WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground beef produced

  1. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in U. S. retail ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Miller, Markus F; Loneragan, Guy H; Brooks, J Chance; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are the leading cause of STEC-associated infections in humans in the United States. In the United States, these organisms are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef products and in intact beef destined to be made into or used in nonintact raw beef products. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the burden of the six serogroups of non-O157 STEC in ground beef obtained from retail stores across the United States. A convenience sample of commercial ground beef products (n = 1,129) were purchased from retail stores in 24 states from October 2011 to May 2012. The samples had various lean/fat proportions, muscle group of origin (chuck, round, sirloin, or not specified), and packaging types. For each ground beef sample, 25 g was inoculated in 225 ml of modified tryptic soy broth, stomached for 1 min, and then incubated at 41°C for 18 ± 2 h. These enrichment cultures were then screened for stx, eae, and O group genes using a commercially available, closed-platform PCR-based method. The potential positive samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation and plated on modified Rainbow agar. Morphologically typical colonies were subjected to latex agglutination and PCR determination of stx and eae genes. Nine (0.8%) of the ground beef samples were potentially positive for at least one STEC serogroup after PCR screening. The serogroups detected by PCR assay were O26 (four samples), O103 (four samples), O145 (three samples), O45 (two samples), and O121 (one sample). No STEC isolates belonging to these serogroups were recovered from the sample cultures. The current research provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates among commercial ground beef products and information regarding the potential sources of contamination from different parts of beef trims destined for ground beef production.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  3. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are regularly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 STEC isolates, including the "big six" serovars, O104 and O157:H7. STEC isolates included those isolated from animals and environmental sources in addition to those associated with illness in humans. Individual STEC were inoculated into 80% lean ground beef and treated with HPP (350 MPa, 4 °C, up to 40 min). The mean D10 was 9.74 min, with a range of 0.89-25.70 min. The D10 of the STEC involved in human illness was 9.25 vs. 10.40 min for those not involved in human illness (p > 0.05). The presence or absence of genes encoding virulence factors (e.g. Shiga toxin 1 or 2, intimin, or enterohemolysin) had no effect on the HPP D10 (p > 0.05). The high D10 of some STEC involved in human illness should be considered in selecting HPP processing parameters for ground beef. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of STEC resistance to HPP. Risk assessors and the food industry can use this information to provide safer meat products to consumers.

  4. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  5. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont BAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O2...

  6. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  7. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  8. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef Using the GeneDisc Real-Time PCR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina eFratamico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 and certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. GeneDisc real-time PCR assays were evaluated for detection of the stx1, stx2, eae, and ehx genes and a gene that identifies the O157 serogroup followed by a second GeneDisc assay targeting serogroup-specific genes of STEC O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157. The ability to detect the STEC serogroups in ground beef samples artificially inoculated at a level of ca. 2-20 CFU/25 g and subjected to enrichment in mTSB or BPW was similar. Following enrichment, all inoculated ground beef samples showed amplification of the correct set of target genes carried by each strain. Samples inoculated with STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, and isolation was achieved by plating onto Rainbow agar O157. Colonies were confirmed by PCR assays targeting stx1, stx2, eae, and serogroup-specific genes. Thus, this work demonstrated that GeneDisc assays are rapid, sensitive, and reliable and can be used for screening ground beef and potentially other foods for STEC serogroups that are important food-borne pathogens worldwide.

  9. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Llorente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1% samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57; stx2, 86.0% (49/57; stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57; ehxA, 61.4% (35/57; eae, 26.3% (15/57; saa, 24.6% (14/57. Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54; stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54; stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54; stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54; stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54; stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54. Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzoni, G M; Fratamico, P M; Boccia, F; Bagi, L K; Kim, G-H; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. Ground beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were stored at 4°C for 72 h, followed by screening with the IQ-Check and BAX System kit (MLG) methods that employ different enrichment media. STEC and S. Typhimurium were detected after 12 and 18 h and their presence was confirmed by colony isolation. Both methods were able to detect STEC in ground beef after 12 h of enrichment in samples inoculated with low levels of the pathogen. STEC and S. Typhimurium can be detected and isolated in co-inoculated ground beef samples. The IQ-Check methods are comparable to the MLG methods for detection of STEC and simultaneous detection of STEC and S. Typhimurium in seeded ground beef after a short enrichment time, thus the IQ-Check method can be useful for the food industry for rapid detection of these pathogens. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  12. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  13. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  14. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  15. A new immunoassay for detecting all subtypes of Shiga toxins produced by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Shiga toxin (Stx) is a common virulence factor of all Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause a wide spectrum of disease, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although several commercial kits are available for detection of Stx produced by STEC, none o...

  16. Decreased dosage of acidified sodium chlorite reduces microbial contamination and maintains organoleptic qualities of ground beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Shackelford, Steven D; Fahle, Rick; Biela, Timothy; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2004-10-01

    Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) spray was evaluated at decreased dosages and application rates to determine its efficacy for reducing bacterial contamination on boneless beef trimmings used for production of raw ground beef products while maintaining desirable consumer qualities in the finished ground beef products. Two different applications of ASC (600 ppm applied at a rate of 1.3 oz/lb and 300 ppm applied at a rate of 1 oz/lb) were used to treat boneless beef trimmings before grinding. The effect of ASC treatment on 50/50 lean beef trimmings was greater than on 90/10 trimmings. ASC at 600 ppm reduced both the aerobic plate counts (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) by 2.3 log CFU/g on 50/50 trimmings, whereas treatment with 300 ppm ASC reduced APC and EBC of 50/50 trimmings by 1.1 and 0.7 log CFU/g, respectively. Ground beef formulations of 90/10 and 73/27 were produced from the treated boneless beef trim and packaged in chubs and in modified atmosphere packaging. The efficacy of ASC spray treatment to inhibit APC and EBC over the shelf life of each ground beef product was monitored. The APC and EBC in ground beef chubs were reduced by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/g until day 20. The APC and EBC for products in modified atmosphere packaging were reduced 1.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g throughout their shelf life. Both decreased dosages of ASC were equally effective on 90/10 lean ground beef, but the 300 ppm ASC treatment was slightly better at reducing the EBC of 73/27 ground beef. The organoleptic qualities (color, odor, and taste) of the ground beef products treated with 300 ppm ASC were found to be superior to those treated with 600 ppm ASC. Our results indicated that decreased dosages of ASC reduce contamination and lengthen the shelf life of ground beef. Furthermore, the 300 ppm ASC treatment reduced bacterial counts while maintaining desirable organoleptic ground beef qualities.

  17. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  18. Beef-cattle producers benefit from Extension-managed process verification programs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The most recent data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture shows that Virginia's beef producers face a myriad of challenges. Virginia Cooperative Extension is working with the beef-cattle industry to boost profits and add value to Virginia's beef products by training and educating producers about process verification programs that certify the age and source of beef cattle.

  19. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  20. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  1. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  2. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  3. Microbiological Testing Results of Boneless and Ground Beef Purchased for the National School Lunch Program, 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerscher, Darin R; Lutz, Terry L; Whisenant, Stephen J; Smith, Kerry R; Morris, Craig A; Schroeder, Carl M

    2015-09-01

    The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) purchases boneless and ground beef for distribution to recipients through federal nutrition assistance programs, including the National School Lunch Program, which represents 93% of the overall volume. Approximately every 2,000 lb (ca. 907 kg) of boneless beef and 10,000 lb (ca. 4,535 kg) of ground beef are designated a "lot" and tested for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, standard plate count organisms (SPCs), E. coli, and coliforms. Any lot of beef positive for E. coli O157:H7 or for Salmonella, or any beef with concentrations of organisms exceeding critical limits for SPCs (100,000 CFU g(-1)), E. coli (500 CFU g(-1)), or coliforms (1,000 CFU g(-1)) is rejected for purchase by AMS and must be diverted from federal nutrition assistance programs. From July 2011 through June 2014, 537,478,212 lb (ca. 243,795,996 kg) of boneless beef and 428,130,984 lb (ca. 194,196,932 kg) of ground beef were produced for federal nutrition assistance programs. Of the 230,359 boneless beef samples collected over this period, 82 (0.04%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 924 (0.40%) were positive for Salmonella, 222 (0.10%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 69 (0.03%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 123 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Of the 46,527 ground beef samples collected over this period, 30 (0.06%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 360 (0.77%) were positive for Salmonella, 20 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 22 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 17 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Cumulatively, these data suggest beef produced for the AMS National School Lunch Program is done so under an adequate food safety system, as indicated by the low percentage of lots that were pathogen positive or exceeded critical limits for indicator organisms.

  4. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  5. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  8. Characterization and virulence potential of serogroup O113 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef and cattle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and be...

  9. Salmonella spp. in lymph nodes of fed and cull cattle: Relative assessment of risk to ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground beef products have been implicated as the vehicle for the transmission of Salmonella in a number of outbreaks. Although carcass surface interventions have proven effective, Salmonella contamination in ground beef still occurs. Recent studies indicate that deep tissue lymph nodes (DTLNs) may b...

  10. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBrusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxing-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine and manipulator hands (n= 450 obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin, rfbO157 (O157 lipopolysaccharide, fliCH7 (H7 flagellin, eae (intimin, ehxA (enterohemolysin and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin, were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5% beef samples and 16 (4.4% environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2% and 182 (50.5%, respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%, and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%; stx2 (29.7%; and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%. None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19 and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  11. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  12. Detection of Ricin Contamination in Ground Beef by Electrochemiluminescence Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Brandon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor, grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food matrices. A monoclonal antibody-based method was developed for detecting and quantifying ricin in ground beef, a complex, fatty matrix. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/g for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL method and 1.5 ng/g for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The detection of nanogram per gram quantities of ricin spiked into retail samples of ground beef provides approximately 10,000-fold greater sensitivity than required to detect a toxic dose of ricin (>1 mg in a 100 g sample.

  13. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  14. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on raw ground beef

    OpenAIRE

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado; Edith G. Gonzalez-Mondragon; Alma Yadira Salazar-Govea; Joaquin T. Santiago-Castro; Juana Ramirez-Andrade

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) were carried out using water (IE) and ethanol (EtOHE) as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants), CIE (meat with infusion of epazote), CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote) and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution). The characteristics ...

  15. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( brand disclosure. Increased ( branded product that received increased ( brand and product information, few consumers find differences in eating quality among ground beef treatments; however, when consumers are aware of the brand, fat level, and subprimal blend prior to sampling, these factors have a large impact on consumer eating satisfaction.

  16. Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the “big six”/”top six” non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Due to their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC ...

  17. Survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Stx bacteriophages in moisture enhanced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rode, Tone Mari

    2014-07-01

    Moisture enhancement of meat through injection is a technology to improve the sensory properties and the weight of meat. However, the technology may increase the risk of food borne infections. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or bacteriophages carrying cytotoxin genes (Shiga toxin genes, stx), which is normally only present on the surface of intact beef, may be transferred to the inner parts of the muscle during the injection process. Pathogens and bacteriophages surviving the storage period may not be eliminated in the cooking process since many consumers prefer undercooked beef. Measures to increase the microbial food safety of moisture enhanced beef may include sterilization or washing of the outer surface of the meat before injection, avoiding recycling of marinade and addition of antimicrobial agents to the marinade. This paper reviews the literature regarding microbial safety of moisture enhanced beef with special emphasis on STEC and Stx bacteriophages. Also, results from a European Union research project, ProSafeBeef (Food-CT-16 2006-36241) are presented.

  18. Factors Influencing Demand for a Producer-Owned Beef Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Cevallos, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    As the farm-to-retail price spread continues to grow, come cattle producers a beginning to consider integrating into the retail sector. Such a venture would require large investments in capital with uncertain return. This study seeks to determine the potential success of a stand-alone retail outlet selling “all natural†beef in an affluent area of Jackson, MS. Using choice-based conjoint analysis, demand for the new retail outlet is modeled as a function of the beef price at the store, dis...

  19. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  20. Contaminación de carne molida con cepas de Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC provenientes de comercios minoristas de San Martín, Buenos Aires, categorizados según nivel socioeconómico Contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in fresh ground beef from butcher shops in San Martin, Buenos Aires Province, among different socioeconomic strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Miccio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC produce enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, desde diarreas leves a Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico, enfermedad de impacto en Argentina. Dentro de los alimentos implicados se destaca la carne bovina insuficientemente cocida. La contaminación de la carne molida y su relación con los estratos socioeconómicos no ha sido estudiada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar en muestras de carne cepas STEC y establecer su perfil de virulencia, considerando la zona socioeconómica de procedencia y la persistencia de la contaminación en el local de venta. Se seleccionó el 30% de las bocas de expendio habilitadas en cada nivel socioeconómico. Se analizaron 72 muestras provenientes de 36 carnicerías de San Martín, Buenos Aires, en dos muestreos independientes utilizando PCR múltiple para stx1/stx2 e inmunocaptura para O157 al tamizaje. Se obtuvieron 11 cepas de 26 muestras sospechosas, 7% de los aislamientos fueron STEC O157. La proporción en la contaminación ponderada fue mayor en las zonas media y baja. No se comprobó persistencia. El grado de contaminación por STEC en carne para el área estudiada fue elevado y las cepas aisladas fueron altamente virulentas. En consideración a ello es necesario implementar programas de capacitación y control para reducir los riesgos para la salud pública.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes foodborne diseases, from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome which impact in Argentina. Many human infections were acquired from eating undercooked contaminated beef. The contamination of ground beef and their relation to socio-economic strata has not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify STEC in meat samples and establish virulence profile, considering the socio-economic area of origin and persistence of contamination in local sales. It was selected 30% of the butcher shop of each socioeconomic level. It was analyzed 72 samples from 36

  1. Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K; Miller, M F; Loneragan, G H; Brashears, M M

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log CFU/g) and low (1.0 log CFU/g) inoculation doses was evaluated at various processing steps, including the following: (i) in trim just after treatment application, (ii) in ground beef just after grinding, (iii) in ground beef 24 h after refrigerated storage, (iv) in ground beef 5 days after refrigerated storage, and (v) in ground beef 30 days after frozen storage. All antimicrobial treatments reduced the pathogens on the trim inoculated with the lower inoculation dose to nondetectable numbers in the trim and in the ground beef. There were significant reductions of both pathogens in the trim and in the ground beef inoculated with the high inoculation doses. On the trim itself, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 1.5 to 2.0 log cycles, with no differences among all treatments. In the ground beef, the organic acids were more effective in reducing both pathogens than the acidified sodium chlorite immediately after grinding, but after 1 day of storage, there were no differences among treatments. Overall, in the ground beef, there was a 2.5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1.5-log reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium that was sustained over time in refrigerated and frozen storage. Very few sensory differences between the control samples and the treated samples were detected by a consumer panel. Thus, antimicrobial treatments did not cause serious adverse sensory changes. Use of these antimicrobial treatments can be a promising intervention available to ground beef processors who currently have few interventions in their process.

  2. Effects of irradiation on trans fatty acids formation in ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, M.S. E-mail: msavoy@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-filho, Jorge

    2002-03-01

    In order to give the consumer the assurance that meat processed by irradiation is a safe product, a great deal of research has been developed in the world. The effect of irradiation on the hygienic quality of meat and meat products is considered as related to the control of meat-borne parasites of humans; elimination of pathogens from fresh meat and poultry; and elimination of pathogens from processed meat. Lipid oxidation and associated changes are the major causes of the quality deterioration of meat during storage. Irradiation of lipids induces the production of free radicals, which react with oxygen, leading to the formation of carbonyls, responsible for alterations in food nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Trans fatty acids are present in ground beef and can also be formed during its processing. Interestingly, the trans fatty acids, due to their chemical and physical characteristics, show more resistance to the oxidizing process. This property motivated us to investigate the level of the trans fatty acids, as well as the level of oxidation in irradiated ground beef. Irradiation of ground beef was performed by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The applied radiation doses were 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0 kGy. Lipid peroxidation in terms of TBA number and carbonyl content was monitored during storage. The sample characteristics and trans fatty acids composition were measured, following irradiation and after 60 and 90 days of storage at -10 deg. C.

  3. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  4. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  5. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on raw ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. were carried out using water (IE and ethanol (EtOHE as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants, CIE (meat with infusion of epazote, CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution. The characteristics determined for both IE and EtOHE before being added to the meat were pH, antioxidant activity (AA, total polyphenols (TP and total flavonoids (TF. The antioxidant effect on the ground beef was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method and instrumental color. EI showed the highest TF content. Meat with IE and EtOHE treatments had lower TBARS values than control meat, and higher of L* and b* values, which indicate greater clarity in both treatments. In conclusion, under these conditions, epazote has potential as a natural antioxidant in order to extend the shelf life of meat and meat products.

  6. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  7. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne in irradiated ground beef heated in a water bath or cooked on commercial grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of heat-shocked and non heat-shocked spores of the virulence-attenuated Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis was evaluated at select temperatures in irradiated, raw ground beef (25% fat) heated in a water bath or cooked using two different commercial grills. For the former, 3-g ...

  8. Evaluation of the Most Current and Effective Methods in the Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins in Ground Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal origin, leads to the accumulation of dioxins in the human body. The exposures of the general human population to dioxins and the specific issues of a risk assessment of dioxin pose serious concerns in public environmental and nutritional health. This paper reviews the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. The sources of contamination of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef are first reviewed to form a basis for a clear understanding of the health implications of chlorinated dioxins in the human food chain and why it is necessary to monitor the level of dioxins in animal food products, especially ground beef. The methods of collection, sampling, and processing of ground beef, and the methods of sample clean up prior to the analysis, are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the new techniques that are available and that might be effective in the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. Among these new methods and techniques are: the synergistic combination of ELISA/GC/MS, direct sample introduction to /GC/MS-MS, automated clean-up method, and the supercritical fluid extraction methods. The possible treatments of results from each method and technique are discussed and their respective efficiencies are compared. Finally, quality control and quality assurance parameters are evaluated for levels of accuracy, reproducibility, and precision.

  9. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  11. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers.

  12. Validation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Escherichia coli O157:H7 Real-Time PCR Assay for Raw Beef and Produce Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Bastin, Ben; Flannery, Jonathan; Agin, James; Goins, David; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Escherichia coli O157:H7 Assay is a new real-time PCR assay which has been validated through the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw beef and produce matrixes. This validation study specifically validated the assay with 375 g 1:4 and 1:5 ratios of raw ground beef and raw beef trim in comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDS-FSIS/MLG) reference method and 25 g bagged spinach and fresh apple juice at a ratio of 1:10, in comparison to the reference method detailed in the International Organization for Standardization 16654:2001 reference method. For raw beef matrixes, the validation of both 1:4 and 1:5 allows user flexibility with the enrichment protocol, although which of these two ratios chosen by the laboratory should be based on specific test requirements. All matrixes were analyzed by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Vantaa, Finland, and Q Laboratories Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the method developer study. Two of the matrixes (raw ground beef at both 1:4 and 1:5 ratios) and bagged spinach were additionally analyzed in the AOAC-RI controlled independent laboratory study, which was conducted by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, Wisconsin. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, no significant difference was demonstrated by the SureTect kit in comparison to the USDA FSIS reference method for raw beef matrixes, or with the ISO reference method for matrixes of bagged spinach and apple juice. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 58 E. coli O157:H7 and 54 non-E. coli O157:H7 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect assay was able to detect all isolates of E. coli O157:H7 analyzed. In addition, all but one of the nontarget isolates were correctly interpreted as negative by the SureTect Software. The single isolate giving a positive result was an E

  13. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 and verocytotoxin producing E. coil (VTEC) on Danish beef carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Boel, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coil (VTEC), E. coli O157, and VTEC O157 in 474 swab samples from Danish beef carcasses was determined. The presence of E. coli O157 was determined by a culture method that included immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by real time PCR...... testing of isolates for verocytotoxin (vtx) genes. E. coil O157 was recovered from 4.2% of the carcass samples and VTEC O157 from 3.4% of the samples. All VTEC O157 contaminated carcasses were from bull calves and the VTEC O157 prevalence on bull calf carcasses was 7.3%. The VTEC O157 contaminated beef...... PCR assay for the E. coil O157 specific rfbE gene was developed. In total 22.4% of the enriched samples were positive for the O157 rfbE gene. The combined results of the vtx and rfbE real time PCR screening showed that 17.5% of the carcasses potentially were contaminated with VTEC O157. Screening...

  15. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  16. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No significant reductions in bacterial growth or cell adhesion were observed in resistant strains. Taken together, our results provide additional support for the use of phage to control E. coli O157:H7 in food products; however, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could limit the efficacy of phage products. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop resistance mitigation strategies to optimize phage-based technologies.

  17. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  18. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  19. Outbreak of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection from Consumption of Beef Sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Smith, B.; Torpdahl, M.;

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26: H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records...

  20. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne's disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bikash; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Osterstock, Jason B; Park, Seong C; Roussel, Allen J

    2014-01-23

    Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne's Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians' opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial culture of feces (3%), PCR (14%), ELISA (35%) and a combination of these tests (47%). Seventy-nine percent of veterinarians recommended a 12-month interval between testing. Seedstock producers who had had JD risk assessments performed on their farms were more supportive of JD control programs and had a correspondingly lower prevalence. It is important to increase educational activities to provide relevant

  1. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.

  2. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  3. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4{+-}2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  5. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  6. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  7. Elimination of Pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef by a Newly Isolated Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus during Storage at 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Constant use of limited number of lactic acid bacteria species in biopreservation can cause genetic degradation and or rising resistance against food pathogens or antimicrobial substances they produce. For this objective, a newly isolated strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possessing high antimicrobial activity was evaluated as a candidate for use in biopreservation.Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. Hydrogen peroxide amount was measured by Merckoquant Peroxide test strips. Microbiological analysis of the ground beef infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and treated by Lactobacillus acidophilus GH 201was done by plating of serial dilution in physiological saline on Tryptose agar.Results and Conclusion: The cells (109 CFU ml-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus produced significant amount of antibacterial substances mainly hydrogen peroxide (28 and 30 μg ml-1 in sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.5 and LAPTg at 5°C during submerged cultivation with no growth, respectively. Submerged co-cultivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with lactobacilli in LAPTg broth at 5°C reduced the total number of the pathogen more than 2 log for 5 days. In case of solid state cultivation on agar-based medium, the maximum inhibitory zones on Escherichia coli O157:H7 lawn around the disks soaked by different amounts of washed Lactobacillus acidophilus cells appear for one-day cold exposition. The size of inhibition zone depends on the concentration of lactic acid bacteria cells. The cell suspension intended for treatment must contain 108-9CFU ml-1 of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the initial amount (2×105 CFU ml-1 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef up to 2 log for 5 days of solid-state co-cultivation. The application of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria expanded the shelf-life of ground beef due to inhibition of

  8. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  9. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  10. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  11. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Dias-Morse, P N; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-05-01

    Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear force were measured to evaluate the impact of the treatments on the quality attributes. The NMS and PAA patties were redder (a(∗), P0.05) off odor to CON on days 0-3. The NMS and PAA treated patties had lower (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than the CON at days 0, 3, and 7. Therefore, KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC treatments on beef trimmings can potentially improve or maintain quality attributes of beef patties.

  12. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  13. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne’s disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne’s Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Results Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians’ opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial culture of feces (3%), PCR (14%), ELISA (35%) and a combination of these tests (47%). Seventy-nine percent of veterinarians recommended a 12-month interval between testing. Conclusions Seedstock producers who had had JD risk assessments performed on their farms were more supportive of JD control programs and had a correspondingly lower prevalence. It is important to increase educational

  14. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established.

  15. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  16. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  17. Modeling the inactivatin of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E. coli in ground beef by high pressure processing and citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in ground beef using High Pressure Processing...

  18. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  19. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  20. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.

  1. Nutritional Quality of Beef Produced in Chile from Different Production Systems Calidad Nutricional de Carne obtenida de Diferentes Sistemas Productivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beef industry has improved production processes to ensure quality and certification for overseas meat markets. However, there is limited scientific information about the nutritional quality of beef from Chile. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of beef produced in Chile from different production systems classified according to the type of finishing diet. Two-hundred and five animals from 13 livestock farms were used, 80 steers were finished on grazing pasture, 79 on pasture supplemented with grain or concentrate and 46 steers were finished on a typical feedlot system in the central zone of Chile. Longissimus thoracis intramuscular fat, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content were determined. Beef from pasture-fed animals showed higher content of vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11 rumenic acid (CLA cis-9 trans-11 and n-3 fatty acids, and lower n-6:n-3 ratio than beef from feedlot animals. However, Chilean beef from the three production systems showed similar intramuscular fat percentages and a n-6:n-3 ratio lower than 4.0. Results indicate that the Longissimus muscle from Chilean beef could be recommended as a source of red meat for a healthy diet.En los últimos anos, el sector de carne bovina en Chile ha desarrollado un notable avance a nivel de mejoramiento de procesos de producción, aseguramiento de calidad, y certificación exportadora. Sin embargo, existe poca información disponible sobre la calidad nutricional de la carne producida en Chile. En el presente estudio se evaluó la calidad nutricional de la carne producida en Chile en diferentes sistemas de producción clasificados de acuerdo con el tipo de acabado. Se evaluó la carne de 205 animales de 13 predios: 80 novillos se finalizaron a pastoreo, 79 fueron finalizados a pastoreo más suplementación, mientras que 46 se terminaron en un típico feedlot de la zona central de Chile. En el músculo Longuissimus thoracis se determin

  2. Microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of beef trim and ground beef treated with acetic acid, lactic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, or sterile water in a simulated commercial processing environment to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Brashears, M M; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the effectiveness of acetic and lactic acids (2% and 5%), acidified sodium chlorite (1000ppm), and sterile water in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in inoculated beef trim in a simulated processing environment. Samples were collected to assess microbial characteristics at three processing points. Results from this study indicate that all treatments, including sterile water, reduced pathogen concentrations (P<0.05) of both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in ground beef up to 0.5 and 0.6 log by 24h, respectively. In some cases, there were no significant differences between the antimicrobial treatments and the sterile water using this application method. Triangle sensory test results of non-inoculated beef indicated there were no differences (P<0.05) in the means of correct responses between controls or antimicrobial treatments at 6 or 24h. While interventions are important for beef trim, use of the interventions must be validated under industry conditions to ensure proper effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  4. Application of Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 as Natural Preservative on Beef during Room Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Elfrida Sihombing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 is indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian beef. Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 was reported could produce bacteriocin, called plantaricin IIA-1A5. The aims of this research was to analyze application of plantaricin IIA-1A5 as a natural preservative on beef. Based on antagonistic test, plantaricin IIA-1A5 had good moderate antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria isolated from human’s feces that cause diarrhea such as Salmonella 38, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli K11 and Shigella A33. Application of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was effective as a natural preservative on beef stored at room temperature by inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricin IIA-1A5 could kill all of the Escherichia coli after 5 h storage. Plantaricin IIA-1A5 could reduce the population of Staphylococcus aureus in beef during room temperature storage. Interestingly, plantaricin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 was effective against gram negative and positive bacteria. According to physichochemichal and microbiology quality, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was recommended as biopreservative agents for beef.

  5. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  6. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  7. Effects of vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging in combination with irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Larson, Elaine M; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Lu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties by combining irradiation with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Fresh ground beef patties were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 5 log CFU/g. Single patties, packaged with vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP (99.6% CO(2) plus 0.4% CO), were irradiated at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. The D(10)-value for this pathogen was 0.47 ± 0.02 kGy in vacuum and 0.50 ± 0.02 kGy in MAP packaging. Irradiation with 1.5 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 to 3.3 log, while 0.5 and 1.0 kGy achieved reductions of 0.7 to 1.0, and 2.0 to 2.2 log, respectively. After irradiation, the numbers of survivors of this pathogen on beef patties in refrigerated storage (4°C) did not change significantly for 6 weeks. Temperature abuse (at 25°C) resulted in growth in vacuum-packaged patties treated with 0.5 and 1.5 kGy, but no growth in MAP packages. This study demonstrated that combining irradiation with MAP was similar in effectiveness to irradiation with vacuum packaging for control of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties during refrigerated storage. However, high-CO(2) MAP appeared to be more effective after temperature abuse.

  8. Intraspinal microstimulation produces over-ground walking in anesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinski, B. J.; Mazurek, K. A.; Everaert, D. G.; Toossi, A.; Lucas-Osma, A. M.; Troyk, P.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Stein, R. B.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury causes a drastic loss of motor, sensory and autonomic function. The goal of this project was to investigate the use of intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) for producing long distances of walking over ground. ISMS is an electrical stimulation method developed for restoring motor function by activating spinal networks below the level of an injury. It produces movements of the legs by stimulating the ventral horn of the lumbar enlargement using fine penetrating electrodes (≤50 μm diameter). Approach. In each of five adult cats (4.2-5.5 kg), ISMS was applied through 16 electrodes implanted with tips targeting lamina IX in the ventral horn bilaterally. A desktop system implemented a physiologically-based control strategy that delivered different stimulation patterns through groups of electrodes to evoke walking movements with appropriate limb kinematics and forces corresponding to swing and stance. Each cat walked over an instrumented 2.9 m walkway and limb kinematics and forces were recorded. Main results. Both propulsive and supportive forces were required for over-ground walking. Cumulative walking distances ranging from 609 to 835 m (longest tested) were achieved in three animals. In these three cats, the mean peak supportive force was 3.5 ± 0.6 N corresponding to full-weight-support of the hind legs, while the angular range of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were 23.1 ± 2.0°, 29.1 ± 0.2°, and 60.3 ± 5.2°, respectively. To further demonstrate the viability of ISMS for future clinical use, a prototype implantable module was successfully implemented in a subset of trials and produced comparable walking performance. Significance. By activating inherent locomotor networks within the lumbosacral spinal cord, ISMS was capable of producing bilaterally coordinated and functional over-ground walking with current amplitudes <100 μA. These exciting results suggest that ISMS may be an effective intervention for restoring functional

  9. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  10. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  11. Effect of antimicrobials applied on the surface of beef subprimals via an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system(ESS)or the Sprayed Lethality in Container(SLIC)method to control Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) method to deliver antimicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli (STEC). In brief, beef subprimal...

  12. Use of air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS)or the sprayed lethality in container(SLIC) method to deliver anticmicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to ... shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC) method to deliver antimicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Beef subprimals were surface inocu...

  13. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  14. Charge transfer to ground-state ions produces free electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, D.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sakakibara, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ito, Y.; Maliyar, G. G.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Asa, K.; Sato, Y.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Schöffler, M.; Kastirke, G.; Hergenhahn, U.; Stumpf, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kuleff, A. I.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Ueda, K.

    2017-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization of an isolated atom typically leads to Auger decay. In an environment, for example, a liquid or a van der Waals bonded system, this process will be modified, and becomes part of a complex cascade of relaxation steps. Understanding these steps is important, as they determine the production of slow electrons and singly charged radicals, the most abundant products in radiation chemistry. In this communication, we present experimental evidence for a so-far unobserved, but potentially very important step in such relaxation cascades: Multiply charged ionic states after Auger decay may partially be neutralized by electron transfer, simultaneously evoking the creation of a low-energy free electron (electron transfer-mediated decay). This process is effective even after Auger decay into the dicationic ground state. In our experiment, we observe the decay of Ne2+ produced after Ne 1s photoionization in Ne-Kr mixed clusters.

  15. Charge transfer to ground-state ions produces free electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, D.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sakakibara, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ito, Y.; Maliyar, G. G.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Asa, K.; Sato, Y.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Schöffler, M.; Kastirke, G.; Hergenhahn, U.; Stumpf, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kuleff, A. I.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Ueda, K

    2017-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization of an isolated atom typically leads to Auger decay. In an environment, for example, a liquid or a van der Waals bonded system, this process will be modified, and becomes part of a complex cascade of relaxation steps. Understanding these steps is important, as they determine the production of slow electrons and singly charged radicals, the most abundant products in radiation chemistry. In this communication, we present experimental evidence for a so-far unobserved, but potentially very important step in such relaxation cascades: Multiply charged ionic states after Auger decay may partially be neutralized by electron transfer, simultaneously evoking the creation of a low-energy free electron (electron transfer-mediated decay). This process is effective even after Auger decay into the dicationic ground state. In our experiment, we observe the decay of Ne2+ produced after Ne 1s photoionization in Ne–Kr mixed clusters. PMID:28134238

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported beef meat in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhassan, Nawal Nouridaim; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Gimba, Fufa Ido; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed at determining the presence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported frozen beef meats. Seventy-four (74) frozen imported beef meat samples from two countries, India (42 samples) and Australia (32 samples), were collected and tested for E. coli. These samples were purchased from the frozen meat sections of five different supermarkets in different locations in Selangor, Malaysia, from April 2012 to October 2014. A total of 222 E. coli strains were isolated from the meat samples; 126 strains were isolated from country A (India), and 96 E. coli strains were from country of origin B (Australia), respectively. A total of 70 E. coli strains were identified and characterized. All E. coli strains were isolated into Fluorocult medium and identified using API 20E kit. All selected E. coli strains were characterized for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). All biochemically identified E. coli in this study were further subjected to molecular detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Of the 70 E. coli strains, 11 strains were positive for both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and 11 (11/70) strains were positive for stx1 gene, while 25 (25/70) strains were positive for stx2 gene. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene of all the E. coli isolates in this study was successfully sequenced and analyzed, and based on sequence data obtained, a phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using Clustal W programme in MEGA 6.06 software. Phylogenetic tree showed that the E. coli isolates in our study cluster with the strain of E. coli isolated in other countries, which further confirm that the isolates of E. coli in this study are similar to those obtained in other studies. As a result, all the strains obtained in this study proved to be a strain of pathogenic E. coli, which may cause a serious outbreak

  17. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  18. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  19. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  20. Modification of the BAX System PCR assay for detecting Salmonella in beef, produce, and soy protein isolate. Performance Tested Method 100201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linda X; Wallace, Morgan; Andaloro, Bridget; Fallon, Dawn; Fleck, Lois; Delduco, Dan; Tice, George

    2011-01-01

    The BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella detection in foods was previously validated as AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Method (PTM) 100201. New studies were conducted on beef and produce using the same media and protocol currently approved for the BAX System PCR assay for E. coli O157:H7 multiplex (MP). Additionally, soy protein isolate was tested for matrix extension using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) enrichment protocols. The studies compared the BAX System method to the U.S. Department of Agriculture culture method for detecting Salmonella in beef and the FDA-BAM culture method for detecting Salmonella in produce and soy protein isolate. Method comparison studies on low-level inoculates showed that the BAX System assay for Salmonella performed as well as or better than the reference method for detecting Salmonella in beef and produce in 8-24 h enrichment when the BAX System E. coli O157:H7 MP media was used, and soy protein isolate in 20 h enrichment with lactose broth followed by 3 h regrowth in brain heart infusion broth. An inclusivity panel of 104 Salmonella strains with diverse serotypes was tested by the BAX System using the proprietary BAX System media and returned all positive results. Ruggedness factors involved in the enrichment phase were also evaluated by testing outside the specified parameters, and none of the factors examined affected the performance of the assay.

  1. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  2. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  3. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  4. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO 2; MAP : 60% O 2-30% CO 2-10% N 2 and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D10 values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D10 values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  5. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO{sub 2}; MAP : 60% O{sub 2}-30% CO{sub 2}-10% N{sub 2} and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D{sub 10} values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D{sub 10} values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  6. Fiber-Optic Biosensor Employing Alexa-Fluor Conjugated Antibody for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Ground Beef in Four Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody which is specific forE. coli O157:H7. A polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiberwaveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction that served as a capture antibody. AnAlexa Fluor 647 dye-labeled antibody to E. coli O157:H7 was used to detect cells andgenerate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635 nm laser-lightfrom an Analyte-2000. Fluorescent molecules within several hundred nanometers of thefiber were excited by an evanescent wave, and a portion of the emission light fromfluorescent dye transmitted by the fiber and collected by a photodetector at wavelengths of670 to 710 nm quantitatively. This immunosensor was specific for E. coli O157:H7compared with multiple other foodborne bacteria. In addition, the biosensor was able todetect as low as 103 CFU/ml pure cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in culture broth.Artificially inoculated E. coli O157:H7 at concentration of 1 CFU/ml in ground beef couldbe detected by this method after only 4 hours of enrichment.

  7. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-11-01

    The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.

  8. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.

  9. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  10. Profile and activity of the bacterial biota of ground beef held from freshness to spoilage at 5-7 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J M; Vilai, J P; Hughes, M E

    2003-03-15

    Four samples of fresh ground beef were stored aerobically and held at 5-7 degrees C for up to 28 days. Although one sample initially yielded 21 different genera of bacteria while two others yielded only seven, all four spoiled essentially in the same way as assessed by aerobic, psychrotrophic, and Gram-negative counts, and by extract-release volume (ERV) and pH values. Pseudomonas spp. was dominant in the spoilage of all samples. As to why this group is so consistently associated with the low-temperature aerobic spoilage of fresh meats, it is hypothesized that they possess the capacity to form a biofilm and that quorum sensing is involved in the overall biofilm forming and functioning processes.

  11. A DECISION SUPPORT AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT USING EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Falconer; Long, Charles R.; McGrann, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The beef cattle investment decision provides an excellent opportunity to increase the economic efficiency of beef cattle production. The investment questions that face beef cattle producers are of interest to beef cattle producers, educators, and financial institutions involved in lending to beef cattle producing firms. This study develops a decision support aid utilizing expert system technology to assist beef cattle producers in making well-founded investment decisions with respect to the f...

  12. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  13. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  14. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  15. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  16. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pphosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (pphosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (pphosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  17. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL.

  18. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  19. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  20. A grounded theory study of the acquisition of technology by Danish dairy producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Troels Vammen; Tandrup, Peter René; Brandt, Charlotte J.;

    grounded theory method for this research. We carried out and analyzed 28 interviews with milk producers and 5 with technology vendors. Our results show that motivations for technology acquisition for milk producers include the economic situation of the farmer, the perceived value of the technology...

  1. Effects of packaging systems and fat concentrations on microbiology, sensory and physical properties of ground beef stored at 4±1°C for 25 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, N; Williams, S K

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of modified atmosphere (MAP, 0.4% carbon monoxide [CO], 30% carbon dioxide, and 69.6% nitrogen), vacuum (VP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging systems and fat levels (10, 20 and 30% fat) on ground beef stored at 4 ± 1°C for 25 days for microbiology, sensory, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), objective color, headspace and residual CO. As storage time increased, pH decreased (P< 0.05) for MAP and VP and increased (P < 0.05) for PVC. TBARS varied (P < 0.05) among MAP and VP treatments. Except for day 1, CO headspace concentrations were similar among fat concentrations, and residual CO absorption in meat increased (P < 0.05) for all MAP treatments. In all treatments, degree of lightness was similar, redness decreased and brown discoloration increased during storage. As psychrotrophic bacteria counts increased, panelists detected color and off-odor deterioration in all systems. The CO treatment had no effect on maintaining the carboxymyoglobin "cherry red" fresh meat color during meat spoilage.

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Caracterización de aislamientos de Listeria monocytogenes obtenidos de ganado y de carne molida de vacuno por electroforesis de campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Foerster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250 and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40 were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 % but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %. An important part of the ground beef strains (80 % had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la presencia de Listeria monocytogenes en el ganado y en la carne molida de vacuno comercializada en Chile, caracterizar los aislados mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y compararlos con los obtenidos en tres cepas que han producido listeriosis en humanos, en ese país. Se tomaron muestras de heces de bovinos (n = 250 y de carne molida obtenida en supermercados (n = 40. Se encontró una baja incidencia de este patógeno en las heces de bovinos (0,4 %; un solo animal, pero mayores porcentajes en la carne molida (37 %. Gran parte de las cepas encontradas en la carne molida (80 % mostraron una similitud mayor del 95 % con un caso esporádico de listeriosis y con la cepa de referencia ATCC 19115. La cepa aislada de bovino tuvo un 93 % de similitud con el clon 009, responsable de un brote asociado al consumo de queso, ocurrido en 2008. Se concluye que el ganado y la carne molida pueden albergar cepas virulentas de L. monocytogenes. Se necesita un mayor número de estudios en animales y en los productos que se

  3. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  4. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  5. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the FSIS microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “top-six” non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of food-borne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), and regulatory testing for these serogroups in beef began in...

  6. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Characterization of Escherichia coli and Hygiene Indicator Bacteria Isolated from Leafy Green Produce, Beef, and Pork Obtained from Farmers' Markets in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua A; Dudley, Edward G; Campbell, Jonathan; Roberts, Beth; DiMarzio, Michael; DebRoy, Chitrita; Cutter, Catherine N

    2017-02-01

    The popularity of farmers' markets in the United States has led to over 8,400 farmers' markets being in operation in 2015. As farmers' markets have increased in size and complexity in the kinds of foods sold at these venues, so have the potential food safety risks. Since 2008, seven major foodborne illness outbreaks and two recalls associated with food products from farmers' markets have occurred, causing 80 known reported illnesses and one death. Various researchers also have observed vendors performing high-risk food safety retail behaviors, and others have identified microbiological hazards in foods sold at farmers' markets. In this study, the presence of hygiene indicators (coliforms, fecal coliforms, Listeria spp., and Escherichia coli ) was assessed in select samples of leafy green produce and meat obtained from farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. E. coli isolates were further characterized by phylogenetic profile and virulence potential. E. coli was present in 40% (20 of 50) and 18% (9 of 50) of beef and pork samples, respectively, and in 28% (15 of 54), 29% (15 of 52), and 17% (8 of 46) of kale, lettuce, and spinach samples, respectively. Listeria spp. was found in 8% (4 of 50) of beef samples, 2% (1 of 54) of kale samples, 4% (2 of 52) of lettuce samples, and 7% (3 of 46) of spinach samples. Among the 10 Listeria spp. isolates, 3 were identified as L. monocytogenes . E. coli isolated from meat samples mainly clustered into phylogroup B1 (66%; 19 of 29), whereas produce isolates clustered into phylogroups B2 (36%; 14 of 39) and B1 (33%; 13 of 39). These E. coli isolates possessed the fimH, iroN, hlyD, and eae genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli . The high prevalence but low levels of E. coli and Listeria spp. found on both produce and meat products obtained from farmers' markets in this study strongly indicate that farmers' market vendors would benefit greatly from food safety training and increased

  7. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  8. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  9. Processing the ground vibration signal produced by debris flows: the methods of amplitude and impulses compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, M.; Abancó, C.; Coviello, V.; Hürlimann, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground vibration sensors have been increasingly used and tested, during the last few years, as devices to monitor debris flows and they have also been proposed as one of the more reliable devices for the design of debris flow warning systems. The need to process the output of ground vibration sensors, to diminish the amount of data to be recorded, is usually due to the reduced storing capabilities and the limited power supply, normally provided by solar panels, available in the high mountain environment. There are different methods that can be found in literature to process the ground vibration signal produced by debris flows. In this paper we will discuss the two most commonly employed: the method of impulses and the method of amplitude. These two methods of data processing are analyzed describing their origin and their use, presenting examples of applications and their main advantages and shortcomings. The two methods are then applied to process the ground vibration raw data produced by a debris flow occurred in the Rebaixader Torrent (Spanish Pyrenees) in 2012. The results of this work will provide means for decision to researchers and technicians who find themselves facing the task of designing a debris flow monitoring installation or a debris flow warning equipment based on the use of ground vibration detectors.

  10. Detection of non-O157 STEC in ground beef using the GeneDisc real-time PCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. A GeneDisc real-time PCR assay was evaluated for det...

  11. Survey of western Canadian beef producers regarding calf-hood diseases, management practices, and veterinary service usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl; Jelinski, Murray D; McIntyre-Zimmer, Katelyn

    2013-06-01

    Cow-calf producers in western Canada were surveyed in June 2010 regarding calf-hood diseases and veterinary service usage; 310 producers responded. Use of veterinary services, particularly herd-health related services, increased with herd size as did neonatal diarrhea and clostridial vaccine usage. Administration of clostridial vaccines to pregnant dams before calving was associated with a reduction in neonatal diarrhea treatments; however, there was no association between neonatal diarrhea vaccine usage and a reduction in diarrhea treatments. Producers with > 220 breeding females were more likely than those with veterinarian necropsy dead calves, have a veterinarian pregnancy check their bred females, and evaluate their herd bulls for breeding soundness.

  12. Survey of western Canadian beef producers regarding calf-hood diseases, management practices, and veterinary service usage

    OpenAIRE

    Waldner, Cheryl; Jelinski, Murray D.; McIntyre-Zimmer, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    Cow-calf producers in western Canada were surveyed in June 2010 regarding calf-hood diseases and veterinary service usage; 310 producers responded. Use of veterinary services, particularly herd-health related services, increased with herd size as did neonatal diarrhea and clostridial vaccine usage. Administration of clostridial vaccines to pregnant dams before calving was associated with a reduction in neonatal diarrhea treatments; however, there was no association between neonatal diarrhea v...

  13. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  14. Effects of Irradiation Dose and O2 and CO2 Concentrations in Packages on Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Quality of Ready-to-Cook Seasoned Ground Beef Product (Meatball during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbuz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of gamma irradiation and concentrations of O2 (0, 5, 21% and CO2 (0, 50% on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, lipid oxidation, and color changes in ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef (meatball during refrigerated storage were investigated. Ground beef seasoned with mixed spices was packaged in varying O2 and CO2 levels and irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiation (4 kGy caused about 6 Log inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Inactivation of Salmonella was 0.9- and 0.4-Log lower in 0 and 5% O2, respectively, compared to 21% O2. Irradiation at 2 and 4 kGy increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in meatballs by 0.12 and 0.28 mg malondialdehyde kg−1, respectively, compared to control. In reduced-O2 packages, radiation-induced oxidation was lower, and the initial color of an irradiated sample was maintained. Packaging with 0% + 50% CO2 or 5% O2 + 50% CO2 maintained the oxidative and the color quality of irradiated meatballs during 14-day refrigerated storage. MAP with 5%O2 + 50% CO2 combined with irradiation up to 4 kGy is suggested for refrigerated meatballs to reduce the foodborne pathogen risk and to maintain the quality.

  15. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  16. Study on the process of Maillard reaction in producing beef extract%美拉德反应制备牛肉提取物的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耀文; 刘微

    2013-01-01

    Process for producing beef extract by Maillard reaction were studied.Beef extract was made from fresh beef as raw material through biological enzyme solution or boiling extraction,concentration of raw materials and add other seasoning.It was rich in amino acids,peptides,polysaccharides and other nutrients.In this study,beef extract and Maillard reaction were combined,and beef extract was prepared by Maillard reaction flavor principle.According to the orthogonal experiment method and sensory evaluation,the optimum conditions of Maillard reaction in producing beef extract were determined:vitamin B10.4%,L-cysteinel.2%,beef tallow 5%,glucose 4%,reaction temperature 115℃,reaction time 60minutes.According to the best Maillard reaction conditions produced beef extract.The product was full-bodied,natural.And it had the following characteristics:1.mellow flavor of meat,2.the after taste and delicious,3.aromatizing effect,4.highlight the flavor characteristics of food.It can be widely used in meat products,instant noodles,condiments,frozen food,leisure food and other fields,which can provide reference for the research and development of such products.%对利用美拉德反应制备牛肉提取物的工艺进行了研究.牛肉提取物是以新鲜牛肉为原料通过生物酶解或熬煮提取,浓缩后加入其他调味原料精制而成.富含氨基酸、肽类、多糖等营养成分.本研究将牛肉提取物和美拉德反应相结合,利用美拉德反应生香原理制备了牛肉提取物.根据正交试验和感官评定方法确定了牛肉提取物美拉德反应的最佳条件为:维生素B10.4%,L-半胱氨酸1.2%,牛脂5%,葡萄糖4%,反应温度115℃,反应时间60分钟.根据最佳美拉德反应条件制作了牛肉提取物产品.该产品香气口感浓郁,真实自然,具有以下特点:1、肉味醇厚,肉香浓郁;2、产生后味和厚味;3、赋香效果;4、便于突出食品的风味特性.可广泛应用于肉制品、

  17. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.

  18. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  19. National Survey of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in Australian Beef Cattle Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Glen E; Fegan, Narelle; Duffy, Lesley L; McMILLAN, Kate E; Jordan, David; Barlow, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, colloquially referred to as the "big 6") have been classified as adulterants of raw nonintact beef products in the United States. While beef cattle are a known reservoir for the prototype STEC serotype, E. coli O157, less is known about the dissemination of non-O157 STEC serotypes in Australian cattle. In the present study, 1,500 fecal samples were collected at slaughter from adult (n =628) and young (n =286) beef cattle, adult (n =128) and young (n =143) dairy cattle, and veal calves (n = 315) across 31 Australian export-registered processing establishments. Fecal samples were enriched and tested for E. coli O157 and the big 6 STEC serotypes using BAX System PCR and immunomagnetic separation methods. Pathogenic STEC (pSTEC; isolates that possess stx, eae, and an O antigen marker for O157 or a big 6 serotype) were isolated from 115 samples (7.7%), of which 100 (6.7%) contained E. coli O157 and 19 (1.3%) contained a big 6 serotype. Four of the 115 samples contained multiple pSTEC serotypes. Among samples confirmed for big 6 pSTEC, 15 (1%) contained E. coli O26 and 4 (0.3%) contained E. coli O111. pSTEC of serotypes O45, O103, O121, and O145 were not isolated from any sample, even though genes indicative of E. coli belonging to these serotypes were detected by PCR. Analysis of animal classes revealed a higher pSTEC prevalence in younger animals, including veal (12.7%), young beef (9.8%), and young dairy (7.0%), than in adult animals, including adult beef (5.1%) and adult dairy (3.9%). This study is the largest of its kind undertaken in Australia. In contrast to E. coli O157 and consistent with previous findings, this study reports a relatively low prevalence of big 6 pSTEC serotypes in Australian cattle populations.

  20. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  1. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reacti

  2. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  3. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Lactic Acid and Citric Acid Blend against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Carcass Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Adler, Jeremy M; Belk, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Studies were conducted to (i) determine whether inoculants of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli biotype I effectively served as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Salmonella when prerigor beef carcass tissue was treated with a commercially available blend of lactic acid and citric acid (LCA) at a range of industry conditions of concentration, temperature, and pressure; (ii) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of LCA; and (iii) investigate the use of surrogates to validate a hot water and LCA sequential treatment as a carcass spray intervention in a commercial beef harvest plant. In an initial laboratory study, beef brisket tissue samples were left uninoculated or were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on the adipose side with E. coli O157:H7 (5-strain mixture), non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (12-strain mixture), Salmonella (6-strain mixture), or nonpathogenic E. coli (5-strain mixture). Samples were left untreated (control) or were treated with LCA, in a spray cabinet, at one of eight combinations of solution concentration (1.9 and 2.5%), solution temperature (43 and 60°C), and application pressure (15 and 30 lb/in(2)). In a second study, the E. coli surrogates were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on beef carcasses in a commercial facility to validate the use of a hot water treatment (92.2 to 92.8°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2)) followed by an LCA treatment (1.9%, 50 to 51.7°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2), 10 s). In the in vitro study, surrogate and pathogen bacteria did not differ in their response to the tested LCA treatments. Treatment with LCA reduced (P < 0.05) inoculated populations by 0.9 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2), irrespective of inoculum type. The hot water and LCA sequential treatments evaluated in the commercial facility reduced (P < 0.05) the inoculated nonpathogenic E. coli surrogates on carcasses by 3.7 log CFU/cm(2). This study therefore provides the meat industry with data for this sequential multiple hurdle system for the

  4. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  5. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, sensory quality and acceptability of native chicken and rabbit sausage produced with corn oil, margarine and beef fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewangko Lengkey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the effect of certain oils or fats (corn oil, margarine and beef fat on the physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and sensory quality of native chicken and rabbit sausages as low fat sausages. The sausages were evaluated by physicochemical analysis of pH, aw, moisture content, protein and fat, TPC and Salmonella as microbiological characteristics, as well as flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability as sensory quality, and with regards to diversification of meat products in Indonesia. Three formulations for native chicken (FA and rabbit (FB sausages were prepared: FA1 and FB1 (with 10% corn oil; FA2 and FB2 (with 10% margarine: FA3 and FB3 (with 10% beef fat. Results indicated no significant difference (p<0.05 between the pH and aw values of native chicken and rabbit sausages using different fat sources. The moisture content was significantly different (p<0.05 both between the native chicken and rabbit sausages and the types of fat source (corn oil, margarine and beef fat added. No effect on protein content was found both in native chicken and rabbit sausages. The lowest fat content was found in rabbit sausages (18.79 + 0.70% where corn oil was added as a fat source. Lowest TPC was also observed. Salmonella were not detected in any of the sausage groups. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in various sensory attributes. In conclusion, native chicken and rabbit meat seems to be a suitable alternative for low fat sausages production, particularly with corn oil as fat source.

  6. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  7. Validation of a method for simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, and O145 from minced beef by an international ring-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Karen; De Zutter, Lieven; Robyn, Joris; Daube, Georges; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; De Reu, Koen

    2012-05-01

    An isolation method described by Possé et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008;282:124-131) was satisfactorily validated in an international ring-trial using artificially contaminated minced beef samples. Until now, no validated method existed for the simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in food. Twelve laboratories from five European countries participated and received 16 inoculated beef samples contaminated with cold-stressed cells of the four serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in two levels (approximately 30 and 300 CFU 25 g⁻¹) in duplicate. In addition, they received four non-inoculated samples. The isolation protocol comprised a selective enrichment step, a selective isolation step on a non-O157 agar plate differentiating the serogroups by color, followed by confirmation by plating on confirmation agar media and agglutination. All laboratories were able to isolate the inoculated serogroups from the samples, both for the high and the low inoculation level. Results did not differ whether in-house-prepared or ready-to-use non-O157 agar plates were used, demonstrating that by following the instructions laboratories managed to perform the complete protocol with success.

  8. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  9. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  10. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  11. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  12. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  13. Peak ground acceleration produced by local earthquakes in volcanic areas of Campi Flegrei and Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petrosino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The scaling law of the seismic spectrum experimentally calculated at Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei is used to constrain the estimate of the maximum expected peak acceleration of ground motion.

  14. Perceptions of veterinarians in bovine practice and producers with beef cow-calf operations enrolled in the US Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program concerning economic losses associated with Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bikash; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Osterstock, Jason B; Fossler, Charles P; Park, Seong C; Roussel, Allen J

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the perceptions of producers and veterinarians on the economic impacts of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in cow-calf herds. Questionnaires were mailed to beef producers through the Designated Johne's Coordinators and to veterinarians belonging to a nationwide professional organization. Important components of losses associated with MAP infected cows were used to estimate total loss per infected cow-year using an iterative approach based on collected survey data. Veterinarians were more likely to perceive a lower calving percentage in MAP infected cows compared to producers (P=0.02). Income lost due to the presence of Johne's disease (JD) in an infected cattle herd was perceived to be higher by veterinarians (Pveterinarians without JD certification, seedstock producers were more likely to perceive genetic losses due to culling cows positive for MAP (Pveterinarians was $250 ($82-$486). Mean annual loss due to JD in a 100 cow herd with a 7% true prevalence was $1644 ($625-$3250) based on information provided by producers. Similarly, mean annual loss based on information collected from veterinarians was $1747 ($575-$3375). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  16. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  17. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  18. Size of craters produced by explosive charges on or above the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, R. D.; Luccioni, B. M.; Danesi, R. F.; Riera, J. D.; Rocha, M. M.

    The results of a series of tests performed with different amounts of explosive at short distances above and below ground level, as well as on the soil surface are briefly described. After an introductory description of both the main features of the blast wave and the mechanics of crater formation, a brief review of empirical methods for crater size prediction is presented. Next, the experimental design and the results obtained are described. The crater dimensions for underground explosions coincide with those found in the literature. For explosions at ground level the results are qualitatively described by empirical equations. For explosive charges situated above ground level, the dimensions of the craters are smaller than those observed in underground and near the surface explosions. Two new single prediction equations for this case are presented.

  19. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  20. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  1. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  2. Outbreaks of Salmonella infections attributed to beef --United States, 1973-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, A S; Grass, J; Holt, K; Whichard, J M; Griffin, P M; Gould, L H

    2015-07-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is estimated to be the most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing an estimated one million domestically acquired foodborne illnesses annually. Recent, large outbreaks have highlighted the importance of ground beef as an important source of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. We analysed the epidemiology of salmonellosis outbreaks that were attributed to beef in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1973 to 2011. During 1973-2011, of the 1965 outbreaks of Salmonella where a food vehicle was implicated, 96 were attributed to beef, accounting for 3684 illnesses. We observed a shift in the type of beef implicated in salmonellosis outbreaks, from roast to ground beef. Delicatessen-style roast beef cooked in commercial processing establishments was the predominant type during the 1970s and early 1980s; regulations on cooking and processing essentially eliminated this problem by 1987. Ground beef emerged as an important vehicle in the 2000s; it was implicated in 17 (45%) of the 38 beef-attributed outbreaks reported during 2002-2011. Although this emergence was likely due in part to increased participation in CDC's PulseNet, which was established in 1996, and proactive decisions by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, stronger measures are needed to decrease contamination of ground beef with Salmonella.

  3. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  4. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  5. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  6. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy production ... decomposition of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part ... Keywords: Cow-calf production, methane, pasture production, production levels, total ...

  7. Integration of decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to produce green aromatics from coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li; Saffron, Christopher M; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongyu; Munro, Robert W; Kriegel, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to integrate decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to convert coffee grounds into the green aromatic precursors of terephthalic acid, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). An economic analysis of this bioproduct system was conducted to examine BTEX yields, biomass costs and their sensitivities. Model predictions were verified experimentally using pyrolysis GC/MS to quantify BTEX yields for raw and torrefied biomass. The production cost was minimized when the torrefier temperature and residence time were 239°C and 34min, respectively. This optimization study found conditions that justify torrefaction as a pretreatment for making BTEX, provided that starting feedstock costs are below $58 per tonne. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Removal of fluoride ions from water by adsorption onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous material for the removal of fluoride ions from water was prepared from coffee grounds (CGs) by calcination and subsequent HCl treatment. The characteristics of the CGs, including the surface area, mean pore diameter, pore volume, and surface functional groups were determined, and the morphological characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption isotherms, saturated amount of fluoride ions adsorbed, and the effect of contact time and temperature on the adsorption of fluoride ions were investigated for a sample of tap water. The specific surface area of CG calcined at 600° (CG600) was larger than that of CGs calcined at 400, 800, and 1000°. Phenolic, lactonic, and carboxyl groups were detected on the CG600 surface. The adsorption capacity of the carbonized CGs for fluoride was ranked in the order CG400 water.

  9. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  10. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  11. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen.

  13. Probing the limitations of isotropic pair potentials to produce ground-state structural extremes via inverse statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2013-10-01

    Inverse statistical-mechanical methods have recently been employed to design optimized short-range radial (isotropic) pair potentials that robustly produce novel targeted classical ground-state many-particle configurations. The target structures considered in those studies were low-coordinated crystals with a high degree of symmetry. In this paper, we further test the fundamental limitations of radial pair potentials by targeting crystal structures with appreciably less symmetry, including those in which the particles have different local structural environments. These challenging target configurations demanded that we modify previous inverse optimization techniques. In particular, we first find local minima of a candidate enthalpy surface and determine the enthalpy difference ΔH between such inherent structures and the target structure. Then we determine the lowest positive eigenvalue λ(0) of the Hessian matrix of the enthalpy surface at the target configuration. Finally, we maximize λ(0)ΔH so that the target structure is both locally stable and globally stable with respect to the inherent structures. Using this modified optimization technique, we have designed short-range radial pair potentials that stabilize the two-dimensional kagome crystal, the rectangular kagome crystal, and rectangular lattices, as well as the three-dimensional structure of the CaF(2) crystal inhabited by a single-particle species. We verify our results by cooling liquid configurations to absolute zero temperature via simulated annealing and ensuring that such states have stable phonon spectra. Except for the rectangular kagome structure, all of the target structures can be stabilized with monotonic repulsive potentials. Our work demonstrates that single-component systems with short-range radial pair potentials can counterintuitively self-assemble into crystal ground states with low symmetry and different local structural environments. Finally, we present general principles that offer

  14. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  15. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  16. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  17. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  18. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  19. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  20. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  2. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif Bilek, A; Turhan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    Flaxseed flour was used as a functional ingredient in the production of beef patties. Beef patties were produced with five different formulations; the addition of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% flaxseed flour. Control samples were formulated with 10% and 20% fat addition. Raw and cooked beef patties were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, pH, color parameters and fatty acid profiles. Beef patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory properties. Fat and ash content of raw patties increased, while moisture and protein content decreased with increased flaxseed flour. The same trend (except fat content) was also observed after cooking. The addition of flaxseed flour did not affect pH values of raw and cooked beef patties. The addition of flaxseed flour improved the cooking loss but, increased the energy value (as kcal/100g). L and a values of raw beef patties containing flaxseed flour were close to controls with 10% fat. α-linolenic acid content of raw and cooked beef patties increased as the level of flaxseed flour increased. The PUFA/SFA ratio increased from 0.04 in the control with 10% fat to 0.62 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 5.76 in the control with 10% fat to 0.36 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The nutritional status of beef patties was enhanced with minimal composition and sensory changes with 3% or 6% flaxseed flour addition.

  3. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  5. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  6. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  7. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  8. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...... positive samples to produce isolates for further characterization. The choice of a rapid method will always depend on the requested information and be influenced by the relevant matrix and the expected level of contamination....

  9. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Since around 1990, Indonesia had been importing about 40% of its entire beef consumption. To reduce its reliance on imports, Indonesia launched the beef selfsufficiency programme (BSSP), which operated between 2005 and 2014, with the aim being to reduce imports of beef cattle to 10% of national...... focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...

  10. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  11. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however, mig

  12. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  13. Relation between ground-water quality and mineralogy in the coal- producing Norton Formation of Buchanan County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John D.; Larson, Jerry D.

    1985-01-01

    The geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in the coal-producing strata of southwestern Virginia include hydrolysis of silicates, dissolution of carbonates, oxidation of pyrite, cation exchange, and precipitation of secondary minerals, kaolinite and goethite. Core material from the Norton Formation of the Pennsylvania Period is composed of slightly more than one-half sandstone; siltstone and minor amounts of shale, clay, and coal account for the majority of the remainder. Petrographic analyses and x-ray diffraction studies indicate that the sandstone is about 75 percent quartz, 15 percent plagioclase feldspar, 2 percent potassium feldspar, 2 percent muscovite, 4 percent chlorite, and 1 percent siderite. Calcite is present in small amounts and in a few strata as clasts or cement. No limestone strata were identified. The siltstone is about 50 percent quartz, 10 percent plagioclase feldspar, 10 percent mica, 20 percent chlorite, and from 0 to 25 percent siderite. Pyrite is associated with some siltstone and, where present, generally accounts for less than 1 percent. Total sulfur generally constitutes less than 0.1 percent of core samples but about 4 percent in the more pyrite-rich layers. Three reaction models are used to account for the observed water chemistry. The models derive sulfate from pyrite, iron from pyrite and siderite, calcium from plagioclase and calcite, sodium from plagioclase and cation exchange, magnesium from chlorite, and carbon from carbon dioxide, calcite, and siderite. Kaolinite, chalcedony, and goethite are formed authigenically. Carbon-13 data define the relative contributions of carbon sources to models. Comparison of adjacent unmined and mined basins indicates that surface mining significantly increases the weathering reaction of pyrite in contrast to weathering reactions of other minerals. However, in the area studied, reactive pyrite does not appear to be present in sufficient quantities in strata associated with mined

  14. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  15. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  16. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  17. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  18. Competitiveness of the EU Beef Sector – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Smeets Kristková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elements of competitiveness of the EU beef sector are assessed using the value chain approach. Consequently, the impact of the external factors represented by domestic policy and foreign trade policy is discussed, with the aim of deriving recommendations for policy makers. It is shown that investing in collaborative supply chains can improve the disadvantaged position of beef producers, which have the least power in the supply chain. Furthermore, the domains of science and innovation provide several opportunities that could be further explored, namely improving the logistics of the supply chain and developing more tailored quality systems. The main threats stem from potential free trade agreements, climate change and the internal competition between other agricultural crops. Better targeting of the CAP and environmental aspects are suggested to maintain the competitiveness of European beef producers.

  19. Analysis of ground vibrations produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lemont, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Carolyn Michelle

    Since its completion in 1910, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) has become a pathway for invasive species (and potentially Asian carp) to reach the Great Lakes. Currently, an electric barrier is used to prevent Asian carp migration through the canal, but the need for a secondary method is necessary, especially when the electric barrier undergoes maintenance. The underwater Asian carp "cannon" (water gun) provides such a method. Analysis of the ground movement produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the CSSC was performed in order to establish any potential for damage to the either the canal or structures built along the canal. Ground movement was collected using 3-component geophones on both the land surface and in boreholes. The peak particle velocities (PPVs) were analyzed to determine if damage would be caused to structures located along the canal. Vector sum velocity ground movement along the canal wall was as high as 0.28 in/s (7.11 mm/s), which is much lower than the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) ground vibration damage threshold of 0.75 in/s (19.1 mm/s), causing no potential for damage to structures along the canal wall. The dominant frequency of ground motion produced by the water gun is primarily above 40 Hz, so the wave energy should attenuate fairly quickly away from the canal wall, with little disturbance to structures further from the wall.

  20. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  1. 自熟多功能单螺杆挤压重组牛肉的加工工艺研究%Study on Processing Technology of Single-screw Extruder to Produce Textured Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福泉; 陈柯; 杨文; 段翠翠

    2013-01-01

    In this study, self-cooked multifunction single-screw food extruder was used to extrude beef products to develop a method that could increase the most important life-sustaining nutrient-lysine and maintain a nutritional balance. The response surface method was used in this study to identify the effects of three operating parameters, including volume of addition of beef feed moisture and feed size on the extrusion degree, fatty acids and amino acid composition under constant screw speed. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: constant screw speed 370 r/min, volume of addition of beef 37.00%, feed moisture 24.08% and the feed size 16 mesh. The results obtained by investigation on the changes of beef fat and amino acids before and after extrusion showed that the loss rate of fatty acid was high in the extrusion process, especially y linolenic acid. In the extruded beef, the content of seven kinds of essential amino acids was relatively reduced, of which the lysine and serine were reduced significantly which were 16.82% and 16.20% respectively. Tyrosine and histidine were reduced slightly, being of 13.3 % and 13.8% respectively.%本论文利用自熟多功能单螺杆食品膨化机,通过挤压膨化牛肉制品的开发与研究,增加维持生命最重要的营养素赖氨酸,使之营养平衡.应用响应面法研究了恒定螺杆转速下,牛肉的添加量、进料湿度及进料粒度三个操作参数对牛肉蛋白挤出物的膨化度、脂肪酸、氨基酸成分变化程度的影响.确定了最适工艺条件:螺杆恒定转速为370 r/min,牛肉的添加量是37.00%,进料湿度是24.08%,进料粒度是16目.通过对挤压前后牛肉脂肪和氨基酸的变化研究,表明在挤压膨化过程中,脂肪酸的损失率较高,特别是γ亚麻酸.挤压膨化牛肉中7种人体必须氨基酸的含量相对是减少的,赖氨酸和丝氨酸减少的比例最大,分别是16.82%和16.20%,酪氨酸和组氨酸

  2. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate.

  3. Development and validation of two SYBR green PCR assays and a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Linares, Luciano H; Ortega, Emanuel E; Lirón, Juan P; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as food-borne pathogens. We developed and validated two SYBR green PCR (SYBR-PCR) and a real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) to detect stx1 and stx2 genes in meat samples, and compared these techniques in ground beef samples from retail stores. One set of primers and one hydrolysis probe were designed for each stx gene. For RT-PCR, an internal amplification control (IAC) was used. All PCR intra-laboratory validations were performed using pure strains and artificially contaminated ground beef samples. A total of 50 STEC and 30 non-STEC strains were used. Naturally contaminated ground beef samples (n=103) were obtained from retail stores and screened with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR, and stx-positive samples were processed for STEC isolation. In the intra-laboratory validation, each PCR obtained a 1×10(2) CFU mL(-1) limit of detection and 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. The same results were obtained when different laboratory analysts in alternate days performed the assay. The level of agreement obtained with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR was kappa=0.758 and 0.801 (P<0.001) for stx1 and stx2 gene detection, respectively. Two PCR strategies were developed and validated, and excellent performance with artificially contaminated ground beef samples was obtained. However, the efforts made to isolate STEC from retail store samples were not enough. Only 11 STEC strains were isolated from 35 stx-positive ground beef samples identically detected by all PCRs. The combination of molecular approaches based on the identification of a virulence genotypic profile of STEC must be considered to improve isolation.

  4. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  5. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  6. Where's the Beef? Adding Rigor to Student Digital Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Bernajean

    2010-01-01

    Effective communication skills start with content that is worthy of sharing. Students exploring and using various technologies, unfortunately, easily become enamoured by media novelties, such as flying words or spinning images, and produce digital products with no beef. Using digital tools does not make their cutting and pasting of summary…

  7. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... second day after heating produced in beef suya 3.3 x 103/g. Shigella ... However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of ... Growth in peptone water was used for .... vendor to re-heat the suya before purchasing.

  8. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  9. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  10. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  11. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  12. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  13. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  14. Atmospheric Water Monitoring by Using Ground-Based GPS during Heavy Rains Produced by TPV and SWV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The time series of precipitable water (PW in 30 min intervals has been determined through experimentation and operational application of a ground-based global positioning system (GPS network in Chengdu Plain, which is used for precise and reliable meteorological research. This study is the first to apply PW to the southwest vortex (SWV and heavy rain events by using the data from an intensive SWV experiment conducted in summer 2010. The PW derived from the local ground-based GPS network was used in the monitoring and analysis of heavy rain caused by the SWV and the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV. Results indicate that an increase in GPS precipitable water (GPS-PW occurs prior to the development of the TPV and SWV; rainfall occurs mainly during high levels of GPS-PW. The evolution features of GPS-PW in rainfall process caused by different weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP also differ. These results indicate the reference values for operational applications of GPS-PW data in short-term forecasting and nowcasting of high-impact weather in addition to further investigation of heavy rain caused by the TPV, SWV, and other severe weather systems over the TP.

  15. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abancó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  16. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  17. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  18. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  19. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  20. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  1. Strength development characteristics of concrete produced with blended cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) under various curing conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHAHAB SAMAD; ATTAULLAH SHAH; MUKESH C LIMBACHIYA

    2017-07-01

    To reduce the embodied carbon dioxide of structural concrete, Portland cement (PC) in concrete can be partially replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). In this research effect of partial replacement of cement with GGBS on strength development of concrete and cured under summer and wintercuring environments is established. Three levels of cement substitution i.e., 30%, 40% and 50% have been selected. Early-age strength of GGBS concrete is lower than the normal PC concrete which limits its use in the fast-track construction and post-tensioned beams which are subjected to high early loads. The strength gainunder winter curing condition was observed as slower. By keeping the water cement ratio low as 0.35, concrete containing GGBS up to 50% can achieve high early-age strength. GGBS concrete gains more strength than the PC concrete after the age of 28 day till 56 day. The mechanical properties of blended concrete for various levels of cement replacement have been observed as higher than control concrete mix having no GGBS.

  2. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  3. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  4. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  5. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  6. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  7. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  8. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  9. The environmental and economic impact of removing growth-enhancing technologies from U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, J L; Hayes, D J

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the environmental and economic impact of withdrawing growth-enhancing technologies (GET) from the U.S. beef production system. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 454 × 10(6) kg of beef. Two production systems were compared: one using GET (steroid implants, in-feed ionophores, in-feed hormones, and beta-adrenergic agonists) where approved by FDA at current adoption rates and the other without GET use. Both systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics, and production data from U.S. beef systems. The economic impact and global trade and carbon implications of GET withdrawal were calculated based on feed savings. Withdrawing GET from U.S. beef production reduced productivity (growth rate and slaughter weight) and increased the population size required to produce 454 × 10(6) kg beef by 385 × 10(3) animals. Feedstuff and land use were increased by 2,830 × 10(3) t and 265 × 10(3) ha, respectively, by GET withdrawal, with 20,139 × 10(6) more liters of water being required to maintain beef production. Manure output increased by 1,799 × 10(3) t as a result of GET withdrawal, with an increase in carbon emissions of 714,515 t/454 × 10(6) kg beef. The projected increased costs of U.S. beef produced without GET resulted in the effective implementation of an 8.2% tax on beef production, leading to reduced global trade and competitiveness. To compensate for the increase in U.S. beef prices and maintain beef supply, it would be necessary to increase beef production in other global regions, with a projected increase in carbon emissions from deforestation, particularly in Brazil. Withdrawing GET from U.S. beef production would reduce both the economic and environmental sustainability of the industry.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth by using combined bacteriocin-producing strains in raw beef%产抗菌素乳酸菌的组合应用对牛肉中李斯特菌污染的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩华; 谷贵章; 张进杰; 陈健初

    2011-01-01

    The synergy inhibition of two lactic acid bacteria strains, Lactobacillus curvatus and Pediococcus acidilactici H,on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in frozen beef was investigated. A Lactobacillus curvatus strain( producing the bacteriocin sakacin P)and a Pediococcus acidilactici H (producing bacteriocin pediocin AcH)were inoculated alone or together in a Listeria-seeded raw pork meat which was stored at 4℃ for 6 weeks.The growth of Listeria monocytogenes was controlled by adding either LAB strain alone,yet the rebound appeared after one-week storage. However,the time of inhibition was prolonged by adding combined these two LAB strains to 6 weeks, after when the Listeria monocytogenes had a rebound with the cfu count lower than 10cfu · g-1.Therefore, using the combined these two LAB strains can effectively delay the rebound of Listeria monocytogenes in the beef.%研究了弯曲乳酸杆菌和乳酸片球菌对低温冷藏牛肉中李斯特菌的混合协同抑制作用.李斯特菌、弯曲乳酸杆菌(产细菌素sakacin P)和乳酸片球菌(产生片球菌素AcH),单独或混合接种于冷鲜牛肉中,4℃下储藏6周.单一接种弯曲乳酸杆菌或乳酸片球菌均能对李斯特菌起到抑制作用,但一周后均出现李斯特菌再次污染现象;然而混合接种弯曲乳酸杆菌和乳酸片球菌能将对李斯特菌的抑制期延长至第六周,之后才出现反弹现象,且李斯特菌数低于10cfu·g-1.因此,应用组合产细菌素菌株能有效延长对李斯特菌的抑制作用.

  11. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  12. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  13. Spoilage of vacuum-packed beef by the yeast Kazachstania psychrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Jan; Erl-Höning, Constanze; Wenning, Mareike; Böhnlein, Christina; Gareis, Manfred; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the psychrotolerant yeast microbiota of vacuum-packed beef was conducted between 2010 and 2012. Chilled vacuum-packed beef (n = 50) sampled from 15 different producers was found to have a mean psychrotolerant yeast count of 3.76 log cfu per cm(2). During this assessment, a recently described yeast named Kazachstania psychrophila was shown to be associated with this product. In order to gain basic knowledge about the spoilage potential of K. psychrophila in vacuum-packed beef, challenge studies were performed and the survival of three different K. psychrophila strains was analyzed during storage of artificially contaminated beef. Beef samples were inoculated with the yeasts at a contamination level of 2 log cfu per cm(2). Survival and growth of K. psychrophila strains was monitored on malt extract agar at regular intervals over 84 days. Kazachstania levels rapidly increased about 5 log units within 16 days under chill conditions (4 °C). Gas bubbles were observed after 16 days, while discoloration and production of off-flavors became evident after 42 days in inoculated samples. This study demonstrates for the first time, that the psychrotolerant yeast K. psychrophila is a dominant spoilage microorganism of vacuum-packed beef products stored at low temperatures, causing sensory defects which result in reduced shelf life, and consequently in considerable economic losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Japanese consumers' valuation of domestic beef after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Manabu; Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    After the radioactive contamination of agricultural and livestock products caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 11, 2011, consumer aversion against purchasing food products from the affected areas has become a major social problem in Japan. We examine how test results for radioactive materials in beef affect consumer valuation of beef produced in no-risk and affected areas using a choice experiment survey of consumers in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 392). Respondents were divided into two groups: one faced choice experiment tasks under the current test condition (the test status was only "under the limit"), and the other faced choice experiment tasks under the tightened test condition (with three levels: "below the limit," "below one-tenth of the limit," and "undetected"). We found that consumer valuation of "below the limit" beef in the affected area did not differ from that of "below one-tenth of the limit" beef in the affected area. Introducing the tightened status improved consumer valuations of all types of beef in the no-risk area regardless of the test status. However, consumer valuation of "undetected" beef in the affected area was lower than that in the no-risk area. The same measures need to be implemented with great care in both no-risk and affected areas. Otherwise, the effects of measures taken in the affected areas may be diluted.

  15. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    average interval between treatments was significantly longer in dairy goat herds (4.8 months) than in the beef herds (3.6 months). The most commonly used drugs were macrocyclic lactones (37.7% in dairy and 39.5% in beef herds) and benzimidazoles (48.9% in dairy and 31.5% in beef herds). Goat production in Minas Gerais is still in its infancy, and even though using a control program associated with other health practices, producers still rely heavily on chemicals to get satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  17. Customer relationships strategy: an Australian cattle producers’ case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of beef supply chains revealed that a strategic focus on beef quality was critical to that part of the chain involving producers. Moreover, beef quality was directly related to customer relationship management. Across the industry, there are a diverse set of customers each with different needs. This means that it is difficult for individual producers to develop a successful approach to customer relationship management without developing a product focus on one or two of these custo...

  18. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  19. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  20. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  2. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  3. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  4. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  5. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  7. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  8. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  9. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  10. PENYANGRAIAN HANCURAN NIB KAKAO DENGAN ENERJI GELOMBANG MIKRO UNTUK MENGHASILKAN COKELAT BUBUK Microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib to produce cocoa powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto Supriyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, energy from a microwave oven adjusted at 20 % scale out of 900 watt for 5 min was applied to roast ground cocoa nib passing through 20 mesh screen for 5 min to produce cocoa powder. Effect of the technique on the physical and chemical properties of the product was compared to that of the conventional roasting at 140oC for 40 min. The result indicated that cocoa powder which was produced by microwave roasting had lower water content (3.48% compared to 3.88%; lower fat content (23.56% compared to 25.18%. It had smaller particle size and more uniform (10-45 µm compared to 20 – 125 µm, however both of them had the same brown intensity. Flavor intensity, color and acceptability of cocoa powder produced by microwave oven did not show a significant difference (p<0.05, however it had more bitter taste, and comprised more flavor components compared to that of resulted by conventional roasting. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of cocoa powder produced by microwave and conventional roasting were not significant difference (p<0.05. ABSTRAK Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan penyangraian hancuran keping biji kakao (nib lolos ayakan 20 mesh, mengguna- kan enerji gelombang mikro (EGM, untuk pengolahan bubuk cokelat. Pengaruh cara penyangraian tersebut dikaji terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia bubuk cokelat yang dihasilkan, dibandingkan dengan penyangraian konvensional. Pe- nyangraian nib kakao menggunakan EGM dilakukan selama 5 menit diatur pada posisi power 20 % dari 900 watt, penyangraian konvensional dilakukan pada suhu 140 oC selama 40 menit. Bubuk cokelat hasil penyangraian meng- gunakan EGM mempunyai kadar air lebih rendah (3,48 % dibanding 3,88 %, kadar lemak lebih rendah (23,56 % dibanding 25,18 %, ukuran partikel hancuran lebih kecil (10 – 45 µm dibanding 20 – 125 µm dan lebih merata, serta intensitas warna cokelat tidak berbeda dibanding bubuk cokelat hasil penyangraian konvensional (p<0,05. Bubuk cokelat dari hasil

  11. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  12. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  13. Evaluation of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  14. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  15. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  16. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  17. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  18. An overview of the nutritional value of beef and lamb meat from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2014-11-01

    The southern region of South America, a subtropical and temperate zone, is an important region for the production of beef and lamb meat, which is mainly produced in extensive pasture-based systems. Because of its content in highly valuable nutrients such as iron, zinc, selenium, fatty acids, and vitamins, meat is a unique and necessary food for the human diet in order to secure a long and healthy life, without nutritional deficiencies. Beef and lamb production systems based on temperate or tropical grasslands show interesting and, in some cases, a differential content in minerals, fatty acids and vitamins. This review deals with the distinctive aspects of the nutritional quality of beef and lamb meat produced in this region in terms of nutritional composition and the bioavailability of key nutrients related to its contribution for a healthy diet for all ages.

  19. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  20. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  1. Bomb-produced radiocarbon in the western tropical Pacific Ocean: Guam coral reveals operation-specific signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Allen H.; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Camacho, Frank

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from Guam, a western tropical Pacific island, revealed a series of early bomb-produced 14C spikes. The typical marine bomb 14C signal—phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric records—is present in the coral and is consistent with other regional coral records. However, 14C levels well above what can be attributed to air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly was observed in other Indo-Pacific coral records, but the Guam record is unmatched in magnitude and temporal resolution. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three spikes in 1954-1955, 1956-1957, and 1958-1959 that are superimposed on a normal 14C record. Relative to mean prebomb levels, the first peak rises an incredible ˜700‰ and remained elevated for ˜1.2 years. A follow up assay with finer resolution increased the peak by ˜300‰. Subsequent spikes were less intense with a rise of ˜35 and ˜70‰. Each can be linked to thermonuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in Operations Castle (1954), Redwing (1956), and Hardtack I (1958). These 14C signals can be explained by vaporization of coral reef material in the nuclear fireball, coupled with neutron activation of atmospheric nitrogen (14C production), and subsequent absorption of 14CO2 to form particulate carbonates of close-in fallout. The lag time in reaching Guam and other coral records abroad was tied to ocean surface currents and modeling provided validation of 14C arrival observations.

  2. Effect of replacing beef fat with hazelnut oil on quality characteristics of sucuk - A Turkish fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Turp, G; Serdaroğlu, M

    2008-04-01

    Turkish fermented sausages (sucuk) were produced by replacing 15, 30 and 50% of beef fat with hazelnut oil incorporated as pre-emulsified with simplesse(®) 100 (whey protein powder) Each treatment was formulated to contain 20% total fat and beef fat was the only fat material used in the control (C) group. After 12 days of fermentation and ripening, all sucuk samples had TBA values within acceptable limits (replacement had a significant effect on redness values of the samples. Cholesterol content decreased progressively as the percentage of hazelnut oil increased in the formulation. Replacement of 50% beef fat with 50% hazelnut oil significantly increased MUFA, PUFA and MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios. The use of hazelnut oil resulted in significant decreases in the slice appearance, texture and taste scores. However there was no significant difference in the overall acceptability score of samples, except those in which hazelnut oil replaced 15% beef fat, which had the highest score.

  3. How do US and Canadian consumers value credence attributes associated with beef labels after the North American BSE crisis of 2003?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Yang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A consumer survey conducted in 2006 (n = 419), and therefore after the first confirmed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases in North America in 2003, employs attribute-based choice experiments for a cross-country comparison of consumers' valuation of credence attributes associated with beef...... steak labels; specifically a guarantee that beef was tested for BSE, a guarantee that the steaks were produced without genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a guarantee that beef steaks were produced without growth hormones and antibiotics. Considering consumers' socio-economic characteristics...

  4. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  5. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  6. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  7. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  8. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  9. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  10. Promising Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Assay Plus PCR for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Kana; Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2015-08-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a frequent cause of foodborne infections, and methods for rapid and reliable detection of STEC are needed. A nucleic acid lateral flow assay (NALFA) plus PCR was evaluated for detecting STEC after enrichment. When cell suspensions of 45 STEC strains, 14 non-STEC strains, and 13 non-E. coli strains were tested with the NALFA plus PCR, all of the STEC strains yielded positive results, and all of the non-STEC and non-E. coli strains yielded negative results. The lower detection limit for the STEC strains ranged from 0.1 to 1 pg of genomic DNA (about 20 to 200 CFU) per test, and the NALFA plus PCR was able to detect Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli strains with similar sensitivities. The ability of the NALFA plus PCR to detect STEC in enrichment cultures of radish sprouts, tomato, raw ground beef, and beef liver inoculated with 10-fold serially diluted STEC cultures was comparable to that of a real-time PCR assay (at a level of 100 to 100,000 CFU/ml in enrichment culture). The bacterial inoculation test in raw ground beef revealed that the lower detection limit of the NALFA plus PCR was also comparable to that obtained with a real-time PCR assay that followed the U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines. Although further evaluation is required, these results suggest that the NALFA plus PCR is a specific and sensitive method for detecting STEC in a food manufacturing plant.

  11. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    a unimportant. German consumers prefer dark meat, whereas Spanish consumers tend to prefer light meat. 7. Information about country of origin and breeding and feeding has no effect on quality perception. 8. The results suggest that producers of superior beef have a problem in communicating this quality...

  12. Methods for detecting pathogens in the food chain for beef: from farm to slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella. Other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. may also be present and pose contamination concerns in both the cattle production environment and bee...

  13. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Escherichia coli on Beef Trimmings Obtained from a Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Wang, Hui; Youssef, Mohamed K; Devos, Julia; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top. The samples were enriched for E. coli in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with 20 mg/liter novobiocin. The positive enrichment cultures, as determined by PCR, were plated on E. coli/coliform count plates for recovery of E. coli. Selected E. coli isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 200 enrichment cultures, 43 were positive by PCR for E. coli, and 32 of these cultures yielded E. coli isolates. Two bins did not yield any positive enrichment cultures, and three PCR-positive bins did not yield any E. coli isolates. MLVA of 165 E. coli isolates (30, 62, 56, 5, and 12 from B6 through B10, respectively) revealed nine distinct genotypes. MLVA types 263 and 89 were most prevalent overall and on individual days, accounting for 49.1 and 37.6% of the total isolates, respectively. These two genotypes were also found at multiple locations within a bin. All nine genotypes belonged to the phylogenetic group A0 of E. coli, suggesting an animal origin. The finding that the trimmings carried very few E. coli indicates an overall effective control over contamination of beef with E. coli at this processing plant. The lack of strain diversity of the E. coli on trimmings suggests that most E. coli isolates may have come from common sources, most likely equipment used in the fabrication process.

  14. Sex determination in beef by melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Nicolai Z; Madsen, Knud G

    2007-11-01

    Sex determination of beef is important to meet the rules of the Commission Regulation (EC) 765/2002 that qualify for export refunds. A SYBR Green sex identification assay based on melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus (AMELX and AMELY) was developed. The PCR amplicons of 130/130 and 130/67 base pairs produced from female and male beef, respectively, are easily distinguished by both melting curve analysis and gel electrophoresis. Results from the melting curve analysis of amplicons are ready in less than three minutes, and requires no additional work in addition to the PCR setup. Applicability of the sex determination assay was studied by analysis of 12 unknown beef samples and the results were compared to an accredited method based on gel electrophoresis. In addition, six different cattle breeds were examined. All test results were correct in respect to sex.

  15. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  16. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  17. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  18. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Social Desirability Bias on Willingness-To-Pay for Organic Beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Researchers regularly conduct willingness-to-pay or valuation studies for product marketing or public policy purposes. However, a large volume of research suggests valuation tools such as conjoint analysis may be subject to social desirability bias, where subjects misrepresent their true preferences to create a favorable impression. The objective of this study is to measure the effects of social desirability bias on conjoint survey responses. Consumers were asked to rank organic ground beef r...

  20. Performance of beef cattle bulls in feed lots and fed on diets containing enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current paper evaluates the performance of confined beef cattle supplemented with amylolytic enzyme complex produced by fungus Aspergillus awamori and a commercial product containing multienzyme complex, yeast and MOS. Treatments comprised control (basal diet composed of 16% Mombasa grass silage, 66% ground corn, 3% vitamin nuclear mineral and 15% cottonseed meal, amylase treatment (control diet with the addition of 48.7 saccharifying units kg-1 diet and compound treatment (control diet with the addition of enzymatic complex composed of 83.2 saccharifying units, 8.8 fibrolytic units, 0.05 g of mannan oligosaccharides and 0.2 g of inactivated yeast Kg-1 of the dry matter diet. The addition of products did not significantly increase daily weight gain, intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of cattle. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD in the diets. The percentage of residual fecal starch was not influenced by exogenous amylolytic enzymes of amylase and compound treatments. The tested products were not able to improve animal performance.

  1. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  2. Características da bacteriocina produzida por Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484 e seu efeito sobre Listeria monocytogenes em carne bovina Characterisation of the bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484 and the effect of this compound on Listeria monocytogenes in beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bromberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento de linhagens de bactérias lácticas produtoras de bacteriocinas em carnes e seus produtos derivados resultou na detecção de Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484, proveniente de frango. A bacteriocina inibiu não apenas uma outra bactéria láctica (Lactobacillus helveticus, mas também microorganismos patogênicos (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens e Enterococcus faecalis. Ela foi inativada por causa de enzimas como: alfa-quimotripsina, tripsina, pronase E, ficina, pepsina, papaína e lipase. Além disso, a bacteriocina mostrou-se termoestável, mesmo a temperaturas de autoclavagem (121°C/10 min e foi produzida em condições de armazenamento sob refrigeração. A bacteriocina mostrou-se ativa dentro de uma ampla faixa de valores de pH (2-10, porém a maior atividade ocorreu em valores menores de pH. A eficiência da linhagem CTC 484, assim como a de sua bacteriocina na redução e inibição do crescimento de Listeria monocytogenes em carne bovina estéril, foram avaliadas. Os resultados indicaram que o tratamento da carne por meio da inoculação desta bactéria contribuiu para o aumento da segurança e extensão da vida útil deste alimento.Screening for the bacteriocin production of strains of lactic acid bacteria from various meat and meat products resulted in the detection of a bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484, isolated from chicken. The bacteriocin inhibited not only closely related lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus helveticus, but also pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus faecalis. This compound was inactivated by alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin, pronase E, ficin, pepsin, papain, and also by lipase. It was heat stable even at autoclaving temperature (121°C/10 min and was produced under refrigerated storage. It was also active over a wide

  3. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  4. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  5. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  6. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  7. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  8. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  9. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Ralph E. Webb

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (1011 and 1012 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons) ) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-...

  10. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  11. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  12. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  15. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  16. Will intensification of beef production deliver conservation outcomes in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Merry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of beef production has become a conservation target based on the idea of land sparing and the assumption that in order to contain deforestation and meet increasing beef demand we must increase productivity. There is also increasing attention and conservation credit being given to supply chain management in beef production. Based on a historical comparison between the US, a fully intensive system, and Brazil, one moving in that direction, we suggest that cattle ranching will intensify as a result of conservation investments (reductions in capital and land subsidies rather than intensifying in order to produce conservation results. If the comparison holds, the new intensive system, however, will continue to require large natural resource inputs, government subsidies, and be plagued by social and conservation problems. It will also be held in thrall by a few large processing companies, which exert undue influence over both producers and consumers. Therefore, we suggest that closer attention be paid to attribution in the claim of conservation outcomes from intensive beef production.

  17. [Influence of below-freezing temperatures on the rate of post-mortem metabolism and the water-holding capacity in prerigor frozen beef muscles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Honikel, K O; Hamm, R

    1980-09-01

    Prerigor beef is very suitable for the production of "bruehwurst" (frankfurter and bologna type sausages) because of its high waterholding capacity (WHC). This high WHC can be preserved for several months by rapid freezing of prerigor beef either unsalted or salted. In order to elucidate the optimum conditions of frozen storage for the preservation of high WHC, intact beef muscle, ground beef and ground, salted (2% NaC1) beef (neck muscles) were frozen at - 18 degrees or --40 degrees C in a thin layer (0.5-1 cm) 30--60 min after slaugther and stored at various temperatures between --5 degrees and --40 degrees C. The changes of biochemical parameters (content of glycogen and lactate, R-value [it corresponds to ATP concentration] and pH) in the tissue and the WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates, prepared from the frozen material and containing 2% NaC1, were measured and related to time and temperature of frozen storage. At storage temperature of --18 degrees and --40 degrees C no appreciable biochemical changes occur in intact and ground, unsalted tissue over a period of 10 months. Above 18 degrees C, however, rising temperature causes an increased rate of ATP turnover and glycolysis. In ground muscle higher rates of postmortem metabolism are generally found than in the intact tissue. In prerigor salted and frozen beef a faster drug of ATP concentration (increase of R-value) occurs whereas the breakdown of glycogen to lactate is inhibited. The WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates depends on time and temperature of frozen storage. As soon as the ATP concentration in unsalted beef falls to a level, at which the onset of rigor mortis occurs, the WHC of homogenates decreases markedly. With beef, ground and salted in the prerigor state and than frozen muscle homogenates are obtained which show always a high WHC even after complete breakdown at ATP during frozen storage. These results have practical consequences with regard to processing of hot-deboned beef.

  18. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviana Gottardo; Marta Brscic; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and ...

  19. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  20. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  1. Fornecimento de grão de milheto, inteiro ou triturado, em duas frequências de suplementação para bovinos de corte Supply of whole or ground millet grain at two frequencies of supplementation for beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2012-04-01

    the grain of millet in supplements given daily or three times a week to grazing beef cattle on productive performance, economic and diurnal intake behavior during the drought period. Twenty-five non-castrated Nelore cattle with initial body weight of 350.92±31.7 kg were kept in five paddocks with unit area of 1.45 ha formed by B. brizantha cv. Marandu. The animals were distributed in a completely radomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two physical forms of the grain of millet (whole or ground, two frequencies of supplementation (daily or three times a week and the control treatment (mineral mix. It was found that the concentrate supplementation promoted weight gains, while sole mineral supplementation resulted in weight loss of 0.16 kg/animal/day. Grinding the millet grain promoted higher gains (0.36 and 0.38 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively when compared with the whole grain (0.22 and 0.24 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively, with no differences between the frequencies of supplementation. Significant effect of the day × treatment interaction was found for time in the trough, grazing and drinking water. For the resting time difference was found between the control treatment and the others. Greater economic return was achieved when ground millet was supplied at lower supplementation frequency (R$ 22,70/animal. The use of multiple supplements, as well as the processing of millet grain, enabled greater weight gain, regardless of the supplementation frequency studied. Providing supplement 3 times a week reduces the costs with supplementation.

  2. Attachment and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 at different temperatures, on various food-contact surfaces encountered in beef processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourou, Dimitra; Beauchamp, Catherine Simpson; Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Nychas, George-John E; Sofos, John N

    2011-10-03

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to beef-contact surfaces found in beef fabrication facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. This study evaluated E. coli O157:H7 attachment, survival and growth on food-contact surfaces under simulated beef processing conditions. Stainless steel and high-density polyethylene surfaces (2×5cm) were individually suspended into each of three substrates inoculated (6log CFU/ml or g) with E. coli O157:H7 (rifampicin-resistant, six-strain composite) and then incubated (168h) statically at 4 or 15°C. The three tested soiling substrates included sterile tryptic soy broth (TSB), unsterilized beef fat-lean tissue (1:1 [wt/wt]) homogenate (10% [wt/wt] with sterile distilled water) and unsterilized ground beef. Initial adherence/attachment of E. coli O157:H7 (0.9 to 2.9log CFU/cm(2)) on stainless steel and high-density polyethylene was not affected by the type of food-contact surface but was greater (ptemperature. Notably, attachment occurred not only at a temperature representative of beef fabrication areas during non-production hours (15°C), but also during cold storage (4°C) temperatures, thus, rendering the design of more effective sanitation programs necessary.

  3. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp.

  4. Classification of organic beef freshness using VNIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Stuart O J; Kirchner, Sascha M; Porley, Victoria; Retz, Stefanie; von Gersdorff, Gardis; Hensel, Oliver; Weygandt, Martin; Sturm, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Consumer trust in the food industry is heavily reliant upon accurate labelling of meat products. As such, methods, which can verify whether meat is correctly labelled are of great value to producers, retailers, and consumers. This paper illustrates two approaches to classify between, fresh and frozen thawed, and in a novel manner matured and matured frozen-thawed, as well as fresh and matured beef using the 500-1010nm waveband, captured using hyperspectral imaging, and CIELAB measurements. The results show successful classification based upon CIELAB between 1) fresh and frozen-thawed (CCR=0.93), and 2) fresh and matured (CCR=0.92). With successful classification between matured and matured frozen-thawed beef using the entire spectral range (CCR=1.00). The performance of reduced spectral models is also investigated. Overall it was found that CIELAB co-ordinates can be used for successful classification for all comparisons except between matured and matured frozen-thawed. Biochemical and physical changes of the meat are thoroughly discussed for each condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon.

  6. An investigation of the effect of rapid slurry chilling on blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P; Kerry, J; Bolton, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days. The onset and progress of BPS was monitored using the following scale; 0-no gas bubbles in drip; 1-gas bubbles in drip; 2-loss of vacuum; 3-'blown'; 4-presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and 5-tightly stretched, 'overblown' packs/packs leaking. Rapid slurry chilling (as compared to conventional chilling) did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the time to the onset or progress of BPS. It was therefore concluded that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals, using an ice slurry system, may not be used as a control intervention to prevent or retard blown pack spoilage. This study adds to our growing understanding of blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals and suggests that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals is not a control option for the beef industry. The results suggest that neither eliminating the heat shrinkage step nor rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef retard the time to blown pack spoilage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a major matter affecting coffee quality in Brazil, mainly due to the harvesting method adopted. Brazilian harvests are based on fruits collected from the ground mixed with those that fall on collection cloths. As the Bacillus cereus bacterium frequently uses the soil as its environmental reservoir, it is easily capable of becoming a contaminant. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination and potential of B. cereus enterotoxin genes encoding the HBL and NHE complexes, which were observed in strains of ground and roasted coffee samples sold in Rio de Janeiro. The PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results revealed high potential of enterotoxin production in the samples. The method described by Speck (1984 was used for the isolation of contaminants. The investigation of the potential production of enterotoxins through isolates of the microorganism was performed using the B. cereus enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test-kit (BCET-RPLA, Oxoid, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for hblA, hblD and hblC genes (encoding hemolysin HBL and for nheA, nheB and nheC genes (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. Of all the 17 strains, 100% were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin gene; 52.9% (9/17 were positive for the 3 genes encoding the HBL complex; 35.3% (6/17 were positive for the three NHE encoding genes; and 29.4% (5/17 were positive for

  8. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  9. Lightning-produced NO2 observed by two ground-based UV-visible spectrometers at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan in August 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 differential slant columns by the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and UT-GBS (University of Toronto Ground-Based Spectrometer instruments during the MANTRA 2004 field campaign are presented herein. During the afternoon of 28 August, a thunderstorm passed over the instruments, which were installed at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan (52° N, 107° W. Enhanced differential slant columns of ozone and NO2 were observed by both instruments during the storm, with maximum values of two and 25 times the expected clear sky columns, respectively. The enhanced ozone differential slant columns are primarily due to the longer path traversed by the solar radiation caused by multiple scattering inside the thick cloud layer associated with the thunderstorm. The enhanced NO2 columns are partly attributed to NOx production by lightning. Two new methods are used to separate the NO2 enhancements into contributions from the longer path length and production by lightning. Combining the observed excess NO2 with lightning flash data from the Canadian Lightning Detection Network and Environment Canada Doppler radar measurements, the production of NO2 molecules per lightning flash is determined. Using these two methods, the best estimate of the production rate is found to be (7.88±2.52×1026 molecules NO2/flash from the UT-GBS and (6.81±2.17×1026 molecules NO2/flash from SAOZ. These results are consistent with the range of previous estimates reported in the literature.

  10. Particulate matter pollution in the coal-producing regions of the Appalachian Mountains: Integrated ground-based measurements and satellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Pillai, Priya R; Isherwood, Aaron; Morgan, Peter; Aneja, Saurabh P

    2017-04-01

    This study integrates the relationship between measured surface concentrations of particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10), satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD), and meteorology in Roda, Virginia, during 2008. A multiple regression model was developed to predict the concentrations of particles 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) at an additional location in the Appalachia region, Bristol, TN. The model was developed by combining AOD retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor on board the EOS Terra and Aqua Satellites with the surface meteorological observations. The multiple regression model predicted PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.62), and the two-variable (AOD-PM2.5) model predicted PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.4). The developed model was validated using particulate matter recordings and meteorology observations from another location in the Appalachia region, Hazard, Kentucky. The model was extrapolated to the Roda, VA, sampling site to predict PM2.5 mass concentrations. We used 10 km x 10 km resolution MODIS 550 nm AOD to predict ground level PM2.5. For the relevant period in 2008, in Roda, VA, the predicted PM2.5 mass concentration is 9.11 ± 5.16 μg m(-3) (mean ± 1SD). This is the first study that couples ground-based Particulate Matter measurements with satellite retrievals to predict surface air pollution at Roda, Virginia. Roda is representative of the Appalachian communities that are commonly located in narrow valleys, or "hollows," where homes are placed directly along the roads in a region of active mountaintop mining operations. Our study suggests that proximity to heavy coal truck traffic subjects these communities to chronic exposure to coal dust and leads us to conclude that there is an urgent need for new regulations to address the primary sources of this particulate matter.

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  12. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  13. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... The essential amino acid (EAA) content were ranked in the descending order of ST >. SV ≥ LD ... corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement ..... effects of lactic acid on Qin-chuan beef at different ages.

  15. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  16. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... manufacturing trimmings for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45..., non-intact product, that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26,...

  17. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the new

  18. Herds, Beef, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Herds, Beef dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'WI Livestock...

  19. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  20. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  1. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  2. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Söderquist, Lennart; Ekman, Stina

    2007-11-05

    The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle), tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal) joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples) from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34) had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93%) had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86%) of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47%) had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71%) of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12%) had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9%) had mild osteoarthritis (OA), 5 (5/34, 15%) moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50%) severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15%) deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97%) were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34) had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%). Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11) had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55%) or moderate (36%). None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  3. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  4. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  5. Use of ensiled straw and beef cattle manure for feeding fattening young bulls. 2. Toxicological and microbiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, V.; De Michelis, F.; Fontanelli, G.; Molossini, F.

    1980-06-01

    A mixture of straw 38%, beef cattle manure 52% and ground corn 10% was ensiled in about 15 cubic meters plastic bag silos. Biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) were determined in fresh faces and in the silage: the total content was respectively 37.0 and 33.3 mg/100 g D.M. Microbial population decreased after ensiling; pathogenic staphylococci, Cl. perfringens and salmonellae were not detected before nor after ensiling.

  6. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  8. Evaluation of eight agar media for the isolation of shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George; Gauthier, Martine; Blais, Burton

    2014-01-01

    The growth characteristics of 96 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains representing 36 different O-types (including priority O types O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157) on commercial and in-house agar media were studied. The ability of the strains to grow on agar media with varying selective supplement formulations was evaluated using MacConkey Agar (MAC); Rainbow® Agar O157 (RBA); Rainbow® Agar O157 with manufacturer-recommended selective supplements (RBA-NT); Rainbow® Agar O157 with USDA-recommended selective supplements (RBA-USDA); CHROMagar STEC™ (CH STEC); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime and tellurite (TBA-CT); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime, tellurite, eosin and methylene blue (TBA-EM); and VTEC agar. All of the strains were able to grow on MAC, RBA and VTEC agar, whereas a number of strains (including some non-O157 priority O types) were unable to grow on the highly selective media CH STEC, RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, TBA-EM and TBA-CT. Only RBA-NT and CH STEC exhibited significant inhibition of background flora from ground beef enrichment. Significant inhibition of background flora from beef trim enrichment was observed with RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, CH STEC, TBA-EM and VTEC agar. With exception of E. coli O157, several different colony morphologies were observed on the differential plating media among strains of the same O type, indicating that this colony morphology is not a reliable means of identifying target STEC. These results suggest that an approach to maximize the recovery of target STEC from beef enrichment cultures is dual plating on lesser (RBA, MAC, VTEC agar) and more highly (RBA-NT, CH STEC) selective agars.

  9. Prediction of the fatty acid composition of beef by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, V; Aldai, N; Castro, P; Osoro, K; Coto-Montes, A; Oliván, M

    2008-03-01

    The intramuscular fat content and composition influence consumer selection of meat products. A study predicting the fatty acid (FA) profile of ground beef from the Longissimus thoracis of yearling bulls (n=100) using near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT) was conducted. The samples were scanned using an Infratec 1265 Meat Analyzer which operates in transmittance mode from 850 to 1050nm. NIT technology was able to accurately predict (R(CV)(2) over 0.76) some prominent FAs such as C14:0, C16:0, C16:1cis9, C17:0, C18:1cis9 and C18:1cis11, and minor FAs like C13:0, C15:0, C17:1cis9 and C18:1cis13. When studying FA groups, NIT spectra were able to accurately predict saturated (R(CV)(2)=0.837), branched (R(CV)(2)=0.701) and monounsaturated (R(CV)(2)=0.852) FAs. In addition, NIT spectra provided useful information on the contents of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in beef. These results show the potential of NIT technique as a rapid and easy tool to predict the major FAs in beef, especially those located in triglycerides.

  10. Desempenho de bezerros de corte filhos de vacas submetidas a diferentes manejos alimentares, desmamados aos 42 ou 63 dias de idade Performance of beef calves produced by cows submitted to different feeding managements, weaned at 42 or 63 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cerdótes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de bezerros de corte, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, filhos de vacas Charolês (C, Nelore (N, mestiças CN e NC, mantidas em pastagem nativa, suplementadas com farelo de arroz integral e que desmamaram aos 42 ou 63 dias pós-parto, ou não suplementadas e que desmamaram aos 63 dias. A idade das vacas variou de 3 a 12 anos, sendo agrupadas em quatro classes, primíparas, jovens, adultas e velhas. Bezerros desmamados aos 63 dias de idade, cujas vacas foram suplementadas, apresentaram maior ganho de peso médio diário (GMD durante o aleitamento (561 contra 457 g, foram mais pesados ao desmame (67 contra 59,9 kg e aos 84 dias (76 contra 69,2 kg em relação aqueles cujas vacas não foram suplementadas, não diferindo destes nos pesos aos 5, 7 e 12 meses. Bezerros desmamados aos 42 dias apresentaram menor GMD nos primeiros 21 dias após o desmame (360 contra 482 g e foram menos pesados aos 12 meses (174,4 contra 189,4 kg em relação aos desmamados aos 63 dias. Bezerros mestiços filhos de vacas CN e NC foram mais pesados ao desmame que os puros, não diferindo dos C aos 12 meses. Bezerros N apresentaram peso similar aos C no desmame, mas foram mais leves e apresentaram condição corporal inferior do que os últimos aos 5, 7 e 12 meses. O peso e a condição corporal dos bezerros filhos de vacas primíparas foi inferior aos demais, no entanto, não diferiram destes aos 9 e 12 meses. Não se justifica a suplementação das vacas quando se considera o peso dos bezerros após os 5 meses. O desmame aos 42 dias de idade não é recomendado, pois resulta em menor peso aos 12 meses.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of beef calves, from birth to weaning, produced by Charolais (C, Nellore (N, CN and NC crossbred cows, kept on native pasture, supplemented with rice bran and weaned at 42 or 63 days postpartum, or non supplemented and weaned at 63 days. Cow age ranged from 3 to

  11. Evaluation of the health aspects of certain compounds found in irradiated beef. Supplement II. Possible radiolytic compounds. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, H.I.

    1979-03-01

    Volatile products of beef irradiated with 56 kGy (5.6 Mrad) and approximately -30 C have been identified and their health aspects discussed in a previous report. In addition to these volatile radiolytic compounds, other, nonvolatile products are possible. This report attempts to identify the compounds which might result from beef irradiation; to estimate roughly the concentrations of such products; and to evaluate their possible hazard to health. There is very little carbohydrate in beef and its radiolytic products should be relatively innocuous in the amounts produced. Few radiolytic products have been identified from the protein component of beef. The bulk of radiolytic products found in beef has come from the fat moiety. Simple triglycerides have been studied extensively and sites of bond scission have been identified. The major products are fatty acids, diglycerides, and diol diesters. The concentrations of these classes have been estimated at approximately 0.5 to 1.0 g per kg irradiated beef. Lesser amounts of many other compounds are possible, including hydrocarbons of varying chain lengths, glycerol, monoglycerides, aldehydes, and ketones. The biological effects of each of these classes have been considered.

  12. Beef production in Romania (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the statistics is to show changes in the size and value of total production of animals for slaughtering and meat analyzed by use. Due to the interest of breeders and specialists from our country in specialized breeds of cattle meat production is increasing, the purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of beef production over the last three years. The number of animals slaughtered decreased steadily from 2010 to 2012. Most slaughter, were done in the second half of the years in which research was made. The largest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2010, and the fewest (with 62.32% less in January 2012. Total slaughter is declining, but a higher number of animals are slaughtered in official slaughterhouses, at a higher weight. As a consequence, beef production is forecast to remain relatively stagnant.

  13. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  14. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  15. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  16. Electronic Nose with an Air Sensor Matrix for Detecting Beef Freshness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Zhang; Jin Tong; Dong-hui Chen; Yu-bin Lan

    2008-01-01

    China is one of the largest meat producing countries in the world. With the growing concern for food safety more attention has been paid to meat quality. The application of conventional test methods for meat quality is limited by many factors, and subjectiveness, such as longer time to prepare samples and to test. A sensor matrix was constructed with several separate air sensors, and tests were conducted to detect the freshness of the beef. The results show that the air sensors TGS2610, TGS2600,TGS2611, TGS2620 and TGS2602 made by Tianjin Figaro Electronic Co, Ltd could be used to determine the degree of freshness but TGS2442 is not suitable. This study provides a foundation for designing and making an economical and practical detector for beef freshness.

  17. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  18. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  19. Culture medium for selective isolation and enumeration of Gram-negative bacteria from ground meats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cyzeska, F J; Seiter, J A; Marks, S N; Jay, J M

    1981-01-01

    We developed a new medium, designated peptone bile amphotericin cycloheximide (PBAC) agar, which contains (per liter) 10 g of peptone, 300 mg of bile salts, 1 mg of amphotericin B, 1 g of cycloheximide, and 15 g of agar. When 21 samples of fresh ground beef were studied and plate count agar counts were used as references, we obtained a mean recovery of 28% of total counts with violet red bile agar overlay, whereas we obtained 48% recovery with PBAC agar. With 12 samples of frozen ground beef,...

  20. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  1. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  2. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... of the fresh beef weight. Transglutaminase enzyme at levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a...

  3. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R

    2011-09-01

    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  5. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  6. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  7. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  8. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  9. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...... the data, using the software program Transana. The study showed that the farmers were mostly unaware of the existing government policies on beef-cattle farming, i.e., regarding the BSSP, including the overall aim of these policies. Furthermore, the activities they did know about they viewed as individual...... activities run in isolation, rather than parts of a grander plan or overall larger targeted programme—note, in this paper, we refer to these individual activities as ‘fragments’. The farmers who took part in the interviews outlined the challenges they faced in increasing the quantity and quality...

  10. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  11. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  12. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  13. Mycoflora And Mycotoxins Of Corned Beef

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; Zohri, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty species and 5 varieties belonging to 21 genera of fungi were collected from 20 corned beef samples . The average total counts of fungi ranged from 56 -236,47-275 and 39-202 colonies /g on glucose - 10% NAC1 - glucose - and 15% NAC1 - glucose - Czapek's agar media , respectively . Aspergillus niger, A. flavus , and Pencillium chrysogenum were the most common species on the three tested media . A. fumigatus and A. sydowii were common on glucose -Czapek's medium only while A. speluneus and...

  14. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...

  15. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  16. Intensive sheep and beef production from pasture--a New Zealand perspective of concerns, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R

    2014-11-01

    This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  18. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  19. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  20. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  2. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  3. An interlaboratory study on efficient detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in food using real-time PCR assay and chromogenic agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Konishi, Noriko; Ohtsuka, Kayoko; Iwabuchi, Kaori; Kikuchi, Rie; Isobe, Junko; Yamazaki, Takumiko; Suzuki, Fumie; Nagai, Yuhki; Yamada, Hiroko; Tanouchi, Atsuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yasufumi; Terajima, Jun

    2016-08-02

    To establish an efficient detection method for Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in food, an interlaboratory study using all the serogroups of detection targets was firstly conducted. We employed a series of tests including enrichment, real-time PCR assays, and concentration by immunomagnetic separation, followed by plating onto selective agar media (IMS-plating methods). This study was particularly focused on the efficiencies of real-time PCR assays in detecting stx and O-antigen genes of the six serogroups and of IMS-plating methods onto selective agar media including chromogenic agar. Ground beef and radish sprouts samples were inoculated with the six STEC serogroups either at 4-6CFU/25g (low levels) or at 22-29CFU/25g (high levels). The sensitivity of stx detection in ground beef at both levels of inoculation with all six STEC serogroups was 100%. The sensitivity of stx detection was also 100% in radish sprouts at high levels of inoculation with all six STEC serogroups, and 66.7%-91.7% at low levels of inoculation. The sensitivity of detection of O-antigen genes was 100% in both ground beef and radish sprouts at high inoculation levels, while at low inoculation levels, it was 95.8%-100% in ground beef and 66.7%-91.7% in radish sprouts. The sensitivity of detection with IMS-plating was either the same or lower than those of the real-time PCR assays targeting stx and O-antigen genes. The relationship between the results of IMS-plating methods and Ct values of real-time PCR assays were firstly analyzed in detail. Ct values in most samples that tested negative in the IMS-plating method were higher than the maximum Ct values in samples that tested positive in the IMS-plating method. This study indicates that all six STEC serogroups in food contaminated with more than 29CFU/25g were detected by real-time PCR assays targeting stx and O-antigen genes and IMS-plating onto selective agar media. Therefore, screening

  4. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  5. Relationships between inflammation- and immunity-related transcript abundance in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with divergent average daily gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bovine rumen papillae are in contact with a wide array of microorganisms and the metabolites they produce, which may activate an inflammatory and/or immune response. Cytokines, chemokines, and their receptor genes were tested for differential expression in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers w...

  6. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  7. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  8. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinue to provide the bulk of the forage demands for beef cattle. various ... While the summer day temperatures are rnoderate (max ... one another to achieve the desired effect. The most sig- ... Wherever possible legumes should be established.

  9. High School Beef Farm is Career Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Ray

    1976-01-01

    The beef farm at Gaylesville High School, Gaylesville, Alabama, has provided an opportunity for students to gain work experience in a variety of areas including construction, animal care, and packing plant procedures. (LH)

  10. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. A REML procedure ... complex, CD and AFC (because of its high heritability) may be considered as selection criteria for ..... Marshall, D.M., Minqiang, W. & Freking, B.A., 1990.

  11. Rebuilding the US beef herd: rethinking the way industry develops replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David J; Brown, D Scott

    2013-11-01

    Use of existing and emerging management technologies enable beef producers to improve breeding performance of heifers during the first breeding season and during subsequent calving and rebreeding periods as 2 year olds. These practices ensure that heifers that enter the herd as raised or purchased replacements contribute to the general performance and productivity of an entire cowherd immediately, and cumulatively long-term. Rebuilding the US cowherd requires careful consideration and use of these newer management technologies. Veterinarians will play a crucial role in influencing the technologies used during the rebuilding process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in children, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Marta; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rangel, Josefa; Caletti, Maria G; Vallés, Patricia; Roldán, Carlos D; Balbi, Laura; Marsano de Mollar, Maria C; Amoedo, Diego; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Chinen, Isabel; Hoekstra, Robert M; Mead, Paul; Griffin, Patricia M

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case-control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef.

  13. Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Marta; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rangel, Josefa; Caletti, Maria G.; Vallés, Patricia; Roldán, Carlos D.; Balbi, Laura; Marsano de Mollar, Maria C.; Amoedo, Diego; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Chinen, Isabel; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Mead, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case–control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef. PMID:18439359

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEEF OF YOUNG SPECIAL MEAT AND HOLSTAIN SPECIES GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchukina I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author has examined peculiarities of meat productivity of animals of the most common breeds: Charolais, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Kuban type of Red Steppe. As a result of the slaughter carried out for younger group achieved 15 months age, the Charolais breed bulls exceeded peers of Kuban type on slaughter weight to 60.9 kg (20.9 %, Aberdeen Angus – 53.8 kg (18.5 %, Hereford and Simmental respectively – to 35.1 and 24.8 kg (8,5-12,0 %. By the age of 18 months their superiority increased respectively by 56.9; 57.5; 55.8 and 29.9 kg (16.8; 16.9; 16.5 and 8.82%. Halves of bodies of the Kuban breed (considering the specific type of boneless beef output aged 15 months gave way to all the groups: Charolais and Angus – by 1.1- 1.5%, Simmental and Hereford – by 0.4-0.6%. The yield of premium beef exceeds the standards in all genotypes: Kuban – by 9.5%, beef breeds – by 11.2% (Charolais and 19% (Simmental. The balance beetween dry matter and moisture is in the optimal range (0.43: 1-0,73: 1. At 15 months of age, in the number of dry matter, Charolais bulls outnumbered Aberdeen-Angus and Red steppe at 5.1-5.2%, Simmental and Hereford - on 3,0-4,9%. With age, in the meat of calves of beef breeds the level of fat increased, for example, in Hereford and Simmental 0.3-0.5%, Aberdeen Angus and Simmental – 0.7-0.8%. In the middle of a sample of ground beef of carcasses of the calves of Charolais breed at the age of 18 months it contained more protein than in the meat of the calves of Red steppe (1.2%, Hereford (1.1%, Angus (1.4%, Simmental (1,3%. All the meat of the carcasses of the calves of specialized beef breeds was of high quality and diet: one part of the protein had 0.59 parts of fat (Aberdeen Angus and 0.45 parts (Hereford

  15. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Alicia FERNÁNDEZ; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  16. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  17. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jose Luis; Piquerez, Mart?n; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong,Eileen; Fern?ndez, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. ...

  18. Evaluation of observed parameters of a beef herd.

    OpenAIRE

    CIMBURKOVÁ, Pavla

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed beef breed herd of Aberdeen Angus cattle in the foothills area of Novohradské mountains in 1992 - 2007. The base of herd was consisted of 117 dams and 814 pieces of calves in total. The parameters of beef production of calves and the reproduction of dams were monitored. For the parameters of growth of calves were found significant effects of the year, the month of birth, sex, the order of calving, the method of reproduction and the sire.

  19. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the contr...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  20. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  1. Evaluation of beef eating quality by Irish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S N; Henchion, M; White, A; Brandon, K; Allen, P

    2017-10-01

    A consumer's decision to purchase beef is strongly linked to its sensory properties and consistent eating quality is one of the most important attributes. Consumer taste panels were held according to the Meat Standards Australia guidelines and consumers scored beef according to its palatability attributes and completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Consumers were able to distinguish between beef quality on a scale from unsatisfactory to premium with high accuracy. Premium cuts of beef scored significantly higher on all of the scales compared to poorer quality cuts. Men rated grilled beef higher on juiciness and flavour scales compared to women. Being the main purchaser of beef had no impact on rating scores. Overall the results show that consumers can judge eating quality with high accuracy. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate inherent benefits that are not visible into extrinsic eating quality indicators, to provide the consumer with consistent indications of quality at the point of purchase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  3. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  4. An overview of microbial food safety programs in beef, pork, and poultry from farm to processing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajić, Andrijana; Waddell, Lisa A; Sargeant, Jan M; Read, Susan; Farber, Jeff; Firth, Martin J; Chambers, Albert

    2007-05-01

    Canada's vision for the agri-food industry in the 21st century is the establishment of a national food safety system employing hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles and microbiological verification tools, with traceability throughout the gate-to-plate continuum. Voluntary on-farm food safety (OFFS) programs, based in part on HACCP principles, provide producers with guidelines for good production practices focused on general hygiene and biosecurity. OFFS programs in beef cattle, swine, and poultry are currently being evaluated through a national recognition program of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Mandatory HACCP programs in federal meat facilities include microbial testing for generic Escherichia coli to verify effectiveness of the processor's dressing procedure, specific testing of ground meat for E. coli O157:H7, with zero tolerance for this organism in the tested lot, and Salmonella testing of raw products. Health Canada's policy on Listeria monocytogenes divides ready-to-eat products into three risk categories, with products previously implicated as the source of an outbreak receiving the highest priority for inspection and compliance. A national mandatory identification program to track livestock from the herd of origin to carcass inspection has been established. Can-Trace, a data standard for all food commodities, has been designed to facilitate tracking foods from the point of origin to the consumer. Although much work has already been done, a coherent national food safety strategy and concerted efforts by all stakeholders are needed to realize this vision. Cooperation of many government agencies with shared responsibility for food safety and public health will be essential.

  5. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    . This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...... combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit...... attribute cut-off values. Also, highly involved consumers are less likely of violating their cut-off values. At the same, the lower the involvement the lower the probability to have cut-off values developed....

  6. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  7. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  8. Factors influencing the purchase and consumers’ willingness to pay for ground bison

    OpenAIRE

    Qasmi, Bashir; Fausti, Scott; Underwood, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A consumer preference study that included willingness to pay and consumer sensory experiments was conducted for ground bison versus ground beef. A total of 82 subjects completed the study. The initial statistical analysis suggest that there is consistent consumer behavior with respect to consumer preference and frequency of consumption within species consumption options, but consistent consumer behavior appears to weaken when across species consumption preferences is compared to across specie...

  9. Production of calcium-stearate by lipase using hydrogenated beef tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Bok; Kwon, Jin-Soo; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2009-05-01

    Calcium-stearate has been traditionally produced by chemical methods, producing wastes and requiring high energy because of high temperature operation. To achieve enzymatic production of calcium-stearate at unfavorable conditions, i.e., pH 10 and 60 degrees C, suitable lipase was selected and reaction conditions were optimized using calcium hydroxide and hydrogenated beef tallow as substrates. Under optimum conditions, 95% of beef tallow, in 2.5 h, was converted into calcium-stearate by using commercial lipase SDL 451. Investigation of the time-course reaction revealed that fatty acid was initially produced by lipase, followed by conversion into calcium-stearate. The fatty acid production rate was faster than that of the conversion into calcium-stearate at the beginning of the reaction. Alkaline pH, originating from the addition of calcium hydroxide, increased the converting reaction. This is the first report demonstrating that chemical production of calcium-stearate can be replaced by enzymatic reaction, thereby creating a cleaner process.

  10. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  11. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed......Various meats differing in fat contents were pan-fried in margarine or oil under various conditions to determine how much fat was gained or lost in absolute terms based on an initial 100 g of product. Beefsteaks and pork leg schnitzel having about, respectively, 6% and 2% fat initially gained...... no more than 2 g fat/100 g raw meat, even when pan-fried in a relatively large amount of margarine. Slight differences were observed depending on the frying time, slice thickness, frying fat type (oil or margarine), quantity of frying fat, or "resting" on the pan. Breaded pork schnitzel gained up to 8 g...

  12. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  13. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  14. Valoración de canales de terneros pertenecientes a la indicacion geográfica protegida “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans” - Data of beef carcasses belonging to the “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans” label produced in Cataluña (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parés i Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio de 641 canales de añojos (425 machos y 216hembras procedentes de 32 granjas. La edad promedio de los animalessacrificados fue de 345 días. Se les evaluó el peso, la conformación y el engrasamiento con el objeto de determinar los valores característicos de las canales de animales pertenecientes a la Indicación Geográfica Protegida (I.G.P. “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans”. El peso de la canal caliente no mostró ninguna correlación com la conformación de la canal ni estado de engrasamiento, ni tampoco con la edad al sacrificio. Aunque losanimales cruzados presentaron eso de canal más elevado, los de raza“Bruna dels Pirineus” los valores estudiados aparecieron más equilibrados. Se propone que se estudie la posibilidad de excluir de la indicación I.G.P. “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans”, los cruces con la raza “Bruna dels Pirineus” y restringir la denominación a esta única raza criada en pureza.SummaryIn this study, carcass performance from data on 641 young bulls (425males and 216 females belonging to 32 farms were evaluated. Animalswere slaughtered at an average age of 345 d. Carcass weight,conformation and fattening were evaluated. From these results the main carcass values in the label “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans” areestablished. As it increases the carcass weight, no increase of the carcass conformation and fat grades is registered, and the carcass weight do no show a correlation with age. Based on effects, crosses had heavier carcass weights, but “Bruna dels Pirineus” showed more equilibrated values in the studied variables. A proposed aspect is the possibility to exclude crosses with “Bruna dels Pirineus” breed from the label I.G.P. “Vedella dels Pirineus Catalans” and to restrict the beef production to that pure breed.

  15. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland.

  16. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swan, S.H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J.W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N.E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined mens' semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. METHODS...

  17. Genome-wide association studies of female reproduction in tropically adapted beef cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawken, R J; Zhang, Y D; Fortes, M R S; Collis, E; Barris, W C; Corbet, N J; Williams, P J; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G; Walkley, J R W; Barendse, W; Johnston, D J; Prayaga, K C; Tier, B; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A

    2012-01-01

    .... To elucidate the genetics underlying reproduction in beef cattle, we performed a genome-wide association study using the bovine SNP50 chip in 2 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds, Brahman and Tropical Composite...

  18. Does it pay to integrate irrigated forages in a beef cattle breeding operation in north Queensland?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The northern Australian beef industry accounts for approximately half of the national beef herd. It is currently challenged by a range of factors including decline in beef prices, limited live export trade, large farm debt levels, and low return on assets managed. Access to irrigation has been identified as one factor with potential to contribute to growth of the northern Australian beef industry. The development of irrigation for growing pasture and forage crops could extend the ability to s...

  19. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  20. Proteolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi as affected by incorporation of some food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; El-Said, A H M

    2009-12-01

    Screening of thirty-one fungal isolates (representing 16 genera, 28 species and 3 varieties) collected from beef luncheon meat for their abilities to produce protease enzyme revealed that eleven isolates (35.48%) exhibited high protease production. However, fifteen isolates (48.39%) had moderate ability and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most active producers of protease. The incorporation of five chemical substances used as food preservatives (disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium for protease production exhibited depressive effect on protease production as well as on mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum , except in few cases the mycelial growth of A. flavus and G. fujikuroi was increased by the lowest concentration (100 ppm) of sodium benzoate, citric acid and disodium phosphate.

  1. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  2. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales. 59.104... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.104 Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales... time, and once by 2 p.m. central time) the following information on total boxed beef domestic...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.312 - Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State Beef Council. 1260.312 Section 1260.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.312 Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council. Each person responsible for the collection and...

  4. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  5. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, whole cuts of boneless beef derived from cattle that were born, raised,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  7. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production;…

  8. Toxinotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens isolates from mutton, beef and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha; Nazir, Jawad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansur-Ud-Din; Nawaz, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair

    2015-08-01

    A total of 300 meat samples comprising mutton, beef, and chicken meat (n = 100) collected from either local butcher shops or large meat outlets situated at various areas of Lahore City located in Punjab province of Pakistan were tested for the isolation of Clostridium perfringens. Prevalence of the organism was highest in the chicken (6 %) followed by mutton (5 %) and beef (1 %). Contamination level was high (10/150) in the samples collected from local butcher shops in comparison to the samples collected from large meat outlets (2/150). All of the raw meat samples were negative for the presence of alpha, beta and epsilon toxins of C. perfringens as detected through ELISA. Out of a total number of 12 isolates only half were capable of producing enterotoxins when cultured in trypticase glucose yeast (TGY) broth. Toxinotyping of the isolates showed that 3 were of type A while one each of the remaining three belonged to type B, C, and D. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the toxin producing isolates revealed that C. perfringens were susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and ceftriaxone. All of the other drugs were relatively less effective with a least activity of amoxicillin against the isolates.

  9. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  11. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  12. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  13. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  14. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations.

  15. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation.

  16. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... of each one of them. The obtained data was consecutively transcribed, coded and analysed by using the software package NVivo 7. The results reveal a dependency between the acceptance of novel beef products and how consumers perceive the characteristics of the innovation itself. Excess manipulation...

  17. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in the Muscles of Chicken, Pig and Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Raj Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Though antibiotic drugs are known to improve the health and welfare of food animals , there is parallel risk due to the development of resistant microorganisms in the body of target animals. Seven meat samples were procured from wet market in Old Town,Petaling Jaya, Malaysia and assessed for the presence of antibiotic residues. The samples chosen were chicken parts (skin, muscle and liver , pig parts (liver, muscle and intestine and beef muscle. The results indicated that chicken skin had high level of antibioticresidues which positively resisted the presence of gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidisand B. cereus as known by the zone of inhibition.The beef muscle also held residue which resisted S. aureusChosenbacteriaalong with the extracts of chicken skin, pig intestine and beef muscle were observed to be resistant totetracycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate and their combinations when tested at a concentration of 1 percent

  19. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  20. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  1. Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of hot-boned beef loins and topsides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2016-01-01

    The effects of repeated (1×, 2×, 3×) pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs) on the quality of beef loins and topsides were evaluated, including the tenderness, purge loss, cooking loss, myofibrillar protein profile and post-mortem proteolysis. Both muscle types were obtained from each of 12 steers and were processed within 6h. After PEF treatment samples of both muscle types were subjected to 3, 7, 14 and 21 days ageing. The 1× and 2× PEF treatments had no effect on the tenderisation of hot-boned beef Musculus longissimus lumborum muscle for all ageing treatment times, while the 3× treatment reduced the tenderness. The opposite effect was observed in hot-boned beef Musculus semimembranosus muscles where the 3× treatment produced meat with lowest shear force at 3 days post-treatment time, but this beneficial effect disappeared with longer ageing times. An increase in proteolysis of troponin T was seen to the largest extent with 1× PEF treatment and decreased with every extra application of treatment.

  2. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.

  3. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate.

  4. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal.

  5. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  6. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...

  7. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  8. Transforming beef by-products into valuable ingredients: which spell/recipe to use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Mary Henchion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e. knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products.

  9. Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction of Beef Tallow For Biodiesel Production By Factor Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ehiri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel grade fuel made by transesterification reaction of vegetable oils and animal fats with alcohol. Three variable factors that affect the yield of biodiesel namely, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration were studied in this work. The biodiesel was produced via a batchprocess acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction of beef tallow with methanol. Optimal conditions for the reaction were established in a three factor two-level (23 central composite design with the biodiesel pretreatment yield as the response surface. The results show that the mean yield of biodiesel was 92.04% with a standard deviation of 5.16. An optimal biodiesel yield of 96.30% occurred at 0.5% HCl catalyst concentration and at constant conditions of 1.5h reaction time, 60oC reaction temperature and 6:1 methanol: tallow volume ratio. Gas chromatographic analysis of the beef tallow identified palmitic, stearic and oleic acids in it while the fatty acid methyl esters in the biodiesel product were oleate and linoleate. Catalysis was the most significant factor in the transesterification process.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Lactococcin BZ Against Listeria innocua and Indigenous Microbiota of Fresh Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Zeliha; Yerlikaya, Sabire; Öncül, Nilgün; Sakin, Tuba

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of lactococcin BZ on microbiological quality of fresh beef is investigated. For this purpose, the meat samples were treated with various amounts of lactococcin BZ (200-2500 AU/mL), a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis BZ, and kept at 4-5 °C for 12 days. During storage, the microbiological properties of the meat samples with or without lactococcin BZ were determined. Inhibitory effect of lactococcin BZ depended on its amount. The higher the amount of lactococcin BZ, the higher the inhibitory activity. Treatment with lactococcin BZ at the level of 2500 AU/mL resulted in 4.87, 3.50 and 3.94 log cycle decrease in the counts of mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria, respectively, and 1.90·10(4) and 1.04·10(2) CFU/g reduction in coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, respectively, at the end of storage as compared to their initial numbers in the control sample. However, the counts of these bacteria in control samples increased during storage. Also, lactococcin BZ at 1600 AU/mL showed very strong antilisterial effect against Listeria innocua in fresh meat and reduced the cell numbers from 6.04 log CFU/g to undetectable level on the 6th day of storage. In conclusion, lactococcin BZ has a potential use as a biopreservation agent to improve safety and shelf life of raw beef.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Lactococcin BZ Against Listeria innocua and Indigenous Microbiota of Fresh Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Sabire; Öncül, Nilgün; Sakin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, the effect of lactococcin BZ on microbiological quality of fresh beef is investigated. For this purpose, the meat samples were treated with various amounts of lactococcin BZ (200–2500 AU/mL), a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis BZ, and kept at 4–5 °C for 12 days. During storage, the microbiological properties of the meat samples with or without lactococcin BZ were determined. Inhibitory effect of lactococcin BZ depended on its amount. The higher the amount of lactococcin BZ, the higher the inhibitory activity. Treatment with lactococcin BZ at the level of 2500 AU/mL resulted in 4.87, 3.50 and 3.94 log cycle decrease in the counts of mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria, respectively, and 1.90·104 and 1.04·102 CFU/g reduction in coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, respectively, at the end of storage as compared to their initial numbers in the control sample. However, the counts of these bacteria in control samples increased during storage. Also, lactococcin BZ at 1600 AU/mL showed very strong antilisterial effect against Listeria innocua in fresh meat and reduced the cell numbers from 6.04 log CFU/g to undetectable level on the 6th day of storage. In conclusion, lactococcin BZ has a potential use as a biopreservation agent to improve safety and shelf life of raw beef. PMID:27956863

  12. Transforming Beef By-products into Valuable Ingredients: Which Spell/Recipe to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; O’Callaghan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing, and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e., knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory, or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products. PMID:27965963

  13. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

  14. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural antioxidants is one of the ways to extend the durability of meat and meat products. The effects of added pepper extracts on the colour and potential redox changes of beef patties during storage were studied. There were four types of ethanol based extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot, compacted at different tempera-tures: 35 and 50°C. Experimental material consisted of meat samples produced from lean beef 24-hours postmortem. The colour in a CIE L*a*b* systems was examined using an X-Rite reflection spectro-colorimeter. Oxidation-reduction potential was determined using a pH meter (CPC-501 set to the milivolt scale and equipped with a redox electrode ERPt- -13. The results indicate the influence of extracts of different types of pepper added on oxidation-reduction potential values. Meat samples with pepper extract compacted at 35°C addition had a lower oxidation-reduction potential compared with the samples with pepper extract compacted at 50°C addition. Oxidation-reduction potential values of meat samples increased during storage. No significant effects of type of a particular pepper ex-tract on redox potential values were observed. Pepper extracts increased redness (a* value of meat samples compared to the control, but had no effects on L* values (light-ness. During storage of meat samples slight changes of CIE a* parameters were noted.

  15. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  16. Investigation of the Reasons for Stress Response of Beef Cattle under Facility Cultivation in Guyun City%固原市设施养殖肉牛应激反应原因调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于利子

    2014-01-01

    Facility cultivation in large scale is a trend during the development of beef cattle's produc-tion,however,many reasons involving in facility cultivation in large scale led to changes of physiological activity of beef cattle,such as the unreasonable greenhouse,the expanding of beef,the changes of daily routine and environment,and so on.It let beef cattle adapt to the new environmental conditions in passive state,so stress response is growing.So,the question about how to relieve stress response has become the key point in the process of facility cultivation of beef cattle.This paper discussed the reasons for stress re-sponse of beef cattle,which had a important significance in the prevention and control of stress response and the improvement of health level of beef cattle's facility cultivation.%规模化设施养殖是肉牛生产的发展趋势,由于温棚设计建造不合理、牛群不断扩大、生活规律和环境变化等,导致肉牛生理活动改变,从而使肉牛处于适应新环境条件下的被动状态,应激反应也就随之增多,如何减轻应激反应已成为肉牛设施养殖过程中的关键。从源头上探讨设施养殖肉牛应激反应的发生原因,对防控应激反应,提高肉牛设施养殖健康水平有重要意义。

  17. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-11-10

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  18. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  19. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  20. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  1. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...

  2. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  3. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  4. Microbial pathogen control in the beef chain: recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncic, Sava; Nychas, George-John; Lee, Michael R F; Koutsoumanis, Kostas; Hébraud, Michel; Desvaux, Mickaël; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Bolton, Declan; Blagojevic, Bojan; Antic, Dragan

    2014-07-01

    Within a recent EU research project ("ProSafeBeef"), research on foodborne pathogens in the beef chain was conducted by using a longitudinally integrated (fork-to-farm) approach. There is not any "single intervention-single chain point" combination by which the pathogens would be reliably and entirely eliminated from the chain resulting in total prevention of pathogens in beef and products thereof at the consumption time. Rather, a range of control interventions have to be applied at multiple points of the chain, so to achieve an acceptable, ultimate risk reduction. Various novel interventions were developed and evaluated during the project, and are briefly summarized in this paper. They include on-farm measures, risk categorisation of cattle presented for slaughter, hygiene-based measures and antimicrobial treatments applied on hides and/or carcasses during cattle slaughter, those applied during beef processing-storage-distribution, use of Time Temperature Integrator-based indicators of safety, and effective sanitation of surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  6. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4. Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  7. THE DESCRIPTION OF GROWTH IN BEEF BULLS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal orul Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 1675. (Key words: ...... animals with high fattening capacity (small frame. Hereford) in ... Rate of protein deposition in beef cattle as a function of mature size and weight and ...

  8. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  9. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  10. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breeds managed in a relatively intensive but high stocking rate environment, were .... crossbreeding effects, using the CBE3 package of Wolf (1996) and fitting Kinghorn's Model 7 (Kinghorn 1987; ... predicted value of the genetic group G under consideration m. = ...... preweaning growth rate and type score of beef calves.

  11. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    capital investment and gross margin per animal unit. The need for more ... Figure 1 Relationship between average weighted beef price at urban markets and cost of all ... updated every year using market-related information. Al- though the size ..... be profitable to improve calving rates by additional short-term feeding during ...

  12. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Boettcher, P.; Bozzi, R.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies to include lon

  13. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.

  14. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  15. Study on Beef Cattle Production Efficiencv in China%中国肉牛生产效率研究——基于全国8个肉牛主产省区的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺

    2011-01-01

    The input and output data of the beef production in eight beef cattle producing provinces from 1991 to 2009 in China,and the non-parametric HMB productivity index method were used for the analysis of beef cattle production efficiency,and decomposition of HMB index. The results showed that beef cattle production efficiency in China was mainly affected by technological advances,so as to enhance the technical level and to give policy support to improve beef cattle production efficiency.%通过中国8个肉牛主产省区1991 ~2009年肉牛生产的投入产出数据,采用非参数的HMB指数法对内牛生产效率进行分析,并将HMB指数进行分解.结果表明,中国内牛生产效率的提高主要受到技术进步的影响,可以通过提高技术水平和给予肉牛产业扶植政策来提高肉牛生产效率.

  16. Contexto ambiental e aspectos tecnológicos das graxarias no Brasil para a inserção do pequeno produtor na indústria da carne Environmental context and technological aspects of grease in Brazil for the insertion of small producers of the beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto dos Santos Rebouças

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são analisadas algumas alternativas tecnológicas para o desenvolvimento de pequenas graxarias destinadas à pequena produção de carne. É considerado que a substituição do conceito de "resíduos animais" pelo conceito de "matéria-prima para graxaria" pode ser amplificada com algumas implementações no processo produtivo, agregando valor aos subprodutos animais, no sentido de uma produção mais limpa, o que reduz o impacto ambiental da atividade e os riscos das más condições higiênicas.This paper analyses some alternative technologies for the development of small rendering plants to small meat producers. It is considered that the replacement of the concept of "animal waste" by the "by-product or raw material for grease and rendering plants" concept can be amplified with some implementations in the production process, adding value to animal by-products to produce a greater recovery of these by-products, or even total use, eliminating waste and reducing the environmental impact of the activity and the risk of poor hygienic conditions.

  17. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  18. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    be used in extension and educational programs as teaching tools to inform beef producers and industry professionals of the current state of the U.S. beef industry.

  19. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  20. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  1. 卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产技术%Joint production technology of stewed beef and beef broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓钟; 张蕾

    2015-01-01

    The joint production processing of stewed beef and beef broth was discussed. The pro⁃duction economic benefits were analyzed.%主要阐述卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产工艺,分析了产生的经济效益。

  2. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  3. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  4. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  5. Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Kemp, Robert; Samuelsson, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate different dry-aging regimes and their impacts on quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Thirty loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from 15 beef carcasses at 2 days post-mortem were obtained. Each loin was cut in half yielding 60 sections, which were randomly assigned to six treatments including 4 dry-aging (2 temperatures (1 or 3°C) × 2 air-velocities (0.2 or 0.5 m/s)) and 2 wet-aging regimes for 3 weeks; n=10/treatment. The sensory panel found that dry-aged loins had better flavour and overall liking (Pdry-aged beef compared to the wet-aged beef, which may contribute to the enhanced flavours of the dry-aged beef. Overall, dry-aging loins at 3°C with 0.2m/s resulted in the greatest improvement in beef palatability.

  6. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain......While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages...... and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  7. Growth of Brazilian beef production: effect of shocks of supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Alcântara da Silva Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the considerable growth of beef production in Brazil and the growth in beef exports as a backdrop, the main objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the excellent performance of this agribusiness sector. Conducting this study required the construction of a theoretical model that was capable of supporting the specification of the adjusted econometric model using vector autoregression with identification by the Bernanke process. The findings show that the main determinant of beef cattle growth and Brazilian beef exports is increased animal stock. Furthermore, productivity has a positive, albeit more modest, effect on beef production and exports. The results show that the increase of the number of cattle reduces costs to the farmer and retail beef prices.

  8. The MAGTAG-system and market-oriented quality control: Possibilities in the Danish beef sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    1995-01-01

    and quality grades in the retail market for beef. * The advantage of using the MAGTAG-system for developing new credence characteristics depends on consumer preferences for such attributes and on the retailers' ability to standardize the quality of ordinary as well as ecological or 'ethical' meat. Retailers...... and the transaction cost related to imperfect fitting between established criteria for payment and the highly valued quality attributes in down producers, lack of product standards and quality grades in the final market, which increase buyers' cost of evaluating different quality distributions of sellers - make...... and slaughterers did not believe that the majority of consumers valued the ecological and ethical attributes enough to be willing to pay extra for these attributes....

  9. Abuse of anabolic agents in beef cattle: Could bile be a possible alternative matrix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Francesca; Angeletti, Roberto; Stella, Roberto; Rigoni, Lorenzo; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Giusepponi, Danilo; Moretti, Simone; Saluti, Giorgio; Galarini, Roberta

    2017-08-15

    European Union prohibited the use of anabolic agents in food producing animals since 1988. An efficient control of abuses is guaranteed not only by highly performing analytical methods, but also by knowledge of metabolic pathways, kinetics of elimination and tissue distribution. To obtain data concerning metabolites production and accumulation in bile, two typical growth promoting treatments are carried out in cattle. In the first study, sixteen beef cattle were implanted with trenbolone acetate and estradiol. In the second one, three animals were implanted with zeranol and three were fed a diet containing zearalenone. Methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were developed and validated to quantify the analytes of interest. The results evidenced that the biliary concentrations of the marker residues were always higher than those determined at the same time in urine and liver which are the matrices generally collected within the official monitoring programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  11. Estimation of green water footprint of animal feed for beef cattle production in Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA including green water footprint (GWF is one of the objectives. This manuscript describes the estimation of GWF of animal feed crops including grasses of native range and introduced pasture, winter pasture and small grains typical to Southern Great Plains. The estimates are based on modeled evapotranspiration from Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX model under Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT framework. NTT simulated crop growth, water balance, animal grazing, and manure management using 47 years of weather data from 1960. Our results aggregated by county indicate grasses in the native range and field crops used as winter pasture show smaller GWF than grasses in the introduced pasture and small grains. Animal stocking rate appears to be directly correlated with water requirement to produce a unit quantity of forage.

  12. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  13. An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the suppl...

  14. Channels, Margin and Proft Beef Cattle Marketing Agencies from Bone District To Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hastang; Asnawi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the channel marketing types, margin and proft of beef cattle marketing agency from Bone Regency to Makassar. The population of the study covered all beef cattle marketing agencies of Bone Regency to Makassar. Determination of the samples was done by snowball sampling method. Data were collected through direct observation and interviews. Data were then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that there were two forms of beef cattle marketing cha...

  15. Factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows. Production data from 20,541 cows in 2210 herds slaughtered over a three-year period (1st of January 2010 to 23rd of January 2013) were extracted from the national beef cattle registry. This study's inclusion criteria were met for 16,917 cows (from 1858 herds) which gave birth to 50,578 calves. The median number of calves born per cow was 2 (min 1, max 18). Two multilevel Poisson regression models with herd random effects showed that early maturing breeds (Hereford and Aberdeen Angus) gave birth to more calves than late maturing breeds (Charolais and Limousin) in four out of five areas of Norway. The significant breed-region interaction indicated that the coastal South East region of Norway, which has a relatively long growing season and gentle topography, yielded the highest number of calves born for all but one breed (Simmental). Cows that needed assistance or experienced dystocia at their first calving produced fewer calves than those that did not: incidence rate ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.91) for assistance and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75) for dystocia, respectively. Cows in larger herds (>30 cows) produced 11% more calves in their lifetime compared to cows in smaller herds (≤30 cows) (Pborn. The large inter-herd variation indicate systematic differences in herd level factors influencing the number of calves born to each cow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  17. From the Plains to the plate : can the beef industry regain market share?

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Russell L.; Michelle Beshear

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the beef industry has seen a sharp drop in its share of the retail meat market. While per capita meat consumption has grown, per capita beef consumption has plunged. Explaining the drop in beef's market share has become a favorite pastime of industry analysts. In fact, a family feud of sorts has broken out in the industry between those who think the decline largely reflects increases in beef's price relative to competing meats and those who stress nonprice facto...

  18. Effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Tchimbou, A F; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. Studies have shown that N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed Holstein Friesian (HF) pregnancies. This study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (P4), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 and -2, and prolactin patterns produced during gestation in N caninum-infected beef/dairy cows. We analyzed 74 pregnancies in nonaborting cows carrying a single fetus established in 26 lactating HF cows bred with Holstein bulls (H-H), 13 HF cows bred with Limousin bulls (H-L), 12 HF cows used as recipients of transferred in vivo-produced frozen-thawed Rubia Gallega (beef breed; RG) embryos (H-RG-ET), and 23 RG suckling cows bred with RG bulls (RG-RG). Of the cows, 29 (39%) were seropositive for N caninum. Blood samples for hormone and placental protein determinations were collected on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 of gestation. Procedures of repeated measures analysis of variance throughout gestation revealed higher PAG-1 levels in the H-L and H-RG-ET groups compared with H-H and RG-RG. Higher prolactin levels were detected in RG-RG than in the remaining groups. N caninum seropositivity and fetal genotype had a significant effect on PAG-2 concentrations, such that highest levels of PAG-2 occurred in RG-RG seropositive cows and lowest in H-H seropositive cows, whereas Neospora-seropositive cows showed lower P4 concentrations than their seronegative partners. In conclusion, chronic N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns of PAG-2 and P4 during pregnancy, whereas PAG-1 and prolactin concentrations are affected by breed and fetal genotype, irrespective of Neospora infection status.

  19. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  20. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry.

  1. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  2. Control of Clostridium perfringens spores by plant-derived antimicrobials during cooling of cooked ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, oregano oil and two green tea extracts with low (green tea leaf powder (GTL); 141 mg of total catechins/g of green tea extract) and high (green tea leaf extract (GTE); 697 mg of total catechin...

  3. Electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay of ricin in ground beef: Biotinylated capture antibodies and matrix effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of castor (Ricinus communis), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because of the past use of ricin for intentional poisoning, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food m...

  4. Detection of ricin contamination in ground beef by electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for ana...

  5. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage.

  6. Validation of the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) Detection Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Matheny, Sharon; Swimley, Michelle; Tebbs, Robert; Burrell, Angelia; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Salfinger, Yvonne; Brodsky, Michael; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA. Two separate assays comprise the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow, the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay and the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay. The RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay includes primers and probes to detect the presence of stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), and E. coli O157 gene targets. The RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay includes primers and probes for the "Big 6" non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. The use of these two assays in tandem allows a user to detect accurately the presence of the "Big 6" STECs and E. coli O157:H7. The performance of the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow was evaluated in a method comparison study, in inclusivity and exclusivity studies, and in a robustness evaluation. The assays were compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.09: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw ground beef (73% lean) and USDA/FSIS-MLG 5B.05: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli non-O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw beef trim. No statistically significant

  7. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  8. Beef Supply Response Under Uncertainty: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi; Coyle, Barry T.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first econometric study of dynamic beef supply response to incorporate risk aversion or, more specifically, price variance. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models are estimated for cow-calf and feedlot operations using aggregate data for Alberta. In all cases, output price variance has a negative impact on output supply and investment. Moreover, the impacts of expected price on supply response are greater in magnitude and significance than in risk-neutral models.

  9. Study on Five Microsatellite Markers in Beef Cattle Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Five microsatellites, IDVGA-2, IDVGA-27, IDVGA-46, IDVGA-55 and TGLA-44,were analyzed for polymorphisms in beef cattle. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 12/0. 82, 5/0. 58, 8/0. 70, 6/0. 57 and 11/0. 86 respectively. Each microstellite was typed on a half-sib family in order to verify the segregation of the alleles.

  10. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  11. A survey of beef muscle color and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J K; Wulf, D M; Schwotzer, T R

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to define a beef carcass population in terms of muscle color, ultimate pH, and electrical impedance; to determine the relationships among color, pH, and impedance and with other carcasses characteristics; and to determine the effect of packing plant, breed type, and sex class on these variables. One thousand beef carcasses were selected at three packing plants to match the breed type, sex class, marbling score, dark-cutting discount, overall maturity, carcass weight, and yield grade distributions reported for the U.S. beef carcass population by the 1995 National Beef Quality Audit. Data collected on these carcasses included USDA quality and yield grade data and measurements of muscle color (L*, a*, b*), muscle pH, and electrical impedance of the longissimus muscle. About one-half (53.1%) of the carcasses fell within a muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.49, and 81.3% of the carcasses fell within a longissimus muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.59. A longissimus muscle pH of 5.87 was the approximate cut-off between normal and dark-cutting carcasses. Frequency distributions indicated that L* values were normally distributed, whereas a* and b* values were abnormally distributed (skewed because of a longer tail for lower values, a tail corresponding with dark-cutting carcasses). Electrical impedance was highly variable among carcasses but was not highly related to any other variable measured. Color measurements (L*, a*, b*) were correlated (P Brahman-type (pH = 5.46, L* = 39.75, a* = 25.17, and b* = 11.05) carcasses (P < 0.05).

  12. Preliminary results on mineral content of some beef muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cignetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the growing interest of consumers for nutritional aspect of food, little data are available on meat mineral content. Among the factors influencing minerals, muscle appears interesting: Doornenbal and Murray (1981 found that the concentrations of several minerals were influenced by muscle and sometimes by age, whereas sex and breed differences were less important. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral content in beef muscles.

  13. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2009-01-01

    the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality....

  14. Spoilage of value-added, high-oxygen modified-atmosphere packaged raw beef steaks by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum and Leuconostoc gelidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihavainen, Elina J; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2007-11-01

    Moisture-enhancing and marinating of meats are commonly used by the meat industry to add value to raw, retail products. Recently in Finland, certain value-added beef steak products have proven to be unusually susceptible to microbial spoilage leading to untoward quality deteriorations during producer-defined shelf-life. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the premature spoilage of value-added beef packaged under high-oxygen modified atmospheres. Spoilage was characterised by green discolouration and a buttery off-odour. The predominant LAB in eight packages of spoiled, marinated or moisture-enhanced beef steaks were identified by reference to a 16 and 23S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (ribotype) database. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, Leuconostoc gelidum, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei and Carnobacterium divergens were found to predominate in the LAB populations at numbers above 10(8) CFU/g. Inoculation of moisture-enhanced steaks with LAB strains and strain mixtures originating from the spoiled products demonstrated the spoilage potential of L. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum isolates. These two species produced green surface discolouration and buttery off-odours similar to these found in the spoiled, commercial products.

  15. Beef assessments using functional magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Davis, T H; Paniukov, D; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M; Miller, M F

    2017-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to unveil how some foods and basic rewards are processed in the human brain. This study evaluated how resting state functional connectivity in regions of the human brain changed after differing qualities of beef steaks were consumed. Functional images of participants (n=8) were collected after eating high or low quality beef steaks on separate days, after consumption a sensory ballot was administered to evaluate consumers' perceptions of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Imaging data showed that high quality steak samples resulted in greater functional connectivity to the striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex at various stages after consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, high quality steaks elicited higher sensory ballot scores for each palatability trait (P≤0.01). Together, these results suggest that resting state fMRI may be a useful tool for evaluating the neural process that follows positive sensory experiences such as the enjoyment of high quality beef steaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Circulating placental lactogen levels in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, F F; Ulberg, L C; Fellows, R E

    1976-11-01

    Levels of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) have been measured in the serum of dairy and beef cattle and in the milk and amniotic fluid of pregnant animals with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. In both dairy and beef cows, serum bPL levels remain low (less than 50 ng/ml) during the first two trimesters and then rise rapidly between 160 and 200 days of gestation to a plateau. The bPL levels do not decline prior to parturition. During the last trimester, serum levels in dairy cows, 1103+/-342 ng/ml, are significantly higher than those in beef cattle, 650+/-37 ng/ml (P less than 0.01); furthermore, dairy cows having a high milk production also tend to have high bPL levels. Serum levels are almost twice as high in twin pregnancies and are not correlated with fetal sex or birth weight. bPL levels in milk and amniotic fluid from dairy cattle during the last trimester are approximately 86% and 25% of the serum values, respectively, suggesting that bPL enters these fluids by passive diffusion.

  17. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rós, Patrícia C M Da; Castro, Heizir F de; Carvalho, Ana K F; Soares, Cleide M F; Moraes, Flavio F de; Zanin, Gisella M

    2012-04-01

    Optimal conditions for the microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel have been developed by a full 2² factorial design leading to a set of seven runs with different combinations of molar ratio and temperature. The main goal was to reduce the reaction time preliminarily established by a process of conventional heating. Reactions yielding biodiesel, in which beef tallow and ethanol used as raw materials were catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on silica-PVA and microwave irradiations within the range of 8-15 W were performed to reach the reaction temperature. Under optimized conditions (1:6 molar ratio of beef tallow to ethanol molar ratio at 50°C) almost total conversion of the fatty acid presented in the original beef tallow was converted into ethyl esters in a reaction that required 8 h, i.e., a productivity of about 92 mg ethyl esters g⁻¹ h⁻¹. This represents an increase of sixfold for the process carried out under conventional heating. In general, the process promises low energy demand and higher biodiesel productivity. The microwave assistance speeds up the enzyme catalyzed reactions, decreases the destructive effects on the enzyme of the operational conditions such as, higher temperature, stability, and specificity to its substrate, and allows the entire reaction medium to be heated uniformly.

  18. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  19. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.