, in this same event, a space-leader-like formation, accompanied by significant intensification of UCL and apparently associated with the onset of BTP, was imaged. We speculate that the step-wise extension of the downward leader facilitated corona streamer bursts from both the downward negative and upward positive (UCL) leader tips, resulting in the establishment of CSZ. First speed profiles for colliding positive and negative leaders were obtained. In one event, the negative leader speed increased from 7.2 ×105 in virgin air to 2.5×106 (by a factor of 3.5), and then to 3.2×106 m/s just prior to the fast transition (FT) in the return-stroke field waveform. The positive leader accelerated from 1.8×105 (in virgin air) to 2.5×106

  4. Integration of UAV and ground-based Structure from Motion with Multi-View Stereo photogrammetry and hydrological data to quantify hillslope gully erosion processes in tropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, J.; Jarihani, B.; Sidle, R. C.; Wilkinson, S. N.; Bartley, R.

    2017-12-01

    Structure from Motion with Multi-View Stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry provides a cost-effective method of rapidly acquiring high resolution (sub-meter) topographic data, but is rarely used in hydrogeomorphic investigations of gully erosion. This study integrates high resolution topographic and land cover data derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and ground-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, with rainfall and gully discharge data, to elucidate hydrogeomorphic processes driving hillslope gully erosion. The study is located within a small (13 km2) dry-tropical savanna catchment within the Burdekin River Basin, northeast Australia, which is a major contributor sediments and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. A pre-wet season UAV survey covered an entire hillslope gully system (0.715 km2), and is used to derive topography, ground cover and hydrological flow pathways in the gully contributing area. Ground-based surveys of a single active gully (650 m2) within the broader hillslope are compared between pre- and post-wet season conditions to quantify gully geomorphic change. Rainfall, recorded near to the head of the gully, is related to gully discharge during sporadic storm events. The study provides valuable insights into the relationships among hydrological flow pathways, ground cover, rainfall and runoff, and spatial patterns of gully morphologic change. We demonstrate how UAV and ground-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry can be used to improve hydrogeomorphic process understanding and aid in the modelling and management of hillslope gully systems.

  5. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  6. Status of the Correlation Process of the V-HAB Simulation with Ground Tests and ISS Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetner, P.; Roth, C.; Zhukov, A.; Czupalla, M.; Anderson, M.; Ewert, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) is a dynamic Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created for investigation of future human spaceflight missions. It provides the capability to optimize LSS during early design phases. The focal point of the paper is the correlation and validation of V-HAB against ground test and flight data. In order to utilize V-HAB to design an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) it is important to know the accuracy of simulations, strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, simulations of real systems are essential. The modeling of the International Space Station (ISS) ECLSS in terms of single technologies as well as an integrated system and correlation against ground and flight test data is described. The results of the simulations make it possible to prove the approach taken by V-HAB.

  7. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  8. Pink slimed: Media framing of novel food technologies and risk related to ground beef and processed foods in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Kristin K; Chung, Jennifer H; Su, Leona Yi-Fan; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2018-09-01

    In March 2012 ABC World News Report aired a series of reports on lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that resulted in a 10-year low for beef prices and the bankruptcy of a major firm that produced LFTB. Using a random sample survey, we tested the effects of the media frame "pink slime" and industry frame "lean finely textured beef," alongside media use, food-related knowledge, trust in food-related institutions and preference for local, fresh, organic and GMO-free foods on perceptions of risk related to ground beef containing pink slime/LFTB, processed foods and red meat. The "pink slime" frame was strongly and positively associated with risk related to ground beef, but not risk related to red meat or processed foods. Attention to news stories about pink slime/LFTB was strongly associated with risk related to ground beef and processed foods, but not red meat. We found varying effects of food values, knowledge and trust on all three dependent variables. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  10. The influencing factors and data processing of ground-based γ-ray spectrometry detecting in the exploring of Liangzhu ancient ruins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yang; Wang Zhuwen; Liu Jinghua; Tiang Gang

    2010-01-01

    We explore the ancient Liangzhu Wall historical remains using ground gamma spectral survey and process the field data. The data in this region is influenced by terrain, climate, statistical fluctuation and partial disturbances and so on. In this paper, we do the surface affecting factors corrections by the correcting factors accepted by statistical analysis of the data in different surface factors, and we suppress the partial disturbances and statistical fluctuation by the method of wavelet filtering. The result shows that the processing procedure is advantageous to suppress the partial disturbances and emphasize the effective anomaly. (authors)

  11. Efficiency of optical-electronic systems: methods application for the analysis of structural changes in the process of eye grounds diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Yosyp R.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Vovkotrub, Dina V.; Saldan, Yulia Y.; Vassilenko, Valentina B.; Mazur, Nadia I.; Nikolaichuk, Daria V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Suleimenov, Batyrbek; Bainazarov, Ulan

    2017-08-01

    Process of eye tomogram obtaining by means of optical coherent tomography is studied. Stages of idiopathic macula holes formation in the process of eye grounds diagnostics are considered. Main stages of retina pathology progression are determined: Fuzzy logic units for obtaining reliable conclusions regarding the result of diagnosis are developed. By the results of theoretical and practical research system and technique of retinal macular region of the eye state analysis is developed ; application of the system, based on fuzzy logic device, improves the efficiency of eye retina complex.

  12. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  13. From the clouds to the ground - snow precipitation patterns vs. snow accumulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Franziska; Besic, Nikola; Mott, Rebecca; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Berne, Alexis; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    patterns show a snowfall gradient consistent with the prevailing wind direction. Deriving snow accumulation based on radar data is challenging as the close-ground precipitation patters cannot be resolved by the radar due to shielding and ground clutter in highly complex terrain. Nonetheless, radar measurements show distinct patterns of snowfall and accumulation, which may be the result of orographic enhancement. Station-based snow accumulation measurements are in reasonable agreement with the estimated large-scale radar snow accumulation. The ADS-based snow accumulation maps feature much smaller scale snow accumulation patterns likely due to close-ground wind effects and snow redistribution on top of an altitudinal gradient. To evaluate microphysical processes and patterns influenced by the topography we run a hydrometeor classification on the radar data. The relative importance of topographically induced effects on snow accumulation patterns is investigated based on vertical cross sections of hydrometeor data and corresponding snow accumulation.

  14. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  15. Advancement of High Resolution Radar Polarimetry in Target Verses Clutter Detection, Discrimination, Classification: A. Basic Theory and Modeling of Polarimetric Clutter Phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-15

    Bio . data available upon request) Mr. Brian D. James, Ph.D. (candidate) Computer Data Processing Engineer Responsible for supervising UIC-.EECS/CL DEC...city and surrounding parks such as the Bell Tower, the marvellous Shaanxi Prcvincial Museum with its impressive forest of steles and stone carvings

  16. Aerosol contamination survey during dust storm process in Northwestern China using ground, satellite observations and atmospheric modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonchyk, Mikalai; Yan, Haowen; Shareef, Tawheed Mohammed Elhessin; Yang, Shuwen

    2018-01-01

    The present survey addresses the comprehensive description of geographic locations, transport ways, size, and vertical aerosol distribution during four large dust events which occurred in the Northwest China. Based on the data from 35 ground-based air quality monitoring stations and the satellite data, emission flows for dust events within the period of 2014 to 2017 have been estimated. The data show that maximum peak daily average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 380 and 150 μg/m3, respectively, and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio was ranging within 0.12-0.66. Both satellite data and simulation data of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) coincide with location and extension of a dust cloud. The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) found dust at 0 to 10 km altitude which remained at this level during the most part of its trajectory. The vertical aerosol distribution at a wave of 532 nm total attenuated backscatter coefficient range of 0.0025-0.003 km-1 × sr-1. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Terra) Collection 6 Level-3 aerosol products data show that aerosol optical depth (AOD) at pollution epicenters exceeds 1. A comprehensive data survey thus demonstrated that the main sources of high aerosol pollutions in the territory were deserted areas of North and Northwest China as well as the most part of the Republic of Mongolia, where one of the largest deserts, Gobi, extends.

  17. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON THE GROUND OF THE BASIC MODEL OF THE CYCLE OF REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this scientific research is application of the basic model of interaction between phases of a cycle of reorganization of organizational and technological processes underway at industrial enterprises. The authors describe interactions between all six phases of the process of reorganization within the framework of the basic model of a cycle that contemplates organizational and technological processes. Engineering studies are necessary to check for the feasibility of reorganization of industrial enterprises and application of results extracted from the design documentation with a view to reorganization of production activities and construction operations. Upon completion of the decision-making process concerning the need for reorganization in accordance with the basic model of interaction between phases, there occurs restructuring that incorporates processes of design and construction. The authors have demonstrated that reorganization of the basic model cycle should be used in the design of organizational and technological processes with a view to the integrated consideration of reorganization of enterprises in order to comprehend and improve the efficiency of reorganization at each stage, as well as the control over the reorganization of a construction facility.

  18. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  19. The Learning Process of Supervisees Who Engage in the Reflecting Team Model within Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, counselor educators have begun to incorporate the use of the reflecting team process with the training of counselors. Specifically, the reflecting team has been used in didactic courses (Cox, 2003; Landis & Young, 1994; Harrawood, Wilde & Parmanand, 2011) and in supervision (Cox, 1997; Prest, Darden, & Keller, 1990;…

  20. The AP Chemistry Course Audit: A Fertile Ground for Identifying and Addressing Misconceptions about the Course and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenz, Richard W.; Miller, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    The advanced placement course audit was implemented to standardize the college-level curricular and resource requirements for AP courses. While the process has had this effect, it has brought with it misconceptions about how much the College Board intends to control what happens within the classroom, what information is required to be included in…

  1. Inactivation of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Ground Chicken Meat Using High Pressure Processing and Gamma Radiation, and in Purge and Chicken Meat Surfaces by Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Sommers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC are common contaminants in poultry meat and may cause urinary tract infections after colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and transfer of contaminated feces to the urethra. Three nonthermal processing technologies used to improve the safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods include high pressure processing (HPP, ionizing (gamma radiation (GR, and ultraviolet light (UV-C. Multi-isolate cocktails of UPEC were inoculated into ground chicken which was then treated with HPP (4 oC, 0-25 min at 300, 400 or 500 MPa. HPP D10, the processing conditions needed to inactivate 1 log of UPEC, was 30.6, 8.37, and 4.43 min at 300, 400, and 500 MPa, respectively. When the UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken and gamma irradiated (4 and -20 oC the GR D10 were 0.28 and 0.36 kGy, respectively. The UV-C D10 of UPEC in chicken suspended in exudate and placed on stainless steel and plastic food contact surfaces ranged from 11.4 to 12.9 mJ/cm2. UV-C inactivated ca. 0.6 log of UPEC on chicken breast meat. These results indicate that existing nonthermal processing technologies such as HPP, GR, and UV-C can significantly reduce UPEC levels in poultry meat or exudate and provide safer poultry products for at-risk consumers.

  2. Inactivation of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Ground Chicken Meat Using High Pressure Processing and Gamma Radiation, and in Purge and Chicken Meat Surfaces by Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christopher H; Scullen, O J; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are common contaminants in poultry meat and may cause urinary tract infections after colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and transfer of contaminated feces to the urethra. Three non-thermal processing technologies used to improve the safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods include high pressure processing (HPP), ionizing (gamma) radiation (GR), and ultraviolet light (UV-C). Multi-isolate cocktails of UPEC were inoculated into ground chicken which was then treated with HPP (4°C, 0-25 min) at 300, 400, or 500 MPa. HPP D10, the processing conditions needed to inactivate 1 log of UPEC, was 30.6, 8.37, and 4.43 min at 300, 400, and 500 MPa, respectively. When the UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken and gamma irradiated (4 and -20°C) the GR D10 were 0.28 and 0.36 kGy, respectively. The UV-C D10 of UPEC in chicken suspended in exudate and placed on stainless steel and plastic food contact surfaces ranged from 11.4 to 12.9 mJ/cm(2). UV-C inactivated ca. 0.6 log of UPEC on chicken breast meat. These results indicate that existing non-thermal processing technologies such as HPP, GR, and UV-C can significantly reduce UPEC levels in poultry meat or exudate and provide safer poultry products for at-risk consumers.

  3. Advancing Understanding of the Role of Belowground Processes in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks trhrough Ground-Penetrating Radar. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Frank P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Coarse roots play a significant role in belowground carbon cycling and will likely play an increasingly crucial role in belowground carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise, yet they are one of the most difficult ecosystem parameters to quantify. Despite promising results with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method of quantifying biomass of coarse roots, this application of GPR is in its infancy and neither the complete potential nor limitations of the technology have been fully evaluated. The primary goals and questions of this study fell into four groups: (1) GPR methods: Can GPR detect change in root biomass over time, differentiate live roots from dead roots, differentiate between coarse roots, fine roots bundled together, and a fine root mat, remain effective with varied soil moisture, and detect shadowed roots (roots hidden below larger roots); (2) CO2 enrichment study at Kennedy Space Center in Brevard County, Florida: Are there post-fire legacy effects of CO2 fertilization on plant carbon pools following the end of CO2application ? (3) Disney Wilderness Study: What is the overall coarse root biomass and potential for belowground carbon storage in a restored longleaf pine flatwoods system? Can GPR effectively quantify coarse roots in soils that are wetter than the previous sites and that have a high percentage of saw palmetto rhizomes present? (4) Can GPR accurately represent root architecture in a three-dimensional model? When the user is familiar with the equipment and software in a setting that minimizes unsuitable conditions, GPR is a relatively precise, non-destructive, useful tool for estimating coarse root biomass. However, there are a number of cautions and guidelines that should be followed to minimize inaccuracies or situations that are untenable for GPR use. GPR appears to be precise as it routinely predicts highly similar values for a given area across multiple

  4. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  5. Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) by denitrification as ground improvement method - Process control in sand column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vinh; van Paassen, Leon; Nakano, Akiko; Kanayama, Motohei; Heimovaara, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Calcite precipitation induced by microbes has been proven to be efficient in stabilizing granular soils, especially with urea hydrolysis, as it has been successfully demonstrated in a pilot application 2010. However, as a byproduct highly concentrated ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) solution is produced, which has to be removed and disposed and forms a significant disadvantage of the technique that makes an alternative process like denitrification preferred. The proof of principle of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) by denitrification has been demonstrated by Van Paassen et al (2010) who suggested that instead of producing waste as a byproduct, different pre-treated waste streams could be used as substrates for in situ growth of denitrifying bacteria and simultaneous cementation without producing waste to be removed. In this study sand column experiments are performed in which calcium carbonate was successfully precipitated by indigenous denitrifying micro-organisms, which were supplied weekly with a pulse of a substrate solution containing calcium acetate and calcium nitrate. Besides the production of calcite and the growth of bacteria in biofilms, the reduction of nitrate resulted in the production of (nitrogen) gas. It was observed that this gas partly fills up the pore space and consequently contributed to a reduction of the permeability of the treated sand. The presence of gas in the pore space affected the flow of the injected substrates and influenced to the distribution of calcium carbonate. The effect of the mean particle size (D50) on the flow and transport of solutes and gas in the porous media has been evaluated by treating several columns with varying grain size distribution and comparing the change in permeability after each incubation period and analyzing the distribution of the gas throughout the columns using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. The present results show that there is a considerable decrease of permeability - a

  6. Proton transfer processes in selenourea: UV-induced selenone → selenol photoreaction and ground state selenol → selenone proton tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostkowska, Hanna; Lapinski, Leszek; Khvorostov, Artem; Nowak, Maciej J.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectrum of selenourea isolated in low temperature Ar matrix indicates that monomers of this compound adopt exclusively the selenone tautomeric form. UV irradiation (λ>345 nm) of matrix-isolated selenourea leads to generation of the selenol tautomer (isoselenourea). Two conformers of the selenol tautomer with imino N-H bond oriented anti or syn with respect to the Se-H group were photoproduced. For the matrix kept at 10 K and in darkness, a proton tunneling transforming the photoproduced selenol anti form back into the initial selenone tautomer was observed. The time constant of this process was 16 h. The asymmetric barrier for the selenol → selenone proton tunneling was estimated at MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level to be as high as 95 kJ mol -1 (7940 cm -1 ). The relation between the height of the barrier and the time constant of proton tunneling was discussed by comparing the current case with that previously studied for thiourea [J. Phys. Chem. A 107 (2003) 6373

  7. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  8. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    . 2011, Dalton et al. 2013). However, the distribution of chlorine species is inconsistent with this process and together with abundance maps of different sizes of crystalline water-ice grain exhibits clear spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution, hence suggesting an endogenous origin for these species. Abundance maps will be presented and the question of the distribution and the formation of these species will be addressed.

  9. “Doing Our Part” (Taking Responsibility): A Grounded Theory of the Process of Adherence to Oral Chemotherapy in Children and Adolescents with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Hughes, Cynthia B.; Calvillo, Evelyn R.; Anderson, Nancy L.R.; Briseño-Toomey, Deborah; Dominguez, Leticia; Martinez, Alex M.; Hanby, Cara; Bhatia, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (A.L.L.) receive treatment that relies on daily self- or parent/caregiver-administered oral chemotherapy for approximately two years. Despite the fact that pediatric A.L.L. is uniformly fatal without adequate treatment, non-adherence to oral chemotherapy has been observed in up to one-third of patients. Little is known about the reasons for non-adherence in these patients. This study employed Straussian grounded theory methodology to develop and validate a model to explain the process of adherence to oral chemotherapy in children and adolescents with A.L.L. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews (with 17 patients and 21 parents/caregivers) and four focused group discussions were conducted. Three stages were identified in the process of adherence: (1) Recognizing the Threat, (2) Taking Control, and (3) Managing for the Duration. Doing Our Part was identified as the core theme explaining the process of adherence, and involves the parent (or patient) taking responsibility for assuring that medications are taken as prescribed. Understanding the association between taking oral chemotherapy and control/cure of leukemia (Making the Connection) appeared to mediate adherence behaviors. PMID:21653911

  10. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  11. The Decision-Making Process of Genetically At-Risk Couples Considering Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Initial Findings from a Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Olshansky, Ellen; Schwartz, Alan; Tur-Kaspa, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Exponential growth in genomics has led to public and private initiatives worldwide that have dramatically increased the number of procreative couples who are aware of their ability to transmit genetic disorders to their future children. Understanding how couples process the meaning of being genetically at risk for their procreative life lags far behind the advances in genomic and reproductive sciences. Moreover, society, policy makers, and clinicians are not aware of the experiences and nuances involved when modern couples are faced with using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). The purpose of this study was to discover the decision-making process of genetically at-risk couples as they decide whether to use PGD to prevent the transmission of known single-gene or sex-linked genetic disorders to their children. A qualitative, grounded theory design guided the study in which 22 couples (44 individual partners) from the USA, who were actively considering PGD, participated. Couples were recruited from June 2009 to May 2010 from the Internet and from a large PGD center and a patient newsletter. In-depth semi-structured interviews were completed with each individual partner within the couple dyad, separate from their respective partner. We discovered that couples move through four phases (Identify, Contemplate, Resolve, Engage) of a complex, dynamic, and iterative decision-making process where multiple, sequential decisions are made. In the Identify phase, couples acknowledge the meaning of their at-risk status. Parenthood and reproductive options are explored in the Contemplate phase, where 41% of couples remained for up to 36 months before moving into the Resolve phase. In Resolve, one of three decisions about PGD use is reached, including: Accepting, Declining, or Oscillating. Actualizing decisions occur in the Engage phase. Awareness of the decision-making process among genetically at-risk couples provides foundational work for understanding critical processes

  12. Signal-to-solar clutter calculations of AK-47 muzzle flash at various spectral bandpasses near the potassium D1/D2 doublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Karl K., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    An analysis was performed, using MODTRAN, to determine the best filters to use for detecting the muzzle flash of an AK-47 in daylight conditions in the desert. Filters with bandwidths of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 nanometers (nm) were analyzed to understand how the optical bandwidth affects the signal-to-solar clutter ratio. These filters were evaluated near the potassium D1 and D2 doublet emission lines that occur at 769.89 and 766.49 nm respectively that are observed where projectile propellants are used. The maximum spectral radiance, from the AK-47 muzzle flash, is 1.88 x 10-2 W/cm2 str micron, and is approximately equal to the daytime atmospheric spectral radiance. The increased emission, due to the potassium doublet lines, and decreased atmospheric transmission, due to oxygen absorption, combine to create a condition where the signal-to-solar clutter ratio is greater than 1. The 3 nm filter, has a signal-to-solar clutter ratio of 2.09 when centered at 765.37 nm and provides the best combination of both cost and signal sensitivity.

  13. Dependency of human target detection performance on clutter and quality of supporting image analysis algorithms in a video surveillance task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Samuel; Dunau, Patrick; Wellig, Peter; Stein, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Background: In target detection, the success rates depend strongly on human observer performances. Two prior studies tested the contributions of target detection algorithms and prior training sessions. The aim of this Swiss-German cooperation study was to evaluate the dependency of human observer performance on the quality of supporting image analysis algorithms. Methods: The participants were presented 15 different video sequences. Their task was to detect all targets in the shortest possible time. Each video sequence showed a heavily cluttered simulated public area from a different viewing angle. In each video sequence, the number of avatars in the area was altered to 100, 150 and 200 subjects. The number of targets appearing was kept at 10%. The number of marked targets varied from 0, 5, 10, 20 up to 40 marked subjects while keeping the positive predictive value of the detection algorithm at 20%. During the task, workload level was assessed by applying an acoustic secondary task. Detection rates and detection times for the targets were analyzed using inferential statistics. Results: The study found Target Detection Time to increase and Target Detection Rates to decrease with increasing numbers of avatars. The same is true for the Secondary Task Reaction Time while there was no effect on Secondary Task Hit Rate. Furthermore, we found a trend for a u-shaped correlation between the numbers of markings and RTST indicating increased workload. Conclusion: The trial results may indicate useful criteria for the design of training and support of observers in observational tasks.

  14. Scattering from extended targets in range-dependent fluctuating ocean-waveguides with clutter from theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Küsel, Elizabeth T; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Bistatic, long-range measurements of acoustic scattered returns from vertically extended, air-filled tubular targets were made during three distinct field experiments in fluctuating continental shelf waveguides. It is shown that Sonar Equation estimates of mean target-scattered intensity lead to large errors, differing by an order of magnitude from both the measurements and waveguide scattering theory. The use of the Ingenito scattering model is also shown to lead to significant errors in estimating mean target-scattered intensity in the field experiments because they were conducted in range-dependent ocean environments with large variations in sound speed structure over the depth of the targets, scenarios that violate basic assumptions of the Ingenito model. Green's theorem based full-field modeling that describes scattering from vertically extended tubular targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides by taking into account nonuniform sound speed structure over the target's depth extent is shown to accurately describe the statistics of the targets' scattered field in all three field experiments. Returns from the man-made targets are also shown to have a very different spectral dependence from the natural target-like clutter of the dominant fish schools observed, suggesting that judicious multi-frequency sensing may often provide a useful means of distinguishing fish from man-made targets.

  15. Measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve quitting: a qualitative grounded theory study of the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-05-11

    To better understand the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective, and to explore the role spontaneity and planning play in quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study using in-depth interviews with 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 males, 22 females) who quit smoking in the past 6-24 months (26 quit unassisted; 11 used assistance). Based on participants' accounts of quitting, we propose a typology of quitting experiences: measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve. Two key features integral to participants' accounts of their quitting experiences were used as the basis of the typology: (1) the apparent onset of quitting (gradual through to sudden); and (2) the degree to which the smoker appeared to have prepared for quitting (no evidence through to clear evidence of preparation). The resulting 2 × 2 matrix of quitting experiences took into consideration three additional characteristics: (1) the presence or absence of a clearly identifiable trigger; (2) the amount of effort (cognitive and practical) involved in quitting; and (3) the type of cognitive process that characterised the quitting experience (reflective; impulsive; reflective and impulsive). Quitting typically included elements of spontaneity (impulsive behaviour) and preparation (reflective behaviour), and, importantly, the investment of time and cognitive effort by participants prior to quitting. Remarkably few participants quit completely out-of-the-blue with little or no preparation. Findings are discussed in relation to stages-of-change theory, catastrophe theory, and dual process theories, focusing on how dual process theories may provide a way of conceptualising how quitting can include elements of both spontaneity and preparation.

  16. Modularization for ground engineering construction in the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, with the designed annual gas processing capacity of six billion m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoming Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi Block has enormous natural gas reserves, and it is a typical three-high (high temperature, high pressure, and high flow rate sour gas field. Its ground engineering project (with the designed gas processing capacity of 60 × 108 m3/a is characterized by high processing rate of each unit, complex process control, large construction load, restricted construction site and tight schedule. Based on the traditional engineering construction mode, however, it is difficult to complete the project design and construction within 16 months. In view of this, the design concept of unit large-scale modularization was introduced to implement “normalized design, scale purchase, factory-like prefabrication and modularized construction” and develop the modularization technology of large-scale surface engineering construction. This modularization technology is performed as follows. First, the modularized units are laid out reasonably according to the technological process. Second, the layout of modularized units is usually superimposed in the multi-layer framework. Third, those equipments with the same or similar operational modes, medium properties, functional characteristics and installation requirements are concentrated in the pattern of a module. Fourth, escape passageway is specially set up. Fifth, room for installation, maintenance and repair of large equipments is reserved. And sixth, transportation and hoisting requirements of modules are taken into consideration sufficiently. This technology is contributive to the improvement of design quality, effective shortening of design period, reduction of field working load, decrease of safety management risk of on-site installation, increase of production efficiency, conservation of land occupation and diminishment of construction investment. It plays a reference role in the modularized construction of surface

  17. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco; Iraldo, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. → Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. → Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. → Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. → Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  18. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  19. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  20. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  1. Measurement of ground state properties of neutron-rich nuclei on the r-process path between the N=50 and N=82 shells

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the unknown ground-state ${\\beta}$-decay properties of the neutron-rich $^{84-89}$Ge, $^{90-93}$Se and $^{102-104}$Sr isotopes near the r-process path is of high interest for the study of the abundance peaks around the N=50 and N=82 neutron shells. At ISOLDE, beams of certain elements with sufficient isotopic purity are produced as molecular sidebands rather than atomic beams. This applies e.g, to germanium, separated as GeS$^{+}$, selenium separated as SeCO$^{+}$ and strontium separated as SrF$^{+}$. However, in case of neutron-rich isotopes produced in actinide targets, new "isobaric" background of atomic ions appears on the mass of the molecular sideband. For this particular case, the ECR charge breeder, positioned in the experimental hall after ISOLDE first mass separation, can be advantageously used as a purification device, by breaking the molecules and removing the molecular contaminants. This proposal indicates our interest in the study of basic nuclear structure properties of neutron...

  2. Collection, processing, and interpretation of ground-penetrating radar data to determine sediment thickness at selected locations in Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Johnson, Carole D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected geophysical data in Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County, Maryland, between September 17 through October 4, 2007 to assist the Maryland Department of Natural Resources to better manage resources of the Lake. The objectives of the geophysical surveys were to provide estimates of sediment thickness in shallow areas around the Lake and to test the usefulness of three geophysical methods in this setting. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), continuous seismic-reflection profiling (CSP), and continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) were attempted. Nearly 90 miles of GPR radar data and over 70 miles of CSP data were collected throughout the study area. During field deployment and testing, CRP was determined not to be practical and was not used on a large scale. Sediment accumulation generally could be observed in the radar profiles in the shallow coves. In some seismic profiles, a thin layer of sediment could be observed at the water bottom. The radar profiles appeared to be better than the seismic profiles for the determination of sediment thickness. Although only selected data profiles were processed, all data were archived for future interpretation.

  3. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  4. A grounded theory approach to understand the process of decision making on fertility control methods in urban society of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-09-01

    More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. In this grounded theory study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 purposefully selected participants including 28 women and 17 key informants including family health providers and managers, and participants' mothers and husbands, who lived in urban society of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011-2012. Participants' recruitment continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's mode of analysis through constant comparative method, applying levels of open, axial, and selective coding with MAXqda software. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. The core category of "caring the comprehensive health of my family," which emerged from the data, described the process of couples' decision making toward using family planning methods in this study. Other developed categories which were presented into a theoretical scheme consisted of 1) shaping the ideas of fertility control, 2) developing cognition about the fertility control methods, 3) appraising available choices and choosing the most appropriate one, 4) managing the course of using methods, and 5) realizing the fertility intentions. It is important that family planning providers understand the motivations, perceptions, and knowledge of women about contraceptive methods in their contextual situation, which illustrates their mode of interaction in the arenas of family planning decision making.

  5. Echolocation in the bat, Rhinolophus capensis: the influence of clutter, conspecifics and prey on call design and intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Fawcett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats are exposed not only to the echoes of their own calls, but often the signals of conspecifics and other bats. For species emitting short, frequency modulated signals e.g. vespertilionoids, adjustments in both the frequency and time domain have been observed in such situations. However, bats using long duration, constant frequency calls may confront special challenges, since these bats should be less able to avoid temporal and frequency overlap. Here we investigated echolocation call design in the highduty cycle bat, Rhinolophus capensis, as bats flew with either a conspecific or heterospecific in a large outdoor flight-room. We compared these recordings to those made of bats flying alone in the same flight-room, and in a smaller flight room, alone, and hunting tethered moths. We found no differences in duty cycle or peak frequency of the calls of R. capensis across conditions. However, in the presence of a conspecific or the vespertilionoid, Miniopterus natalensis, R. capensis produced longer frequency-modulated downward sweeps at the terminus of their calls with lower minimum frequencies than when flying alone. In the presence of the larger high-duty cycle bat, R. clivosus, R. capensis produced shorter calls than when flying alone or with a conspecific. These changes are similar to those of vespertilionoids when flying from open to more cluttered environments. They are not similar to those differences observed in vespertilionoids when flying with other bats. Also unlike vespertilinoids, R. capensis used calls 15 dB less intense in conspecific pairs than when alone.

  6. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  7. Lethality Prediction for Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Uropathogenic E. coli in Ground Chicken Treated with High Pressure Processing and Trans-Cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Huang, Chi-Yun; Ramos, Rommel; Chien, Shih-Yung; Scullen, O Joseph; Sommers, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli, intestinal (O157:H7) as well as extraintestinal types (for example, Uropathogenic E. coli [UPEC]) are commonly found in many foods including raw chicken meat. The resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to UPEC in chicken meat under the stresses of high hydrostatic Pressure (HHP, also known as HPP-high pressure processing) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (an essential oil) was investigated and compared. UPEC was found slightly less resistant than O157:H7 in our test parameter ranges. With the addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde as an antimicrobial to meat, HPP lethality enhanced both O157:H7 and UPEC inactivation. To facilitate the predictive model development, a central composite design (CCD) was used to assess the 3-parameter effects, that is, pressure (300 to 400 MPa), trans-cinnamaldehyde dose (0.2 to 0.5%, w/w), and pressure-holding time (15 to 25 min), on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken. Linear models were developed to estimate the lethality of E. coli O157:H7 (R 2 = 0.86) and UPEC (R 2 = 0.85), as well as dimensionless nonlinear models. All models were validated with data obtained from separated CCD combinations. Because linear models of O157:H7 and UPEC had similar R 2 and the significant lethality difference of CCD points was only 9 in 20; all data were combined to generate models to include both O157:H7 and UPEC. The results provide useful information/tool to predict how pathogenic E. coli may survive HPP in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde and to achieve a great than 5 log CFU/g reduction in chicken meat. The models may be used for process optimization, product development and to assist the microbial risk assessment. The study provided an effective means to reduce the high hydrostatic pressure level with incorporation of antimicrobial compound to achieve a 5-log reduction of pathogenic E. coli without damaging the raw meat quality. The developed models may be used to predict the high pressure processing

  8. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  9. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  10. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  11. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  12. No consistent effect of plant species richness on resistance to simulated climate change for above- or below-ground processes in managed grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Carsten F; von Riedmatten, Lars; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-06-17

    Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture). We manipulated spring warming using open-top chambers and summer drought using rain-out shelters for 4 weeks. Measurements of species richness, above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations showed significant but inconsistent differences among regions, managements and manipulations. We detected a three-way interaction between species richness, management and region, indicating that our study design was sensitive enough to detect even intricate effects. We could not detect a pervasive effect of species richness on biomass differences between treatments and controls, indicating that a combination of spring warming and summer drought effects on grassland systems are not consistently moderated by species richness. We attribute this to the relatively high number of species even at low richness levels, which already provides the complementarity required for positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. A review of the literature also indicates that climate manipulations largely fail to show richness-buffering, while natural experiments do, suggesting that such manipulations are milder than reality or incur treatment artefacts.

  13. Ground penetrating radar system and method for detecting an object on or below a ground surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongth, R.; Yarovoy, A.; Schukin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar system for detecting objects (17) on or below a ground surface (18), comprising at least one transmit antenna (13) having a first foot print (14) at the ground surface, at least one receive antenna (15) having a second foot print (16) at the ground surface, and processing

  14. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  15. Orographic Impacts on Liquid and Ice-Phase Precipitation Processes during OLYMPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Hunzinger, A.; Gatlin, P. N.; Wolff, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) focused on physical validation of GPM products in cold-season, mid-latitude frontal precipitation occurring over the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Herein, we use data collected by the NASA S-band polarimetric radar (NPOL) to quantify and examine ice (IWP), liquid (LWP) and total water paths (TWP) relative to surface precipitation rates and column hydrometeor types for several cases occurring in different synoptic and/or Froude number regimes. These quantities are compared to coincident precipitation properties measured or estimated by GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). Because ice scattering is the dominant radiometric signature used by the GMI for estimating precipitation over land, and because the DPR is greatly affected by ground clutter in the lowest 1 - 2 km above ground, measurement limitations combined with orographic forcing may impact the degree to which DPR and/or GMI algorithms are able to adequately observe and estimate precipitation over and around orography.Preliminary case results suggest: 1) as expected, the Olympic Mountains force robust enhancements in the liquid and ice microphysical processes on windward slopes, especially in atmospheric river events; 2) localized orographic enhancements alter the balance of liquid and frozen precipitation contributions (IWP/TWP, LWP/TWP) to near surface rain rate, and for two cases examined thus far the balance seems to be sensitive to flow direction at specific intersections with the terrain orientation; and 3) GPM measurement limitations related to the depth of surface clutter impact for the DPR, and degree to which ice processes are coupled to the orographic rainfall process (DPR and GMI), especially along windward mountain slopes, may constrain the ability of retrieval algorithms to properly estimate near-surface precipitation quantities over complex terrain. Ongoing

  16. Ground-water flow and quality, and geochemical processes, in Indian Wells Valley, Kern, Inyo, and San Bernardino counties, California, 1987-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles; Schroeder, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    An existing water-quality data base for the 300- square-mile Indian Wells Valley was updated by means of chemical and isotopic analysis of ground water. The wide range in measured concentrations of major ions and of minor constituents such as fluoride, borate, nitrate, manganese, and iron is attributed to geochemical reactions within lacustrine deposits of the valley floor. These reactions include sulfate reduction accompanied by generation of alkalinity, precipitation of carbonates, exchange of aqueous alkaline-earth ions for sodium on clays, and dissolution of evaporite minerals. Differences in timing and location of recharge, which originates primarily in the Sierra Nevada to the west, and evapotranspiration from a shallow water table on the valley floor result in a wide range in ratios of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. As ground water moves from alluvium into lustrine deposits of the ancestral China Lake, dissolved-solids concen- trations increase from about 200 to more than 1,000 milligrams per liter; further large increases to several thousand milligrams per liter occur beneath the China Lake playa. Historical data show an increase during the past 20 years in dissolved- solids concentration in several wells in the principal pumping areas at Ridgecrest and between Ridgecrest and Inyokern. The increase apparently is caused by induced flow of saline ground water from nearby China, Mirror, and Satellite Lakes. A simplified advective-transport model calculates ground-water travel times between parts of the valley of at least several thousand years, indi- cating the presence of old ground water. A local ground-water line and an evaporation line estimated using isotopic data from the China Lake area inter- sect at a delta-deuterium value of about -125 permil. This indicates that late Pleistocene recharge was 15 to 35 permil more negative than current recharge.

  17. Automated Ground Penetrating Radar hyperbola detection in complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems are commonly used in many applications to detect, amongst others, buried targets (various types of pipes, landmines, tree roots ...), which, in a cross-section, present theoretically a particular hyperbolic-shaped signature resulting from the antenna radiation pattern. Considering the large quantity of information we can acquire during a field campaign, a manual detection of these hyperbolas is barely possible, therefore we have a real need to have at our disposal a quick and automated detection of these hyperbolas. However, this task may reveal itself laborious in real field data because these hyperbolas are often ill-shaped due to the heterogeneity of the medium and to instrumentation clutter. We propose a new detection algorithm for well- and ill-shaped GPR reflection hyperbolas especially developed for complex field data. This algorithm is based on human recognition pattern to emulate human expertise to identify the hyperbolas apexes. The main principle relies in a fitting process of the GPR image edge dots detected with Canny filter to analytical hyperbolas, considering the object as a punctual disturbance with a physical constraint of the parameters. A long phase of observation of a large number of ill-shaped hyperbolas in various complex media led to the definition of smart criteria characterizing the hyperbolic shape and to the choice of accepted value ranges acceptable for an edge dot to correspond to the apex of a specific hyperbola. These values were defined to fit the ambiguity zone for the human brain and present the particularity of being functional in most heterogeneous media. Furthermore, the irregularity is particularly taken into account by defining a buffer zone around the theoretical hyperbola in which the edge dots need to be encountered to belong to this specific hyperbola. First, the method was tested in laboratory conditions over tree roots and over PVC pipes with both time- and frequency-domain radars

  18. Examining the Process of Change in an Evidence-Based Parent Training Intervention: A Qualitative Study Grounded in the Experiences of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal N.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence-based parent training intervention known as Parent Management Training-the Oregon Model (PMTO) is one particularly well-supported treatment approach for addressing child behavioral problems. Yet, there remains a need to further examine how this intervention promotes change. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory…

  19. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  20. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  1. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  2. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  3. Comparação dos modelos prognósticos de Clutter e da função Logística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carneiro Gonçalves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o desempenho de dois modelos não-lineares e o sistema de equações simultâneas de Clutter na progrnose do volume de madeira em povoamentos clonais e superestoocados de Eucalyptus spp no Espírito Santo, Brasil. Para fins de avaliação da qualidade dos ajustes e comparação dos modelos, foi utilizado o Erro Padrão da Média Percentual, os Critérios de Informação de Akaike e Bayesiano, complementados pela análise gráfica dos resíduos padronizados. A inclusão das covariáveis, sítio e área basal, nos sistemas não-lineares de projeção em volume garantiram uma melhoria expressiva na acurácia das estimativas para a função logística com erros reduzidos em até quatro vezes. Verificou-se ainda que a função logística com inclusão de variáveis foi altamente superior a sua forma original de ajuste e mais coerente quando comparada ao sistema de equações simultâneas de Clutter. Os resultados permitiram inferir ainda sobre a superioridade do sistema não-linear de modelagem indicando valores de incremento médio anual máximos próximos a 5 anos, o que o torna condizente com a realidade das plantações florestais de eucalipto para produção de biomassa no Brasil.

  4. User guide for the farm process (FMP1) for the U.S. Geological Survey's modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Hanson, R.T.; Maddock, Thomas; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to estimate dynamically integrated supply-and-demand components of irrigated agriculture as part of the simulation of surface-water and ground-water flow. To meet this need, a computer program called the Farm Process (FMP1) was developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finite-difference modular ground-water flow model, MODFLOW- 2000 (MF2K). The FMP1 allows MF2K users to simulate conjunctive use of surface- and ground water for irrigated agriculture for historical and future simulations, water-rights issues and operational decisions, nondrought and drought scenarios. By dynamically integrating farm delivery requirement, surface- and ground-water delivery, as well as irrigation-return flow, the FMP1 allows for the estimation of supplemental well pumpage. While farm delivery requirement and irrigation return flow are simulated by the FMP1, the surface-water delivery to the farm can be simulated optionally by coupling the FMP1 with the Streamflow Routing Package (SFR1) and the farm well pumping can be simulated optionally by coupling the FMP1 to the Multi-Node Well (MNW) Package. In addition, semi-routed deliveries can be specified that are associated with points of diversion in the SFR1 stream network. Nonrouted surface-water deliveries can be specified independently of any stream network. The FMP1 maintains a dual mass balance of a farm budget and as part of the ground-water budget. Irrigation demand, supply, and return flow are in part subject to head-dependent sources and sinks such as evapotranspiration from ground water and leakage between the conveyance system and the aquifer. Farm well discharge and farm net recharge are source/sink terms in the FMP1, which depend on transpiration uptake from ground water and other head dependent consumptive use components. For heads rising above the bottom of the root zone, the actual transpiration is taken to vary proportionally with the depth of the active root zone, which can be restricted

  5. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  6. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  7. optimization of process parameters for lovastatin production under solid-state fermentation from ground corn cobs by gamma irradiated aspergillus tamarri isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Khalaf, M.A.; Meleigy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    rapid screening method is demonstrated for isolating lovastatin overproducing strains of gamma irradiated aspergillus tamarri. the screening methodology, based on the activity of lovastatin against the yeast candida albicans. among 24 gamma irradiated isolates of a. tamarri, the isolate G-8 was selected as best producer for lovastatin. solid state fermentation (SSF)was evaluated to produce lovastatin by a. tamarri G-8 isolate using ground corn cobs as substrate. monofactorial experiments were adopted to optimize the fermentation conditions. various crucial parameters such as particle size, moisture content, ph, temperature, inoculum size and incubation time were derived. corn cobs of particle size 0.4 mm having moisture level of 60 % and ph 5 gave the highest yield of lovastatin (12.4 mg/gram dry substrate) when inoculated with a. tamarri G-8 at inoculum size 10 % and 28 degree C for 8 days.

  8. Studies of Plasma Instabilities Excited by Ground-Based High Power HF (Heating) Facilities and of X and Gamma Ray Emission in Runaway Breakdown Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurevich, Aleksander V

    2006-01-01

    .... The runaway breakdown process in inhomogeneous thunderstorm electric field; 5. X-ray emission in different gases due to runaway breakdown phenomena in a laboratory cyclotron installation; 6. An influence of combined effects of runaway breakdown and cosmic rays on lightning processes in thunderstorm atmosphere.

  9. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  11. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  12. A novel heterogeneous training sample selection method on space-time adaptive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2018-04-01

    The performance of ground target detection about space-time adaptive processing (STAP) decreases when non-homogeneity of clutter power is caused because of training samples contaminated by target-like signals. In order to solve this problem, a novel nonhomogeneous training sample selection method based on sample similarity is proposed, which converts the training sample selection into a convex optimization problem. Firstly, the existing deficiencies on the sample selection using generalized inner product (GIP) are analyzed. Secondly, the similarities of different training samples are obtained by calculating mean-hausdorff distance so as to reject the contaminated training samples. Thirdly, cell under test (CUT) and the residual training samples are projected into the orthogonal subspace of the target in the CUT, and mean-hausdorff distances between the projected CUT and training samples are calculated. Fourthly, the distances are sorted in order of value and the training samples which have the bigger value are selective preference to realize the reduced-dimension. Finally, simulation results with Mountain-Top data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.

  14. Large Spatial Scale Ground Displacement Mapping through the P-SBAS Processing of Sentinel-1 Data on a Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, F.; Bonano, M.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Zinno, I.

    2017-12-01

    Since its launch in 2014, the Sentinel-1 (S1) constellation has played a key role on SAR data availability and dissemination all over the World. Indeed, the free and open access data policy adopted by the European Copernicus program together with the global coverage acquisition strategy, make the Sentinel constellation as a game changer in the Earth Observation scenario. Being the SAR data become ubiquitous, the technological and scientific challenge is focused on maximizing the exploitation of such huge data flow. In this direction, the use of innovative processing algorithms and distributed computing infrastructures, such as the Cloud Computing platforms, can play a crucial role. In this work we present a Cloud Computing solution for the advanced interferometric (DInSAR) processing chain based on the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, aimed at processing S1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) data for the generation of large spatial scale deformation time series in efficient, automatic and systematic way. Such a DInSAR chain ingests Sentinel 1 SLC images and carries out several processing steps, to finally compute deformation time series and mean deformation velocity maps. Different parallel strategies have been designed ad hoc for each processing step of the P-SBAS S1 chain, encompassing both multi-core and multi-node programming techniques, in order to maximize the computational efficiency achieved within a Cloud Computing environment and cut down the relevant processing times. The presented P-SBAS S1 processing chain has been implemented on the Amazon Web Services platform and a thorough analysis of the attained parallel performances has been performed to identify and overcome the major bottlenecks to the scalability. The presented approach is used to perform national-scale DInSAR analyses over Italy, involving the processing of more than 3000 S1 IWS images acquired from both ascending and descending orbits. Such an experiment confirms the big advantage of

  15. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  16. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  17. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  18. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  19. Modeling the inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E.coli in ground chicken by high pressure processing and thymol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compare the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in chicken meat using High Pressure Processing...

  20. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  1. The automated ground network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  2. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  3. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  4. A grounded theory approach to understand the process of decision making on fertility control methods in urban society of Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and M...

  5. The development of plant food processing in the Levant: insights from use-wear analysis of Early Epipalaeolithic ground stone tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Laure; Nadel, Dani

    2015-11-19

    In recent years, the study of percussive, pounding and grinding tools has provided new insights into human evolution, more particularly regarding the development of technology enabling the processing and exploitation of plant resources. Some of these studies focus on early evidence for flour production, an activity frequently perceived as an important step in the evolution of plant exploitation. The present paper investigates plant food preparation in mobile hunter-gatherer societies from the Southern Levant. The analysis consists of a use-wear study of 18 tools recovered from Ohalo II, a 23 000-year-old site in Israel showing an exceptional level of preservation. Our sample includes a slab previously interpreted as a lower implement used for producing flour, based on the presence of cereal starch residues. The use-wear data we have obtained provide crucial information about the function of this and other percussive tools at Ohalo II, as well as on investment in tool manufacture, discard strategies and evidence for plant processing in the Late Pleistocene. The use-wear analysis indicates that the production of flour was a sporadic activity at Ohalo II, predating by thousands of years the onset of routine processing of plant foods. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Lars; Lavell, Cheryl; Vilis, Tutis

    2012-04-01

    We used fMRI to study figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex (V1). Human observers viewed a motion-defined figure that gradually became camouflaged by a cluttered background after it stopped moving. V1 showed positive fMRI responses corresponding to the moving figure and negative fMRI responses corresponding to the static background. This positive-negative delineation of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses defined a retinotopically organized figure-ground representation that persisted after the figure stopped moving but eventually decayed. The temporal dynamics of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses differed substantially. Positive "figure" responses continued to increase for several seconds after the figure stopped moving and remained elevated after the figure had disappeared. We propose that the sustained positive V1 "figure" fMRI responses reflected both persistent figure-ground representation and sustained attention to the location of the figure after its disappearance, as did subjects' reports of persistence. The decreasing "background" fMRI responses were relatively shorter-lived and less biased by spatial attention. Our results show that the transition from a vivid figure-ground percept to its disappearance corresponds to the concurrent decay of figure enhancement and background suppression in V1, both of which play a role in form-based perceptual memory.

  7. A GROUNDED THEORY STUDY OF THE PROCESS USED TO NEGOTIATE CONDOM USE AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Teressa Sanders; Tilley, Donna Scott

    2015-01-01

    This review of the literature identifies themes, variable, goals, and gaps in the literature related to HIV and AIDS among African American women. Black Feminist Epistemology and symbolic interactionism are used as a theoretical perspective and philosophical framework to examine experiences and social behaviors of African-American women and to guide and framework to explain the findings from the literature. This theoretical perspective/philosophical framework can also be used in understanding processes used by African-American women in behavioral, social, and intimate interactions.

  8. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  9. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed.

  10. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared either on figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region’s color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments show that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as grounds are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  11. Process and device for manufacturing a spherical mirror for a solar powerstation lowered into the ground. Verfahren und Einrichtung zur Herstellung eines in das Erdreich eingelassenen Kugelspiegels fuer ein Sonnenkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, G.

    1983-07-28

    The purpose of the invention is to make the manufacture and the maintenance of a spherical mirror for a solar power station lowered into the ground simple and economical, even for large dimensions. According to the invention, this problem is solved by applying a hardening fixing layer to the surface of a prepared mould from one cantilever of a frame which can follow the spherical shape of the mirror, then spraying a transition layer onto this, and spraying a hardening elastic layer of foam on this, finally glueing the mirror layer on top. This process makes it possible to carry out fully automatic manufacture and maintenance of the spherical mirror from a frame. Foam may be added to the material forming the transition layer. (HWJ).

  12. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  13. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  14. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  15. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  16. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  17. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  18. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  20. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  1. Complex diffusion process for noise reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Barari, A.

    2014-01-01

    equations (PDEs) in image restoration and de-noising prompted many researchers to search for an improvement in the technique. In this paper, a new method is presented for signal de-noising, based on PDEs and Schrodinger equations, named as complex diffusion process (CDP). This method assumes that variations...... for signal de-noising. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a number of experiments have been performed using Sinusoid, multi-component and FM signals cluttered with noise. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the approaches for signal de-noising known in prior art....

  2. A Mixed Prediction Model of Ground Subsidence for Civil Infrastructures on Soft Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ground subsidence processes is an important subject for the asset management of civil infrastructures on soft ground, such as airport facilities. In the planning and design stage, there exist many uncertainties in geotechnical conditions, and it is impossible to estimate the ground subsidence process by deterministic methods. In this paper, the sets of sample paths designating ground subsidence processes are generated by use of a one-dimensional consolidation model incorporating inhomogeneous ground subsidence. Given the sample paths, the mixed subsidence model is presented to describe the probabilistic structure behind the sample paths. The mixed model can be updated by the Bayesian methods based upon the newly obtained monitoring data. Concretely speaking, in order to estimate the updating models, Markov Chain Monte Calro method, which is the frontier technique in Bayesian statistics, is applied. Through a case study, this paper discussed the applicability of the proposed method and illustrated its possible application and future works.

  3. Multitarget tracking in cluttered environment for a multistatic passive radar system under the DAB/DVB network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi Fang; Park, Seung Hyo; Song, Taek Lyul

    2017-12-01

    The target tracking using multistatic passive radar in a digital audio/video broadcast (DAB/DVB) network with illuminators of opportunity faces two main challenges: the first challenge is that one has to solve the measurement-to-illuminator association ambiguity in addition to the conventional association ambiguity between the measurements and targets, which introduces a significantly complex three-dimensional (3-D) data association problem among the target-measurement illuminator, this is because all the illuminators transmit the same carrier frequency signals and signals transmitted by different illuminators but reflected via the same target become indistinguishable; the other challenge is that only the bistatic range and range-rate measurements are available while the angle information is unavailable or of very poor quality. In this paper, the authors propose a new target tracking algorithm directly in three-dimensional (3-D) Cartesian coordinates with the capability of track management using the probability of target existence as a track quality measure. The proposed algorithm is termed sequential processing-joint integrated probabilistic data association (SP-JIPDA), which applies the modified sequential processing technique to resolve the additional association ambiguity between measurements and illuminators. The SP-JIPDA algorithm sequentially operates the JIPDA tracker to update each track for each illuminator with all the measurements in the common measurement set at each time. For reasons of fair comparison, the existing modified joint probabilistic data association (MJPDA) algorithm that addresses the 3-D data association problem via "supertargets" using gate grouping and provides tracks directly in 3-D Cartesian coordinates, is enhanced by incorporating the probability of target existence as an effective track quality measure for track management. Both algorithms deal with nonlinear observations using the extended Kalman filtering. A simulation study is

  4. Designing an Algorithm for Cancerous Tissue Segmentation Using Adaptive K-means Cluttering and Discrete Wavelet Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Kh; Haddadnia, J

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is currently one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. The diagnosis and separation of cancerous tumors in mammographic images require accuracy, experience and time, and it has always posed itself as a major challenge to the radiologists and physicians. This paper proposes a new algorithm which draws on discrete wavelet transform and adaptive K-means techniques to transmute the medical images implement the tumor estimation and detect breast cancer tumors in mammograms in early stages. It also allows the rapid processing of the input data. In the first step, after designing a filter, the discrete wavelet transform is applied to the input images and the approximate coefficients of scaling components are constructed. Then, the different parts of image are classified in continuous spectrum. In the next step, by using adaptive K-means algorithm for initializing and smart choice of clusters' number, the appropriate threshold is selected. Finally, the suspicious cancerous mass is separated by implementing the image processing techniques. We Received 120 mammographic images in LJPEG format, which had been scanned in Gray-Scale with 50 microns size, 3% noise and 20% INU from clinical data taken from two medical databases (mini-MIAS and DDSM). The proposed algorithm detected tumors at an acceptable level with an average accuracy of 92.32% and sensitivity of 90.24%. Also, the Kappa coefficient was approximately 0.85, which proved the suitable reliability of the system performance. The exact positioning of the cancerous tumors allows the radiologist to determine the stage of disease progression and suggest an appropriate treatment in accordance with the tumor growth. The low PPV and high NPV of the system is a warranty of the system and both clinical specialists and patients can trust its output.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 141 - Ground Instructor Certification Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... planning; and (6) Classroom training techniques. (c) Ground training for a basic ground instructor..., required under this part, for the following ratings: (a) Ground Instructor—Basic. (b) Ground Instructor...) Ground training must include the following aeronautical knowledge areas: (1) Learning process; (2...

  6. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  7. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  8. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  9. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  10. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  11. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  12. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  13. Jung's equation of the ground of being with the ground of psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourley, John

    2011-09-01

    The paper amplifies Jung's psychology of ground associated with the culmination of the alchemical process in the unus mundus. It argues that Jung and Dorn identify the experience of the ground with the experience of divinity as the common originary source of individual and totality. It notes the monistic and pantheistic implications of the experience and goes on to amplify the experience through Eckhart's mediaeval mysticism of ground and Paul Tillich's modern philosophical/theological understanding of ground. It concludes that the Jung/Dorn psychological understanding of ground supersedes monotheistic consciousness. Their vision supports the emergence of a societal myth based on the identification of the ground as the source of all divinities and faith in them. This source currently urges a mythic consciousness that would surpass its past and current concretions and so alleviate the threat that monotheistic consciousness in any domain now poses to human survival. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Fangtu T.; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, while shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has demonstrated mechanisms of figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how they relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2. While assignment of border ownership was found for attended as well as for ignore...

  15. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  16. Processing reafferent and exafferent visual information for action and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    A recent study suggests that reafferent hand-related visual information utilizes a privileged, attention-independent processing channel for motor control. This process was termed visuomotor binding to reflect its proposed function: linking visual reafferences to the corresponding motor control centers. Here, we ask whether the advantage of processing reafferent over exafferent visual information is a specific feature of the motor processing stream or whether the improved processing also benefits the perceptual processing stream. Human participants performed a bimanual reaching task in a cluttered visual display, and one of the visual hand cursors could be displaced laterally during the movement. We measured the rapid feedback responses of the motor system as well as matched perceptual judgments of which cursor was displaced. Perceptual judgments were either made by watching the visual scene without moving or made simultaneously to the reaching tasks, such that the perceptual processing stream could also profit from the specialized processing of reafferent information in the latter case. Our results demonstrate that perceptual judgments in the heavily cluttered visual environment were improved when performed based on reafferent information. Even in this case, however, the filtering capability of the perceptual processing stream suffered more from the increasing complexity of the visual scene than the motor processing stream. These findings suggest partly shared and partly segregated processing of reafferent information for vision for motor control versus vision for perception.

  17. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  18. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0. Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ∼ 10 cm shallower and  ∼ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ∼ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and

  19. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  20. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  1. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  2. Millimeter Wave Radar Clutter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-30

    94. end 1i0 G~x. A HP SSIGA ielt aMATIf Is 400110d iS tb* 0 IT F NINP sytu~ an a "si ceedkieer sai prerme t* bdiuO redi- eel-se-00i. ruleo of the...y, iny 2 (27d) We can write the phase matrix as P (9*.*S; 0A) - g1(’/)(LL) 2 + g2(W)(t,r) 2 g1(V)(r,t) 2+ g2(W~)(r,r) 2 L0 0 -g1 (𔃺)r."ŕ.) + 92(iy...r,r)(tr)0 g,())(r,t)t.L - g2(s)(rr) 2(t.r) 2 0 Using the oosine and sin law of a spherical triangle, we can write (t.t). (r,t), (r,t), and (t,r) in

  3. Instrumentation for Infrared Airglow Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-10

    gain, and filter position to the Camera Head, and monitors these parameters as well as preamp video. GAZER is equipped with a Lenzar wide angle, low...Specifications/Parameters VIDEO SENSOR: Camera ...... . LENZAR Intensicon-8 LLLTV using 2nd gen * micro-channel intensifier and proprietary camera tube

  4. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  5. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  6. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  7. Weather radar performance monitoring using a metallic-grid ground-scatterer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Marta Tecla; Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The use of ground return signals is investigated for checks on the calibration of power measurements of a polarimetric C-band radar. To this aim, a peculiar permanent single scatterer (PSS) consisting of a big metallic roof with a periodic mesh grid structure and having a hemisphere-like shape is considered. The latter is positioned in the near-field region of the weather radar and its use, as a reference calibrator, shows fairly good results in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity monitoring. In addition, the use of PSS indirectly allows to check for the radar antenna de-pointing which is another issue usually underestimated when dealing with weather radars. Because of the periodic structure of the considered PSS, simulations of its electromagnetic behavior were relatively easy to perform. To this goal, we used an electromagnetic Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) with an ad-hoc numerical implementation of a full-wave solution to model our PSS in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity factor. Comparison of model results and experimental measurements are then shown in this work. Our preliminary investigation can pave the way for future studies aiming at characterizing ground-clutter returns in a more accurate way for radar calibration purposes.

  8. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  9. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  10. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  11. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  12. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  13. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  14. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  15. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  16. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  17. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  18. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  19. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  20. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  1. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  2. LANDSAT-D ground segment operations plan, revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B.

    1982-01-01

    The basic concept for the utilization of LANDSAT ground processing resources is described. Only the steady state activities that support normal ground processing are addressed. This ground segment operations plan covers all processing of the multispectral scanner and the processing of thematic mapper through data acquisition and payload correction data generation for the LANDSAT 4 mission. The capabilities embedded in the hardware and software elements are presented from an operations viewpoint. The personnel assignments associated with each functional process and the mechanisms available for controlling the overall data flow are identified.

  3. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  4. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  5. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  6. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  7. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  8. Acquisition and processing of advanced sensor data for ERW and UXO detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2014-06-01

    The remediation of explosive remnants of war (ERW) and associated unexploded ordnance (UXO) has seen improvements through the injection of modern technological advances and streamlined standard operating procedures. However, reliable and cost-effective detection and geophysical mapping of sites contaminated with UXO such as cluster munitions, abandoned ordnance, and improvised explosive devices rely on the ability to discriminate hazardous items from metallic clutter. In addition to anthropogenic clutter, handheld and vehicle-based metal detector systems are plagued by natural geologic and environmental noise in many post conflict areas. We present new and advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) technologies including man-portable and towed EMI arrays and associated data processing software. While these systems feature vastly different form factors and transmit-receive configurations, they all exhibit several fundamental traits that enable successful classification of EMI anomalies. Specifically, multidirectional sampling of scattered magnetic fields from targets and corresponding high volume of unique data provide rich information for extracting useful classification features for clutter rejection analysis. The quality of classification features depends largely on the extent to which the data resolve unique physics-based parameters. To date, most of the advanced sensors enable high quality inversion by producing data that are extremely rich in spatial content through multi-angle illumination and multi-point reception.

  9. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  10. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  11. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  12. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  13. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  14. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  15. Deficit in figure-ground segmentation following closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Baylis, L L

    1997-08-01

    Patient CB showed a severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation following a closed head injury. Unlike normal subjects, CB was unable to parse smaller and brighter parts of stimuli as figure. Moreover, she did not show the normal effect that symmetrical regions are seen as figure, although she was able to make overt judgments of symmetry. Since she was able to attend normally to isolated objects, CB demonstrates a dissociation between figure ground segmentation and subsequent processes of attention. Despite her severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation, CB showed normal 'parallel' single feature visual search. This suggests that figure-ground segmentation is dissociable from 'preattentive' processes such as visual search.

  16. Mars, accessing the third dimension: a software tool to exploit Mars ground penetrating radars data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Federico; Ivanov, Anton B.

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS), on board the ESA's Mars Express and the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD), on board the NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are two ground penetrating radars (GPRs) aimed to probe the crust of Mars to explore the subsurface structure of the planet. By now they are collecting data since about 10 years covering a large fraction of the Mars surface. On the Earth GPRs collect data by sending electromagnetic (EM) pulses toward the surface and listening to the return echoes occurring at the dielectric discontinuities on the planet's surface and subsurface. The wavelengths used allow MARSIS EM pulses to penetrate the crust for several kilometers. The data products (Radargrams) are matrices where the x-axis spans different sampling points on the planet surface and the y-axis is the power of the echoes over time in the listening window. No standard way to manage this kind of data is established in the planetary science community and data analysis and interpretation require very often some knowledge of radar signal processing. Our software tool is aimed to ease the access to this data in particular to scientists without a specific background in signal processing. MARSIS and SHARAD geometrical data such as probing point latitude and longitude and spacecraft altitude, are stored, together with relevant acquisition metadata, in a geo-enabled relational database implemented using PostgreSQL and PostGIS. Data are extracted from official ESA and NASA released data using self-developed python classes and scripts and inserted in the database using OGR utilities. This software is also aimed to be the core of a collection of classes and script to implement more complex GPR data analysis. Geometrical data and metadata are exposed as WFS layers using a QGIS server, which can be further integrated with other data, such as imaging, spectroscopy and topography. Radar geometry data will be available as a part of the iMars Web

  17. Characteristics of near-field earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Choi, I. G.; Jeon, Y. S.; Seo, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The near-field ground motions exhibit special response characteristics that are different from those of ordinary ground motions in the velocity and displacement response. This study first examines the characteristics of near-field ground motion depending on fault directivity and fault normal and parallel component. And the response spectra of the near field ground motion are statistically processed, and are compared with the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum that is present design spectrum of the nuclear power plant. The response spectrum of the near filed ground motions shows large spectral velocity and displacement in the low frequency range. The spectral accelerations of near field ground motion are greatly amplified in the high frequency range for the rock site motions, and in the low frequency range for the soil site motions. As a result, the near field ground motion effects should be considered in the seismic design and seismic safety evaluation of the nuclear power plant structures and equipment

  18. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  19. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dunnivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  20. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  1. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  2. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  3. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  4. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  5. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  6. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.

  7. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  8. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  9. Introduction of ramp-LOSA at KLM Ground Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Koncak, B.; Habekotté, R.; van Hilten, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Airline ground operations are subject to the conflicting demands of short turn-around times and safety requirements. They involve multiple parties, but are less regulated than airborne processes. Not surprisingly, more than a quarter of all aircraft incidents occur on the ground. These incidents

  10. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  11. Adaptive Radar Signal Processing-The Problem of Exponential Computational Cost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2003-01-01

    .... Extensions to handle the case of non-Gaussian clutter statistics are presented. Current challenges of limited training data support, computational cost, and severely heterogeneous clutter backgrounds are outlined...

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  13. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  14. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  16. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  17. Cognitive Algorithms for Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Analysis of Millennial Spiritual Issues,” Zygon, Journal of Science and Religion , 43(4), 797-821, 2008. [46] R. Linnehan, C. Mutz, L.I. Perlovsky, B...dimensions of X and Y : (a) true ‘smile’ and ‘frown’ patterns are shown without clutter; (b) actual image available for recognition (signal is below...clutter in 2 dimensions of X(n) = (X, Y ), is given by l(X(n)|m = clutter) = 1/ (X •  Y ), X = (Xmax-Xmin),  Y = (Ymax-Ymin); (6) 13 Minimal

  18. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.

  19. Ground-atmosphere interactions at Gale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.; Ramos, M.; Hallet, B.; Gómez, F. G.; Jun, I.; Fisk, M. R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martin-Torres, J.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano, M.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze variations in environmental parameters and regolith properties along Curiosity's track to determine the possible causes of an abrupt change in the thermal properties of the ground and the atmosphere observed around Sol 120, as the rover transitioned from an area of sandy soil (Rocknest) to an area of fractured bedrock terrain (Yellowknife). Curiosity is instrumented with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) sensors to measure the air temperature, the ground temperature, and the hydrogen content of the shallow subsurface along Curiosity's track. Analysis of the REMS data is used to estimate the regolith's heat budget. This analysis suggests that the abrupt decrease in the ground and atmosphere temperature and the difference between ground and air temperatures observed around Sol 120 is likely caused by an increase in the soil thermal inertia. The changes in thermal inertia have been known for some time so confirming this by the REMS package provides ground truthing. A new unexpected finding is that the regolith water content, as indicated by DAN's detection of hydrogen content, is higher in the Yellowknife soil. Another interesting finding at this site are the holes and other signs of recent geological activity in the area of fractured terrain that may reflect large volumetric variations and facilitate gas exchange between the ground and atmosphere. Near-surface volumetric changes in soil and bedrock could reflect changes in the volume of subsurface H2O, or in the partitioning of H2O among its three phases. Volume increases could also result from salt crystal growth in rock pores and soil pores associated with the adsorption of water vapor. Crystallization in pores is a significant weathering process on Earth; it could well be active on Mars. Salts also inhibits the exchange of moisture between the ground and the atmosphere, and cements the soils of arid places such as in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  2. Adaptive attenuation of aliased ground roll using the shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hassani, Hossien; Torabi, Siyavash; Sadri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Attenuation of ground roll is an essential step in seismic data processing. Spatial aliasing of the ground roll may cause the overlap of the ground roll with reflections in the f-k domain. The shearlet transform is a directional and multidimensional transform that separates the events with different dips and generates subimages in different scales and directions. In this study, the shearlet transform was used adaptively to attenuate aliased and non-aliased ground roll. After defining a filtering zone, an input shot record is divided into segments. Each segment overlaps adjacent segments. To apply the shearlet transform on each segment, the subimages containing aliased and non-aliased ground roll, the locations of these events on each subimage are selected adaptively. Based on these locations, mute is applied on the selected subimages. The filtered segments are merged together, using the Hanning function, after applying the inverse shearlet transform. This adaptive process of ground roll attenuation was tested on synthetic data, and field shot records from west of Iran. Analysis of the results using the f-k spectra revealed that the non-aliased and most of the aliased ground roll were attenuated using the proposed adaptive attenuation procedure. Also, we applied this method on shot records of a 2D land survey, and the data sets before and after ground roll attenuation were stacked and compared. The stacked section after ground roll attenuation contained less linear ground roll noise and more continuous reflections in comparison with the stacked section before the ground roll attenuation. The proposed method has some drawbacks such as more run time in comparison with traditional methods such as f-k filtering and reduced performance when the dip and frequency content of aliased ground roll are the same as those of the reflections.

  3. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  4. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  5. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fangtu T; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-11-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, whereas shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has revealed mechanisms for figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how these mechanisms relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2 in Macaca mulatta. Although we found assignment of border ownership for attended and for ignored figures, attentional modulation was stronger when the attended figure was located on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. When the border between two overlapping figures was placed in the receptive field, responses depended on the side of attention, and enhancement was generally found on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. This correlation suggests that the neural network that creates figure-ground organization also provides the interface for the top-down selection process.

  6. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  7. An overview on the equatorial electrojet theoretical grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamlutti, C.J.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The grounds on which the equatorial electrojet theory is based are reexamined in a way as to suggest specific additional implementations in the existing electrodynamical modeling of this phenomena, making use of now existing improved computer processing speeds. (author) [pt

  8. The underlying processes of creative media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of

  9. Femtosecond stimulated Raman evidence for charge-transfer character in pentacene singlet fission† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Actinic pump spectrum, discussion on ground state addition process, peak fitting procedure, transient absorption data, power dependence measurements, etalon pulse shaping, TIPS-pentacene FSRS data, and optimized geometry and frequency calculation results. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc03496b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie M.; Silva, W. Ruchira

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process in which an excited singlet state evolves into two triplet states. We use femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, an ultrafast vibrational technique, to follow the molecular structural evolution during singlet fission in order to determine the mechanism of this process. In crystalline pentacene, we observe the formation of an intermediate characterized by pairs of excited state peaks that are red- and blue-shifted relative to the ground state features. We hypothesize that these features arise from the formation of cationic and anionic species due to partial transfer of electron density from one pentacene molecule to a neighboring molecule. These observations provide experimental evidence for the role of states with significant charge-transfer character which facilitate the singlet fission process in pentacene. Our work both provides new insight into the singlet fission mechanism in pentacene and demonstrates the utility of structurally-sensitive time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in monitoring ultrafast processes. PMID:29675170

  10. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  11. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  12. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  13. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  14. Making sense of grounded theory in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.

  15. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  16. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  17. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  18. On LHCb muon MWPC grounding

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A

    2006-01-01

    My goal is to study how a big MWPC system, in particular the LHCb muon system, can be protected against unstable operation and multiple spurious hits, produced by incorrect or imperfect grounding in the severe EM environment of the LHCb experiment. A mechanism of penetration of parasitic current from the ground loop to the input of the front-end amplifier is discussed. A new model of the detector cell as the electrical bridge is considered. As shown, unbalance of the bridge makes detector to be sensitive to the noise in ground loop. Resonances in ground loop are specified. Tests of multiple-point and single-point grounding conceptions made on mock-up are presented.

  19. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  20. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.