WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground beef traceback

  1. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  2. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  3. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  4. DHCP Origin Traceback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Saugat; Kulkarni, Dhananjay; Ravishankar, Chinya V.

    Imagine that the DHCP server is under attack from malicious hosts in your network. How would you know where these DHCP packets are coming from, or which path they took in the network? This paper investigates the problem of determining the origin of a DHCP packet in a network. We propose a practical method for adding a new option field that does not violate any RFC's, which we believe should be a crucial requirement while proposing any related solution. The new DHCP option will contain the ingress port and the switch MAC address. We recommend that this new option be added at the edge so that we can use the recorded value for performing traceback. The computational overhead of our solution is low, and the related network management tasks are low as well. We also address issues related to securing the field in order to maintain privacy of switch MAC addresses, fragmentation of packets, and possible attack scenarios. Our study shows that the traceback scheme is effective and practical to use in most network environments.

  5. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  6. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  9. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in U. S. retail ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Miller, Markus F; Loneragan, Guy H; Brooks, J Chance; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are the leading cause of STEC-associated infections in humans in the United States. In the United States, these organisms are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef products and in intact beef destined to be made into or used in nonintact raw beef products. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the burden of the six serogroups of non-O157 STEC in ground beef obtained from retail stores across the United States. A convenience sample of commercial ground beef products (n = 1,129) were purchased from retail stores in 24 states from October 2011 to May 2012. The samples had various lean/fat proportions, muscle group of origin (chuck, round, sirloin, or not specified), and packaging types. For each ground beef sample, 25 g was inoculated in 225 ml of modified tryptic soy broth, stomached for 1 min, and then incubated at 41°C for 18 ± 2 h. These enrichment cultures were then screened for stx, eae, and O group genes using a commercially available, closed-platform PCR-based method. The potential positive samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation and plated on modified Rainbow agar. Morphologically typical colonies were subjected to latex agglutination and PCR determination of stx and eae genes. Nine (0.8%) of the ground beef samples were potentially positive for at least one STEC serogroup after PCR screening. The serogroups detected by PCR assay were O26 (four samples), O103 (four samples), O145 (three samples), O45 (two samples), and O121 (one sample). No STEC isolates belonging to these serogroups were recovered from the sample cultures. The current research provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates among commercial ground beef products and information regarding the potential sources of contamination from different parts of beef trims destined for ground beef production.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  11. Salmonella spp. in lymph nodes of fed and cull cattle: Relative assessment of risk to ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground beef products have been implicated as the vehicle for the transmission of Salmonella in a number of outbreaks. Although carcass surface interventions have proven effective, Salmonella contamination in ground beef still occurs. Recent studies indicate that deep tissue lymph nodes (DTLNs) may b...

  12. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  13. Decreased dosage of acidified sodium chlorite reduces microbial contamination and maintains organoleptic qualities of ground beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Shackelford, Steven D; Fahle, Rick; Biela, Timothy; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2004-10-01

    Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) spray was evaluated at decreased dosages and application rates to determine its efficacy for reducing bacterial contamination on boneless beef trimmings used for production of raw ground beef products while maintaining desirable consumer qualities in the finished ground beef products. Two different applications of ASC (600 ppm applied at a rate of 1.3 oz/lb and 300 ppm applied at a rate of 1 oz/lb) were used to treat boneless beef trimmings before grinding. The effect of ASC treatment on 50/50 lean beef trimmings was greater than on 90/10 trimmings. ASC at 600 ppm reduced both the aerobic plate counts (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) by 2.3 log CFU/g on 50/50 trimmings, whereas treatment with 300 ppm ASC reduced APC and EBC of 50/50 trimmings by 1.1 and 0.7 log CFU/g, respectively. Ground beef formulations of 90/10 and 73/27 were produced from the treated boneless beef trim and packaged in chubs and in modified atmosphere packaging. The efficacy of ASC spray treatment to inhibit APC and EBC over the shelf life of each ground beef product was monitored. The APC and EBC in ground beef chubs were reduced by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/g until day 20. The APC and EBC for products in modified atmosphere packaging were reduced 1.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g throughout their shelf life. Both decreased dosages of ASC were equally effective on 90/10 lean ground beef, but the 300 ppm ASC treatment was slightly better at reducing the EBC of 73/27 ground beef. The organoleptic qualities (color, odor, and taste) of the ground beef products treated with 300 ppm ASC were found to be superior to those treated with 600 ppm ASC. Our results indicated that decreased dosages of ASC reduce contamination and lengthen the shelf life of ground beef. Furthermore, the 300 ppm ASC treatment reduced bacterial counts while maintaining desirable organoleptic ground beef qualities.

  14. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  15. Detection of Ricin Contamination in Ground Beef by Electrochemiluminescence Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Brandon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor, grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food matrices. A monoclonal antibody-based method was developed for detecting and quantifying ricin in ground beef, a complex, fatty matrix. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/g for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL method and 1.5 ng/g for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The detection of nanogram per gram quantities of ricin spiked into retail samples of ground beef provides approximately 10,000-fold greater sensitivity than required to detect a toxic dose of ricin (>1 mg in a 100 g sample.

  16. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  17. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on raw ground beef

    OpenAIRE

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado; Edith G. Gonzalez-Mondragon; Alma Yadira Salazar-Govea; Joaquin T. Santiago-Castro; Juana Ramirez-Andrade

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) were carried out using water (IE) and ethanol (EtOHE) as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants), CIE (meat with infusion of epazote), CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote) and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution). The characteristics ...

  18. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( brand disclosure. Increased ( branded product that received increased ( brand and product information, few consumers find differences in eating quality among ground beef treatments; however, when consumers are aware of the brand, fat level, and subprimal blend prior to sampling, these factors have a large impact on consumer eating satisfaction.

  19. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  20. Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K; Miller, M F; Loneragan, G H; Brashears, M M

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log CFU/g) and low (1.0 log CFU/g) inoculation doses was evaluated at various processing steps, including the following: (i) in trim just after treatment application, (ii) in ground beef just after grinding, (iii) in ground beef 24 h after refrigerated storage, (iv) in ground beef 5 days after refrigerated storage, and (v) in ground beef 30 days after frozen storage. All antimicrobial treatments reduced the pathogens on the trim inoculated with the lower inoculation dose to nondetectable numbers in the trim and in the ground beef. There were significant reductions of both pathogens in the trim and in the ground beef inoculated with the high inoculation doses. On the trim itself, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 1.5 to 2.0 log cycles, with no differences among all treatments. In the ground beef, the organic acids were more effective in reducing both pathogens than the acidified sodium chlorite immediately after grinding, but after 1 day of storage, there were no differences among treatments. Overall, in the ground beef, there was a 2.5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1.5-log reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium that was sustained over time in refrigerated and frozen storage. Very few sensory differences between the control samples and the treated samples were detected by a consumer panel. Thus, antimicrobial treatments did not cause serious adverse sensory changes. Use of these antimicrobial treatments can be a promising intervention available to ground beef processors who currently have few interventions in their process.

  1. Effects of irradiation on trans fatty acids formation in ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, M.S. E-mail: msavoy@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-filho, Jorge

    2002-03-01

    In order to give the consumer the assurance that meat processed by irradiation is a safe product, a great deal of research has been developed in the world. The effect of irradiation on the hygienic quality of meat and meat products is considered as related to the control of meat-borne parasites of humans; elimination of pathogens from fresh meat and poultry; and elimination of pathogens from processed meat. Lipid oxidation and associated changes are the major causes of the quality deterioration of meat during storage. Irradiation of lipids induces the production of free radicals, which react with oxygen, leading to the formation of carbonyls, responsible for alterations in food nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Trans fatty acids are present in ground beef and can also be formed during its processing. Interestingly, the trans fatty acids, due to their chemical and physical characteristics, show more resistance to the oxidizing process. This property motivated us to investigate the level of the trans fatty acids, as well as the level of oxidation in irradiated ground beef. Irradiation of ground beef was performed by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The applied radiation doses were 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0 kGy. Lipid peroxidation in terms of TBA number and carbonyl content was monitored during storage. The sample characteristics and trans fatty acids composition were measured, following irradiation and after 60 and 90 days of storage at -10 deg. C.

  2. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  3. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  4. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  5. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  6. Microbiological Testing Results of Boneless and Ground Beef Purchased for the National School Lunch Program, 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerscher, Darin R; Lutz, Terry L; Whisenant, Stephen J; Smith, Kerry R; Morris, Craig A; Schroeder, Carl M

    2015-09-01

    The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) purchases boneless and ground beef for distribution to recipients through federal nutrition assistance programs, including the National School Lunch Program, which represents 93% of the overall volume. Approximately every 2,000 lb (ca. 907 kg) of boneless beef and 10,000 lb (ca. 4,535 kg) of ground beef are designated a "lot" and tested for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, standard plate count organisms (SPCs), E. coli, and coliforms. Any lot of beef positive for E. coli O157:H7 or for Salmonella, or any beef with concentrations of organisms exceeding critical limits for SPCs (100,000 CFU g(-1)), E. coli (500 CFU g(-1)), or coliforms (1,000 CFU g(-1)) is rejected for purchase by AMS and must be diverted from federal nutrition assistance programs. From July 2011 through June 2014, 537,478,212 lb (ca. 243,795,996 kg) of boneless beef and 428,130,984 lb (ca. 194,196,932 kg) of ground beef were produced for federal nutrition assistance programs. Of the 230,359 boneless beef samples collected over this period, 82 (0.04%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 924 (0.40%) were positive for Salmonella, 222 (0.10%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 69 (0.03%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 123 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Of the 46,527 ground beef samples collected over this period, 30 (0.06%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 360 (0.77%) were positive for Salmonella, 20 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 22 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 17 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Cumulatively, these data suggest beef produced for the AMS National School Lunch Program is done so under an adequate food safety system, as indicated by the low percentage of lots that were pathogen positive or exceeded critical limits for indicator organisms.

  7. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on raw ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. were carried out using water (IE and ethanol (EtOHE as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants, CIE (meat with infusion of epazote, CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution. The characteristics determined for both IE and EtOHE before being added to the meat were pH, antioxidant activity (AA, total polyphenols (TP and total flavonoids (TF. The antioxidant effect on the ground beef was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method and instrumental color. EI showed the highest TF content. Meat with IE and EtOHE treatments had lower TBARS values than control meat, and higher of L* and b* values, which indicate greater clarity in both treatments. In conclusion, under these conditions, epazote has potential as a natural antioxidant in order to extend the shelf life of meat and meat products.

  8. Hardware Accelerated Sequence Alignment with Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    in a timely manner. Known methods to accelerate alignment on reconfigurable hardware only address sequence comparison, limit the sequence length, or exhibit memory and I/O bottlenecks. A space-efficient, global sequence alignment algorithm and architecture is presented that accelerates the forward scan and traceback in hardware without memory and I/O limitations. With 256 processing elements in FPGA technology, a performance gain over 300 times that of a desktop computer is demonstrated on sequence lengths of 16000. For greater performance, the architecture is scalable to more processing elements.

  9. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  10. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne in irradiated ground beef heated in a water bath or cooked on commercial grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of heat-shocked and non heat-shocked spores of the virulence-attenuated Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis was evaluated at select temperatures in irradiated, raw ground beef (25% fat) heated in a water bath or cooked using two different commercial grills. For the former, 3-g ...

  11. Evaluation of the Most Current and Effective Methods in the Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins in Ground Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal origin, leads to the accumulation of dioxins in the human body. The exposures of the general human population to dioxins and the specific issues of a risk assessment of dioxin pose serious concerns in public environmental and nutritional health. This paper reviews the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. The sources of contamination of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef are first reviewed to form a basis for a clear understanding of the health implications of chlorinated dioxins in the human food chain and why it is necessary to monitor the level of dioxins in animal food products, especially ground beef. The methods of collection, sampling, and processing of ground beef, and the methods of sample clean up prior to the analysis, are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the new techniques that are available and that might be effective in the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. Among these new methods and techniques are: the synergistic combination of ELISA/GC/MS, direct sample introduction to /GC/MS-MS, automated clean-up method, and the supercritical fluid extraction methods. The possible treatments of results from each method and technique are discussed and their respective efficiencies are compared. Finally, quality control and quality assurance parameters are evaluated for levels of accuracy, reproducibility, and precision.

  12. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  14. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers.

  15. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  16. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  17. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are regularly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 STEC isolates, including the "big six" serovars, O104 and O157:H7. STEC isolates included those isolated from animals and environmental sources in addition to those associated with illness in humans. Individual STEC were inoculated into 80% lean ground beef and treated with HPP (350 MPa, 4 °C, up to 40 min). The mean D10 was 9.74 min, with a range of 0.89-25.70 min. The D10 of the STEC involved in human illness was 9.25 vs. 10.40 min for those not involved in human illness (p > 0.05). The presence or absence of genes encoding virulence factors (e.g. Shiga toxin 1 or 2, intimin, or enterohemolysin) had no effect on the HPP D10 (p > 0.05). The high D10 of some STEC involved in human illness should be considered in selecting HPP processing parameters for ground beef. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of STEC resistance to HPP. Risk assessors and the food industry can use this information to provide safer meat products to consumers.

  18. Probabilistic Route Selection Algorithm for IP Traceback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hong-Bin; Jung, Jae-Il

    DoS(Denial of Service) or DDoS(Distributed DoS) attack is a major threaten and the most difficult problem to solve among many attacks. Moreover, it is very difficult to find a real origin of attackers because DoS/DDoS attacker uses spoofed IP addresses. To solve this problem, we propose a probabilistic route selection traceback algorithm, namely PRST, to trace the attacker's real origin. This algorithm uses two types of packets such as an agent packet and a reply agent packet. The agent packet is in use to find the attacker's real origin and the reply agent packet is in use to notify to a victim that the agent packet is reached the edge router of the attacker. After attacks occur, the victim generates the agent packet and sends it to a victim's edge router. The attacker's edge router received the agent packet generates the reply agent packet and send it to the victim. The agent packet and the reply agent packet is forwarded refer to probabilistic packet forwarding table (PPFT) by routers. The PRST algorithm runs on the distributed routers and PPFT is stored and managed by routers. We validate PRST algorithm by using mathematical approach based on Poisson distribution.

  19. Discovering Attack Path Oriented-IP Traceback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jianming(傅建明); Zhu Fuxi; Peng Guojun

    2003-01-01

    The technique of IP traceback may effectively block DOS (Denial Of Service) and meet the requirement of the computer forensic, but its accuracy depends upon that condition that each node in the Internet must support IP packet marking or detected agents. So far, this requirement is not satisfied. On the basis of traditional traceroute,this paper investigates the efficiency of discovering path methods from aspects of the size and order of detecting packets, and the length of paths.It points out that the size of padding in probed packets has a slight effect on discovering latency, and the latency with the method of bulk sending-receiving is much smaller than one with the traditional traceroute. Moreover, the loss rate of packets with the technique of TTL (Time To Live) which increases monotonously is less than that with the technique of TTL which decreases monotonously. Lastly,OS (Operating System) passive fingerprint is used as heuristic to predict the length of the discovered path so as to reduce disturbance in network traffic.

  20. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont BAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O2...

  1. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.

  2. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  3. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4{+-}2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  5. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  6. A VLSI design for a trace-back Viterbi decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Reed, Irving S.; Satorius, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    A systolic Viterbi decoder for convolutional codes is developed which uses the trace-back method to reduce the amount of data needed to be stored in registers. It is shown that this new algorithm requires a smaller chip size and achieves a faster decoding time than other existing methods.

  7. Packet track and traceback mechanism against denial of service attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; SHEN Su-bin

    2008-01-01

    The denial of service attack is a main type of threat on the Internet today. On the basis of path identification (Pi) and Internet control message protocol (ICMP) traceback (iTrace) methods, a packet track and traceback mechanism is proposed, which features rapid response and high accuracy. In this scheme, routers apply packet marking scheme and send traceback messages, which enables the victim to design the path tree in peace time. During attack times the victim can trace attackers back within the path tree and perform rapid packet filtering using the marking in each packet. Traceback messages overcome Pi's limitation, wherein too much path information is lost in path identifiers; whereas path identifiers can be used to expedite the design of the path-tree, which reduces the high overhead in iTrace. Therefore, our scheme not only synthesizes the advantages but also compromises the disadvantages of the above two methods. Simulation results with NS-2 show the validity of our scheme.

  8. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Dias-Morse, P N; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-05-01

    Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear force were measured to evaluate the impact of the treatments on the quality attributes. The NMS and PAA patties were redder (a(∗), P0.05) off odor to CON on days 0-3. The NMS and PAA treated patties had lower (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than the CON at days 0, 3, and 7. Therefore, KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC treatments on beef trimmings can potentially improve or maintain quality attributes of beef patties.

  9. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  10. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  11. Modeling the inactivatin of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E. coli in ground beef by high pressure processing and citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in ground beef using High Pressure Processing...

  12. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  13. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  14. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.

  15. 网络入侵追踪研究综述%A Summary of Network Intrusion Traceback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 龚俭

    2003-01-01

    Traceback system is a system for finding the hacker's real location on the network autonomously. It can be divided into two kinds: IP Packet Traceback system, and Connection Traceback system. The goal of IP Packet Traceback system is to traceback the Real Source that send the IP Address Spoofed packet,focused in the method that uses the intermediate routers. The Connection Traceback system traceback the Real Source of Detoured Intrusion,the detoured attack is an attack that is done via several systems. Because of more and more attackers emerging in recent years, the model that can apply to the current Internet should be developed,and Real-time traceback system is needed to actively defense the hacking.

  16. Microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of beef trim and ground beef treated with acetic acid, lactic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, or sterile water in a simulated commercial processing environment to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Brashears, M M; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the effectiveness of acetic and lactic acids (2% and 5%), acidified sodium chlorite (1000ppm), and sterile water in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in inoculated beef trim in a simulated processing environment. Samples were collected to assess microbial characteristics at three processing points. Results from this study indicate that all treatments, including sterile water, reduced pathogen concentrations (P<0.05) of both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in ground beef up to 0.5 and 0.6 log by 24h, respectively. In some cases, there were no significant differences between the antimicrobial treatments and the sterile water using this application method. Triangle sensory test results of non-inoculated beef indicated there were no differences (P<0.05) in the means of correct responses between controls or antimicrobial treatments at 6 or 24h. While interventions are important for beef trim, use of the interventions must be validated under industry conditions to ensure proper effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method and apparatus for obtaining stack traceback data for multiple computing nodes of a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas Michael; McCarthy, Patrick Joseph

    2010-03-02

    A data collector for a massively parallel computer system obtains call-return stack traceback data for multiple nodes by retrieving partial call-return stack traceback data from each node, grouping the nodes in subsets according to the partial traceback data, and obtaining further call-return stack traceback data from a representative node or nodes of each subset. Preferably, the partial data is a respective instruction address from each node, nodes having identical instruction address being grouped together in the same subset. Preferably, a single node of each subset is chosen and full stack traceback data is retrieved from the call-return stack within the chosen node.

  18. Hybrid single-packet IP traceback with low storage and high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour

    2014-01-01

    Traceback schemes have been proposed to trace the sources of attacks that usually hide by spoofing their IP addresses. Among these methods, schemes using packet logging can achieve single-packet traceback. But packet logging demands high storage on routers and therefore makes IP traceback impractical. For lower storage requirement, packet logging and packet marking are fused to make hybrid single-packet IP traceback. Despite such attempts, their storage still increases with packet numbers. That is why RIHT bounds its storage with path numbers to guarantee low storage. RIHT uses IP header's ID and offset fields to mark packets, so it inevitably suffers from fragment and drop issues for its packet reassembly. Although the 16-bit hybrid IP traceback schemes, for example, MORE, can mitigate the fragment problem, their storage requirement grows up with packet numbers. To solve the storage and fragment problems in one shot, we propose a single-packet IP traceback scheme that only uses packets' ID field for marking. Our major contributions are as follows: (1) our fragmented packets with tracing marks can be reassembled; (2) our storage is not affected by packet numbers; (3) it is the first hybrid single-packet IP traceback scheme to achieve zero false positive and zero false negative rates.

  19. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  20. Effects of vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging in combination with irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Larson, Elaine M; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Lu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties by combining irradiation with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Fresh ground beef patties were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 5 log CFU/g. Single patties, packaged with vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP (99.6% CO(2) plus 0.4% CO), were irradiated at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. The D(10)-value for this pathogen was 0.47 ± 0.02 kGy in vacuum and 0.50 ± 0.02 kGy in MAP packaging. Irradiation with 1.5 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 to 3.3 log, while 0.5 and 1.0 kGy achieved reductions of 0.7 to 1.0, and 2.0 to 2.2 log, respectively. After irradiation, the numbers of survivors of this pathogen on beef patties in refrigerated storage (4°C) did not change significantly for 6 weeks. Temperature abuse (at 25°C) resulted in growth in vacuum-packaged patties treated with 0.5 and 1.5 kGy, but no growth in MAP packages. This study demonstrated that combining irradiation with MAP was similar in effectiveness to irradiation with vacuum packaging for control of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties during refrigerated storage. However, high-CO(2) MAP appeared to be more effective after temperature abuse.

  1. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  2. Storage-efficient 16-Bit Hybrid IP traceback with Single Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour

    2014-01-01

    Since adversaries may spoof their source IPs in the attacks, traceback schemes have been proposed to identify the attack source. However, some of these schemes' storage requirements increase with packet numbers. Some even have false positives because they use an IP header's fragment offset for marking. Thus, we propose a 16-bit single packet hybrid IP traceback scheme that combines packet marking and packet logging with high accuracy and low storage requirement. The size of our log tables can be bounded by route numbers. We also set a threshold to determine whether an upstream interface number is stored in a log table or in a marking field, so as to balance the logging frequency and our computational loads. Because we store user interface information on small-degree routers, compared with current single packet traceback schemes, ours can have the lowest storage requirements. Besides, our traceback achieves zero false positive/negative rates and guarantees reassembly of fragmented packets at the destination.

  3. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  4. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzoni, G M; Fratamico, P M; Boccia, F; Bagi, L K; Kim, G-H; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. Ground beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were stored at 4°C for 72 h, followed by screening with the IQ-Check and BAX System kit (MLG) methods that employ different enrichment media. STEC and S. Typhimurium were detected after 12 and 18 h and their presence was confirmed by colony isolation. Both methods were able to detect STEC in ground beef after 12 h of enrichment in samples inoculated with low levels of the pathogen. STEC and S. Typhimurium can be detected and isolated in co-inoculated ground beef samples. The IQ-Check methods are comparable to the MLG methods for detection of STEC and simultaneous detection of STEC and S. Typhimurium in seeded ground beef after a short enrichment time, thus the IQ-Check method can be useful for the food industry for rapid detection of these pathogens. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  6. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  7. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef Using the GeneDisc Real-Time PCR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina eFratamico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 and certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. GeneDisc real-time PCR assays were evaluated for detection of the stx1, stx2, eae, and ehx genes and a gene that identifies the O157 serogroup followed by a second GeneDisc assay targeting serogroup-specific genes of STEC O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157. The ability to detect the STEC serogroups in ground beef samples artificially inoculated at a level of ca. 2-20 CFU/25 g and subjected to enrichment in mTSB or BPW was similar. Following enrichment, all inoculated ground beef samples showed amplification of the correct set of target genes carried by each strain. Samples inoculated with STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, and isolation was achieved by plating onto Rainbow agar O157. Colonies were confirmed by PCR assays targeting stx1, stx2, eae, and serogroup-specific genes. Thus, this work demonstrated that GeneDisc assays are rapid, sensitive, and reliable and can be used for screening ground beef and potentially other foods for STEC serogroups that are important food-borne pathogens worldwide.

  8. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Llorente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1% samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57; stx2, 86.0% (49/57; stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57; ehxA, 61.4% (35/57; eae, 26.3% (15/57; saa, 24.6% (14/57. Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54; stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54; stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54; stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54; stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54; stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54. Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  9. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  10. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  11. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO 2; MAP : 60% O 2-30% CO 2-10% N 2 and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D10 values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D10 values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  12. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO{sub 2}; MAP : 60% O{sub 2}-30% CO{sub 2}-10% N{sub 2} and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D{sub 10} values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D{sub 10} values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  13. Fiber-Optic Biosensor Employing Alexa-Fluor Conjugated Antibody for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Ground Beef in Four Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody which is specific forE. coli O157:H7. A polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiberwaveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction that served as a capture antibody. AnAlexa Fluor 647 dye-labeled antibody to E. coli O157:H7 was used to detect cells andgenerate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635 nm laser-lightfrom an Analyte-2000. Fluorescent molecules within several hundred nanometers of thefiber were excited by an evanescent wave, and a portion of the emission light fromfluorescent dye transmitted by the fiber and collected by a photodetector at wavelengths of670 to 710 nm quantitatively. This immunosensor was specific for E. coli O157:H7compared with multiple other foodborne bacteria. In addition, the biosensor was able todetect as low as 103 CFU/ml pure cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in culture broth.Artificially inoculated E. coli O157:H7 at concentration of 1 CFU/ml in ground beef couldbe detected by this method after only 4 hours of enrichment.

  14. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-11-01

    The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.

  15. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  17. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  18. Elimination of Pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef by a Newly Isolated Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus during Storage at 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Constant use of limited number of lactic acid bacteria species in biopreservation can cause genetic degradation and or rising resistance against food pathogens or antimicrobial substances they produce. For this objective, a newly isolated strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possessing high antimicrobial activity was evaluated as a candidate for use in biopreservation.Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. Hydrogen peroxide amount was measured by Merckoquant Peroxide test strips. Microbiological analysis of the ground beef infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and treated by Lactobacillus acidophilus GH 201was done by plating of serial dilution in physiological saline on Tryptose agar.Results and Conclusion: The cells (109 CFU ml-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus produced significant amount of antibacterial substances mainly hydrogen peroxide (28 and 30 μg ml-1 in sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.5 and LAPTg at 5°C during submerged cultivation with no growth, respectively. Submerged co-cultivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with lactobacilli in LAPTg broth at 5°C reduced the total number of the pathogen more than 2 log for 5 days. In case of solid state cultivation on agar-based medium, the maximum inhibitory zones on Escherichia coli O157:H7 lawn around the disks soaked by different amounts of washed Lactobacillus acidophilus cells appear for one-day cold exposition. The size of inhibition zone depends on the concentration of lactic acid bacteria cells. The cell suspension intended for treatment must contain 108-9CFU ml-1 of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the initial amount (2×105 CFU ml-1 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef up to 2 log for 5 days of solid-state co-cultivation. The application of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria expanded the shelf-life of ground beef due to inhibition of

  19. Profile and activity of the bacterial biota of ground beef held from freshness to spoilage at 5-7 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J M; Vilai, J P; Hughes, M E

    2003-03-15

    Four samples of fresh ground beef were stored aerobically and held at 5-7 degrees C for up to 28 days. Although one sample initially yielded 21 different genera of bacteria while two others yielded only seven, all four spoiled essentially in the same way as assessed by aerobic, psychrotrophic, and Gram-negative counts, and by extract-release volume (ERV) and pH values. Pseudomonas spp. was dominant in the spoilage of all samples. As to why this group is so consistently associated with the low-temperature aerobic spoilage of fresh meats, it is hypothesized that they possess the capacity to form a biofilm and that quorum sensing is involved in the overall biofilm forming and functioning processes.

  20. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  1. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  2. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pphosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (pphosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (pphosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  3. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  4. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  5. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%. PMID:27043566

  6. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%.

  7. Effects of packaging systems and fat concentrations on microbiology, sensory and physical properties of ground beef stored at 4±1°C for 25 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, N; Williams, S K

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of modified atmosphere (MAP, 0.4% carbon monoxide [CO], 30% carbon dioxide, and 69.6% nitrogen), vacuum (VP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging systems and fat levels (10, 20 and 30% fat) on ground beef stored at 4 ± 1°C for 25 days for microbiology, sensory, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), objective color, headspace and residual CO. As storage time increased, pH decreased (P< 0.05) for MAP and VP and increased (P < 0.05) for PVC. TBARS varied (P < 0.05) among MAP and VP treatments. Except for day 1, CO headspace concentrations were similar among fat concentrations, and residual CO absorption in meat increased (P < 0.05) for all MAP treatments. In all treatments, degree of lightness was similar, redness decreased and brown discoloration increased during storage. As psychrotrophic bacteria counts increased, panelists detected color and off-odor deterioration in all systems. The CO treatment had no effect on maintaining the carboxymyoglobin "cherry red" fresh meat color during meat spoilage.

  8. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  9. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Caracterización de aislamientos de Listeria monocytogenes obtenidos de ganado y de carne molida de vacuno por electroforesis de campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Foerster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250 and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40 were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 % but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %. An important part of the ground beef strains (80 % had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la presencia de Listeria monocytogenes en el ganado y en la carne molida de vacuno comercializada en Chile, caracterizar los aislados mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y compararlos con los obtenidos en tres cepas que han producido listeriosis en humanos, en ese país. Se tomaron muestras de heces de bovinos (n = 250 y de carne molida obtenida en supermercados (n = 40. Se encontró una baja incidencia de este patógeno en las heces de bovinos (0,4 %; un solo animal, pero mayores porcentajes en la carne molida (37 %. Gran parte de las cepas encontradas en la carne molida (80 % mostraron una similitud mayor del 95 % con un caso esporádico de listeriosis y con la cepa de referencia ATCC 19115. La cepa aislada de bovino tuvo un 93 % de similitud con el clon 009, responsable de un brote asociado al consumo de queso, ocurrido en 2008. Se concluye que el ganado y la carne molida pueden albergar cepas virulentas de L. monocytogenes. Se necesita un mayor número de estudios en animales y en los productos que se

  10. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  11. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  12. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  13. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  14. Characterizing the AB Doradus Moving Group Via High Resolution Spectroscopy and Kinematic Traceback

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 10 proposed F and G members of the nearby, young moving group AB Doradus (ABD). Our sample was obtained using the 2.7m telescope at the McDonald Observatory with the coude echelle spectrograph, achieving R $\\sim$ 60,000 and S/N $\\sim$ 200. We derive spectroscopic T$_{eff}$, log(g), [Fe/H], and microturbulance (v$_{t}$) using a bootstrap method of the TGVIT software resulting in typical errors of 33K in T$_{eff}$, 0.08 dex in log(g), 0.03 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.13 km s$^{-1}$ in v$_{t}$. Characterization of the ABD sample is performed in three ways: (1) Chemical homogeneity, (2) Kinematic Traceback, and (3) Isochrone fitting. We find the average metal abundance is [M/H] = -0.03 $\\pm$ 0.06 with a traceback age of 125 Myrs. Our stars were fit to 3 different evolutionary models (Siess et al. 2000, Baraffe et al. 1998, and YREC) and we found the best match to our ABD sample is the YREC [M/H] = -0.1 model. In our sample of 10 stars, we identify 1 star which is a probable non-member, ...

  15. Destination Address Entropy based Detection and Traceback Approach against Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Bhandari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With all the brisk growth of web, distributed denial of service attacks are becoming the most serious issues in a data center scenarios where lot many servers are deployed. A Distributed Denial of Service attack gen-erates substantial packets by a large number of agents and can easily tire out the processing and communication resources of a victim within very less period of time. Defending DDoS problem involved several steps from detection, characterization and traceback in order todomitigation. The contribution of this research paper is a lot more. Firstly, flooding based DDoS problems is detected using obtained packets based entropy approach in a data center scenario. Secondly entropy based traceback method is applied to find the edge routers from where the whole attack traffic is entering into the ISP domain of the data center. Various simulation scenarios using NS2 are depicted in order to validate the proposed method using GT-ITM primarily based topology generators. Information theory based metrics like entropy; average entropy and differential entropy are used for this purpose.

  16. Distributed Denial of Service Attack Source Detection Using Efficient Traceback Technique (ETT) in Cloud-Assisted Healthcare Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia; Abbas, Haider; Latif, Seemab; Masood, Ashraf

    2016-07-01

    Security and privacy are the first and foremost concerns that should be given special attention when dealing with Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). As WBAN sensors operate in an unattended environment and carry critical patient health information, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major attacks in WBAN environment that not only exhausts the available resources but also influence the reliability of information being transmitted. This research work is an extension of our previous work in which a machine learning based attack detection algorithm is proposed to detect DDoS attack in WBAN environment. However, in order to avoid complexity, no consideration was given to the traceback mechanism. During traceback, the challenge lies in reconstructing the attack path leading to identify the attack source. Among existing traceback techniques, Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) approach is the most commonly used technique in conventional IP- based networks. However, since marking probability assignment has significant effect on both the convergence time and performance of a scheme, it is not directly applicable in WBAN environment due to high convergence time and overhead on intermediate nodes. Therefore, in this paper we have proposed a new scheme called Efficient Traceback Technique (ETT) based on Dynamic Probability Packet Marking (DPPM) approach and uses MAC header in place of IP header. Instead of using fixed marking probability, the proposed scheme uses variable marking probability based on the number of hops travelled by a packet to reach the target node. Finally, path reconstruction algorithms are proposed to traceback an attacker. Evaluation and simulation results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms fixed PPM in terms of convergence time and computational overhead on nodes.

  17. Effects of Irradiation Dose and O2 and CO2 Concentrations in Packages on Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Quality of Ready-to-Cook Seasoned Ground Beef Product (Meatball during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbuz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of gamma irradiation and concentrations of O2 (0, 5, 21% and CO2 (0, 50% on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, lipid oxidation, and color changes in ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef (meatball during refrigerated storage were investigated. Ground beef seasoned with mixed spices was packaged in varying O2 and CO2 levels and irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiation (4 kGy caused about 6 Log inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Inactivation of Salmonella was 0.9- and 0.4-Log lower in 0 and 5% O2, respectively, compared to 21% O2. Irradiation at 2 and 4 kGy increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in meatballs by 0.12 and 0.28 mg malondialdehyde kg−1, respectively, compared to control. In reduced-O2 packages, radiation-induced oxidation was lower, and the initial color of an irradiated sample was maintained. Packaging with 0% + 50% CO2 or 5% O2 + 50% CO2 maintained the oxidative and the color quality of irradiated meatballs during 14-day refrigerated storage. MAP with 5%O2 + 50% CO2 combined with irradiation up to 4 kGy is suggested for refrigerated meatballs to reduce the foodborne pathogen risk and to maintain the quality.

  18. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  19. 77 FR 26725 - Changes to FSIS Traceback, Recall Procedures for Escherichia coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    .... coli O157:H7. FSAs are complete investigations concerning the establishment's entire HACCP system. FSIS... containers or purge material (that is, remaining liquid, fat, and meat particles in containers or combo bins... effectiveness of HACCP measures in addressing the pathogen. Therefore, in order for a sampled and tested...

  20. IP Traceback for Flooding attacks on Internet Threat Monitors (ITM) Using Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, K Munivara; Jyothsna, V; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4102

    2012-01-01

    The Internet Threat Monitoring (ITM) is an efficient monitoring system used globally to measure, detect, characterize and track threats such as denial of service (DoS) and distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks and worms. . To block the monitoring system in the internet the attackers are targeted the ITM system. In this paper we address the flooding attack of DDoS against ITM monitors to exhaust the network resources, such as bandwidth, computing power, or operating system data structures by sending the malicious traffic. We propose an information-theoretic frame work that models the flooding attacks using Botnet on ITM. One possible way to counter DDoS attacks is to trace the attack sources and punish the perpetrators. we propose a novel traceback method for DDoS using Honeypots. IP tracing through honeypot is a single packet tracing method and is more efficient than commonly used packet marking techniques.

  1. IP Traceback for Flooding Attacks on Internet Threat Monitors (ITM Using Honeypots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Munivara Prasad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Threat Monitoring (ITM is an efficient monitoring system used globally to measure, detect, characterize and track threats such as denial of service (DoS and distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks and worms. . To block the monitoring system in the internet the attackers are targeted the ITMsystem. In this paper we address the flooding attack of DDoS against ITM monitors to exhaust the network resources, such as bandwidth, computing power, or operating system data structures by sending the malicious traffic. We propose an information-theoretic frame work that models the flooding attacksusing Botnet on ITM. One possible way to counter DDoS attacks is to trace the attack sources and punish the perpetrators. we propose a novel traceback method for DDoS using Honeypots. IP tracing through honeypot is a single packet tracing method and is more efficient than commonly used packet marking techniques.

  2. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  3. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  4. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  6. A Pitch Detection Algorithm for Continuous Speech Signals Using Viterbi Traceback with Temporal Forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartošek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pitch-detection algorithm (PDA for application to signals containing continuous speech. The core of the method is based on merged normalized forward-backward correlation (MNFBC working in the time domain with the ability to make basic voicing decisions. In addition, the Viterbi traceback procedure is used for post-processing the MNFBC output considering the three best fundamental frequency (F0 candidates in each step. This should make the final pitch contour smoother, and should also prevent octave errors. In transition probabilities computation between F0 candidates, two major improvements were made over existing post-processing methods. Firstly, we compare pitch distance in musical cent units. Secondly, temporal forgetting is applied in order to avoid penalizing pitch jumps after prosodic pauses of one speaker or changes in pitch connected with turn-taking in dialogs. Results computed on a pitchreference database definitely show the benefit of the first improvement, but they have not yet proved any benefits of temporal modification. We assume this only happened due to the nature of the reference corpus, which had a small amount of suprasegmental content.

  7. Barriers to Trace-back in a Salad-associated EHEC Outbreak, Sweden, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Sundborger, Camilla; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Ivarsson, Sofie; Dryselius, Rikard; Insulander, Mona; Jernberg, Cecilia; Hutin, Yvan; Wallensten, Anders

    2014-06-06

    In June-July 2013, six counties notified the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control of enterohaemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) infections among attendees at a hotel in Dalarna, Sweden. An outbreak control team investigated to identify the source and implement control measures. We included individuals who attended the hotel between June 19th-25th in a cohort. We asked them about animal contact, swimming, and consumption of food items during this time using a questionnaire. A confirmed case was an EHEC O157:H7 outbreak strain positive individual who developed abdominal pain or diarrhoea between June 20th-July 2nd. We described the outbreak in time, place and person, calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We investigated the kitchen, tested and traced back implicated food items. 172 individuals responded. We identified 19 confirmed cases (Median age: 17 years, 64% female) with symptom onset between June 22nd-27th. Eating green salad on June 20th was associated with illness (RR:3.7;CI:1.3-11). The kitchen mixed green salads without records and destroyed leftovers immediately. Hence we could not conduct trace-back or obtain microbiological confirmation. Green salad contaminated before entering the kitchen was the likely outbreak source. We recommended early collaboration with food agencies and better restaurant records to facilitate future investigations.

  8. IP Traceback System Design based on GBF%基于GBF的追踪溯源系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宸; 陈周国; 郝尧; 蒲石

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet, network security technology recently excites much inter-est in academia and industry. By tracing and locating the source of network intrusion, IP traceback tech-nology helps defender take targeted defensive measures, and enable to carry out the countermeasures to the attacker, collect information for cyber forensics. This paper firstly introduces the basic method of IP trace-back, then describes GBF(Generalized Bloom Filter) and its application in packet marking. After that, IP traceback system based on GBF is designed and implemented. Experimental results indicate that the system could successfully reconstruct attack path. Finally, this paper summarizes the work that has been done and proposes the research direction in future.%互联网的快速发展引发了学术界和工业界对于网络安全技术的研究热潮,网络攻击追踪溯源技术能够定位网络攻击的源头,为防御方采取有针对性的防御措施和对攻击者进行反制提供必要信息,对于网络取证也有重要意义。首先介绍网络追踪溯源的基本方法;然后,介绍了广义布隆过滤器( Generalized Bloom Filter)及其在包标记追踪溯源中的应用;接着,设计并实现基于GBF的追踪溯源系统,实验表明本系统可以成功重构攻击路径;最后,进行总结并大致描述了今后的研究方向。

  9. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  10. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  11. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  12. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  13. Outbreaks of Salmonella infections attributed to beef --United States, 1973-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, A S; Grass, J; Holt, K; Whichard, J M; Griffin, P M; Gould, L H

    2015-07-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is estimated to be the most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing an estimated one million domestically acquired foodborne illnesses annually. Recent, large outbreaks have highlighted the importance of ground beef as an important source of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. We analysed the epidemiology of salmonellosis outbreaks that were attributed to beef in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1973 to 2011. During 1973-2011, of the 1965 outbreaks of Salmonella where a food vehicle was implicated, 96 were attributed to beef, accounting for 3684 illnesses. We observed a shift in the type of beef implicated in salmonellosis outbreaks, from roast to ground beef. Delicatessen-style roast beef cooked in commercial processing establishments was the predominant type during the 1970s and early 1980s; regulations on cooking and processing essentially eliminated this problem by 1987. Ground beef emerged as an important vehicle in the 2000s; it was implicated in 17 (45%) of the 38 beef-attributed outbreaks reported during 2002-2011. Although this emergence was likely due in part to increased participation in CDC's PulseNet, which was established in 1996, and proactive decisions by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, stronger measures are needed to decrease contamination of ground beef with Salmonella.

  14. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  15. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  16. Research on Threat Traceback Method Based on IDS Alarms and Rootkit%基于IDS报警和rootkit的威胁溯源方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏坤鹏; 谢正勇; 崔伟

    2015-01-01

    随着互联网应用的普及和不断深入,网络威胁也给人们的工作和生活带来了重大挑战.为了应对这些挑战,给广大网民营造一个安全、可信的互联网环境,文章研究了威胁信息溯源问题,分析了现有威胁溯源方法存在的不足,从实践角度出发提出了一种基于入侵检测系统报警信息和rootkit的威胁溯源方案.文章设定了本方案的假设条件,分析了该方案的可行性,指出了方案面临的挑战.%With the popularization and development of Internet application, Internet-based network threat has posed a serious challenge to everyone's work and life. In order to deal with this challenge as well as create a safe and trusted Internet environment for the cyber citizens, this paper reads up the problem of threat information traceback, analyzes the drawbacks of the existing method of threat traceback, proposes a threat traceback scheme which is based on the alarms of intrusion detection system and rootkit technology. This paper sets up the assumption of the scheme according to the fact when traceback threat, analyzes the feasibility, proposes the challenge.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen.

  18. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  19. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  2. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  3. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  4. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  5. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  6. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Since around 1990, Indonesia had been importing about 40% of its entire beef consumption. To reduce its reliance on imports, Indonesia launched the beef selfsufficiency programme (BSSP), which operated between 2005 and 2014, with the aim being to reduce imports of beef cattle to 10% of national...... focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...

  7. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  8. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  9. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  10. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  11. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  12. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  13. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  14. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  15. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  16. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  17. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  18. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  19. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  20. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  1. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  2. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  3. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  4. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  5. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin A Weiser

    Full Text Available FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  6. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  7. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.

  8. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  9. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  11. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  12. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  13. Contaminación de carne molida con cepas de Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC provenientes de comercios minoristas de San Martín, Buenos Aires, categorizados según nivel socioeconómico Contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in fresh ground beef from butcher shops in San Martin, Buenos Aires Province, among different socioeconomic strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Miccio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC produce enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, desde diarreas leves a Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico, enfermedad de impacto en Argentina. Dentro de los alimentos implicados se destaca la carne bovina insuficientemente cocida. La contaminación de la carne molida y su relación con los estratos socioeconómicos no ha sido estudiada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar en muestras de carne cepas STEC y establecer su perfil de virulencia, considerando la zona socioeconómica de procedencia y la persistencia de la contaminación en el local de venta. Se seleccionó el 30% de las bocas de expendio habilitadas en cada nivel socioeconómico. Se analizaron 72 muestras provenientes de 36 carnicerías de San Martín, Buenos Aires, en dos muestreos independientes utilizando PCR múltiple para stx1/stx2 e inmunocaptura para O157 al tamizaje. Se obtuvieron 11 cepas de 26 muestras sospechosas, 7% de los aislamientos fueron STEC O157. La proporción en la contaminación ponderada fue mayor en las zonas media y baja. No se comprobó persistencia. El grado de contaminación por STEC en carne para el área estudiada fue elevado y las cepas aisladas fueron altamente virulentas. En consideración a ello es necesario implementar programas de capacitación y control para reducir los riesgos para la salud pública.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes foodborne diseases, from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome which impact in Argentina. Many human infections were acquired from eating undercooked contaminated beef. The contamination of ground beef and their relation to socio-economic strata has not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify STEC in meat samples and establish virulence profile, considering the socio-economic area of origin and persistence of contamination in local sales. It was selected 30% of the butcher shop of each socioeconomic level. It was analyzed 72 samples from 36

  14. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  15. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  17. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  18. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  19. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  20. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  1. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  2. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  4. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  5. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  6. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  7. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  8. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  9. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  10. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  11. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  12. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  13. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  14. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  15. The Effect of Social Desirability Bias on Willingness-To-Pay for Organic Beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Researchers regularly conduct willingness-to-pay or valuation studies for product marketing or public policy purposes. However, a large volume of research suggests valuation tools such as conjoint analysis may be subject to social desirability bias, where subjects misrepresent their true preferences to create a favorable impression. The objective of this study is to measure the effects of social desirability bias on conjoint survey responses. Consumers were asked to rank organic ground beef r...

  16. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  17. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  18. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  19. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  20. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  1. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  2. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  3. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  4. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  5. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  6. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  9. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  10. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  11. [Influence of below-freezing temperatures on the rate of post-mortem metabolism and the water-holding capacity in prerigor frozen beef muscles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Honikel, K O; Hamm, R

    1980-09-01

    Prerigor beef is very suitable for the production of "bruehwurst" (frankfurter and bologna type sausages) because of its high waterholding capacity (WHC). This high WHC can be preserved for several months by rapid freezing of prerigor beef either unsalted or salted. In order to elucidate the optimum conditions of frozen storage for the preservation of high WHC, intact beef muscle, ground beef and ground, salted (2% NaC1) beef (neck muscles) were frozen at - 18 degrees or --40 degrees C in a thin layer (0.5-1 cm) 30--60 min after slaugther and stored at various temperatures between --5 degrees and --40 degrees C. The changes of biochemical parameters (content of glycogen and lactate, R-value [it corresponds to ATP concentration] and pH) in the tissue and the WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates, prepared from the frozen material and containing 2% NaC1, were measured and related to time and temperature of frozen storage. At storage temperature of --18 degrees and --40 degrees C no appreciable biochemical changes occur in intact and ground, unsalted tissue over a period of 10 months. Above 18 degrees C, however, rising temperature causes an increased rate of ATP turnover and glycolysis. In ground muscle higher rates of postmortem metabolism are generally found than in the intact tissue. In prerigor salted and frozen beef a faster drug of ATP concentration (increase of R-value) occurs whereas the breakdown of glycogen to lactate is inhibited. The WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates depends on time and temperature of frozen storage. As soon as the ATP concentration in unsalted beef falls to a level, at which the onset of rigor mortis occurs, the WHC of homogenates decreases markedly. With beef, ground and salted in the prerigor state and than frozen muscle homogenates are obtained which show always a high WHC even after complete breakdown at ATP during frozen storage. These results have practical consequences with regard to processing of hot-deboned beef.

  12. Fornecimento de grão de milheto, inteiro ou triturado, em duas frequências de suplementação para bovinos de corte Supply of whole or ground millet grain at two frequencies of supplementation for beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2012-04-01

    the grain of millet in supplements given daily or three times a week to grazing beef cattle on productive performance, economic and diurnal intake behavior during the drought period. Twenty-five non-castrated Nelore cattle with initial body weight of 350.92±31.7 kg were kept in five paddocks with unit area of 1.45 ha formed by B. brizantha cv. Marandu. The animals were distributed in a completely radomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two physical forms of the grain of millet (whole or ground, two frequencies of supplementation (daily or three times a week and the control treatment (mineral mix. It was found that the concentrate supplementation promoted weight gains, while sole mineral supplementation resulted in weight loss of 0.16 kg/animal/day. Grinding the millet grain promoted higher gains (0.36 and 0.38 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively when compared with the whole grain (0.22 and 0.24 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively, with no differences between the frequencies of supplementation. Significant effect of the day × treatment interaction was found for time in the trough, grazing and drinking water. For the resting time difference was found between the control treatment and the others. Greater economic return was achieved when ground millet was supplied at lower supplementation frequency (R$ 22,70/animal. The use of multiple supplements, as well as the processing of millet grain, enabled greater weight gain, regardless of the supplementation frequency studied. Providing supplement 3 times a week reduces the costs with supplementation.

  13. Attachment and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 at different temperatures, on various food-contact surfaces encountered in beef processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourou, Dimitra; Beauchamp, Catherine Simpson; Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Nychas, George-John E; Sofos, John N

    2011-10-03

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to beef-contact surfaces found in beef fabrication facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. This study evaluated E. coli O157:H7 attachment, survival and growth on food-contact surfaces under simulated beef processing conditions. Stainless steel and high-density polyethylene surfaces (2×5cm) were individually suspended into each of three substrates inoculated (6log CFU/ml or g) with E. coli O157:H7 (rifampicin-resistant, six-strain composite) and then incubated (168h) statically at 4 or 15°C. The three tested soiling substrates included sterile tryptic soy broth (TSB), unsterilized beef fat-lean tissue (1:1 [wt/wt]) homogenate (10% [wt/wt] with sterile distilled water) and unsterilized ground beef. Initial adherence/attachment of E. coli O157:H7 (0.9 to 2.9log CFU/cm(2)) on stainless steel and high-density polyethylene was not affected by the type of food-contact surface but was greater (ptemperature. Notably, attachment occurred not only at a temperature representative of beef fabrication areas during non-production hours (15°C), but also during cold storage (4°C) temperatures, thus, rendering the design of more effective sanitation programs necessary.

  14. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  15. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  16. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  17. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... The essential amino acid (EAA) content were ranked in the descending order of ST >. SV ≥ LD ... corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement ..... effects of lactic acid on Qin-chuan beef at different ages.

  19. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  20. Characterization and virulence potential of serogroup O113 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef and cattle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and be...

  1. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the new

  2. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  3. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  4. A DECISION SUPPORT AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT USING EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Falconer; Long, Charles R.; McGrann, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The beef cattle investment decision provides an excellent opportunity to increase the economic efficiency of beef cattle production. The investment questions that face beef cattle producers are of interest to beef cattle producers, educators, and financial institutions involved in lending to beef cattle producing firms. This study develops a decision support aid utilizing expert system technology to assist beef cattle producers in making well-founded investment decisions with respect to the f...

  5. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  6. Use of ensiled straw and beef cattle manure for feeding fattening young bulls. 2. Toxicological and microbiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, V.; De Michelis, F.; Fontanelli, G.; Molossini, F.

    1980-06-01

    A mixture of straw 38%, beef cattle manure 52% and ground corn 10% was ensiled in about 15 cubic meters plastic bag silos. Biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) were determined in fresh faces and in the silage: the total content was respectively 37.0 and 33.3 mg/100 g D.M. Microbial population decreased after ensiling; pathogenic staphylococci, Cl. perfringens and salmonellae were not detected before nor after ensiling.

  7. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  9. Prediction of the fatty acid composition of beef by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, V; Aldai, N; Castro, P; Osoro, K; Coto-Montes, A; Oliván, M

    2008-03-01

    The intramuscular fat content and composition influence consumer selection of meat products. A study predicting the fatty acid (FA) profile of ground beef from the Longissimus thoracis of yearling bulls (n=100) using near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT) was conducted. The samples were scanned using an Infratec 1265 Meat Analyzer which operates in transmittance mode from 850 to 1050nm. NIT technology was able to accurately predict (R(CV)(2) over 0.76) some prominent FAs such as C14:0, C16:0, C16:1cis9, C17:0, C18:1cis9 and C18:1cis11, and minor FAs like C13:0, C15:0, C17:1cis9 and C18:1cis13. When studying FA groups, NIT spectra were able to accurately predict saturated (R(CV)(2)=0.837), branched (R(CV)(2)=0.701) and monounsaturated (R(CV)(2)=0.852) FAs. In addition, NIT spectra provided useful information on the contents of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in beef. These results show the potential of NIT technique as a rapid and easy tool to predict the major FAs in beef, especially those located in triglycerides.

  10. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  11. Beef production in Romania (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the statistics is to show changes in the size and value of total production of animals for slaughtering and meat analyzed by use. Due to the interest of breeders and specialists from our country in specialized breeds of cattle meat production is increasing, the purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of beef production over the last three years. The number of animals slaughtered decreased steadily from 2010 to 2012. Most slaughter, were done in the second half of the years in which research was made. The largest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2010, and the fewest (with 62.32% less in January 2012. Total slaughter is declining, but a higher number of animals are slaughtered in official slaughterhouses, at a higher weight. As a consequence, beef production is forecast to remain relatively stagnant.

  12. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  13. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...... positive samples to produce isolates for further characterization. The choice of a rapid method will always depend on the requested information and be influenced by the relevant matrix and the expected level of contamination....

  14. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  15. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  16. Culture medium for selective isolation and enumeration of Gram-negative bacteria from ground meats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cyzeska, F J; Seiter, J A; Marks, S N; Jay, J M

    1981-01-01

    We developed a new medium, designated peptone bile amphotericin cycloheximide (PBAC) agar, which contains (per liter) 10 g of peptone, 300 mg of bile salts, 1 mg of amphotericin B, 1 g of cycloheximide, and 15 g of agar. When 21 samples of fresh ground beef were studied and plate count agar counts were used as references, we obtained a mean recovery of 28% of total counts with violet red bile agar overlay, whereas we obtained 48% recovery with PBAC agar. With 12 samples of frozen ground beef,...

  17. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  18. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  19. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  20. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... of the fresh beef weight. Transglutaminase enzyme at levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a...

  1. Beef-cattle producers benefit from Extension-managed process verification programs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The most recent data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture shows that Virginia's beef producers face a myriad of challenges. Virginia Cooperative Extension is working with the beef-cattle industry to boost profits and add value to Virginia's beef products by training and educating producers about process verification programs that certify the age and source of beef cattle.

  2. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  4. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  5. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  6. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...... the data, using the software program Transana. The study showed that the farmers were mostly unaware of the existing government policies on beef-cattle farming, i.e., regarding the BSSP, including the overall aim of these policies. Furthermore, the activities they did know about they viewed as individual...... activities run in isolation, rather than parts of a grander plan or overall larger targeted programme—note, in this paper, we refer to these individual activities as ‘fragments’. The farmers who took part in the interviews outlined the challenges they faced in increasing the quantity and quality...

  9. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  10. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  11. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  12. Mycoflora And Mycotoxins Of Corned Beef

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; Zohri, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty species and 5 varieties belonging to 21 genera of fungi were collected from 20 corned beef samples . The average total counts of fungi ranged from 56 -236,47-275 and 39-202 colonies /g on glucose - 10% NAC1 - glucose - and 15% NAC1 - glucose - Czapek's agar media , respectively . Aspergillus niger, A. flavus , and Pencillium chrysogenum were the most common species on the three tested media . A. fumigatus and A. sydowii were common on glucose -Czapek's medium only while A. speluneus and...

  13. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...

  14. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  15. 一种动-静态结合的概率包标记IP追踪方案%Combined dynamic and static probabilistic packet marking scheme for IP traceback.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费洪晓; 李文兴; 覃思明; 李钦秀

    2011-01-01

    The weakest link problem,because of the fixed marking probability in most probabilistic packet marking based IP traceback schemes, results in poor convergence of path reconstruction.Although dynamic probabilistic packet marking has some improvements on these aspects, the problems of an excessive burden of router and demanding of memory space still exist.A combined dynamic and static probabilistic packet marking scheme can be used to solve the above-mentioned problems.The analysis shows that the scheme is superior to static probabilistic packet marking on the aspects of convergence time and the weakest link, and superior to dynamic probabilistic packet marking on the aspects of memory space and burden of router by contrasting qualities.%大多数概率包标记IP追踪方案因为固定标记概率而存在最弱链问题,从而导致重构路径的弱收敛性,动态概率包标记虽然在这些方面有所改善,但仍有路由器的负担过重和存储空间要求过高的问题.可以用一种动-静态结合的概率包标记方案来解决上述问题,通过分析表明该方案在收敛时间和最弱链问题上优于静态概率包标记,而在存储空间和路由器负担上优于动态概率包标记.

  16. 基于协作交互的概率性数据包标记溯源方法%A Traceback Approach with Probabilistic Packet Marking IP Based on Cooperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎冬; 王玉龙; 苏森; 杨放春

    2012-01-01

    In order to eliminate the attack in a quick mode and ensure the safety of communication software servers without too much overhead on routers, with a three layer framework, a traceback approach with probabilistic packet marking Internet protocol is proposed based on cooperations, called cooperation based probabilistic packet marking ( CPPM) . The proposed algorithm adjusts the marking probability and marking information transmission fashion according to the load of routers in the network. It can reconstruct the attack path back to the intrusion source in a quick mode with less impact on the network. Simulations show the effectiveness and practicability of the algorithm.%为了从根本上消除拒绝服务攻击等恶意入侵行为,保障通信软件服务器的安全,而又不会过多增加网络设备的开销,提出了一种基于协作交互三层框架结构的概率性数据包标记溯源( CPPM)方法.该算法根据当前网络中路由器的负载情况,自适应动态调整该路由器数据包标记概率和标记信息传递方式,可以用较小的网络开销快速地找到入侵源.仿真结果证明了CPPM方法的有效性和实用性.

  17. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  18. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  19. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  1. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  2. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinue to provide the bulk of the forage demands for beef cattle. various ... While the summer day temperatures are rnoderate (max ... one another to achieve the desired effect. The most sig- ... Wherever possible legumes should be established.

  3. High School Beef Farm is Career Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Ray

    1976-01-01

    The beef farm at Gaylesville High School, Gaylesville, Alabama, has provided an opportunity for students to gain work experience in a variety of areas including construction, animal care, and packing plant procedures. (LH)

  4. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy production ... decomposition of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part ... Keywords: Cow-calf production, methane, pasture production, production levels, total ...

  5. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. A REML procedure ... complex, CD and AFC (because of its high heritability) may be considered as selection criteria for ..... Marshall, D.M., Minqiang, W. & Freking, B.A., 1990.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEEF OF YOUNG SPECIAL MEAT AND HOLSTAIN SPECIES GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchukina I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author has examined peculiarities of meat productivity of animals of the most common breeds: Charolais, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Kuban type of Red Steppe. As a result of the slaughter carried out for younger group achieved 15 months age, the Charolais breed bulls exceeded peers of Kuban type on slaughter weight to 60.9 kg (20.9 %, Aberdeen Angus – 53.8 kg (18.5 %, Hereford and Simmental respectively – to 35.1 and 24.8 kg (8,5-12,0 %. By the age of 18 months their superiority increased respectively by 56.9; 57.5; 55.8 and 29.9 kg (16.8; 16.9; 16.5 and 8.82%. Halves of bodies of the Kuban breed (considering the specific type of boneless beef output aged 15 months gave way to all the groups: Charolais and Angus – by 1.1- 1.5%, Simmental and Hereford – by 0.4-0.6%. The yield of premium beef exceeds the standards in all genotypes: Kuban – by 9.5%, beef breeds – by 11.2% (Charolais and 19% (Simmental. The balance beetween dry matter and moisture is in the optimal range (0.43: 1-0,73: 1. At 15 months of age, in the number of dry matter, Charolais bulls outnumbered Aberdeen-Angus and Red steppe at 5.1-5.2%, Simmental and Hereford - on 3,0-4,9%. With age, in the meat of calves of beef breeds the level of fat increased, for example, in Hereford and Simmental 0.3-0.5%, Aberdeen Angus and Simmental – 0.7-0.8%. In the middle of a sample of ground beef of carcasses of the calves of Charolais breed at the age of 18 months it contained more protein than in the meat of the calves of Red steppe (1.2%, Hereford (1.1%, Angus (1.4%, Simmental (1,3%. All the meat of the carcasses of the calves of specialized beef breeds was of high quality and diet: one part of the protein had 0.59 parts of fat (Aberdeen Angus and 0.45 parts (Hereford

  7. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Alicia FERNÁNDEZ; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  8. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  9. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Mart?n; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Fern?ndez, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  10. Evaluation of observed parameters of a beef herd.

    OpenAIRE

    CIMBURKOVÁ, Pavla

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed beef breed herd of Aberdeen Angus cattle in the foothills area of Novohradské mountains in 1992 - 2007. The base of herd was consisted of 117 dams and 814 pieces of calves in total. The parameters of beef production of calves and the reproduction of dams were monitored. For the parameters of growth of calves were found significant effects of the year, the month of birth, sex, the order of calving, the method of reproduction and the sire.

  11. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the contr...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  12. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  13. Evaluation of beef eating quality by Irish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S N; Henchion, M; White, A; Brandon, K; Allen, P

    2017-10-01

    A consumer's decision to purchase beef is strongly linked to its sensory properties and consistent eating quality is one of the most important attributes. Consumer taste panels were held according to the Meat Standards Australia guidelines and consumers scored beef according to its palatability attributes and completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Consumers were able to distinguish between beef quality on a scale from unsatisfactory to premium with high accuracy. Premium cuts of beef scored significantly higher on all of the scales compared to poorer quality cuts. Men rated grilled beef higher on juiciness and flavour scales compared to women. Being the main purchaser of beef had no impact on rating scores. Overall the results show that consumers can judge eating quality with high accuracy. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate inherent benefits that are not visible into extrinsic eating quality indicators, to provide the consumer with consistent indications of quality at the point of purchase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...... attribute cut-off values. Also, highly involved consumers are less likely of violating their cut-off values. At the same, the lower the involvement the lower the probability to have cut-off values developed....

  15. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  16. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  17. Factors influencing the purchase and consumers’ willingness to pay for ground bison

    OpenAIRE

    Qasmi, Bashir; Fausti, Scott; Underwood, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A consumer preference study that included willingness to pay and consumer sensory experiments was conducted for ground bison versus ground beef. A total of 82 subjects completed the study. The initial statistical analysis suggest that there is consistent consumer behavior with respect to consumer preference and frequency of consumption within species consumption options, but consistent consumer behavior appears to weaken when across species consumption preferences is compared to across specie...

  18. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  19. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  20. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed......Various meats differing in fat contents were pan-fried in margarine or oil under various conditions to determine how much fat was gained or lost in absolute terms based on an initial 100 g of product. Beefsteaks and pork leg schnitzel having about, respectively, 6% and 2% fat initially gained...... no more than 2 g fat/100 g raw meat, even when pan-fried in a relatively large amount of margarine. Slight differences were observed depending on the frying time, slice thickness, frying fat type (oil or margarine), quantity of frying fat, or "resting" on the pan. Breaded pork schnitzel gained up to 8 g...

  1. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  2. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  3. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland.

  4. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reacti

  5. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swan, S.H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J.W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N.E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined mens' semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. METHODS...

  6. Genome-wide association studies of female reproduction in tropically adapted beef cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawken, R J; Zhang, Y D; Fortes, M R S; Collis, E; Barris, W C; Corbet, N J; Williams, P J; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G; Walkley, J R W; Barendse, W; Johnston, D J; Prayaga, K C; Tier, B; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A

    2012-01-01

    .... To elucidate the genetics underlying reproduction in beef cattle, we performed a genome-wide association study using the bovine SNP50 chip in 2 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds, Brahman and Tropical Composite...

  7. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  8. Does it pay to integrate irrigated forages in a beef cattle breeding operation in north Queensland?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The northern Australian beef industry accounts for approximately half of the national beef herd. It is currently challenged by a range of factors including decline in beef prices, limited live export trade, large farm debt levels, and low return on assets managed. Access to irrigation has been identified as one factor with potential to contribute to growth of the northern Australian beef industry. The development of irrigation for growing pasture and forage crops could extend the ability to s...

  9. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  10. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  11. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales. 59.104... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.104 Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales... time, and once by 2 p.m. central time) the following information on total boxed beef domestic...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.312 - Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State Beef Council. 1260.312 Section 1260.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.312 Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council. Each person responsible for the collection and...

  13. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  14. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  15. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, whole cuts of boneless beef derived from cattle that were born, raised,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  17. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production;…

  18. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  19. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  1. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  2. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  3. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  4. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations.

  5. Competitiveness of the EU Beef Sector – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Smeets Kristková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elements of competitiveness of the EU beef sector are assessed using the value chain approach. Consequently, the impact of the external factors represented by domestic policy and foreign trade policy is discussed, with the aim of deriving recommendations for policy makers. It is shown that investing in collaborative supply chains can improve the disadvantaged position of beef producers, which have the least power in the supply chain. Furthermore, the domains of science and innovation provide several opportunities that could be further explored, namely improving the logistics of the supply chain and developing more tailored quality systems. The main threats stem from potential free trade agreements, climate change and the internal competition between other agricultural crops. Better targeting of the CAP and environmental aspects are suggested to maintain the competitiveness of European beef producers.

  6. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation.

  7. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... of each one of them. The obtained data was consecutively transcribed, coded and analysed by using the software package NVivo 7. The results reveal a dependency between the acceptance of novel beef products and how consumers perceive the characteristics of the innovation itself. Excess manipulation...

  8. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  9. Antibacterial Resistance in the Muscles of Chicken, Pig and Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Raj Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Though antibiotic drugs are known to improve the health and welfare of food animals , there is parallel risk due to the development of resistant microorganisms in the body of target animals. Seven meat samples were procured from wet market in Old Town,Petaling Jaya, Malaysia and assessed for the presence of antibiotic residues. The samples chosen were chicken parts (skin, muscle and liver , pig parts (liver, muscle and intestine and beef muscle. The results indicated that chicken skin had high level of antibioticresidues which positively resisted the presence of gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidisand B. cereus as known by the zone of inhibition.The beef muscle also held residue which resisted S. aureusChosenbacteriaalong with the extracts of chicken skin, pig intestine and beef muscle were observed to be resistant totetracycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate and their combinations when tested at a concentration of 1 percent

  10. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  11. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  12. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal.

  13. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  14. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...

  15. Validation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Escherichia coli O157:H7 Real-Time PCR Assay for Raw Beef and Produce Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Bastin, Ben; Flannery, Jonathan; Agin, James; Goins, David; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Escherichia coli O157:H7 Assay is a new real-time PCR assay which has been validated through the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw beef and produce matrixes. This validation study specifically validated the assay with 375 g 1:4 and 1:5 ratios of raw ground beef and raw beef trim in comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDS-FSIS/MLG) reference method and 25 g bagged spinach and fresh apple juice at a ratio of 1:10, in comparison to the reference method detailed in the International Organization for Standardization 16654:2001 reference method. For raw beef matrixes, the validation of both 1:4 and 1:5 allows user flexibility with the enrichment protocol, although which of these two ratios chosen by the laboratory should be based on specific test requirements. All matrixes were analyzed by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Vantaa, Finland, and Q Laboratories Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the method developer study. Two of the matrixes (raw ground beef at both 1:4 and 1:5 ratios) and bagged spinach were additionally analyzed in the AOAC-RI controlled independent laboratory study, which was conducted by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, Wisconsin. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, no significant difference was demonstrated by the SureTect kit in comparison to the USDA FSIS reference method for raw beef matrixes, or with the ISO reference method for matrixes of bagged spinach and apple juice. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 58 E. coli O157:H7 and 54 non-E. coli O157:H7 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect assay was able to detect all isolates of E. coli O157:H7 analyzed. In addition, all but one of the nontarget isolates were correctly interpreted as negative by the SureTect Software. The single isolate giving a positive result was an E

  16. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  17. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  18. Computational Evaluation of the Traceback Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Sheli; Nir, Bracha; Wintner, Shuly

    2014-01-01

    Several models of language acquisition have emerged in recent years that rely on computational algorithms for simulation and evaluation. Computational models are formal and precise, and can thus provide mathematically well-motivated insights into the process of language acquisition. Such models are amenable to robust computational evaluation,…

  19. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  20. 基于时隙质心流水印的匿名通信追踪技术%Interval Centroid Based Flow Watermarking Technique for Anonymous Communication Traceback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 罗军舟; 杨明; 何高峰

    2011-01-01

    基于扩频的流水印通过扩频技术对水印信号进行编码,将其嵌入特定通信流中以确认网络主体间的通信关系,可以有效地对匿名滥用进行追踪.流水印的实施分为编码、调制、解调、解码等步骤.其中,水印载体的选择尤为重要,关系到水印的健壮性和隐秘性.已有扩频流水印方案选用流速率作为水印载体,由于大部分匿名通信应用,如Web浏览、即时通信、远程登录等均产生交互式流量,其速率是非稳定的,因而以流速率作为水印载体具有很大的局限性.此外,目前已存在多种针对此类水印隐秘性的攻击技术,降低了追踪的效果.在扩频流水印模型的基础上,引入与特定流无关的基于时隙质心的水印载体,提出一种新型流水印技术.理论分析与实验结果表明,这种新型流水印能够适用于对交互式与非交互式流量的追踪,有着更为广泛的适用性.此外,新型流水印能够有效抵抗现有攻击,保证追踪的隐秘性.%The spread spectrum based flow watermarking, which can be used to trace anonymity abuses effectively, applies spread spectrum technique to encode watermark signals and embeds them into suspect flows. This serves to confirm the communication relationship among network users. The implementation of watermarking can be divided into four phases: Signal encoding, flow modulation, flow demodulation and signal decoding. It is important to choose the right watermark carrier that determines the robustness and invisibility of watermarking techniques. Since most applications using anonymous communication, such as Web browsing, instant message and remote login generate interactive traffic with unstable traffic rate, existing spread spectrum based flow watermarking adopting traffic rate as its carrier has big limitations. Furthermore, there exist some attacks against the invisibility of this watermarking technique, destroying the traceback effect. Based on the

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Escherichia coli on Beef Trimmings Obtained from a Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Wang, Hui; Youssef, Mohamed K; Devos, Julia; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top. The samples were enriched for E. coli in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with 20 mg/liter novobiocin. The positive enrichment cultures, as determined by PCR, were plated on E. coli/coliform count plates for recovery of E. coli. Selected E. coli isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 200 enrichment cultures, 43 were positive by PCR for E. coli, and 32 of these cultures yielded E. coli isolates. Two bins did not yield any positive enrichment cultures, and three PCR-positive bins did not yield any E. coli isolates. MLVA of 165 E. coli isolates (30, 62, 56, 5, and 12 from B6 through B10, respectively) revealed nine distinct genotypes. MLVA types 263 and 89 were most prevalent overall and on individual days, accounting for 49.1 and 37.6% of the total isolates, respectively. These two genotypes were also found at multiple locations within a bin. All nine genotypes belonged to the phylogenetic group A0 of E. coli, suggesting an animal origin. The finding that the trimmings carried very few E. coli indicates an overall effective control over contamination of beef with E. coli at this processing plant. The lack of strain diversity of the E. coli on trimmings suggests that most E. coli isolates may have come from common sources, most likely equipment used in the fabrication process.

  2. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-11-10

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  3. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  4. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  5. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  6. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...

  7. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  8. Where's the Beef? Adding Rigor to Student Digital Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Bernajean

    2010-01-01

    Effective communication skills start with content that is worthy of sharing. Students exploring and using various technologies, unfortunately, easily become enamoured by media novelties, such as flying words or spinning images, and produce digital products with no beef. Using digital tools does not make their cutting and pasting of summary…

  9. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  10. Microbial pathogen control in the beef chain: recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncic, Sava; Nychas, George-John; Lee, Michael R F; Koutsoumanis, Kostas; Hébraud, Michel; Desvaux, Mickaël; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Bolton, Declan; Blagojevic, Bojan; Antic, Dragan

    2014-07-01

    Within a recent EU research project ("ProSafeBeef"), research on foodborne pathogens in the beef chain was conducted by using a longitudinally integrated (fork-to-farm) approach. There is not any "single intervention-single chain point" combination by which the pathogens would be reliably and entirely eliminated from the chain resulting in total prevention of pathogens in beef and products thereof at the consumption time. Rather, a range of control interventions have to be applied at multiple points of the chain, so to achieve an acceptable, ultimate risk reduction. Various novel interventions were developed and evaluated during the project, and are briefly summarized in this paper. They include on-farm measures, risk categorisation of cattle presented for slaughter, hygiene-based measures and antimicrobial treatments applied on hides and/or carcasses during cattle slaughter, those applied during beef processing-storage-distribution, use of Time Temperature Integrator-based indicators of safety, and effective sanitation of surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  12. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4. Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  13. THE DESCRIPTION OF GROWTH IN BEEF BULLS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal orul Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 1675. (Key words: ...... animals with high fattening capacity (small frame. Hereford) in ... Rate of protein deposition in beef cattle as a function of mature size and weight and ...

  14. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  15. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  16. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  17. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... second day after heating produced in beef suya 3.3 x 103/g. Shigella ... However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of ... Growth in peptone water was used for .... vendor to re-heat the suya before purchasing.

  18. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breeds managed in a relatively intensive but high stocking rate environment, were .... crossbreeding effects, using the CBE3 package of Wolf (1996) and fitting Kinghorn's Model 7 (Kinghorn 1987; ... predicted value of the genetic group G under consideration m. = ...... preweaning growth rate and type score of beef calves.

  19. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    capital investment and gross margin per animal unit. The need for more ... Figure 1 Relationship between average weighted beef price at urban markets and cost of all ... updated every year using market-related information. Al- though the size ..... be profitable to improve calving rates by additional short-term feeding during ...

  20. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Boettcher, P.; Bozzi, R.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies to include lon

  1. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.

  2. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  3. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif Bilek, A; Turhan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    Flaxseed flour was used as a functional ingredient in the production of beef patties. Beef patties were produced with five different formulations; the addition of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% flaxseed flour. Control samples were formulated with 10% and 20% fat addition. Raw and cooked beef patties were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, pH, color parameters and fatty acid profiles. Beef patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory properties. Fat and ash content of raw patties increased, while moisture and protein content decreased with increased flaxseed flour. The same trend (except fat content) was also observed after cooking. The addition of flaxseed flour did not affect pH values of raw and cooked beef patties. The addition of flaxseed flour improved the cooking loss but, increased the energy value (as kcal/100g). L and a values of raw beef patties containing flaxseed flour were close to controls with 10% fat. α-linolenic acid content of raw and cooked beef patties increased as the level of flaxseed flour increased. The PUFA/SFA ratio increased from 0.04 in the control with 10% fat to 0.62 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 5.76 in the control with 10% fat to 0.36 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The nutritional status of beef patties was enhanced with minimal composition and sensory changes with 3% or 6% flaxseed flour addition.

  4. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBrusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxing-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine and manipulator hands (n= 450 obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin, rfbO157 (O157 lipopolysaccharide, fliCH7 (H7 flagellin, eae (intimin, ehxA (enterohemolysin and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin, were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5% beef samples and 16 (4.4% environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2% and 182 (50.5%, respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%, and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%; stx2 (29.7%; and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%. None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19 and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  6. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  7. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  8. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  9. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  10. 卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产技术%Joint production technology of stewed beef and beef broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓钟; 张蕾

    2015-01-01

    The joint production processing of stewed beef and beef broth was discussed. The pro⁃duction economic benefits were analyzed.%主要阐述卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产工艺,分析了产生的经济效益。

  11. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  12. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  13. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  14. Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Kemp, Robert; Samuelsson, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate different dry-aging regimes and their impacts on quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Thirty loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from 15 beef carcasses at 2 days post-mortem were obtained. Each loin was cut in half yielding 60 sections, which were randomly assigned to six treatments including 4 dry-aging (2 temperatures (1 or 3°C) × 2 air-velocities (0.2 or 0.5 m/s)) and 2 wet-aging regimes for 3 weeks; n=10/treatment. The sensory panel found that dry-aged loins had better flavour and overall liking (Pdry-aged beef compared to the wet-aged beef, which may contribute to the enhanced flavours of the dry-aged beef. Overall, dry-aging loins at 3°C with 0.2m/s resulted in the greatest improvement in beef palatability.

  15. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain......While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  16. Growth of Brazilian beef production: effect of shocks of supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Alcântara da Silva Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the considerable growth of beef production in Brazil and the growth in beef exports as a backdrop, the main objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the excellent performance of this agribusiness sector. Conducting this study required the construction of a theoretical model that was capable of supporting the specification of the adjusted econometric model using vector autoregression with identification by the Bernanke process. The findings show that the main determinant of beef cattle growth and Brazilian beef exports is increased animal stock. Furthermore, productivity has a positive, albeit more modest, effect on beef production and exports. The results show that the increase of the number of cattle reduces costs to the farmer and retail beef prices.

  17. An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the suppl...

  18. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  19. Channels, Margin and Proft Beef Cattle Marketing Agencies from Bone District To Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hastang; Asnawi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the channel marketing types, margin and proft of beef cattle marketing agency from Bone Regency to Makassar. The population of the study covered all beef cattle marketing agencies of Bone Regency to Makassar. Determination of the samples was done by snowball sampling method. Data were collected through direct observation and interviews. Data were then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that there were two forms of beef cattle marketing cha...

  20. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No significant reductions in bacterial growth or cell adhesion were observed in resistant strains. Taken together, our results provide additional support for the use of phage to control E. coli O157:H7 in food products; however, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could limit the efficacy of phage products. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop resistance mitigation strategies to optimize phage-based technologies.

  1. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  2. From the Plains to the plate : can the beef industry regain market share?

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Russell L.; Michelle Beshear

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the beef industry has seen a sharp drop in its share of the retail meat market. While per capita meat consumption has grown, per capita beef consumption has plunged. Explaining the drop in beef's market share has become a favorite pastime of industry analysts. In fact, a family feud of sorts has broken out in the industry between those who think the decline largely reflects increases in beef's price relative to competing meats and those who stress nonprice facto...

  3. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  4. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry.

  5. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  6. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  7. Control of Clostridium perfringens spores by plant-derived antimicrobials during cooling of cooked ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, oregano oil and two green tea extracts with low (green tea leaf powder (GTL); 141 mg of total catechins/g of green tea extract) and high (green tea leaf extract (GTE); 697 mg of total catechin...

  8. Electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay of ricin in ground beef: Biotinylated capture antibodies and matrix effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of castor (Ricinus communis), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because of the past use of ricin for intentional poisoning, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food m...

  9. Detection of ricin contamination in ground beef by electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for ana...

  10. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage.

  11. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  12. Beef Supply Response Under Uncertainty: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi; Coyle, Barry T.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first econometric study of dynamic beef supply response to incorporate risk aversion or, more specifically, price variance. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models are estimated for cow-calf and feedlot operations using aggregate data for Alberta. In all cases, output price variance has a negative impact on output supply and investment. Moreover, the impacts of expected price on supply response are greater in magnitude and significance than in risk-neutral models.

  13. Study on Five Microsatellite Markers in Beef Cattle Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Five microsatellites, IDVGA-2, IDVGA-27, IDVGA-46, IDVGA-55 and TGLA-44,were analyzed for polymorphisms in beef cattle. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 12/0. 82, 5/0. 58, 8/0. 70, 6/0. 57 and 11/0. 86 respectively. Each microstellite was typed on a half-sib family in order to verify the segregation of the alleles.

  14. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  15. A survey of beef muscle color and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J K; Wulf, D M; Schwotzer, T R

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to define a beef carcass population in terms of muscle color, ultimate pH, and electrical impedance; to determine the relationships among color, pH, and impedance and with other carcasses characteristics; and to determine the effect of packing plant, breed type, and sex class on these variables. One thousand beef carcasses were selected at three packing plants to match the breed type, sex class, marbling score, dark-cutting discount, overall maturity, carcass weight, and yield grade distributions reported for the U.S. beef carcass population by the 1995 National Beef Quality Audit. Data collected on these carcasses included USDA quality and yield grade data and measurements of muscle color (L*, a*, b*), muscle pH, and electrical impedance of the longissimus muscle. About one-half (53.1%) of the carcasses fell within a muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.49, and 81.3% of the carcasses fell within a longissimus muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.59. A longissimus muscle pH of 5.87 was the approximate cut-off between normal and dark-cutting carcasses. Frequency distributions indicated that L* values were normally distributed, whereas a* and b* values were abnormally distributed (skewed because of a longer tail for lower values, a tail corresponding with dark-cutting carcasses). Electrical impedance was highly variable among carcasses but was not highly related to any other variable measured. Color measurements (L*, a*, b*) were correlated (P Brahman-type (pH = 5.46, L* = 39.75, a* = 25.17, and b* = 11.05) carcasses (P < 0.05).

  16. Preliminary results on mineral content of some beef muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cignetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the growing interest of consumers for nutritional aspect of food, little data are available on meat mineral content. Among the factors influencing minerals, muscle appears interesting: Doornenbal and Murray (1981 found that the concentrations of several minerals were influenced by muscle and sometimes by age, whereas sex and breed differences were less important. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral content in beef muscles.

  17. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2009-01-01

    the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality....

  18. Beef assessments using functional magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Davis, T H; Paniukov, D; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M; Miller, M F

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to unveil how some foods and basic rewards are processed in the human brain. This study evaluated how resting state functional connectivity in regions of the human brain changed after differing qualities of beef steaks were consumed. Functional images of participants (n=8) were collected after eating high or low quality beef steaks on separate days, after consumption a sensory ballot was administered to evaluate consumers' perceptions of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Imaging data showed that high quality steak samples resulted in greater functional connectivity to the striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex at various stages after consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, high quality steaks elicited higher sensory ballot scores for each palatability trait (P≤0.01). Together, these results suggest that resting state fMRI may be a useful tool for evaluating the neural process that follows positive sensory experiences such as the enjoyment of high quality beef steaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Circulating placental lactogen levels in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, F F; Ulberg, L C; Fellows, R E

    1976-11-01

    Levels of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) have been measured in the serum of dairy and beef cattle and in the milk and amniotic fluid of pregnant animals with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. In both dairy and beef cows, serum bPL levels remain low (less than 50 ng/ml) during the first two trimesters and then rise rapidly between 160 and 200 days of gestation to a plateau. The bPL levels do not decline prior to parturition. During the last trimester, serum levels in dairy cows, 1103+/-342 ng/ml, are significantly higher than those in beef cattle, 650+/-37 ng/ml (P less than 0.01); furthermore, dairy cows having a high milk production also tend to have high bPL levels. Serum levels are almost twice as high in twin pregnancies and are not correlated with fetal sex or birth weight. bPL levels in milk and amniotic fluid from dairy cattle during the last trimester are approximately 86% and 25% of the serum values, respectively, suggesting that bPL enters these fluids by passive diffusion.

  20. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rós, Patrícia C M Da; Castro, Heizir F de; Carvalho, Ana K F; Soares, Cleide M F; Moraes, Flavio F de; Zanin, Gisella M

    2012-04-01

    Optimal conditions for the microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel have been developed by a full 2² factorial design leading to a set of seven runs with different combinations of molar ratio and temperature. The main goal was to reduce the reaction time preliminarily established by a process of conventional heating. Reactions yielding biodiesel, in which beef tallow and ethanol used as raw materials were catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on silica-PVA and microwave irradiations within the range of 8-15 W were performed to reach the reaction temperature. Under optimized conditions (1:6 molar ratio of beef tallow to ethanol molar ratio at 50°C) almost total conversion of the fatty acid presented in the original beef tallow was converted into ethyl esters in a reaction that required 8 h, i.e., a productivity of about 92 mg ethyl esters g⁻¹ h⁻¹. This represents an increase of sixfold for the process carried out under conventional heating. In general, the process promises low energy demand and higher biodiesel productivity. The microwave assistance speeds up the enzyme catalyzed reactions, decreases the destructive effects on the enzyme of the operational conditions such as, higher temperature, stability, and specificity to its substrate, and allows the entire reaction medium to be heated uniformly.

  1. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  2. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  3. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  4. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  5. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  6. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  7. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  8. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  9. 76 FR 30987 - Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef... the EU's failure to comply with the recommendations and rulings of the DSB in the EC-Beef Hormones...) in the EC-Beef Hormones dispute. The MOU provides for the EU to make phased increases in...

  10. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  11. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  12. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  13. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  14. Epistatic interactions associated with fatty acid concentrations of beef from angus sired beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, L M; Ghaffar, M A Abdel; Koltes, J E; Fritz-Waters, E R; Mayes, M S; Sewell, A D; Weeks, N T; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Ma, L; Reecy, J M

    2016-11-08

    Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content. Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with EpiSNPmpi. False discovery rate (FDR) was controlled at 5 % and was limited to well-represented genotypic combinations. Epistatic interactions were detected for 37 triacylglyceride (TAG), 36 phospholipid (PL) fatty acid traits, and three weight traits. A total of 6,181, 7,168, and 0 significant epistatic interactions (FDR < 0.05, 50-animals per genotype combination) were associated with Triacylglyceride fatty acids, Phospholipid fatty acids, and weight traits respectively and most were additive-by-additive interactions. A large number of interactions occurred in potential regions of regulatory control along the chromosomes where genes related to fatty acid metabolism reside. Many fatty acids were associated with epistatic interactions. Despite a large number of significant interactions, there are a limited number of genomic locations that harbored these interactions. While larger population sizes are needed to accurately validate and quantify these epistatic interactions, the current findings point towards additional genetic variance that can be accounted for within these fatty acid traits.

  15. 75 FR 81632 - Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic Certification System (eCERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic... certification requirement for imports of beef from Australia subject to quantitative restraints will be... made at the request of Australia's Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries and with the...

  16. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  17. Effects of organic acid-surfactant mixtures on levels of bacteria and beef quality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...

  18. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  19. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  20. 19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...

  1. Beef Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Student Reference. AGDEX 420/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on beef production. Together, the student reference and instructor's guide form part of the Animal Science I core curriculum. This unit on beef production is divided into five lessons in these areas: selection of breeding stock, breeding…

  2. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  3. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10(-5) for home consumption and 1.74 × 10(-5) for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  5. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  6. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  7. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of beef in the United States is being conducted to provide benchmarks and identify opportunities for improvement of the beef value chain. Region-specific data are being collected to accurately characterize cattle production practices. This study reports pr...

  8. Genomic prediction of continuous and binary fertility traits of females in a composite beef cattle breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproduction efficiency is a major factor in the profitability of the beef cattle industry. Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool that may improve the predictive accuracy and genetic gain of fertility traits. There is a wide range of traits used to measure fertility in dairy and beef cattle inc...

  9. The effect of follicular wave on fertility characteristics in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate fertility of beef cattle in the US is a major economic concern. The use of luminogenic substrates to ascertain steroid metabolism in beef females bred to the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave versus the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave in this study further provi...

  10. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate.

  11. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however, mig

  12. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were deri

  13. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  14. Fatty acids in beef from grain- and grass-fed cattle: the unique South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Keywords: grain fed, grass fed, cattle, fatty acids, red meat. Fatty acids in beef ... of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets.5. When dietary ..... fat-soluble vitamins. They also play ..... of South African dairy and beef cattle. SAJAS. 2013 ...

  15. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  16. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.;

    2013-01-01

    . This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...

  17. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  18. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  19. Consumers' willingness to pay for beef direct sales. A regional comparison across the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana I; Resano, Helena; Zeballos, Gabriela; Sans, Pierre; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Campo, M Mar; Khliji, Saoussan; Guerrero, Ana; Oliver, M Angels; Sañudo, Carlos; Santolaria, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for direct market of beef is investigated in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees. Given the novelty of this distribution system, especially in Spain, a contingent valuation approach is undertaken, and a double-bounded model is estimated. Different patterns of awareness, use and WTP are found across regions. Likewise, the profile of current and potential users of direct sale chains is investigated. Experience in the different stages involved from choice to final consumption of beef, intensity of varied beef consumption, familiarity with direct market of food in general, and beef in particular, are some of the relevant factors to explain WTP and the probability of getting engaged into a direct distribution system of beef.

  20. Antioxidative/Antimicrobial effects of galangal and alpha-tocopherol in minced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, P B; Gan, S P

    2000-03-01

    The antioxidant and microbial stabilities of galangal (Alpinia galanga) extract in raw minced beef were examined at 4 +/- 1 degree C. Raw minced beef containing galangal extracts (0 to 0.10%, wt/wt) were prepared. Lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage was assessed by monitoring malonaldehyde formation, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. In minced beef, added galangal extract improved oxidative stability. Galangal extract at higher concentrations of 0.05% and 0.10% (wt/wt) were also found to extend the shelf-life of minced beef. Addition of alpha-tocopherol (0.02%, wt/wt) to galangal extract (0.05%, wt/wt) were observed to increase the oxidative but not the microbial stability of minced beef during the storage of 7 days. Galangal extract may prove useful in inhibiting lipid oxidation and increasing microbial stability of minced meat.

  1. [Variation in amount of radioactive cesium before and after cooking dry shiitake and beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in food due to cooking in order to estimate the internal radiation exposure due to from radioactive materials in food. Our results revealed that soaking dry shiitake in water decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 50%, compared with that present in uncooked shiitake. Radioactive cesium in beef was decreased by about 10%, 12%, 60-65% and 80% by grilling, frying, boiling and stewing, respectively, compared to uncooked beef. For cooked beef, the decrease in the ratio of radioactive cesium was significantly different among the types of cooking. The decrease ratio of radioactive cesium in boiled and stewed beef was 8 times higher than that in grilled and fried beef.

  2. Effects of aging on the fundamental color chemistry of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, A R; Wills, K M; Harsh, B N; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of aging on myoglobin chemistry of dark-cutting beef. Ten USDA Choice (mean pH = 5.6; normal pH beef) and 10 no-roll dark cutter (mean pH = 6.4) strip loins were obtained from a commercial packing plant within 3 d of harvest. Loins were cut into 4 sections, vacuum packaged, randomly assigned to 0-, 21-, 42-, and 62-d aging at 2°C in the dark. Following aging, loin sections were cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks and were used to determine bloom development, oxygen consumption (OC), metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), and lipid oxidation. Surface color readings were measured using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer. A significant muscle type × aging time interaction resulted for OC ( cutting beef. On d 0, dark-cutting beef had a greater OC ( cutting sections were aged for 62 d, both 0 and 60 min bloom development L* values were greater ( cutting sections aged for 21 or 42 d. At all aging periods, normal pH beef had greater OxyMb content and lower DeoxyMb ( cutting beef. An aging period × muscle type interaction was significant for % overall reflectance ( = 0.0017) and absorbance ( = 0.0038). Dark cutting and normal pH beef loin sections aged for 62 d had greater reflectance ( cutting beef had greater ( cutting and normal pH beef. Dark cutting steaks had lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values ( < 0.0001) than normal pH steaks. The results indicate that characterizing the myoglobin chemistry during aging will help to design strategies to improve appearance of high pH beef.

  3. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  4. Performance of beef cattle bulls in feed lots and fed on diets containing enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current paper evaluates the performance of confined beef cattle supplemented with amylolytic enzyme complex produced by fungus Aspergillus awamori and a commercial product containing multienzyme complex, yeast and MOS. Treatments comprised control (basal diet composed of 16% Mombasa grass silage, 66% ground corn, 3% vitamin nuclear mineral and 15% cottonseed meal, amylase treatment (control diet with the addition of 48.7 saccharifying units kg-1 diet and compound treatment (control diet with the addition of enzymatic complex composed of 83.2 saccharifying units, 8.8 fibrolytic units, 0.05 g of mannan oligosaccharides and 0.2 g of inactivated yeast Kg-1 of the dry matter diet. The addition of products did not significantly increase daily weight gain, intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of cattle. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD in the diets. The percentage of residual fecal starch was not influenced by exogenous amylolytic enzymes of amylase and compound treatments. The tested products were not able to improve animal performance.

  5. The Development of Beef Pie Riching in Unsaturated Fatty Acids%牛肉饼中不同油脂复配比例的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩田; 马俪珍; 柴丽园

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to search for the best combination of unsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil and butter) to replace part of the butter to the steak. [ Method] Orthogonal test design of L9(34) was performed to optimize the addition a-mounts of sunflower oil, olive oil and butter to determine the content on the texture of beef patties and optimal ratio. Physical mouth feel, slice ability, flavor, color, and the texture of beef pie and fatty acid were determined. Sunflower oil, olive oil, butter add volume set to three levels:3% , 4% , 5% . Sensory score systems were used for the evaluation of the beef pie. [ Result] The results showed that the optimal combination was addition amounts of 5% sunflower oil, 4% olive oil and 3% butter. [Conclusion]The study gain optimum formula by orthogonal test. The ratio can be added to lean ground beef in processed into high quality beef patties.%[目的]将富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物油脂(葵花油、橄榄油和牛油)替代部分牛油添加到牛肉饼中,探寻最佳的比例组合.[方法]采用正交试验设计确定牛肉饼中葵花油、橄榄油和牛油的添加量对牛肉饼质构的影响以及最优比例的优化.应用感官评分法对牛肉饼的口感、组织状态、滋气味、色泽进行评分,并对牛肉饼的质构进行测定.[结果]感官评定与质构测定结果较一致,最佳组合均为5%葵花油、4%橄榄油和3%牛油.[结论]通过正交试验得出其最佳工艺配方,可按照此比例添加到瘦牛肉馅中加工成品质优良的牛肉饼.

  6. Vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine muscle and the oxidative stability of beef from cattle receiving grass or concentrate-based rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Moloney, A P; Priolo, A; Röhrle, F T; Vasta, V; Biondi, L; López-Andrés, P; Grasso, S; Monahan, F J

    2011-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant components and the oxidative stability of beef from cattle fed exclusively grazed pasture (PAS) or a barley-based concentrate offered indoors (CONC) for 11 mo, or fed grass silage indoors for a 5-mo winter period, followed for the remaining 6-mo summer period by grazed pasture (SiP) or by grazed pasture plus concentrate at 50% of the dietary DM (SiPC). Muscle prooxidant and antioxidant components were determined by measuring fatty acids and α-tocopherol concentration of LM, respectively. Lipid oxidation and color stability were monitored in ground LM, packaged in a high-oxygen modified atmosphere, over 11 d of refrigerated storage. Vitamin E concentration decreased (P < 0.0005) with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet (2.59, 2.45, 1.76, and 1.15 μg/g for PAS, SiP, SiPC, and CONC, respectively). A greater proportion of PUFA was found in LM from cattle in the PAS, SiP, and SiPC groups compared with animals in the CONC group (9.62, 11.04, 8.96, and 6.94%, respectively; P < 0.0005). A greater concentration of highly peroxidizable PUFA was found in LM from heifers in the PAS, SiP, and SiPC groups compared with those in the CONC group (0.84, 0.85, 0.87, and 0.65 mg/g of muscle, respectively; P = 0.02). Dietary treatment affected lipid oxidation (P < 0.0005), with greater 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values in beef from heifers in the SiPC group than in beef from those in the PAS, SiP, and CONC groups. Dietary treatment affected myoglobin oxidation (P = 0.002) during storage, with greater metmyoglobin accumulation in beef from animals receiving concentrate (CONC and SiPC treatments) than in beef from cattle in the PAS and SiP groups. Consequently, feeding concentrate impaired meat color stability over the storage duration, with greater H* (hue angle) values (P < 0.0005) in meat from heifers in the SiPC and CONC groups compared with meat from those in the

  7. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  8. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-03-22

    The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  9. Lean color characteristics of bullock and steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Purser, D E; Smith, G C; Griffin, C L; Stiffler, D M; Savell, J W

    1992-02-01

    Twelve young bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Top rounds, bottom rounds, and rib eyes were vacuum-packaged and stored at 0 degrees C until 21 d postmortem. After subprimal storage, steaks were removed from each cut and displayed under simulated retail conditions for 3 d. Consumer panelists (n = 110) showed little difference in buying preference for top round, bottom round, and rib eye steaks from steers vs bullocks. Also, consumer panelists could not detect color differences between steaks from steers and bullocks. Experienced panelists (n = 6) detected brighter (P less than .05) muscle color for top round and rib eye steaks from steers but detected no difference in muscle color of bottom round steaks from bullocks and steers. Generally, overall desirability scores favored steaks from steer carcasses. This was particularly true of rib eye steaks. Sex-class of carcass did not affect aerobic plate counts of top round, bottom round, or rib eye steaks either before or after 3 d of retail display. Muscle pH was lower for top round and rib eye steaks from steer carcasses; however, the magnitude of this difference was not large enough to affect retail display stability. Muscle pH of bottom round steaks was not affected by sex-class. Although experienced panelists could detect differences in visual appearance of beef retail cuts from steers and bullocks, consumer panelists did not show a clear purchase preference for steer vs bullock beef. These data suggest that beef retail cuts from bullocks are acceptable in visual appearance.

  10. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  11. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  13. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  14. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

  16. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  17. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  18. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  19. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  20. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS....

  1. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  2. Sensory profile of beef burger with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barbosa Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the sensory profile of three beef burger samples, namely, CON (control, F25 (25% sodium reduction and F50 (50% sodium reduction, based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The samples´ microbial, physical and chemical composition was evaluated. Twelve panelists were selected and trained using as criteria the panelists´ discrimination power, reproducibility and consensus. Eleven terms were generated by the method of network descriptors. The intensity of each descriptor in each sample was evaluated by unstructured scale of 9 cm. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan´s mean test and principal component analysis. The sensory profile shows that low sodium beef burgers had lower fat and salty flavor when compared to untreated control and greater flavor and spice aroma. The above proves that reducing sodium intake causes increased perception burger tasters when compared to the presence of spices in the product. Treatment with 50% sodium reduction obtained the best results for texture softness and appearance. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in the chemical composition of ash, protein and fat in all burgers. In the case of general sensory attributes, treatments with sodium reduction obtained higher intensities of the attributes evaluated, except for meat and salt flavors.

  3. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp.

  4. Molecular traceability of beef from synthetic Mexican bovine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, R; Arana, A; Alfonso, L; González-Córdova, A F; Torrescano, G; Guerrero Legarreta, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2011-10-06

    Traceability ensures a link between carcass, quarters or cuts of beef and the individual animal or the group of animals from which they are derived. Meat traceability is an essential tool for successful identification and recall of contaminated products from the market during a food crisis. Meat traceability is also extremely important for protection and value enhancement of good-quality brands. Molecular meat traceability would allow verification of conventional methods used for beef tracing in synthetic Mexican bovine breeds. We evaluated a set of 11 microsatellites for their ability to identify animals belonging to these synthetic breeds, Brangus and Charolais/Brahman (78 animals). Seven microsatellite markers allowed sample discrimination with a match probability, defined as the probability of finding two individuals sharing by chance the same genotypic profile, of 10(-8). The practical application of the marker set was evaluated by testing eight samples from carcasses and pieces of meat at the slaughterhouse and at the point of sale. The DNA profiles of the two samples obtained at these two different points in the production-commercialization chain always proved that they came from the same animal.

  5. Thymus atrophy and regeneration following dexamethasone administration to beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzo, F T; Spada, F; Benevelli, R; Nebbia, C; Giorgi, P; Brina, N; Bollo, E; Biolatti, B

    2010-08-28

    Thymus atrophy and regeneration were studied in 13- to 22-month-old beef calves treated with dexamethasone (DMT), using anabolic dosages and implementing different withdrawal times. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, group A (n=6) received 0.7 mg/day DMT orally for 40 days, group B (n=6) received 1.4 mg/day orally for 40 days and group C (n=6) was the control. In trial 2, group D (n=6) received 0.7 mg/day DMT orally for 40 days, group E (n=6) received 1.4 mg/day orally for 40 days and group K (n=6) was the control. DMT withdrawal times before slaughter were six days (groups A and B) and 26 days (groups D and E). At slaughter, thymus atrophy was severe and progressive in animals from groups A and B. In contrast, thymus weight and volume of the animals from groups D and E were almost normal. Slight atrophy was also detected in the calves in these groups. Histological changes and Ki67 immunostaining revealed a large number of positive lymphoid cells, mostly in the cortical area, associated with higher expression of apoptosis in the medulla compared with controls. This demonstrated that the thymus of beef cattle is still able to regenerate following DMT administration.

  6. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  7. Classification of organic beef freshness using VNIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Stuart O J; Kirchner, Sascha M; Porley, Victoria; Retz, Stefanie; von Gersdorff, Gardis; Hensel, Oliver; Weygandt, Martin; Sturm, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Consumer trust in the food industry is heavily reliant upon accurate labelling of meat products. As such, methods, which can verify whether meat is correctly labelled are of great value to producers, retailers, and consumers. This paper illustrates two approaches to classify between, fresh and frozen thawed, and in a novel manner matured and matured frozen-thawed, as well as fresh and matured beef using the 500-1010nm waveband, captured using hyperspectral imaging, and CIELAB measurements. The results show successful classification based upon CIELAB between 1) fresh and frozen-thawed (CCR=0.93), and 2) fresh and matured (CCR=0.92). With successful classification between matured and matured frozen-thawed beef using the entire spectral range (CCR=1.00). The performance of reduced spectral models is also investigated. Overall it was found that CIELAB co-ordinates can be used for successful classification for all comparisons except between matured and matured frozen-thawed. Biochemical and physical changes of the meat are thoroughly discussed for each condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  9. Application of an Antimicrobial Protein Film in Beef Patties Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to apply a protein film containing a natural antimicrobial compound to meat packaging and determine quality change of meat during storage. Proteins obtained from the by-products of food processing have been utilized as biodegradable film sources. Porcine meat and bone meal (MBM) is obtained during meat processing, and proteins from the MBM can be extracted and used as a film base material. Previously, an antimicrobial MBM film containing coriander oil (CO) was prepared and its physical properties and antimicrobial activity were characterized. In this study, the antimicrobial MBM-CO film was applied to beef patties packaging, and the microbial population and the degree of lipid oxidation were determined during storage at 4℃ for 15 d. The population of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 in the samples wrapped with the MBM-CO film was 6.78 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g after 15 d of storage, whereas the control had 8.05 Log CFU/g, thus reducing the microbial population by 1.29 Log CFU/g. In addition, retardation of lipid oxidation in the patties was observed during storage for the samples packaged by the MBM-CO film, compared with the control samples. These results suggest that the MBM-CO film can be useful for enhancing the quality of beef patties during storage.

  10. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yields of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneklaus, A N; Hodgen, J M; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

    2011-09-01

    Retail cutting tests were conducted on subprimals from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to determine if the improved carcass composition and red meat yield resulting from ZH feeding would translate into increased retail yields of ready-to-cook products. As part of a 3-phase study, selection of carcasses from Holstein steers was done once (fall 2008), followed by the collection of carcasses from beef-type steers on 2 separate occasions (beef study I: summer 2009; beef study II: spring 2010). Each of the 3 groups of steers was assigned previously to 1 of 2 treatments, treated (fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for 20 d) or control (not fed ZH). All steers were slaughtered and carcasses were fabricated in commercial beef-processing establishments. Only those carcasses grading USDA Choice or higher were used. Five subprimals were used for both the calf-fed Holstein study (n = 546 subprimals) and beef study I (n = 576 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef chuck, shoulder clod; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; and beef round, outside round (flat). Seven subprimals were used in beef study II (n = 138 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; beef round, eye of round; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless; and beef loin, tenderloin. A simulated retail market environment was created, and 3 retail meat merchandisers prepared retail cuts from each subprimal so salable yields and processing times could be obtained. Differences in salable yields were found for the calf-fed Holstein steer chuck rolls (96.54% for ZH vs. 95.71% for control; P = 0.0045) and calf-fed Holstein steer top rounds (91.30% for ZH vs. 90.18% for control; P = 0.0469). However, other than heavier subprimals and an increased number of retail cuts obtained, total salable yields measured on a percentage basis and processing times were mostly unaffected by ZH. Cutability advantages of

  11. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on beef farms and water sources within the vicinity of the farms on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia and species of Cryptosporidium on beef farms in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasites. Twenty beef farms were selected based on the presence of surface waterGiardia was detected in 42% (95% CI: 38-46%) of fecal samples from 100% farms while Cryptosporidium was detected in 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of fecal samples from 80% of farms. The most predominant Giardia assemblage isolated was the livestock specific assemblage E (89%). The zoonotic assemblages A and B were found in 4 and 7% of the Giardia isolates that were genotyped, respectively. The Giardia assemblages were detected equally between the cows and calves examined. Overall, the most common Cryptosporidium species detected in this study was Cryptosporidium andersoni (49%), predominantly found in cattle > 6 mo of age, while most Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium pestis (previously Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype') isolates were detected in calves ≤ 6 mo of age. All Cryptosporidium ryanae isolates (four) were found in calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 14 and 93% of surface water samples of 14 farms, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in three (15%) ground water samples of 20 farms. One Cryptosporidium-positive water sample, which was the only surface water sample amenable to genotyping, contained C. parvum. The farm-level risk factors investigated in this study, age of animals and location of the farm, were not associated with the risk of infection in cattle with either Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia duodenalis. We conclude that beef cattle are a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis that could contaminate source water. There is the possibility of further transmission to humans on PEI if the source water is not

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF IN VARIOUS MEAT SHOPS AT SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess microbiological properties of beef sold in various meatshops in Semarang. There are five Indonesian goverment standard requirements to maintain the qualityof beef sold in Indonesia markets, as follows: (1 total plate count (TPC for a maximum of 106 CFU/g,(2 total coliform bacteria for a maximum of 102 CFU/g, (3 total Escherichia coli up to 10 CFU/g, (4total Staphylococcus aureus for a maximum of 102 CFU/g and (5 negative for Salmonella per 25 gsamples (SNI 3932, 2008. Beef samples were randomly taken from several traditional markets, meatshops and supermarkets. The result showed that all samples did not contain Salmonella but still couldnot meet one or some of the Indonesian government standard regulation. In conclusion, beef samplesgathered from some of the markets, generaly could not meet one or some of the five strictlyrequirements of the bacteriological properties.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF IN VARIOUS MEAT SHOPS AT SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Legowo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess microbiological properties of beef sold in various meat shops in Semarang. There are five Indonesian goverment standard requirements to maintain the quality of beef sold in Indonesia markets, as follows: (1 total plate count (TPC for a maximum of 106 CFU/g, (2 total coliform bacteria for a maximum of 102 CFU/g, (3 total Escherichia coli up to 10 CFU/g, (4 total Staphylococcus aureus for a maximum of 102 CFU/g and (5 negative for Salmonella per 25 g samples (SNI 3932, 2008. Beef samples were randomly taken from several traditional markets, meat shops and supermarkets. The result showed that all samples did not contain Salmonella but still could not meet one or some of the Indonesian government standard regulation. In conclusion, beef samples gathered from some of the markets, generaly could not meet one or some of the five strictly requirements of the bacteriological properties.

  14. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  15. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in eight U.S. cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Tatum, J. D; Belk, K. E; Smith, G. C

    1999-01-01

    .... An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  16. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in tight U.S. cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M H George; J D Tatum; K E Belk; G C Smith

    1999-01-01

      An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  17. A novel method for discrimination of beef and horsemeat using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Temiz, Havva Tümay; Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Velioğlu, Hasan Murat; Yadegari, Reza Jafarzadeh; Rishkan, Mojtaba Mahmoudi

    2014-04-01

    A new approach, based on the usage of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics, was developed for the rapid determination of beef adulteration with horsemeat. The data mining process of collected Raman spectra was performed with principal component analysis (PCA). Pure fat samples, extracted from forty-nine meat beef and horsemeat samples, were analysed using the Raman spectroscopy. All meat samples were classified successfully according to their origins. The presence of different concentrations (25%, 50%, 75%, w/w) of horsemeat in beef was also differentiated using the developed model system. This study offers a rapid assay for determination of meat adulteration by discriminating beef and horsemeat with high accuracy, a short analysis time (30s) and no requirement for time-consuming sample preparation procedures.

  18. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties with added glutinous rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hae Chang; Cho, Hyunnho; Hong, Jae Joon; Ryu, Rae Kyeong; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if glutinous rice flour (GRF) could be a functional food additive to potentially replace corn starch (CS), soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to improve the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties. GRF had a lower cook loss among the treatment groups due to an increase in fat and moisture retentions (p<0.05). GRF lowered texture profile values for hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness (p<0.05) of the patties, which are generally beneficial for this product. The beef patties with GRF were juicier and more tender than the control and other treatments (p<0.05). Hedonic scores for juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were the highest for the beef patties with 1 and 3% GRFs, suggesting that GRF may be an effective functional ingredient to improve the textural quality of seasoned beef patties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households.

  20. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  1. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  2. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  3. Effect of Treatment with Natural Antioxidant on the Chilled Beef Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Ivanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superficial treatment of beef trimm ings and beef knuckles with bone with taxifolin solution (1 g/L on the lipid oxidation development during chilled storage was studied. Beef samples were airpacked or packaged in modified atmosphere consisting of 80%O2/20%CO2. It was found that the combined application of taxifolin treatment and MAP inhibited effectively formation of secondary derivates of lipid oxidation. The lipid hydroperoxides formation of these samples was reduced by 50-60% and accumulation of TBARS was significantly retarded in com parison with untreated w ith taxifolin, air-packed control samples. The MAP was found as the crucial factor for minimization of the FAME composition changes of chilled beef.

  4. Effect of heat stress on six beef breeds in the Zastron district: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA Foster

    assumptions and philosophies without concrete evidence (Mentz, 2002). A contributing ... (Finch, 1986). The effects of heat on body temperature are determined not only by climate but also by the .... in selecting tropical beef cattle. However ...

  5. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  7. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  8. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in beef feedlot of Borena cattle by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Immunology and Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary. Medicine ... prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in beef animals ... and the sample size was increased to 501 cattle considering the dropout and.

  9. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer ... model was expanded to include basic concepts of quantitative genetics. The traits ... to compare different selection strategies and evaluate different breeding plans.

  10. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  11. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  12. Connectedness among herds of beef cattle bred under natural service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedrafita Jesús

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A procedure to measure connectedness among herds was applied to a beef cattle population bred by natural service. It consists of two steps: (a computing coefficients of determination (CDs of comparisons among herds; and (b building sets of connected herds. Methods The CDs of comparisons among herds were calculated using a sampling-based method that estimates empirical variances of true and predicted breeding values from a simulated n-sample. Once the CD matrix was estimated, a clustering method that can handle a large number of comparisons was applied to build compact clusters of connected herds of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle. Since in this breed, natural service is predominant and there are almost no links with reference sires, to estimate CDs, an animal model was used taking into consideration all pedigree information and, especially, the connections with dams. A sensitivity analysis was performed to contrast single-trait sire and animal model evaluations with different heritabilities, multiple-trait animal model evaluations with different degrees of genetic correlations and models with maternal effects. Results Using a sire model, the percentage of connected herds was very low even for highly heritable traits whereas with an animal model, most of the herds of the breed were well connected and high CD values were obtained among them, especially for highly heritable traits (the mean of average CD per herd was 0.535 for a simulated heritability of 0.40. For the lowly heritable traits, the average CD increased from 0.310 in the single-trait evaluation to 0.319 and 0.354 in the multi-trait evaluation with moderate and high genetic correlations, respectively. In models with maternal effects, the average CD per herd for the direct effects was similar to that from single-trait evaluations. For the maternal effects, the average CD per herd increased if the maternal effects had a high genetic correlation with the direct

  13. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, G; Hoving-Bolink, A H; Kluitman, I; Houben, J H; Klont, R E

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E upon colour, waterholding capacity, bacterial growth and lipid oxidation of beef longissimus thoracis (LT) and psoas major (PM) muscle were examined during aerobic display of fresh muscle and after aging in vacuum for 26 days. Forty crossbred beef bulls received a whole crop corn silage, supplemented with concentrate. Twenty bulls were each supplemented with 2025 mg vit E per day (added to the concentrate) for 136 day prior to slaughter and compared with non-supplemented control animals (n=20). In fresh LT muscle drip loss did not differ between treatment groups, while in PM muscle drip loss was significantly higher for the supplemented group. The treatment did not affect bacterial growth in fresh and aged muscles. Lipid oxidation during 12 day storage of fresh muscle was significantly lower for the supplemented group, as indicated by the lower TBA-values. No effect of the vitamin E treatment was observed on a (∗)-values of both fresh and aged LT muscle during display for 8 and 5 days, respectively. In PM muscle, supplemented beef had lower a (∗)-values in fresh (at day 1) and aged (at days 1 and 2) muscle, due to a lower oxygenation. The reason for this lower oxygenation is unclear. After aging, colour stability was decreased and more variable than in fresh muscle. Similar results were obtained when the difference in reflection values at 630 and 580 nm (R630-580), instead of the a (∗) value, was used as a parameter for colour stability. The absence of an effect of vit. E on the rate of discoloration, might possibly be explained from the observation that α-tocopherol levels in control muscle were relatively high (LT: 2.1 and PM: 3.2 μg/g muscle), compared with data from literature. Analysis of the feed for vit. E suggests that this was due to a relatively high natural vit. E uptake from the feed, which was calculated to be approx. 330 mg vit. E per animal per day for the control group.

  14. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  15. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  16. Changes in mean scrotal circumference in performance tested Swedish beef bulls over time

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Pernilla; Lundeheim Nils; Söderquist Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing interest in beef cattle breeding in Sweden. The majority of the females are bred naturally, which is why it is important to choose healthy fertile bulls to obtain good reproduction and profitability. The breeding soundness evaluation includes measurement of scrotal circumference (SC). Our aim was to analyze if the SC of performance tested beef bulls has changed over the years. In total, 1332 bulls (Angus, Charolais, Hereford and Simmental) from 13 batche...

  17. Consumer Awareness of and Preferences for Bio-active Lipid Enhanced Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Sean B.; Kingston-Riechers, JoAnn; Peng, Yanning; McCann-Hiltz, Diane; Ding, Yulian; Beaunom, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates consumer attitudes toward functional foods in the context of CLA-enhanced beef products. The objectives of this study were to identify the following issues: 1) consumer awareness and attitudes towards nutrition, functional foods, and other emerging factors; 2) consumers´ major health concerns; 3) consumers´ beef consumption patterns; 4) the importance of health information and food labeling in affecting consumer purchasing decisions; 5) consumer attitudes, acceptance, ...

  18. Injection-site lesion prevalence and potential risk factors in UK beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Cresswell, E.; Remnant, J. G.; Butterworth, A.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Wapenaar, Wendela

    2016-01-01

    Injectable veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) are widely used in cattle in the UK, and in particular vaccines are often used on large numbers of animals in the herd. The formation of injection-site lesions (ISLs) is a risk when using injectable products and has potential consequences for meat quality, animal welfare and beef industry income. This study used carcase observation in four abattoirs in England to determine ISL prevalence in beef cattle. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was u...

  19. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  20. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  1. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  2. DERIVED DEMAND ELASTICITIES: MARKETING MARGIN METHODS VERSUS AN INVERSE DEMAND MODEL FOR CHOICE BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Three methods of calculating the derived elasticity of demand for Choice slaughter beef are used: (a) a traditional marketing margin approach, (b) a modified marketing margin approach, and (c) an econometric, inverse demand model approach. The first method is more restrictive than the second but both tend to overestimate beef price flexibility and revenue changes. The econometric model, though an incomplete demand system, yields demand elasticities that are more consistent with marketing flex...

  3. EFFECT OF CAPTIVE SUPPLY ON FARM-TO-WHOLESALE BEEF MARKETING MARGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    Debates about captive supplies have been ongoing for more than a decade. This study investigates the effects captive supplies have on the beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margin. A relative price spread (RPS) model is used to estimate beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margins. Estimates indicate that forward contracts and marketing agreements have a small positive relationship with margins that is marginally significant. Packer fed cattle may or may not be related to margins to depending upon ...

  4. Authentication of beef versus horse meat using 60 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes, W.; Gerdova, A.; Defernez, M.; Watson, A. D.; McCallum, C.; Limer, E.; Colquhoun, I. J.; Williamson, D. C.; Kemsley, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a candidate screening protocol to distinguish beef from horse meat based upon comparison of triglyceride signatures obtained by 60 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Using a simple chloroform-based extraction, we obtained classic low-field triglyceride spectra from typically a 10 min acquisition time. Peak integration was sufficient to differentiate samples of fresh beef (76 extractions) and horse (62 extractions) using Naïve Bayes classification. Principal component analysis gave a t...

  5. Demand System Analysis of the South Korean Beef Market with the Free Trade Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    In this study a demand system analysis for beef in South Korea is constructed. A free trade demand system was used in which the economic welfare of market participants are maximized. Recognizing implicit discrimination about non-locally sourced beef products, this study deduces market demand equations with respect to consumer preference in order to identify the marginal effect of change consumer preference has on market demand.

  6. 关联规则挖掘结合简化粒子群优化的哈希回溯追踪协议%Hash IP trace-back protocol based on association rule mining and simplified particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯燕; 郭慧玲

    2016-01-01

    针对源路径隔离引擎(source path isolation engine,SPIE)不能回溯追踪早期经过路由器的攻击数据包问题,提出了一种IP回溯追踪协议(IP trace-back protocol,ITP),该协议根据压缩哈希表、Sinkhole路由算法和基于网络取证的数据挖掘技术抵抗网络攻击.其中包含简化粒子群优化(simplified particle swarm optimization,SPSO)关联算法的分析管理器(attack analysis manager,AAM)通过分析来自Sinkhole路由器和入侵检测系统(intrusion detection systems,IDS)的攻击包的关联性生成攻击模式和攻击包规则,并将该结果通知系统管理器,Sinkhole路由器和IDS通过数据挖掘技术分析攻击包之间的关联性.通过比较SPIE,概率包标记(probabilistic packet marking,PPM)和iTrace的性能可以看出,ITP不仅能实时追踪后向攻击,而且能定期使用压缩哈希表(compressed hash table,CHT)完成追踪任务.因此,在抵抗DoS攻击方面,ITP性能优于SPIE,PPM和iTrace,此外,在回溯执行时间方面,相同跳跃数下,ITP比iTrace低2-3 s.

  7. Brain beta-adrenergic receptor binding in rats with obesity induced by a beef tallow diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; Suzuki, M

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that compared with safflower oil diet, feeding a beef tallow diet leads to a greater accumulation of body fat by reducing sympathetic activities. The present study examined the effects of dietary fats consisting of different fatty acids on alpha1- and beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were meal-fed isoenergetic diets based on safflower oil (rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) or beef tallow (rich in saturated fatty acids) for 8 weeks. Binding affinities of the beta-adrenergic receptor in the hypothalamus and cortex were significantly lower in the beef tallow diet group, but those of the alpha1-receptor did not differ between the two groups. The polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio and fluidities of plasma membranes in the hypothalamus and cortex were lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the safflower oil diet group. These results suggest that the beef tallow diet decreases membrane fluidity by altering the fatty acid composition of plasma membranes in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of rat. Consequently, beta-adrenergic receptor binding affinities in the brain were lower in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet. We recognized that there is possible link between the membrane fluidity and the changes in affinity of beta-adrenoceptors in rat brain.

  8. Role of unsaponifiable fraction on the preference for beef tallow in C57Black/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2004-06-01

    We examined the contribution of unsaponifiable fraction, a model for minor substances in food fat, on the preference for beef tallow in C57Black/6NCrj mice. First, we tested the difference in preference among three kinds of beef tallow in mice by a two-bottle choice test. The beef tallow samples were preferred in the order 'premium' food-use, food-use, and chemical grades. The amount of unsaponifiable fraction was the highest in the premium and the lowest in the chemical-grade beef tallow sample. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, however, were similar in the three samples. Subsequently, we examined the effects and role of unsaponifiable fraction in the preference for triacylglycerol. Unsaponifiable fraction prepared from premium beef tallow sample alone did not affect the preference in mice, but a preference was observed when triolein and unsaponifiable fraction coexisted. These results indicated that the unsaponifiable fraction in beef tallow contributed to the preference in mice. In addition, it was suggested that the unsaponifiable fraction acted as an enhancer in the preference for triacylglycerol in C57Black/6NCrj mice.

  9. Development of curry beef sausage%咖喱牛肉肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国荣

    2015-01-01

    Beef was taken as the main raw material. The processing formula of curry beef sausage was studied. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments, the optimum formula of curry beef sausage was defined. The result showed that the addition of starch, water, curry flavor and beef ex⁃tract was 10%, 35%, 0. 1% and 0. 3%, respectively. The curry beef sausage with smooth surface, high flexibility, compact texture, integrated slice, delicate taste, moderate salinity and full curry beef flavor was obtained.%以牛肉为主要原料,研究了咖喱牛肉肠的制作工艺配方。通过单因素试验和L9(34)正交试验,确定出咖喱牛肉肠的最佳工艺配方:淀粉添加量为10%,水添加量为35%,咖喱香精添加量为0.1%,牛肉膏添加量为0.3%。制出的肠体表面光滑,富有弹性,组织致密,切片光滑平整,切面呈棕黄色,口感细腻嫩滑,咸淡适中,具有饱满的咖喱牛肉香味。

  10. Spoilage of vacuum-packed beef by the yeast Kazachstania psychrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Jan; Erl-Höning, Constanze; Wenning, Mareike; Böhnlein, Christina; Gareis, Manfred; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the psychrotolerant yeast microbiota of vacuum-packed beef was conducted between 2010 and 2012. Chilled vacuum-packed beef (n = 50) sampled from 15 different producers was found to have a mean psychrotolerant yeast count of 3.76 log cfu per cm(2). During this assessment, a recently described yeast named Kazachstania psychrophila was shown to be associated with this product. In order to gain basic knowledge about the spoilage potential of K. psychrophila in vacuum-packed beef, challenge studies were performed and the survival of three different K. psychrophila strains was analyzed during storage of artificially contaminated beef. Beef samples were inoculated with the yeasts at a contamination level of 2 log cfu per cm(2). Survival and growth of K. psychrophila strains was monitored on malt extract agar at regular intervals over 84 days. Kazachstania levels rapidly increased about 5 log units within 16 days under chill conditions (4 °C). Gas bubbles were observed after 16 days, while discoloration and production of off-flavors became evident after 42 days in inoculated samples. This study demonstrates for the first time, that the psychrotolerant yeast K. psychrophila is a dominant spoilage microorganism of vacuum-packed beef products stored at low temperatures, causing sensory defects which result in reduced shelf life, and consequently in considerable economic losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Japanese consumers' valuation of domestic beef after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Manabu; Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    After the radioactive contamination of agricultural and livestock products caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 11, 2011, consumer aversion against purchasing food products from the affected areas has become a major social problem in Japan. We examine how test results for radioactive materials in beef affect consumer valuation of beef produced in no-risk and affected areas using a choice experiment survey of consumers in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 392). Respondents were divided into two groups: one faced choice experiment tasks under the current test condition (the test status was only "under the limit"), and the other faced choice experiment tasks under the tightened test condition (with three levels: "below the limit," "below one-tenth of the limit," and "undetected"). We found that consumer valuation of "below the limit" beef in the affected area did not differ from that of "below one-tenth of the limit" beef in the affected area. Introducing the tightened status improved consumer valuations of all types of beef in the no-risk area regardless of the test status. However, consumer valuation of "undetected" beef in the affected area was lower than that in the no-risk area. The same measures need to be implemented with great care in both no-risk and affected areas. Otherwise, the effects of measures taken in the affected areas may be diluted.

  12. FEED POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURE WASTE FOR BEEF CATTLE DEVELOPMENT IN KUNINGAN REGENCY, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Farda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research were to identify and analyze potential agricultural waste used as feed, examines the characteristics of beef cattle ranchers and estimate the ability of the addition of beef cattle population in Kuningan Regency. The primary data were taken from interviews with 30 respondents beef cattle farmers selected by purposive sampling in three districts based on the largest beef cattle population as a recommendation by local government of Kuningan Regency Agricultural. Waste samples taken randomly three times to analyze of nutrient composition by proksimat analyze was the type of the most widely used for feed. Secondary data was obtained from Kuningan Regency Veterinary Office, Department of Food Crops and the Central Statistics Agency. The results showed that the type of agricultural waste used in Kuningan Regency from highest to lowest production is rice straw, hay sweet potatoes, peanuts and hay with traditional animal husbandry systems. Districts that can improve beef cattle population from the highest to lowest number was Luragung, Cibingbin, Ciwaru, Subang, Maleber, Cibeureum, Cilebak, Karangkancana and Cimahi. In conclusion, the highest agricultural waste production was rice straw and the highest potential for the development of beef cattle in the Kuningan Regency was Luragung District.

  13. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  14. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level.

  15. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  16. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  17. Study of the beef consumption pattern in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Diniz Brandão Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify beef consumption patterns compared to the consumption of chicken meat, pork, fish and lamb. The data were collected by questionnaire applied to the population of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Social, educational, economic and specific factors of beef consumption in relation to the order of consumption, meat attributes and consumer preference were included. The study was conducted on 429 consumers interviewed at the entrance of supermarkets. Important concern of consumers regarding attributes related to hygiene, color, flavor and tenderness was noted. With respect to nutritional value, 41.03% of consumers believe that beef is more nutritious than other meats. Analysis of the frequency of meat consumption showed that 45.92% of the subjects have the habit to eat beef daily. Regarding the order of consumption, beef was reported as the first option (80.65% of the responses, followed by chicken meat, pork, fish and lamb. A change in the responses was observed when the price of meat was disregarded, with an increase in the preference for fish consumption, although beef was still chosen as the first option.

  18. Effects of Fleckvieh on the Performance of Dual-Purpose Cattle Improved by Hybridization with Local Beef Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Lian Hongxia; Yan Ping; Liu Xian; Liu Yan; Wang Wenhui; Zhu Ruiguang; Li Ming; Yang Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study the improved effect of local beef cattle with Fleckvieh cattle and provide theoretical basic data for local cattle industry in central plain agricultural area in China. [Method] With 500 local beef cattle as female parents and Fleckvieh cattle as male parents,hybridization improvement was conducted via artificial insemination. The growth performance,slaughter performance,milk performance and milk components of F1 and F2 hybrids were measured. [Result] The birth body weights of F2 were significantly higher than those of local beef cow,but there was no remarkable difference between F1 and local beef cow or F1 and F2. The growth rates of F1 and F2 at different stages were higher than those of local beef cattle. The slaughter performance,such as carcass weight( P < 0. 05),dressing percentage,net meat rate( P < 0. 05),marbling score of F1 and F2 were higher than those of local beef cow. Milk production performance,such as actual milk yield,305 d corrected milk yield and 4% standard milk yield of F2 were signally higher than those of F1 and local beef cattle( P< 0. 05),and F1 was markedly higher than local beef cattle( P < 0. 05). For milk composition,although milk fat percentage,milk protein rate,lactose rate and total solids( TS) of F1 and F2 were slightly lowered compared with local beef cattle at varying degrees,they were still at high levels compared with Holstein cows.[Conclusion]Fleckvieh cattle,as a male parent,can significantly improved growth performance,slaughter performance and milk performance of offsprings. It would also increases the economic efficiency of local beef cattle by higher quality and price,as well as changing production model from beef to dual purpose of beef and milk.

  19. Age dependent accumulation of perfluorinated chemicals in beef cattles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guruge, Keerthi Siri; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko [National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba (Japan); Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advance Industrial and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Occurrences of perfluorinated chemicals (FOCs) in the environment recently have brought public concerned as a new group of pollutants. Perfluoroalkylsulfonates and perfluoroalkylacids were found in many environmental compartments including water, sediment and biota. It was reported that FOCs were detected in several species of wild life in various locations including some remote areas. Fish and aquatic animals were to be accumulated greater concentrations of PFOS and PFOA with no clear age- or sex-related differences. Consumption of fish and farm animal products were to be the main human exposure route to organohalogen pollutants. It is important to know the human exposure to FOCs, since some of these compounds have high degrees of bioaccumulation and long half-lives in the human body. However, accumulations of FOCs in farm animals are not documented. In this study we examine the age related presence of FOCs in blood plasma collected from 3 beef cattle from Japan.

  20. Consequences of BSE disease outbreaks in the Canadian beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čechura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines farm to wholesale prices spreads to measure the impact of the BSE disease outbreak on the Canadian beef industry. The study uses structure break tests developed by Gregory and Hansen (1996 and Hansen (1992 examine possible breaks within co integrating relationships. The study finds evidence that the industry began realignment as a result of the UK BSE disease outbreak, and the Canadian BSE disease outbreak was simply the largest realignment of the process beginning with the UK disease outbreak. However, the only statistically significant break was the BSE disease outbreak itself in May 2003. Stability was not restored until the border was reopened in 2005. Specific results indicated that the processing sector exploited the border closure in May 2003 to enhance its market power and that the system returned to a competitive one after the border re-opened in July 2005.

  1. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... are less demanding in terms of beef quality and have less culinary skills. However, consumers support the development of technologies that can provide more healthiness and better eating quality, and if such technologies are 'not invasive', the chances to be accepted increase. Current trends and development...

  2. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues.

  3. Intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles of the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, G A; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M

    2005-12-01

    The i.m. tenderness variation was examined within four beef chuck muscles, the infraspinatus (IF), supraspinatus (SS), triceps brachii (TB), and serratus ventralis (SV). The IF, SS, TB, and SV muscles were cut into 2.5 cm thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. An identification tag was placed on each steak, consisting of a muscle identification number, steak number, and orientation of the steak. Steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored at -22 degrees C until subsequent analysis. Steaks were thawed at 1 degrees C and cooked on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. One core was removed from each 2.5-cm x 2.5-cm section parallel to the muscle fiber and sheared once to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The SS had an overall WBSF mean of 5.43 kg (SD = 2.20 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.43) among steak locations. The IF had an overall WBSF mean of 3.16 kg (SD = 1.01 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.51) among steak locations. The SV had a mean WBSF value of 4.37 kg (SD = 1.27 kg) with tenderness variation (P variations were not dispersed in a discernible pattern. The TB had a mean WBSF value of 4.12 kg (SD = 1.26 kg) with lower (P muscles, and this information could be used to add value to the beef chuck by cutting and marketing consistently tender regions.

  4. A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telligman, Amy L; Worosz, Michelle R; Bratcher, Christy L

    2017-02-01

    Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term "local beef" (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, genetic characterization and virulence genes of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H- and E. coli O157:H7 isolated from retail beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohammed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Ahdy, Asmaa Mohammed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2013-08-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Escherichia coli O157:H- strains have emerged as important pathogens and have been associated with a higher incidence of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) than non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SF E. coli O157:H- and NSF E. coli O157:H7 strains in retail beef products in Mansoura, Egypt. The contamination rates with rfbEO157-positive E. coli O157 strains were 26.7% (8/30), 10% (3/30) and 3.7% (1/27) in ground beef, beef burger, and fresh beef samples, respectively with an overall mean of 13.8% (12/87) among all meat products tested. SF E. coli O157:H- were the most dominant among the isolated O157 strains. Of the fifteen O157 strains isolated, 11 (73.3%) were SF E. coli O157:H-, while the remaining 4 (26.7%) were NSF E. coli O157:H7. The 11 SF O157H- strains were genetically positive for sfpA gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for fliC gene demonstrated a similar pattern for both SF and NSF O157 isolates. PCR assays verified the existence of stx1 gene in 7 (46.7%) and stx2 gene in 13 (86.7%) of the 15 O157 strains isolated. Unexpectedly, two of the 15 O157 strains isolated were negative for Shiga toxin genes. The eae gene was identified in all of the 15 O157 strains except in one NSF O157:H7 strain. EHEC-hlyA gene was detected in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 O157 isolates, nonetheless only 11 strains showed enterohemolytic phenotype on blood agar. A combination of the four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae and EHEC-hlyA were detected in 7 (46.7%) strains, while six (40%) strains were positive for stx2, eae and hlyA genes. This is the first record for isolation of E. coli O157: H- in Egypt as well as in the African continent.

  6. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  7. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeasts. The results show that aerobic mesophilic count is within the limits of the Standard (NOM-092-SSA1-1994, the amount of Staphylococcos exceeds the Standard in the markets but within the limits of the Standard in supermarkets, coliforms and molds and yeasts are present in markets and supermarkets but are not considered in the Standard. We conclude that ground beef is sold in markets and supermarkets in the municipality of Ecatepec has lots of coliforms and Staphylococcos, which are responsible for many toxic infections. It is necessary to update the regulations in force, to be given greater monitoring.

  8. 清炖牛肉与红烧牛肉香气成分差异性分析%Difference Analysis of Stewed Beef and Red-cooked Beef Volatile Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔春; 吴肖; 赵谋明; 吴进卫

    2011-01-01

    采用传统烹饪工艺制备清炖牛肉和红烧牛肉,通过顶空固相微萃取法、气相色谱-质谱联用技术、溶剂提取法和峰面积归一化法,对两种不同工艺制备的牛肉挥发性香气成分进行检测,并比较香气成分的差异性.结果表明清炖牛肉和红烧牛肉挥发性香气化合物有25种不同,红烧牛内香气化合物种类明显多于清炖牛肉;清炖牛肉和红烧牛肉中肉香贡献化合物相对含量分别为22.14%和80.25%,而体现特征牛脂味的辛酸和油酸含量,在清炖牛肉中分别为5.85%、27.27%,在红烧牛肉中含量分别为2.57%、6.03%,可见红烧牛肉肉香明显高于清炖牛肉,而清炖牛肉的牛脂味则强于红烧牛肉.%This study prepared the red-cooked and stewed beef by the traditional cooking way, and detected the volatile compounds by headspace solid phase micro extraction, GC-MS, solvent extraction and peak area normalization method, and compared the difference of the volatile compounds in the red-cooked beef and stewed beef. The result shows that there is twenty-five different volatile compounds through the comparison of red-cooked beef and stewed beef flavor, the volatile compounds in red-cooked beef are apparently more than the ones in stewed beef. The relative content of meat contributors for red-cooked beef and stewed beef is 80.25% and 22.14%, respectively, while the relative contents of octanoic acid and oleic acid in stewed beef are 5.85% and 27.27%, respectively. And the ones in red-cooked beef are 2.57% and6.03% respectively. The meat flavor of red-cooked is much stronger than the one of stewed beef, while the beef characteristic fat flavor in stewed beef is much stronger than the one in red-cooked beef.

  9. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  10. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  11. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  12. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  13. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements

  14. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  15. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Moon Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP, medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP, MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP, high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP, and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP, on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS was significantly (p<0.05 retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a* was kept higher (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage.

  16. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  17. 77 FR 58091 - Risk-Based Sampling of Beef Manufacturing Trimmings for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and Plans for Beef Baseline AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), U... announcing its intention to redesign its E. coli O157:H7 verification testing program for beef manufacturing... prevalence estimates for E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef manufacturing trimmings. This notice also discusses FSIS...

  18. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  19. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  20. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d