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Sample records for ground beef heated

  1. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne in irradiated ground beef heated in a water bath or cooked on commercial grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of heat-shocked and non heat-shocked spores of the virulence-attenuated Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis was evaluated at select temperatures in irradiated, raw ground beef (25% fat) heated in a water bath or cooked using two different commercial grills. For the former, 3-g ...

  2. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  3. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  4. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  5. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  6. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  7. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  9. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  10. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  11. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  12. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  13. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in U. S. retail ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Miller, Markus F; Loneragan, Guy H; Brooks, J Chance; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are the leading cause of STEC-associated infections in humans in the United States. In the United States, these organisms are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef products and in intact beef destined to be made into or used in nonintact raw beef products. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the burden of the six serogroups of non-O157 STEC in ground beef obtained from retail stores across the United States. A convenience sample of commercial ground beef products (n = 1,129) were purchased from retail stores in 24 states from October 2011 to May 2012. The samples had various lean/fat proportions, muscle group of origin (chuck, round, sirloin, or not specified), and packaging types. For each ground beef sample, 25 g was inoculated in 225 ml of modified tryptic soy broth, stomached for 1 min, and then incubated at 41°C for 18 ± 2 h. These enrichment cultures were then screened for stx, eae, and O group genes using a commercially available, closed-platform PCR-based method. The potential positive samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation and plated on modified Rainbow agar. Morphologically typical colonies were subjected to latex agglutination and PCR determination of stx and eae genes. Nine (0.8%) of the ground beef samples were potentially positive for at least one STEC serogroup after PCR screening. The serogroups detected by PCR assay were O26 (four samples), O103 (four samples), O145 (three samples), O45 (two samples), and O121 (one sample). No STEC isolates belonging to these serogroups were recovered from the sample cultures. The current research provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates among commercial ground beef products and information regarding the potential sources of contamination from different parts of beef trims destined for ground beef production.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  15. Salmonella spp. in lymph nodes of fed and cull cattle: Relative assessment of risk to ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground beef products have been implicated as the vehicle for the transmission of Salmonella in a number of outbreaks. Although carcass surface interventions have proven effective, Salmonella contamination in ground beef still occurs. Recent studies indicate that deep tissue lymph nodes (DTLNs) may b...

  16. Effect of heat stress on six beef breeds in the Zastron district: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA Foster

    assumptions and philosophies without concrete evidence (Mentz, 2002). A contributing ... (Finch, 1986). The effects of heat on body temperature are determined not only by climate but also by the .... in selecting tropical beef cattle. However ...

  17. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  18. Decreased dosage of acidified sodium chlorite reduces microbial contamination and maintains organoleptic qualities of ground beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Shackelford, Steven D; Fahle, Rick; Biela, Timothy; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2004-10-01

    Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) spray was evaluated at decreased dosages and application rates to determine its efficacy for reducing bacterial contamination on boneless beef trimmings used for production of raw ground beef products while maintaining desirable consumer qualities in the finished ground beef products. Two different applications of ASC (600 ppm applied at a rate of 1.3 oz/lb and 300 ppm applied at a rate of 1 oz/lb) were used to treat boneless beef trimmings before grinding. The effect of ASC treatment on 50/50 lean beef trimmings was greater than on 90/10 trimmings. ASC at 600 ppm reduced both the aerobic plate counts (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) by 2.3 log CFU/g on 50/50 trimmings, whereas treatment with 300 ppm ASC reduced APC and EBC of 50/50 trimmings by 1.1 and 0.7 log CFU/g, respectively. Ground beef formulations of 90/10 and 73/27 were produced from the treated boneless beef trim and packaged in chubs and in modified atmosphere packaging. The efficacy of ASC spray treatment to inhibit APC and EBC over the shelf life of each ground beef product was monitored. The APC and EBC in ground beef chubs were reduced by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/g until day 20. The APC and EBC for products in modified atmosphere packaging were reduced 1.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g throughout their shelf life. Both decreased dosages of ASC were equally effective on 90/10 lean ground beef, but the 300 ppm ASC treatment was slightly better at reducing the EBC of 73/27 ground beef. The organoleptic qualities (color, odor, and taste) of the ground beef products treated with 300 ppm ASC were found to be superior to those treated with 600 ppm ASC. Our results indicated that decreased dosages of ASC reduce contamination and lengthen the shelf life of ground beef. Furthermore, the 300 ppm ASC treatment reduced bacterial counts while maintaining desirable organoleptic ground beef qualities.

  19. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  20. The Effect of Repeated Heating on Fatty Acid Profile of Beef and Spices of Rendang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Yenrina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendang is a traditional Minangkabau cuisine with the main ingredient of beef or buffalo meat which is cooked using coconut milk and some spices. Rendang is cooked more than 2 hours, and after that do the repeated heating. This study aimed to determine the effect of repeated heating on fatty acid profiles of beef and spices of rendang. The analysis carried out at Chemistry Lab. and Biochemistry Lab. In  Fateta Unand and Integrated Lab in IPB Bogor. This  study   designed  used a completely  randomized  design  with 5 treatments and 3 replications.  The treatments that used in this study were A (raw beef, B (freshly cooked rendang, C (first heating, D (second heating, E (third heating where the heating was done every 2 days. Data were collected for  fatty acids profile of beef and spices of rendang. Analysis of the Type of  Fatty Acid by HPLC method (AOAC, 1984. The results shown that repeated heating of beef and spice of rendang had significantly different effect on the type of fatty acids and an increased trans fatty Acid of rendang.

  1. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  2. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  3. Detection of Ricin Contamination in Ground Beef by Electrochemiluminescence Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Brandon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor, grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food matrices. A monoclonal antibody-based method was developed for detecting and quantifying ricin in ground beef, a complex, fatty matrix. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/g for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL method and 1.5 ng/g for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The detection of nanogram per gram quantities of ricin spiked into retail samples of ground beef provides approximately 10,000-fold greater sensitivity than required to detect a toxic dose of ricin (>1 mg in a 100 g sample.

  4. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  5. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on raw ground beef

    OpenAIRE

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado; Edith G. Gonzalez-Mondragon; Alma Yadira Salazar-Govea; Joaquin T. Santiago-Castro; Juana Ramirez-Andrade

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) were carried out using water (IE) and ethanol (EtOHE) as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants), CIE (meat with infusion of epazote), CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote) and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution). The characteristics ...

  6. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( brand disclosure. Increased ( branded product that received increased ( brand and product information, few consumers find differences in eating quality among ground beef treatments; however, when consumers are aware of the brand, fat level, and subprimal blend prior to sampling, these factors have a large impact on consumer eating satisfaction.

  7. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  8. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  9. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during rapid and slow heating in sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    1996-06-01

    Heating at slowly rising temperatures is suspected to enhance thermotolerance in Listeria monocytogenes and, since anaerobic environments have been shown to facilitate resuscitation of heat-injured cells of this micro-organism, concern may arise about the possibility of L. monocytogenes surviving in minimally preserved products. The effect of rapid ( > 10 degrees C min-1) and slow (0.3 and 0.6 degrees C min-1) heating on survival of L. monocytogenes in sous vide cooked beef was therefore examined at mild processing temperatures of 56 degrees, 60 degrees and 64 degrees C. No statistically significant difference (P = 0.70) was observed between the tested heating regimes. Since the average pH of beef was low (5.6), and little or no effect was observed, a pH-dependency of heat shock-induced thermotolerance in L. monocytogenes is suggested to account for this result.

  10. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  11. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  12. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  13. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  14. Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K; Miller, M F; Loneragan, G H; Brashears, M M

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log CFU/g) and low (1.0 log CFU/g) inoculation doses was evaluated at various processing steps, including the following: (i) in trim just after treatment application, (ii) in ground beef just after grinding, (iii) in ground beef 24 h after refrigerated storage, (iv) in ground beef 5 days after refrigerated storage, and (v) in ground beef 30 days after frozen storage. All antimicrobial treatments reduced the pathogens on the trim inoculated with the lower inoculation dose to nondetectable numbers in the trim and in the ground beef. There were significant reductions of both pathogens in the trim and in the ground beef inoculated with the high inoculation doses. On the trim itself, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 1.5 to 2.0 log cycles, with no differences among all treatments. In the ground beef, the organic acids were more effective in reducing both pathogens than the acidified sodium chlorite immediately after grinding, but after 1 day of storage, there were no differences among treatments. Overall, in the ground beef, there was a 2.5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1.5-log reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium that was sustained over time in refrigerated and frozen storage. Very few sensory differences between the control samples and the treated samples were detected by a consumer panel. Thus, antimicrobial treatments did not cause serious adverse sensory changes. Use of these antimicrobial treatments can be a promising intervention available to ground beef processors who currently have few interventions in their process.

  15. Effects of irradiation on trans fatty acids formation in ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, M.S. E-mail: msavoy@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-filho, Jorge

    2002-03-01

    In order to give the consumer the assurance that meat processed by irradiation is a safe product, a great deal of research has been developed in the world. The effect of irradiation on the hygienic quality of meat and meat products is considered as related to the control of meat-borne parasites of humans; elimination of pathogens from fresh meat and poultry; and elimination of pathogens from processed meat. Lipid oxidation and associated changes are the major causes of the quality deterioration of meat during storage. Irradiation of lipids induces the production of free radicals, which react with oxygen, leading to the formation of carbonyls, responsible for alterations in food nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Trans fatty acids are present in ground beef and can also be formed during its processing. Interestingly, the trans fatty acids, due to their chemical and physical characteristics, show more resistance to the oxidizing process. This property motivated us to investigate the level of the trans fatty acids, as well as the level of oxidation in irradiated ground beef. Irradiation of ground beef was performed by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The applied radiation doses were 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0 kGy. Lipid peroxidation in terms of TBA number and carbonyl content was monitored during storage. The sample characteristics and trans fatty acids composition were measured, following irradiation and after 60 and 90 days of storage at -10 deg. C.

  16. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  17. Optimization of a ground coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D.; Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative analytical project has optimized a horizontal ground coil heat pump system for the Pittsburgh climate. This is the first step in the exploration of several advanced designs including various ground coil devices and advanced heat pump components. The project made use of new and existing design tools to simulate system performance and determine first cost. The system life cycle cost was minimized while constraining the system to meet the design day cooling load using a function minimizing program. Among the system parameters considered were: air-to-refrigerant frontal area, air-to-refrigerant fin pitch, air-to-refrigerant air flowrate, compressor displacement, liquid-to-refrigerant coil length, liquid-to-refrigerant coil diameter, ground coil fluid flowrate, ground coil length, and ground coil depth.

  18. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  19. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in 'minimally processed foods' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (p{<=}0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  20. Multiple source ground heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, P.; Lamarche, L.; Rousse, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Sharing geothermal borefields is usually done with each borehole having the same inlet conditions (flow rate, temperature and fluid). The objective of this research is to improve the energy efficiency of shared and hybrid geothermal borefields by segregating heat transfer sources. Two models are briefly presented: The first model allows the segregation of the inlet conditions for each borefields; the second model allows circuits to be defined independently for each leg of double U-tubes in a borehole. An application couples residential heat pumps and arrays of solar collectors. Independent circuits configuration gave the best energy savings in a symmetric configuration, the largest shank spacing and with solar collectors functioning all year long. The boreholes have been shortened from 300 m to 150 m in this configuration.

  1. Microbiological Testing Results of Boneless and Ground Beef Purchased for the National School Lunch Program, 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerscher, Darin R; Lutz, Terry L; Whisenant, Stephen J; Smith, Kerry R; Morris, Craig A; Schroeder, Carl M

    2015-09-01

    The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) purchases boneless and ground beef for distribution to recipients through federal nutrition assistance programs, including the National School Lunch Program, which represents 93% of the overall volume. Approximately every 2,000 lb (ca. 907 kg) of boneless beef and 10,000 lb (ca. 4,535 kg) of ground beef are designated a "lot" and tested for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, standard plate count organisms (SPCs), E. coli, and coliforms. Any lot of beef positive for E. coli O157:H7 or for Salmonella, or any beef with concentrations of organisms exceeding critical limits for SPCs (100,000 CFU g(-1)), E. coli (500 CFU g(-1)), or coliforms (1,000 CFU g(-1)) is rejected for purchase by AMS and must be diverted from federal nutrition assistance programs. From July 2011 through June 2014, 537,478,212 lb (ca. 243,795,996 kg) of boneless beef and 428,130,984 lb (ca. 194,196,932 kg) of ground beef were produced for federal nutrition assistance programs. Of the 230,359 boneless beef samples collected over this period, 82 (0.04%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 924 (0.40%) were positive for Salmonella, 222 (0.10%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 69 (0.03%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 123 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Of the 46,527 ground beef samples collected over this period, 30 (0.06%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7, 360 (0.77%) were positive for Salmonella, 20 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for SPCs, 22 (0.05%) exceeded the critical limit for E. coli, and 17 (0.04%) exceeded the critical limit for coliforms. Cumulatively, these data suggest beef produced for the AMS National School Lunch Program is done so under an adequate food safety system, as indicated by the low percentage of lots that were pathogen positive or exceeded critical limits for indicator organisms.

  2. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on raw ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. were carried out using water (IE and ethanol (EtOHE as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants, CIE (meat with infusion of epazote, CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution. The characteristics determined for both IE and EtOHE before being added to the meat were pH, antioxidant activity (AA, total polyphenols (TP and total flavonoids (TF. The antioxidant effect on the ground beef was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method and instrumental color. EI showed the highest TF content. Meat with IE and EtOHE treatments had lower TBARS values than control meat, and higher of L* and b* values, which indicate greater clarity in both treatments. In conclusion, under these conditions, epazote has potential as a natural antioxidant in order to extend the shelf life of meat and meat products.

  3. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  4. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  5. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  6. Ground as a possible heat pump source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. [Padova Univ. (Germany). Dipt. di Tecnica e Gestione die Istemi Industriali

    2001-06-01

    Heat pumps are devices that can increase the thermal level of heat taken from an available source. Their performances are usually very sensible to the temperatures. This is the reason why sources different from the outside air are welcome, since that source is thermally unfavourable. The ground is a possible very favourable source: temperature variations are damped in the ground so much the more deeper one descends. The variations are also delayed, so that in the coldest period one can find equality very good thermal levels. The two main used systems are: horizontal tubes at a depth between 0.8 and 1.5m and vertical tubes. This last technology has gained an increasing popularity with depths which are sometimes deeper than 100m. It interests a large volume of ground with a comparatively small surface area. It is a technology already widespread in Switzerland (where more than 15.000 ground heat pumps were installed in these years), Germany and Austria. It could be a very favourable technology also in Italy and other mediterranean countries both for the presence of good thermal levels underground with excellent characteristics of heat exchange and for the possible use of the ground as a suitable summer thermal sink. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of TA10 broth for recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella from beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaki-Horikoshi, Naoko; Okada, Yukio; Takeshita, Kazuko; Sameshima, Takashi; Kawasaki, Susumu; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Fratamico, Pina M

    2011-01-01

    The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Salmonella pre-enrichment broth [lactose (LAC) broth], buffered peptone water, and universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth were compared with TA10 broth, developed in our laboratory, for recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella (55 degrees C for 2-20 min and -20 degrees C for 2 months, respectively) from beef. Beef samples were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars, and contamination levels of 0.44 to <0.001 most probable number (MPN)/g and 0.74 to 0.14 MPN/g were used for heat- and freezing-induced injury studies, respectively. Twenty test portions (25 g) of the contaminated beef were pre-enriched in each broth, and the BAM Salmonella culture method was used thereafter. There was a significant difference (chi2 = 7.73) in recovery of heat-injured Salmonella between TA10 broth and LAC broth, 189 (67.5%) versus 156 (55.7%) positive samples, respectively, determined by plating onto selective agars and identification by biochemical tests. For the recovery of freeze-injured Salmonella, there was a significant difference (chi2 = 24.7) between TA10 and LAC broth, 189 (72.7%) versus 133 (51.2%) positive samples, respectively. TA10 broth was more effective than LAC broth and UP broth for recovery of freeze-injured Salmonella. The results indicate that TA10 broth should be used instead of LAC broth for testing of beef that may be contaminated with heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella spp.

  8. A heat transfer model of a horizontal ground heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, R. E.; Shtern, Yu. I.; Shtern, M. Yu.; Rogachev, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-source heat pumps are gaining popularity in Eastern Europe, especially those which are using the horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX). Due to the difficulty of accessing GHX after the installation, materials and the quality of the installation must satisfy the very high requirements. An inaccurate calculation of GHX can be the reason of a scarcity of heat power in a crucial moment. So far, there isn't any appropriate mathematical description of the horizontal GHX which takes into account the mutual influence of GHX pipes on each other. To solve this problem we used the temperature wave approach. As a result, a mathematical model which describes the dependence of the heat transfer rate per unit length of the horizontal GHX pipe on the thermal properties of soil, operating time of GHX and the distance between pipes was obtained. Using this model, heat transfer rates per unit length of a horizontal GHX were plotted as functions of the distance between pipes and operating time. The modeling shows that heat transfer rates decreases rapidly with the distance between pipes lower then 2 meters. After the launch of heat pump, heat power of GHX is reduced during the first 20 - 30 days and get steady after that. The obtained results correlate with experimental data. Therefore the proposed mathematical model can be used to design a horizontal GHX with the optimal characteristics, and predict its capability during operation.

  9. Evaluation of the Most Current and Effective Methods in the Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins in Ground Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal origin, leads to the accumulation of dioxins in the human body. The exposures of the general human population to dioxins and the specific issues of a risk assessment of dioxin pose serious concerns in public environmental and nutritional health. This paper reviews the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. The sources of contamination of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef are first reviewed to form a basis for a clear understanding of the health implications of chlorinated dioxins in the human food chain and why it is necessary to monitor the level of dioxins in animal food products, especially ground beef. The methods of collection, sampling, and processing of ground beef, and the methods of sample clean up prior to the analysis, are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the new techniques that are available and that might be effective in the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. Among these new methods and techniques are: the synergistic combination of ELISA/GC/MS, direct sample introduction to /GC/MS-MS, automated clean-up method, and the supercritical fluid extraction methods. The possible treatments of results from each method and technique are discussed and their respective efficiencies are compared. Finally, quality control and quality assurance parameters are evaluated for levels of accuracy, reproducibility, and precision.

  10. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The system which was optimized was a horizontal earth coil in a given house in the Pittsburgh area. The types of components used in the heat pump are essentially conventional. The method of this study is derived from one used to optimize an air-source heat pump for operation at standard steady state conditions. A computer model, created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is used to predict heat pump performance for specified configuration and operating conditions. A predetermined set of design parameters is automatically altered by a constrained minimization program (a Numerical Algorithms Group library routine hereafter referred to as the optimizer) to find the combination for which the highest COP is predicted by the heat pump model. In the present study, the set of parameters to be varied include some pertaining to the ground coil as well as some pertaining to the heat pump. The optimizer, in this case, pursues a minimum life cycle cost which is calculated using the heat pump model, a ground coil model (called FTECM for Fast Transient Earth Coil model), and a parameterized cost model. The flow chart shows how the optimizer interacts with these programs to minimize life cycle cost.

  11. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  12. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  13. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  14. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers.

  15. Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    2001-01-22

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no

  16. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pphosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (pphosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (pphosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  17. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  18. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  19. Reflection of ground-source heat pump systems' application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSuyun; LINZhenguo; WUXiangsheng; WUTian

    2003-01-01

    Ground-source heat pump system is an air-conditioning form of energy efficient and environment protection. This article introduced the forms of ground-source heat pump systems, analyzed the problems of ground-source heat pump systems in application in China, and put forward the solutions to these problems.

  20. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  1. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.

  2. Finite element model for beef chilling using CFD-generated heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Q.T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Trujillo, F.J. [Food Science Australia, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); McPhail, N. [Food Science Australia, P.O. Box 3312, Tingalpa DC, Brisbane, QLD 4173 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    A combined model of the beef chilling process is presented, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the local heat and mass transfer coefficients, assuming uniform surface temperatures, and a set of 2-D finite element grids was used to solve the heat transfer equation in the product, which has an elongated shape. Another set of 1-D grids was used to solve the water transport equation near the surface of the meat. The surface transfer coefficients were calculated for various combinations of air orientations and speeds, and summarised in a set of regression equations. The model was verified by existing and new data on heat load, temperatures, weight loss and surface water activity. (author)

  3. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are regularly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 STEC isolates, including the "big six" serovars, O104 and O157:H7. STEC isolates included those isolated from animals and environmental sources in addition to those associated with illness in humans. Individual STEC were inoculated into 80% lean ground beef and treated with HPP (350 MPa, 4 °C, up to 40 min). The mean D10 was 9.74 min, with a range of 0.89-25.70 min. The D10 of the STEC involved in human illness was 9.25 vs. 10.40 min for those not involved in human illness (p > 0.05). The presence or absence of genes encoding virulence factors (e.g. Shiga toxin 1 or 2, intimin, or enterohemolysin) had no effect on the HPP D10 (p > 0.05). The high D10 of some STEC involved in human illness should be considered in selecting HPP processing parameters for ground beef. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of STEC resistance to HPP. Risk assessors and the food industry can use this information to provide safer meat products to consumers.

  4. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont BAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O2...

  5. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  6. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  7. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.

  8. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  9. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  10. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4{+-}2 deg. C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly (p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  12. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  13. Ground-source Heat Pump Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100,000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark. [French] La crise economique ainsi que la crise immobiliere qui touchent de nombreux pays europeens ne facilitent pas l'essor du marche de la pompe a chaleur geothermique. Pour la deuxieme annee consecutive, le marche de l'union europeenne est en baisse (-2,9 % entre 2009 et 2010). il parvient tout de meme a se maintenir au-dessus des 100 000 unites vendues par an, ce qui lui permet de depasser pour la premiere fois le cap du million d'unites installees.

  14. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Dias-Morse, P N; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-05-01

    Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear force were measured to evaluate the impact of the treatments on the quality attributes. The NMS and PAA patties were redder (a(∗), P0.05) off odor to CON on days 0-3. The NMS and PAA treated patties had lower (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than the CON at days 0, 3, and 7. Therefore, KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC treatments on beef trimmings can potentially improve or maintain quality attributes of beef patties.

  15. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  16. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  17. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  18. Ground coupled solar heat pumps: analysis of four options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pump systems which utilize both solar energy and energy withdrawn from the ground are analyzed using a simplified procedure which optimizes the solar storage temperature on a monthly basis. Four ways of introducing collected solar energy to the system are optimized and compared. These include use of actively collected thermal input to the heat pump; use of collected solar energy to heat the load directly (two different ways); and use of a passive option to reduce the effective heating load.

  19. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  20. Tracking contamination through ground beef production and identifying points of recontamination using a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing, E. coli O103, non-pathogenic surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Commonly, ground beef processors conduct studies to model contaminant flow through their production systems using surrogate organisms. Typical surrogate organisms may not behave as Escherichia coli O157:H7 during grinding and are not easy to detect at very low levels. Purpose: Develop...

  1. Modeling the inactivatin of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E. coli in ground beef by high pressure processing and citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in ground beef using High Pressure Processing...

  2. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  3. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  4. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  5. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  6. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of beef trim and ground beef treated with acetic acid, lactic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, or sterile water in a simulated commercial processing environment to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Brashears, M M; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the effectiveness of acetic and lactic acids (2% and 5%), acidified sodium chlorite (1000ppm), and sterile water in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in inoculated beef trim in a simulated processing environment. Samples were collected to assess microbial characteristics at three processing points. Results from this study indicate that all treatments, including sterile water, reduced pathogen concentrations (P<0.05) of both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in ground beef up to 0.5 and 0.6 log by 24h, respectively. In some cases, there were no significant differences between the antimicrobial treatments and the sterile water using this application method. Triangle sensory test results of non-inoculated beef indicated there were no differences (P<0.05) in the means of correct responses between controls or antimicrobial treatments at 6 or 24h. While interventions are important for beef trim, use of the interventions must be validated under industry conditions to ensure proper effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  10. Application of fractional calculus in ground heat flux estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground (soil heat flux is important physical factor primarily because of its role in surface energy balance, analysis of atmospheric boundary layer and land surface-atmosphere interaction. Direct measurement of this property is often associated with difficulties arising from need for adequate calibration of measuring devices, determination of proper depth for probes, upward water migration and accumulation below measuring plates to lack of understanding of the governing thermal processes occurring at the ground surface. In the following paper approach for inferring heat flux indirectly, from known ground surface temperature time-dependant functions, using previously developed fractional diffusion equation for ground heat conduction is elaborated. Fractional equation is solved for two, most frequently encountered harmonic surface temperature functions. Yielded results were compared with analytic solutions. Validation results indicate that solutions obtained with fractional approach closely correspond to analytic solutions with remark that former are more general, containing the term covering the transitional effect.

  11. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  12. Optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications. [Including ground coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water - source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed or modified to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost and the ground coil's performance. The life-cycle cost of a GCHP system (water-source heat pump with a horizontal ground coil) for an 1800 ft/sup 2/ (167 m/sup 2/) house in Pittsburgh, PA, was minimized over a 7 year economic life. Simple payback for the optimized GCHP system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps, was under 3 years. The water-source heat pump package resulting from this optimization is calculated to cost 21% more than its conventional counterpart with a heating coefficient of performance (COP) about 20% higher, and a cooling COP about 23% higher. In the GCHP system modeled, its annual energy savings are predicted to be about 11% compared to a system designed around the conventional heat pump while having about the same installation cost. The major conclusion of this study is - GCHP system performance improvement can be attained by improving the water-source heat pump package at less cost than by buying more ground coil. The following conclusions were drawn from the steady-state performance optimization results: (1) By adding about $100.00 to the manufacturer's cost off construction, both the heating and cooling COPs can be improved by 20% or more. (2) Cooling COP need not be sacrificed for the sake of heating performance and vice versa. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  14. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  15. Heating and cooling with ground-loop heat pumps; Heizen und Kuehlen mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, Th.; Dott, R. [Institut Energie am Bau, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, A. [Huber Energietechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the SFOE-project 'Heating and cooling with ground coupled heat pumps' in which the benefits and costs of a heat pump heating and cooling system with a borehole heat exchanger were examined. In particular the dimensioning of the hydraulic system, control concept and user behaviour are dealt with. The results of the simulations of thermal building behaviour with MATLAB/SIMULINK, CARNOT, and EWS are discussed. The results of parameter studies carried out, including varying shading, cooling characteristic curves, temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the dead time between heating and cooling mode are discussed. These showed that a simple system with heat pump and borehole heat exchanger for heating or preparation of domestic hot water as well as for passive cooling proved to be the best choice.

  16. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger in Frozen Soil Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simplified numerical model of heat transfer characteristics of horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHE) in the frozen soil layer is presented and the steady-state distribution of temperature field is simulated. Numerical results show that the frozen depth mainly depends on the soil's moisture content and ambient temperature. The heat transfer loss of horizontal GHE tends to grow with the increase of the soil's moisture content and the decrease of ambient temperature. Backfilled materials with optimal thermal conductivity can reduce the thermal loss effectively in the frozen soil. The applicability of the Chinese national standard "Technical Code for Ground Source Heat Pump (GB 50366-2005)" is verified. For a ground source heat pump project, the feasible layout of horizontal GHE should be determined based on the integration of the soil's structure, backfilled materials,weather data, and economic analysis.

  18. Optimized ground coupled heat pump design: Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Saunders, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the first phase of a project to design a water-to-air heat pump optimized for ground coupling applications. The project is being conducted jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and an industrial partner to be selected via a competitive procurement. In the completion of Phase I, three major tasks were completed. First, based on experimental work performed at BNL, water-refrigerant heat exchanger models were developed for incorporation into the ORNL heat pump optimization program. Next, a procedure was developed to generate correlations between heat pump entering fluid temperature and load. The correlations, called ''Source Temperature/Load Maps'', will tell the optimization program how many hours/season the heat pump will operate with any pair of values for these quantities. This report discusses these first two tasks within Phase I.

  19. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  20. Effects of vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging in combination with irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Larson, Elaine M; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Lu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties by combining irradiation with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Fresh ground beef patties were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 5 log CFU/g. Single patties, packaged with vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP (99.6% CO(2) plus 0.4% CO), were irradiated at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. The D(10)-value for this pathogen was 0.47 ± 0.02 kGy in vacuum and 0.50 ± 0.02 kGy in MAP packaging. Irradiation with 1.5 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 to 3.3 log, while 0.5 and 1.0 kGy achieved reductions of 0.7 to 1.0, and 2.0 to 2.2 log, respectively. After irradiation, the numbers of survivors of this pathogen on beef patties in refrigerated storage (4°C) did not change significantly for 6 weeks. Temperature abuse (at 25°C) resulted in growth in vacuum-packaged patties treated with 0.5 and 1.5 kGy, but no growth in MAP packages. This study demonstrated that combining irradiation with MAP was similar in effectiveness to irradiation with vacuum packaging for control of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties during refrigerated storage. However, high-CO(2) MAP appeared to be more effective after temperature abuse.

  1. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  2. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  3. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  4. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  5. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W

    2004-09-01

    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  6. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  7. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  8. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  9. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  10. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzoni, G M; Fratamico, P M; Boccia, F; Bagi, L K; Kim, G-H; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. Ground beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were stored at 4°C for 72 h, followed by screening with the IQ-Check and BAX System kit (MLG) methods that employ different enrichment media. STEC and S. Typhimurium were detected after 12 and 18 h and their presence was confirmed by colony isolation. Both methods were able to detect STEC in ground beef after 12 h of enrichment in samples inoculated with low levels of the pathogen. STEC and S. Typhimurium can be detected and isolated in co-inoculated ground beef samples. The IQ-Check methods are comparable to the MLG methods for detection of STEC and simultaneous detection of STEC and S. Typhimurium in seeded ground beef after a short enrichment time, thus the IQ-Check method can be useful for the food industry for rapid detection of these pathogens. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  13. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef Using the GeneDisc Real-Time PCR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina eFratamico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 and certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. GeneDisc real-time PCR assays were evaluated for detection of the stx1, stx2, eae, and ehx genes and a gene that identifies the O157 serogroup followed by a second GeneDisc assay targeting serogroup-specific genes of STEC O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157. The ability to detect the STEC serogroups in ground beef samples artificially inoculated at a level of ca. 2-20 CFU/25 g and subjected to enrichment in mTSB or BPW was similar. Following enrichment, all inoculated ground beef samples showed amplification of the correct set of target genes carried by each strain. Samples inoculated with STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, and isolation was achieved by plating onto Rainbow agar O157. Colonies were confirmed by PCR assays targeting stx1, stx2, eae, and serogroup-specific genes. Thus, this work demonstrated that GeneDisc assays are rapid, sensitive, and reliable and can be used for screening ground beef and potentially other foods for STEC serogroups that are important food-borne pathogens worldwide.

  14. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Llorente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1% samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57; stx2, 86.0% (49/57; stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57; ehxA, 61.4% (35/57; eae, 26.3% (15/57; saa, 24.6% (14/57. Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54; stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54; stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54; stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54; stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54; stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54. Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  15. Efficiency of Vertical Geothermal Heat Exchangers in the Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

    2003-01-01

    Taking the fluid temperature distribution along the borehole depth into account, a new quasi-three-dimensional model for vertical ground heat exchangers has been established, which provides a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in the geothermal heat exchangers. On this basis the efficiency of the borehole has been defined and its analytical expression derived. Comparison with the previous two-dimensional model shows that the quasi-three-dimensional model is more rational and more accurate to depict the practical feature of the conduction of geothermal heat exchanger, and the efficiency notion can be easily used to determine the inlet and outlet temperature of the circulating fluid inside the heat exchanger.

  16. Utilization of the horizontal ground heat exchanger in the heating and cooling system of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analyses of a system using a horizontal ground heat exchanger to cool a residential building in summer and heat it in the autumn-winter period. The main heating device is a vapour compression heat pump with the ground as the lower heat source. The aim of the analyses is to examine the impact of heat supply to the ground in the summer period, when the building is cooled, on the operation of the heating system equipped with a heat pump in the next heating season, including electricity consumption. The processes occurring in cooling and heating systems have an unsteady nature. The main results of the calculations are among others the time-dependent values of heat fluxes extracted from or transferred to the ground heat exchanger, the fluxes of heat generated by the heat pump and supplied to the heated building by an additional heat source, the parameters in characteristic points of the systems, the temperature distributions in the ground and the driving electricity consumption in the period under analysis. The paper presents results of analysis of cumulative primary energy consumption of the analyzed systems and cumulative emissions of harmful substances.

  17. Utilization of the horizontal ground heat exchanger in the heating and cooling system of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała, Małgorzata; Bury, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analyses of a system using a horizontal ground heat exchanger to cool a residential building in summer and heat it in the autumn-winter period. The main heating device is a vapour compression heat pump with the ground as the lower heat source. The aim of the analyses is to examine the impact of heat supply to the ground in the summer period, when the building is cooled, on the operation of the heating system equipped with a heat pump in the next heating season, including electricity consumption. The processes occurring in cooling and heating systems have an unsteady nature. The main results of the calculations are among others the time-dependent values of heat fluxes extracted from or transferred to the ground heat exchanger, the fluxes of heat generated by the heat pump and supplied to the heated building by an additional heat source, the parameters in characteristic points of the systems, the temperature distributions in the ground and the driving electricity consumption in the period under analysis. The paper presents results of analysis of cumulative primary energy consumption of the analyzed systems and cumulative emissions of harmful substances.

  18. Combined operation of two ground transmitters for enhanced ionospheric heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Groves, K. M.; Liao, C. P.; Rivas, D. R.; Kuo, S. P.

    1988-01-01

    The combined operation of a high or medium frequency ground transmitter and a VLF transmitter for enhanced ionospheric heating is examined. The high or medium frequency transmitter operating in a pulsed mode produce short-scale density striations that can render the nonlinear mode conversion of the subsequently launched VLF waves into lower hybrid waves. Also if the VLF waves are intense enough, they can excite meter-scale density striations and lower hybrid waves via parametric instabilities. The expected ionospheric effects of the system are discussed.

  19. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  20. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  1. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO 2; MAP : 60% O 2-30% CO 2-10% N 2 and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D10 values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D10 values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  2. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO{sub 2}; MAP : 60% O{sub 2}-30% CO{sub 2}-10% N{sub 2} and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D{sub 10} values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D{sub 10} values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  3. Fiber-Optic Biosensor Employing Alexa-Fluor Conjugated Antibody for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Ground Beef in Four Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody which is specific forE. coli O157:H7. A polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiberwaveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction that served as a capture antibody. AnAlexa Fluor 647 dye-labeled antibody to E. coli O157:H7 was used to detect cells andgenerate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635 nm laser-lightfrom an Analyte-2000. Fluorescent molecules within several hundred nanometers of thefiber were excited by an evanescent wave, and a portion of the emission light fromfluorescent dye transmitted by the fiber and collected by a photodetector at wavelengths of670 to 710 nm quantitatively. This immunosensor was specific for E. coli O157:H7compared with multiple other foodborne bacteria. In addition, the biosensor was able todetect as low as 103 CFU/ml pure cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in culture broth.Artificially inoculated E. coli O157:H7 at concentration of 1 CFU/ml in ground beef couldbe detected by this method after only 4 hours of enrichment.

  4. Numerical characterization of heat transfer in closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Hujeong; GIL; Hangseok; CHOI; Shin-Hyung; KANG

    2010-01-01

    A series of numerical analyses has been performed on the characteristics of heat transfer in a closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger(U-loop).A 2-D finite element analysis was conducted to evaluate the temperature distribution over the cross section of the U-loop system involving high-density polyethylene(HDPE) pipe/grout/soil to compare the sectional efficiency between the conventional U-loop and a new latticed HDPE pipe system,which is equipped with a thermally insulating lattice in order to reduce thermal interference between the inlet and outlet pipes.In addition,a 3-D finite volume analysis(FLUENT) was adopted to simulate the operation of the closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger with the consideration of the effect of a distance between the inlet and outlet pipes,grout’s thermal properties,the effectiveness of the latticed HDPE pipe system,and the rate of circulation pump.It was observed that the thermal interference between the two strands of U-loop is of importance in enhancing efficiency of the ground heat exchanger.Consequently,it is recommended to modify the configuration of the conventional U-loop system by equipping the thermally insulating lattice between the two pipe strands.

  5. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-11-01

    The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.

  6. Comparative Calculation of Heat Exchange with the Ground in Residential Building Including Periodes of Heat Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides verification of 3D transient ground-coupled model to calculation of heat exchange between ground and typical one-storey, passive residential building. The model was performed with computer software WUFI®plus and carried out to estimate the indoor air temperatures during extending hot weather periods. For verifying the results of calculations performed by the WUFI®plus software, the most recent version of EnergyPlus software version was used. Comparison analysis of calculation results obtained with the two above mentioned calculation method was made for two scenarios of slab on ground constructions: without thermal insulation and with thermal insulation under the whole slab area. Comprehensive statistical analysis was done including time series analysis and descriptive statistics parameters.

  7. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  8. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  9. Heat Transmission of Slab-on-Ground Industrial Floors with Vertical Perimeter Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    The surface heat loss of slab-on-ground industrial floors that are vertically insulated along the footing wall (with the insulation reaching under the ground level), is closely linked with the relatively large floor area of industrial halls. To give a comprehensive heat transmission analysis, the present paper first provides an overview of the U-value requirements for such floors in Hungary and Germany. For the determination of the heat transmission coefficient of slab-on-ground floors with v...

  10. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  11. Elimination of Pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef by a Newly Isolated Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus during Storage at 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Constant use of limited number of lactic acid bacteria species in biopreservation can cause genetic degradation and or rising resistance against food pathogens or antimicrobial substances they produce. For this objective, a newly isolated strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possessing high antimicrobial activity was evaluated as a candidate for use in biopreservation.Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. Hydrogen peroxide amount was measured by Merckoquant Peroxide test strips. Microbiological analysis of the ground beef infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and treated by Lactobacillus acidophilus GH 201was done by plating of serial dilution in physiological saline on Tryptose agar.Results and Conclusion: The cells (109 CFU ml-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus produced significant amount of antibacterial substances mainly hydrogen peroxide (28 and 30 μg ml-1 in sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.5 and LAPTg at 5°C during submerged cultivation with no growth, respectively. Submerged co-cultivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with lactobacilli in LAPTg broth at 5°C reduced the total number of the pathogen more than 2 log for 5 days. In case of solid state cultivation on agar-based medium, the maximum inhibitory zones on Escherichia coli O157:H7 lawn around the disks soaked by different amounts of washed Lactobacillus acidophilus cells appear for one-day cold exposition. The size of inhibition zone depends on the concentration of lactic acid bacteria cells. The cell suspension intended for treatment must contain 108-9CFU ml-1 of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the initial amount (2×105 CFU ml-1 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef up to 2 log for 5 days of solid-state co-cultivation. The application of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria expanded the shelf-life of ground beef due to inhibition of

  12. Computer simulation of ground coupled storage in a series solar assisted heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, John W.; Metz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study of the effect of thermal coupling between the ground and the heat storage element of a series solar assisted heat pump system is presented. The transient simulation computer program TRNSYS is used to simulate the solar portion of this system. A program to simulate the thermal interaction of the storage element with the ground is incorporated into TRNSYS as a sub-routine. This program calculates heat flow through the ground in discrete steps over space and time. Boundary conditions are established. The ground coupled storage is driven by thermal inputs from the solar portion of the system and from the changing ambient and ground temperatures.

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Ground Coupled Heat Pump with Vertical Spiral Coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新国; 周倩; 赵军; 朱强; 胡璟

    2003-01-01

    The numerical simulation study on the temperature distribution of underground field for the ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) with vertical spiral coil was carried out by using finite element. The distribution and recovery of underground field temperature under different operation ratio and the optimal operation ratio were simulated. The performance parameters, i.e. inlet and outlet temperature of the ground spiral coil in heating and cooling modes were tested, the heat extracted or emitted by the heat pump to the ground was calculated, and the coefficients of performance (COP) of GCHP at heating and cooling modes were analyzed.

  14. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

  15. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent…

  16. Profile and activity of the bacterial biota of ground beef held from freshness to spoilage at 5-7 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J M; Vilai, J P; Hughes, M E

    2003-03-15

    Four samples of fresh ground beef were stored aerobically and held at 5-7 degrees C for up to 28 days. Although one sample initially yielded 21 different genera of bacteria while two others yielded only seven, all four spoiled essentially in the same way as assessed by aerobic, psychrotrophic, and Gram-negative counts, and by extract-release volume (ERV) and pH values. Pseudomonas spp. was dominant in the spoilage of all samples. As to why this group is so consistently associated with the low-temperature aerobic spoilage of fresh meats, it is hypothesized that they possess the capacity to form a biofilm and that quorum sensing is involved in the overall biofilm forming and functioning processes.

  17. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  18. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  19. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Johnson, L. J.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Angus crossbred yearling steers ( n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO3 did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

  20. Innovative commercial ``ground source'' heat pump system sources and sinks: Engineering and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, H.M.; Lowenstein, A.I.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.; Carlson, S.W.; Risser, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, which will be called GX systems in this paper, have been employed in specialty applications on both residential and commercial buildings for several decades. GX systems generally have very competitive life cycle costs, but somewhat higher initial costs. The incremental cost of the ground heat exchanger cost is close to the average cost per ton, so GX systems work best with very efficient building shells. Innovative methods can reduce the ground heat exchanger cost. These include better coupling of the heat exchange boreholes to the ground, hybrid systems that use low cost closed fluid coolers to supplement the ground heat exchanger where cooling loads dominate, open loop systems, and opportunistic systems that use sewage effluent or other non-standard sources for heat exchange. These approaches and their benefits are illustrated through five case studies.

  1. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  2. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  3. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  4. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  5. Energy well. Ground-source heat in one-family houses; Energiakaivo. Maalaemmoen hyoedyntaeminen pientaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J.; Lapinlampi, T.

    2013-08-15

    This guide deals with the legislation, planning, building, usage and maintenance of ground-source heat systems. The guide gives recommendations and instructions on national level on the permit practices and how to carry out the whole ground-source heat system project. The main focus of the guide is on energy wells for one-family houses. The principle is that an action permit is needed to build a ground-source heat system. On ground water areas a permit according to the water act may also be required. To avoid any problems, the placement of the system needs to be planned precisely. This guide gives a comprehension to the orderer on the issues that need to be considered before ordering, during construction, when the system is running and when giving up the use of the ground-source heat system. (orig.)

  6. Quantifying Systemic Efficiency using Exergy and Energy Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pumps: Domestic Space Conditioning and Water Heating Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Although air temperatures over land surfaces show wide seasonal and daily variations, the ground, approximately 10 meters below the earth s surface, remains relatively stable in temperature thereby serving as an energy source or sink. Ground source heat pumps can heat, cool, and supply homes with hot water efficiently by utilizing the earth s renewable and essentially inexhaustible energy resources, saving fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering the environmental footprint. In this paper, evidence is shown that ground source heat pumps can provide up to 79%-87% of domestic hot water energy needs, and up to 77% of space heating needs with the ground s thermal energy resources. The case refers to a 12-month study conducted at a 253 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days and CDD of 723 C-days under simulated occupancy conditions. A single 94.5m vertical bore interfaced the heat pump with the ground. The research shows that this technology is capable of achieving US DOE targets of 25 % and 35% energy savings in HVAC, and in water heating, respectively by 2030. It is also a viable technology to meet greenhouse gas target emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources. The paper quantifies systemic efficiencies using Exergy analysis of the major components, clearly pointing areas for further improvement.

  7. Zoning of the territory of Russia by the effectiveness of low-potential heat of the ground and atmospheric air for heating buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Kolesova, M. V.; Gornov, V. F.; Yurchenko, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article represents the results of researches to zone the territory of Russia and Europe division into districts of by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime has been taken into account as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. Also considered were the sinking of temperatures of ground massif by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massif temperatures.

  8. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  9. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  10. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  11. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low....... For the studied geographical location, passive cooling by bypassing the heat pump and using only the ground heat exchanger can provide acceptable room temperatures.......-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  12. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  13. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and thermogeologic properties of ground. After abovementioned depth, increase of ground temperature is solely dependent on geothermal gradient. Accurately determined value of undisturbed ground temperature is beneficial for proper sizing of borehole heat exchangers. On practical example of building which is being heated and cooled with shallow geothermal resource, influences of undisturbed ground temperature and geothermal gradient, on size of borehole heat exchanger are going to be presented. Sizing of borehole heat exchanger was calculated with commercial software Ground Loop Designer (GLD, which uses modified line source and cylinder source solutions of heat conduction in solids.

  14. An optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the group coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost, and the ground coil's performance.

  15. Performance and Optimization for a Ground-Coupled Liquid Loop Heat Recovery Ventilation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; Per FAHLEN; Torbj(o)rn LINDHOLM

    2007-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pumps(GCHP) arecommonly used in residential heating system. To mitigatethe boreholes temperature dropping with operating time, anew exhaust-air recharging system is developed. The newrecharging system can be used in three operational modes.In this paper, a ground-coupled heat recovery ventilation(HRV) model is discussed. A thermal model is set up tofind the optimal brine flow rate and heat transfer allocationratio between exhaust and supply coils for maximum heatrecovery efficiency. Contrary to the conventional liquid-loopHRV systems, the brine temperature entering the exhaustcoil never goes blow zero(0℃), and hence defrosting isneedless in the ground-coupled HRV system. This can makethe ground-coupled HRV system over 20% more efficientthan a conventional HRV system at low outdoortemperatures.

  16. Ground heat flux and power sources of low-enthalpy geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp; Rivera, Jaime A.

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal heat pumps commonly extract energy from the shallow ground at depths as low as approximately 400 m. Vertical borehole heat exchangers are often applied, which are seasonally operated for decades. During this lifetime, thermal anomalies are induced in the ground and surface-near aquifers, which often grow over the years and which alleviate the overall performance of the geothermal system. As basis for prediction and control of the evolving energy imbalance in the ground, focus is typically set on the ground temperatures. This is reflected in regulative temperature thresholds, and in temperature trends, which serve as indicators for renewability and sustainability. In our work, we examine the fundamental heat flux and power sources, as well as their temporal and spatial variability during geothermal heat pump operation. The underlying rationale is that for control of ground temperature evolution, knowledge of the primary heat sources is fundamental. This insight is also important to judge the validity of simplified modelling frameworks. For instance, we reveal that vertical heat flux from the surface dominates the basal heat flux towards a borehole. Both fluxes need to be accounted for as proper vertical boundary conditions in the model. Additionally, the role of horizontal groundwater advection is inspected. Moreover, by adopting the ground energy deficit and long-term replenishment as criteria for system sustainability, an uncommon perspective is adopted that is based on the primary parameter rather than induced local temperatures. In our synthetic study and dimensionless analysis, we demonstrate that time of ground energy recovery after system shutdown may be longer than what is expected from local temperature trends. In contrast, unrealistically long recovery periods and extreme thermal anomalies are predicted without account for vertical ground heat fluxes and only when the energy content of the geothermal reservoir is considered.

  17. Comparative evaluation of ground-coupled heat pumps that use solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.A.

    1985-03-01

    A study of combined building space conditioning systems using both solar energy and heat pumps was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Several of these systems used the ground as a source or storage element for thermal energy, in order to reduce or eliminate the need for backup energy. This paper summarizes the results obtained for these systems in the United States, and describes the relationship of ground-coupling to the overall US solar-assisted heat-pump program.

  18. Effects of packaging systems and fat concentrations on microbiology, sensory and physical properties of ground beef stored at 4±1°C for 25 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, N; Williams, S K

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of modified atmosphere (MAP, 0.4% carbon monoxide [CO], 30% carbon dioxide, and 69.6% nitrogen), vacuum (VP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging systems and fat levels (10, 20 and 30% fat) on ground beef stored at 4 ± 1°C for 25 days for microbiology, sensory, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), objective color, headspace and residual CO. As storage time increased, pH decreased (P< 0.05) for MAP and VP and increased (P < 0.05) for PVC. TBARS varied (P < 0.05) among MAP and VP treatments. Except for day 1, CO headspace concentrations were similar among fat concentrations, and residual CO absorption in meat increased (P < 0.05) for all MAP treatments. In all treatments, degree of lightness was similar, redness decreased and brown discoloration increased during storage. As psychrotrophic bacteria counts increased, panelists detected color and off-odor deterioration in all systems. The CO treatment had no effect on maintaining the carboxymyoglobin "cherry red" fresh meat color during meat spoilage.

  19. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  20. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Caracterización de aislamientos de Listeria monocytogenes obtenidos de ganado y de carne molida de vacuno por electroforesis de campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Foerster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250 and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40 were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 % but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %. An important part of the ground beef strains (80 % had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la presencia de Listeria monocytogenes en el ganado y en la carne molida de vacuno comercializada en Chile, caracterizar los aislados mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y compararlos con los obtenidos en tres cepas que han producido listeriosis en humanos, en ese país. Se tomaron muestras de heces de bovinos (n = 250 y de carne molida obtenida en supermercados (n = 40. Se encontró una baja incidencia de este patógeno en las heces de bovinos (0,4 %; un solo animal, pero mayores porcentajes en la carne molida (37 %. Gran parte de las cepas encontradas en la carne molida (80 % mostraron una similitud mayor del 95 % con un caso esporádico de listeriosis y con la cepa de referencia ATCC 19115. La cepa aislada de bovino tuvo un 93 % de similitud con el clon 009, responsable de un brote asociado al consumo de queso, ocurrido en 2008. Se concluye que el ganado y la carne molida pueden albergar cepas virulentas de L. monocytogenes. Se necesita un mayor número de estudios en animales y en los productos que se

  1. On the Design and Response of Domestic Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and response of ground source heat pumps coupled to vertical closed loop arrays in UK domestic applications are investigated in this article. Two typical UK house types are selected as the vehicle for the study and a detailed dynamic thermal modelling method is used to arrive at time-series heating demands for the two houses. A new empirical heat pump model is derived using experimental data taking into account the deteriorating performance of the heat pump during periods of light load. The heat pump model is incorporated into an existing numerical ground model and completed with a classical effectiveness type heat exchange model of the closed loop array. The model is used to analyse array sizing and performance over an extended time period, as well as sensitivity of the design to soil conductivity and borehole heat exchanger resistance and sensitivity to over-sizing and part-load behavior of the heat pump. Results show that the UK’s standard for ground source design (the Microgeneration Certification Scheme may lead to under-estimated array sizes and that heating system over-sizing and deleterious part-load heat pump performance can add up to 20% to the electrical consumption of these systems.

  2. Research Status and Development on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Ground Heat Exchanger used in Ground-coupled Heat Pump%土壤源热泵地埋管传热强化研究现状及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁莲; 杨卫波; 嵇素雯

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the technology characteristics of ground-coupled heat pump and influence factors of heat exchange performance of ground heat exchanger, and points out that heat transfer enhancement of the ground heat exchanger is one of the core problems of the ground coupled heat pump research. The research status on heat transfer enhancement of ground heat exchanger at home and abroad were analyzed in detail, the latest progress and the key problems to be solved about heat transfer enhancement subject were also pointed out.%分析了土壤源热泵技术特点及地埋管换热器的影响因素,指出地埋管换热器传热强化是地源热泵研究的核心问题之一,详细介绍了近十年来地埋管传热强化的国内外研究状况,在此基础上指出了土壤源热泵地埋管传热强化的最新进展和有待解决的关键问题。

  3. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  4. Analysis and field evaluation of an advanced ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Catan, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Hughes, H.M. (Climate Master, Inc. (USA)); Hughes, P.J. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (USA)); O' Neil, R.A. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump (WSHP) package designed expressly for such systems for a northern climate. The research objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost (LCC) of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground heat exchanger in concert. The LCC of a GCHP system with a horizontal ground heat exchanger was minimized over a seven-year economic life for an 1800 ft{sup 2} (167 m{sup 2}) house in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Simple payback for the optimized system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps (ASHPs), was less than three years. The resulting WSHP design is calculated to cost approximately 20% more than its conventional counterpart, but offers a 20% higher heating coefficient of performance (COP) and a 23% higher cooling COP. The major conclusion of this study is that by improving the WSHP package efficiency, the ground heat exchanger size can be reduced by at least 30% without sacrificing performance; this can yield significant improvement in the cost competitiveness of GCHP systems. 10 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the construction of a new test home that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a high performance ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low-density spray foam insulation, and glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements.

  6. An Innovative Use of Renewable Ground Heat for Insulation in Low Exergy Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjürg Leibundgut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground heat is a renewable resource that is readily available for buildings in cool climates, but its relatively low temperature requires the use of a heat pump to extract it for heating. We developed a system that uses low temperature ground heat directly in a building wall to reduce transmission heat losses. The Active Low Exergy Geothermal Insulation Systems (ALEGIS minimizes exergy demand and maximizes the use of renewable geothermal heat from the ground. A fluid is pumped into a small pipe network in an external layer of a wall construction that is linked to a ground heat source. This decouples the building from the outside temperature, therefore eliminating large peak demands and reducing the primary energy demand. Our steady-state analysis shows that at a design temperature of −10 °C the 6 cm thick active insulation system has equivalent performance to 11 cm of passive insulation. Our comparison of heating performance of a building with our active insulation system versus a building with static insulation of the same thickness shows a 15% reduction in annual electricity demand, and thus exergy input. We present an overview of the operation and analysis of our low exergy concept and its modeled performance.

  7. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  8. Research of the Effectiveness of Using Air and Ground Low-grade Heat for Buildings Heating in Different Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on zoning of the Russian Federation based on efficiency of utilization of the low-grade heat of ground and air as well as combinations thereof for heating buildings. When modeling thermal behavior of geothermal HHS in the climatic conditions of various regions of the Russian Federation we considered the effect of long-term recovery of geothermal heat on the thermal behavior of the ground, as well as the effect of the ground pore water phase transitions on the operational efficiency of geothermal heat pump heating systems. The zoning took into account temperature drop of the ground mass caused by many years of heat recovery from the ground. Ground temperatures expected for the 5th year of geothermal HHS operation were used as design ground mass temperatures.

  9. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...

  10. Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran)

    2009-04-15

    The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed. (author)

  11. Effect of Borehole Material on Analytical Solutions of the Heat Transfer Model of Ground Heat Exchangers Considering Groundwater Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwoo Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater flow is one of the most important factors for the design of a ground heat exchanger (GHEX since the thermal environment of the ground around the buried GHEX is significantly affected by heat convection due to the groundwater flow. Several preceding studies have been conducted to develop analytical solutions to the heat transfer model of GHEX with consideration of groundwater flow. One of these solutions is the combined heat transfer model of conduction and convection. However, the developed combined analytical models are inapplicable to all of the configurations of ordinary GHEXs because these solutions assume that the inner part of the borehole is thermally inert or consists of the same material as that of the surrounding ground. In this paper, the applicability of the combined solid cylindrical heat source model, which is the most suitable to energy piles until now, was evaluated by performing a series of numerical analyses. In the numerical analysis, the inner part of the borehole was modeled as two different materials (i.e., permeable ground formation and impermeable fill such as concrete to evaluate applicability of the analytical solution along with different diameter-length (D/L ratios of borehole. In a small value of the D/L ratio, the analytical solution to the combined heat transfer model is in good agreement with the result of numerical analysis. On the other hand, when increasing the D/L ratio, the analytical solution significantly overestimates the effect of groundwater flow on the heat transfer of GHEXs because the analytical solution disregards the existence of the impermeable region in the borehole. Consequently, such tendency is more critical in the GHEX with a large D/L ratio such as large-diameter energy piles.

  12. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  13. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  14. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  15. Horizontal ground coupled heat pump: Thermal-economic modeling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (Iran)

    2010-12-15

    The modeling and optimizing processes of a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) with closed Horizontal Ground Heat eXchanger (HGHX) are presented in this paper. After thermal modeling of GCHP including HGHX, the optimum design parameters of the system were estimated by minimizing a defined objective function (total of investment and operation costs) subject to a list of constraints. This procedure was performed applying Genetic Algorithm technique. For given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator as well as inlet and outlet temperatures of the water source in cooling and heating modes were predicted. Then, for our case study, the design parameters as well as the configuration of HGHX were obtained. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, and soil type were discussed. (author)

  16. Analysis of Short Time Period of Operation of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsuwanda Selamat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems have been proven to have higher efficiency compared to conventional air source heat pump systems for space heating and cooling applications. While vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE are favorable in GSHP installation, this type of configuration requires higher capital costs as opposed to horizontal configuration. Numerical simulation has been used to accurately predict the thermal performance of GHE. In this paper, numerical analysis of thermal performance for slinky horizontal GHE loops in different orientations and operation modes is discussed. It was found that the loop orientation is not so important due to the little effect it has on thermal performance. While the mean heat exchange rate of copper loop increases 48% compared to HDPE loop, the analysis supports the common claim that heat exchange rate is predominantly limited by the thermal conductivity of the ground. With the same amount of circulation work, the mean heat exchange rate increases by 83%–162% when operated in parallel loops operations. The performance in these operations can be further optimized to 10%–14% increase when spacing between adjacent loops was provided. The spacing helps to minimize interference of heat flow that would penalize the overall thermal performance.

  17. Study on the Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Assisted by Solar Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A ground source heat pump system (GSHPS utilizes a relatively stable underground temperature to achieve energy-saving for heating and cooling in buildings. However, continuous long-term operation will reduce the soil temperature in winter, resulting in a decline in system performance. In this research, in order to improve the system performance of a GSHPS, a ground heat pump system integrated with solar thermal storage was developed. This solar-assisted ground heat pump system (SAGHPS can both maintain the balance of the soil temperature effectively and achieve higher system performance than the conventional system. In this paper, in order to examine the characteristics of the system, a dynamic simulation was conducted under various conditions. The results of our case study provide specific operation data such as heat exchange rate, heat source temperature, and heat pump COP. As a result, the heat pump COP of SAGHPS was 4.7%, 9.3% higher than that of the GSHPS.

  18. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  19. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  20. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  1. A refined computer program for the transient simulation of ground coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. W.; Metz, P. D.; Saunders, J. H.

    1983-04-01

    The use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage medium for various heat pump based space conditioning systems were investigated. A computer program ground coupled system (GROCS) was developed to model the behavior of ground coupling devices. The GROCS was integrated with TRNSYS, the solar system simulation program, to permit the simulation of complete ground coupled heat pump systems. Experimental results were compared to GROCS simulation results for model validation. It is found that the model has considerable validity. A refined version of the GROCS-TRNSYS program developed to model vertical or horizontal earth coil systems, which considers system cycling is described. The design of the program and its interaction with TRNSYS are discussed.

  2. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  3. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  5. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  6. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  7. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU, “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analysis is included on how to approach the aforementioned targets through investments in geothermal energy through providing an energy consumption forecast and analysing geothermal energy projects in Europe and specifically in Kosovo. This paper carefully represents the potential usage of geothermal energy in Kosovo, renewable energy source targets, and it addresses the importance of laws, regulations, and reports regarding the utilization of this type of energy. Economic and environmental implications of investing in geothermal energy - geothermal heat pumps for the case of International Village are additionally analysed. Lastly, recommendations and conclusions, for future actions, are derived and addressed to relevant stakeholders, primarily policy-makers, and government representatives.

  8. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  9. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  10. Study of the Dependence Effectiveness of Low-potential Heat of the Ground and Atmospheric Air for Heating Buildings from Climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of researches for division into districts of the territory of Russia and Europe by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling of the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence has been taken into account of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. While realization of the division into districts, the sinking of temperatures of ground massive was been taken into account which has been called by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massive temperatures, the ground temperatures were used which are waited for the 5-th year of operation of geothermal HPS.

  11. Study on the Effect of Ground Heat Storage by Solar Heat Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hwan Oh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy storage techniques using renewable energy efficiently have attracted considerable attention. However, there are several problems when using renewable energy. In the case of solar energy, the energy production time is different from the consumption time, and the use of geothermal energy has high investment costs. In order to solve these problems, it is essential to develop high-efficiency systems using both solar and geothermal energy simultaneously and efficiently. Thus, in this study, the performance of underground heat storage of solar energy was examined by simulation using models of underground heat transfer and heat exchange for the development of an integrated hybrid system exploiting both geothermal and solar energy. As a result, the heat extraction performance was determined to be up to 72.75 W/m. As a result, in Kagoshima, the most southern area in Korea, a case of six hour heat storage operation achieved the highest heat exchange rate of 72.75 W/m, which is approximately 105% higher than the case of operation without heat storage.

  12. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  13. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  14. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  15. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reacti

  16. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  17. Effects of Irradiation Dose and O2 and CO2 Concentrations in Packages on Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Quality of Ready-to-Cook Seasoned Ground Beef Product (Meatball during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbuz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of gamma irradiation and concentrations of O2 (0, 5, 21% and CO2 (0, 50% on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, lipid oxidation, and color changes in ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef (meatball during refrigerated storage were investigated. Ground beef seasoned with mixed spices was packaged in varying O2 and CO2 levels and irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiation (4 kGy caused about 6 Log inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Inactivation of Salmonella was 0.9- and 0.4-Log lower in 0 and 5% O2, respectively, compared to 21% O2. Irradiation at 2 and 4 kGy increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in meatballs by 0.12 and 0.28 mg malondialdehyde kg−1, respectively, compared to control. In reduced-O2 packages, radiation-induced oxidation was lower, and the initial color of an irradiated sample was maintained. Packaging with 0% + 50% CO2 or 5% O2 + 50% CO2 maintained the oxidative and the color quality of irradiated meatballs during 14-day refrigerated storage. MAP with 5%O2 + 50% CO2 combined with irradiation up to 4 kGy is suggested for refrigerated meatballs to reduce the foodborne pathogen risk and to maintain the quality.

  18. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  19. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  1. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  2. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  3. Dimensionless Maps for the Validity of Analytical Ground Heat Transfer Models for GSHP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides plain and handy expressions to decide the most suitable analytical model for the thermal analysis of the ground source in vertical ground-coupled heat pump applications. We perform a comprehensive dimensionless analysis of the reciprocal deviation among the classical infinite, finite, linear and cylindrical heat source models in purely conductive media. Besides, we complete the framework of possible boreholes model with the “hollow” finite cylindrical heat source solution, still lacking in the literature. Analytical expressions are effective tools for both design and performance assessment: they are able to provide practical and general indications on the thermal behavior of the ground with an advantageous tradeoff between calculation efforts and solution accuracy. This notwithstanding, their applicability to any specific case is always subjected to the coherence of the model assumptions, also in terms of length and time scales, with the specific case of interest. We propose several dimensionless criteria to evaluate when one model is practically equivalent to another one and handy maps that can be used for both design and performance analysis. Finally, we found that the finite line source represents the most suitable model for borehole heat exchangers (BHEs, as it is applicable to a wide range of space and time scales, practically providing the same results of more complex models.

  4. Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Graf, K. L.; Spasojevic, M.; Marshall, R. A.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Foust, F. R.

    2013-01-01

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 7783–7797, doi:10.1002/2013JA019337, 2013 Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters K. L. Graf,1 M. Spasojevic,1 R. A. Marshall,2 N. G. Lehtinen,1 F. R. Foust,1 and U. S. Inan1,3 Received 16 August 2013; revised 9 October 2013; accepted 11 November 2013; published 3 December 2013. [1] The effects of ground-based very low frequency (VLF) transmitters on the lower ionospher...

  5. Thermal calculation of ground contact structures: Correction factors of environment- and structure-dependent effects on the heat transfer coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    The heat loss at ground contact structures is taken into consideration in building heat loss calculations. However, the heat loss through the ground depends not only the soil and the building structure, but the environment as well. New calculation methods based on parametrized transient finite element thermal modelling are introduced in the preceding research article [3]. This paper is the further demonstration of the methods’ environment- or structure-depending correction factors which descr...

  6. [Influence of below-freezing temperatures on the rate of post-mortem metabolism and the water-holding capacity in prerigor frozen beef muscles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Honikel, K O; Hamm, R

    1980-09-01

    Prerigor beef is very suitable for the production of "bruehwurst" (frankfurter and bologna type sausages) because of its high waterholding capacity (WHC). This high WHC can be preserved for several months by rapid freezing of prerigor beef either unsalted or salted. In order to elucidate the optimum conditions of frozen storage for the preservation of high WHC, intact beef muscle, ground beef and ground, salted (2% NaC1) beef (neck muscles) were frozen at - 18 degrees or --40 degrees C in a thin layer (0.5-1 cm) 30--60 min after slaugther and stored at various temperatures between --5 degrees and --40 degrees C. The changes of biochemical parameters (content of glycogen and lactate, R-value [it corresponds to ATP concentration] and pH) in the tissue and the WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates, prepared from the frozen material and containing 2% NaC1, were measured and related to time and temperature of frozen storage. At storage temperature of --18 degrees and --40 degrees C no appreciable biochemical changes occur in intact and ground, unsalted tissue over a period of 10 months. Above 18 degrees C, however, rising temperature causes an increased rate of ATP turnover and glycolysis. In ground muscle higher rates of postmortem metabolism are generally found than in the intact tissue. In prerigor salted and frozen beef a faster drug of ATP concentration (increase of R-value) occurs whereas the breakdown of glycogen to lactate is inhibited. The WHC of raw and heated muscle homogenates depends on time and temperature of frozen storage. As soon as the ATP concentration in unsalted beef falls to a level, at which the onset of rigor mortis occurs, the WHC of homogenates decreases markedly. With beef, ground and salted in the prerigor state and than frozen muscle homogenates are obtained which show always a high WHC even after complete breakdown at ATP during frozen storage. These results have practical consequences with regard to processing of hot-deboned beef.

  7. Local/global analysis applications to ground-coupled heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Anzi, Adnan [College of Engineering, Department of Architecture, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Code No. 13060, Safat (Kuwait); Krarti, Moncef [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, 80309, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, a new local/global analysis technique is developed to solve multi-dimensional ground-coupled heat transfer problems. In particular, the novel method is applied in this paper to determine foundation heat transfer for buildings with slab-on-grade floors. It is found that analytical solutions can be used successfully to capture thermal bridging effect when integrated in the developed local/global analysis technique. In addition, it is found that significant savings in computational effort can be achieved with no sacrifice in accuracy when local/global analysis is used. (authors)

  8. Zoning of the Territory of Russia According to the Efficiency of the Use of Low-Grade Ground Heat for Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of study on the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems under the climatic conditions of Russia. The study was performed using the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, which simulates the non-stationary thermal conditions of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs over several years of operation. The paper presents the results of the zoning of the territory of Russia according to the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems. The zoning was performed with consideration of the decrease of the soil temperatures over several years of heat collection system operation. The soil temperatures expected on the fifth year of operation were considered to be the design temperatures. The described study was performed with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. Contract ID RFMEFI57914X0026.

  9. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  10. 太阳能辅助地源热泵供暖实验研究%Experimental study of a solar assisted ground source heat pump for heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠超; 丰威仙; 巩学梅; 米浩君; 成华; 云龙

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to determine the performance of the solar assisted ground source heat pump(SAGSHP)by using a solar-ground source heat pump hybrid system in the city of Ningbo. The result shows that comparing with the ground source heat pump(GSHP),when the ratio of solar energy to the whole en-ergy is 41. 9% ,the coefficient of performance( COP)of the heat pump and system can improve 15. 1% and 7. 7% respectively. Therefore,the solar assisted ground source heat pump has a significant performance advan-tage according to the experimental result.%选取宁波某公用建筑的太阳能-地源热泵复合系统为实验系统,对太阳能辅助地源热泵( solar assisted ground source heat pump,SAGSHP)供暖进行了实验研究.研究结果表明:与单一的地源热泵(ground source heat pump,GSHP)相比,当太阳能承担41.9%负荷时,热泵机组和整个系统的能效比(coefficient of performance,COP)分别提高了15.1%和7.7%, SAGSHP 供暖运行模式具有明显的性能优势.

  11. Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim

    2003-01-01

    and practical constraints. As an alternative, naturally occurring variations in temperature can be used to track (or trace) the heat carried by flowing water. The hydraulic transport of heat enables its use as a tracer. Differences between temperatures in the stream and surrounding sediments are now being analyzed to trace the movement of ground water to and from streams. As shown in the subsequent chapters of this circular, tracing the transport of heat leads to a better understanding of the magnitudes and mechanisms of stream/ground-water exchanges, and helps quantify the resulting effects on stream and streambed temperatures. Chapter 1 describes the general principals and procedures by which the natural transport of heat can be utilized to infer the movement of subsurface water near streams. This information sets the foundation for understanding the advanced applications in chapters 2 through 8. Each of these chapters provides a case study, using heat tracing as a tool, of interactions between surface water and ground water for a different location in the western United States. Technical details of the use of heat as an environmental tracer appear in appendices.

  12. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  13. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  14. Partial Nucleate Pool Boiling at Low Heat Flux: Preliminary Ground Test for SOBER-SJ10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Li, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Li, Hui-Xiong; Li, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Focusing on partial nucleate pool boiling at low heat flux, SOBER-SJ10, one of 27 experiments of the program SJ-10, has been proposed to study local convection and heat transfer around an isolated growing vapor bubble during nucleate pool boiling on a well characterized flat surface in microgravity. An integrated micro heater has been developed. By using a local pulse overheating method in the experimental mode of single bubble boiling, a bubble nucleus can be excited with accurate spatial and temporal positioning on the top-side of a quartz glass substrate with a thickness of 2 mm and an effective heating area of 4.5 mm in diameter, and then grows under an approximate constant heat input provided by the main heater on the back-side of the substrate. Ten thin film micro-RTDs are used for local temperature measurements on the heating surface underneath the growing bubble. Normal pool boiling experiments can also be carried out with step-by-step increase of heating voltage. A series of ground test of the flight module of SOBER-SJ10 have been conducted. Good agreement of the measured data of single phase natural convection with the common-used empirical correlation warrants reasonable confidence in the data. It is found that the values of the incipience superheat of pool boiling at different subcooling are consistent with each others, verifying that the influence of subcooling on boiling incipience can be neglected. Pool boiling curves are also obtained, which shows great influence of subcooling on heat transfer of partial nucleate pool boiling, particularly in lower heat flux.

  15. Systems for heat and cold from the ground. Proposal for a development program; System foer vaerme och kyla ur mark - Foerslag till utvecklingsprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Bengt; Gabrielsson, Anna; Fallsvik, Jan; Nilsson, Gunnel [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Hellstroem, Goeran [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    2002-02-01

    Ground heat systems usually consist of a heat pump, with an evaporator connected to a heat carrier circuit of heat exchangers in the ground, and a condenser connected to the heat distribution system inside the building (radiators, fan convectors, floor heating etc). The heat pump's compressor is connected to the electricity grid. Similar systems without heat pumps are also used, where the excess heat from the building or process is exchanged with the cooler ground solely by circulation of the heat carrier fluid in the ground heat exchangers, so called 'Tree cooling'. The performance of ground heat systems depends on several factors. There is a continuous development of components and their interaction in heating/cooling systems, both in Sweden and abroad. Based on the current state of the art of ground heat systems and the national energy market it is possible to identify the development potential within many areas. In this report the development potentials for ground heat systems are presented in the following program areas: Combined heating/cooling systems with or without heat pumps and improvements of existing systems. Horizontal, compact and vertical ground heat exchangers, installation methods. Geological prerequisites and geotechnical impact of heating and/or cooling. Thermal capacity of all types of ground heat exchangers including moisture transport effects. Design specifications for different types of ground heat exchangers and ground conditions. Operation and maintenance. Environmental impact, e.g. of heat carrier fluids and local government environmental protection requirements. Economic optimization based on verified technical performance and cost figures.

  16. 浙北地区地源热泵土壤换热性能测试研究%Study on Measurement of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ground Source in a Ground Source Heat Pump System in Northern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓勤; 郑锦龙; 郑翀

    2011-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of ground source in Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Northem Zhejiang were experimentally measured. The experimental results showed that the initial ground source temperature in the coldest month was approximately 17.0℃, which was significantly higher than the temperature of the outside environment. The mean thermal conductivity of the ground source was 1.73W/(m· ℃). It indicated that the ground source had good heat transfer capacity and could be used for the ground source heat pump system. The experimental measurement of the heat transfer coefficient was also conducted on a single U type underground heat exchanger at the depth of 60 m. The experimental results showed that the heat dissipating capacity of the single pipe were 3666W in summer and 2508 W in winter, respectively. The heat dissipating capacity could meet the requirement of the ground source heat pump system.%对浙北地区某地源热泵工程土壤换热性能进行了实验测试,结果显示,浙北地区冬季最冷月地下土壤初始温度稳定在17.0℃左右,远高于室外环境温度;土壤的平均导热系数为1.73W/(m·℃),有较强的地下换热能力,适合做地源热泵系统;对60m深的单U形式地下换热器进行换热性能测试,夏季单根盘管散热量3666W,冬季单根盘管散热量2508W,能满足系统工作要求。

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchangers (HAGHE for HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU for Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB, innovative solutions were investigated for building HVAC systems. Horizontal air-ground heat exchangers (HAGHE offer a significant contribution in reducing energy consumption for ventilation, using the thermal energy stored underground, in order to pre-heat or pre-cool the ventilation air, in winter and summer, respectively. This is particularly interesting in applications for industrial, commercial and education buildings where keeping the indoor air quality under control is extremely important. Experimental measurements show that, throughout the year, the outside air temperature fluctuations are mitigated at sufficient ground depth (about 3 m because of the high thermal inertia of the soil, the ground temperature is relatively constant and instead higher than that of the outside air in winter and lower in summer. The study aims to numerically investigate the behavior of HAGHE by varying the air flow rate and soil conductivity in unsteady conditions by using annual weather data of South-East Italy. The analysis shows that, in warm climates, the HAGHE brings a real advantage for only a few hours daily in winter, while it shows significant benefits in the summer for the cooling of ventilation air up to several temperature degrees, already by a short pipe.

  18. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  19. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; McLallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment was designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium-xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  20. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  2. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  3. The summary of heat transfer performance influential analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump' s vertical ground heat exchangers%地源热泵垂直地埋管传热性能影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽博; 段飞; 李政

    2011-01-01

    The design of Ground Source Heat Pump' s (GSHP) ground heat exchanger is the key and difficulty of GSHP system' s engineering applications. Combining the research results at home and abroad in recent years, this article analysis completely the influence of backfill material, buried tube depth, the flow in pipe and other factors on the performance of ground heat exchangers, aiming at providing the basis for engineering applications and scientific research.%地源热泵地下换热器的设计是地源热泵系统工程应用的关键和难点,结合近几年国内外的研究成果,全面分析了管内流量、埋管深度、回填材料等因子对地埋管传热性能的影响,以期为工程应用及科学研究提供依据。

  4. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  5. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    . With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of

  6. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  7. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  8. A New Comparison Of Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger Design Methods For Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Baxter, David V [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    1999-06-01

    A previous comparison of vertical ground heat exchanger design methods for geothermal heat pumps in residential applications found large disagreements in the sizes recommended by five commercially-available computer programs, even when consistent information was input to all five. The objective of this work is to repeat the comparison using updated versions of the five programs originally tested, and one new program which was not included in the previous comparison. Simulation models of two sites - one in a cooling dominated climate, and the other in a heating dominated climate - were calibrated to site-collected data and then driven with typical meteorological year data to produce consistent inputs for the six design programs. The results indicate that the programs are now much more consistent with one another. For the cooling dominated site, design lengths vary by about {+-}8%, and for the heating dominated site the design lengths vary by {+-}16%. Compared to the tests performed in 1996, there is now much more consistency among the various design algorithms.

  9. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  10. An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date.

  11. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  12. Thermal ground-water discharge and associated convective heat flux, Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Backsen, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho. The area has a rural population dependent on ground-water irrigation. Temperature of the ground water ranges from 15 C to more than 80 C. Ground water for irrigation is obtained from flowing and pumped wells. Discharge of thermal ground water from 104 irrigation wells and from 5 hot springs in 1978 was about 50,500 acre-feet. Convective heat flux from the geothermal system associated with this discharge was 4.97 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed. 

  14. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  15. Focus group discussions among owners and non-owners of ground source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technology. Federal dollars have supported research on the development of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for several years. Though several companies currently sell GSHP's for residential use, their share of the total heating and air conditioning business remains less than one percent. Large manufacturing companies with national distribution have not yet added GSHP equipment to their product line. GSHP's use only about one half (Braud 1987) to one third (Bose 1987) of the energy needed to operate conventional furnaces and air conditioners. Consequently, a high level of market penetration by the GSHP offers direct benefits to both utility companies and individual users of the systems. Widespread use of these highly efficient systems will reduce both total energy consupmtion, and problems associated with high levels of energy use during peak periods. This will allow utility companies to delay capital expenditures for new facilities to meet the growing energy demand during peak periods. The cost effective use of electricity also reduces the likelihood of homeowners switching to a different fuel source for heating. 5 refs.

  16. Optimization of activator solution and heat treatment of ground lignite type fly ash geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Z.; Szabó, R.; Rácz, Á.; Lakatos, J.; Debreczeni, Á.; Mucsi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers which can be produced by the reaction between silico aluminate oxides and alkali silicates in alkaline medium. Materialscontaining silica and alumina compounds are suitable for geopolymer production. These can beprimary materials or industrial wastes, i. e. fly ash, metallurgical slag and red mud. In this paper, the results of the systematic experimental series are presented which were carried out in order to optimize the geopolymer preparation process. Fly ash was ground for different residence time (0, 5, 10, 30, 60 min) in order to investigate the optimal specific surface area. NaOH activator solution concentration also varied (6, 8, 10, 12, 14 M). Furthermore, sodium silicate was added to NaOH as a network builder solution. In this last serie different heat curing temperatures (30, 60, 90°C) were also applied. After seven days of ageing the physical properties of the geopolymer(compressive strength and specimen density)were measured. Chemical leaching tests on the rawmaterial and the geopolymers were carried out to determine the elements which can be mobilized by different leaching solutions. It was found that the above mentioned parameters (fly ash fineness, molar concentration and composition of activator solution, heat curing) has great effect on the physical and chemical properties of geopolymer specimens. Optimal conditions were as follows: specific surface area of the fly ash above 2000 cm2/g, 10 M NaOH, 30°C heat curing temperature which resulted in 21 MPa compressive strength geopolymer.

  17. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  18. Modelling of Shaded and Unshaded Shallow-Ground Heat Pump System for a Residential Building Block in a Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottarelli, M.; Yousif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat pumps may be coupled to shallow-ground geothermal fields and used for the purpose of space heating and cooling of buildings. However, quite often it is not possible to locate the geothermal field in cleared grounds, especially in cities where building density is high and land has a high premium. This leads to the possibility of burying the geothermal field under the basement of new building blocks, before construction of the building. In the present work, the shaded-unshaded arrangement is numerically studied by coupling the software DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus to assess the building’s energy requirement with the software FEFLOW to solve the heat transfer equation in porous media. Assuming a standard residential building block, the coupling between the two software is performed by assigning the thermal energy requirement for air conditioning, as calculated by EnergyPlus, to a flat-panel typology of ground heat exchanger simplified in a 2D FEFLOW’s domain. The results show that it is necessary to opt for a dual-source heat pump (air/geothermal) system to ensure that the ground is not frozen or over-heated at peak times and to improve the overall performance of the system.

  19. Regulatory framework and examples of ground-source heating/cooling technology in the Winnipeg area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R. [Manitoba Conservation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Winnipeg, Manitoba lies over a highly transmissive Carbonate Aquifer of Ordovician age, which provides a suitable environment for groundwater supply and return wells. Many licensed ground-source heating cooling (GSHC) systems have been installed in and around the Winnipeg urban area over the last several decades. A water rights licence, issued by the Provincial Department of Conservation, is required for all groundwater supply and return wells. This licence comes with certain rights and responsibilities. This paper describes the regulatory framework which governs the licensing process. The author emphasized that the future use and success of the technology depends, in large part, on the development of a critical mass of experienced contractors, hydrogeologists and consulting engineers. 2 refs.

  20. Thermal Energy Storage in the Ground of a Greenhouse by the Polypropylene Capillary Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lazâar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of temperature inversion is one of solar origin principal problems about which the cultures under shelters complain. Indeed, for the winter period, the temperature under greenhouse is very low at night and it is rather high during the day in summer. Consequently, the heating of the greenhouses is essential. In this work, we studied the advisability of using two exchangers coupled between them to manage thermal energy in a greenhouse. The first system is a battery of plaits with capillary tubes buried under ground with a depth of 70 cm. The second is an air exchanger based on plastic tubes black known as agrotherms suspended with two meters and half height. The hot water, which circulates in the exchangers, is provided by the hot-water tank of the electro-solar power station of the Center of Energy Researches and Technologies (CRTEn from Tunisia.

  1. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  2. Numerical Study on the Impact of Ground Heating and Ambient Wind Speed on Flow Fields in Street Canyons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; YANG Lin; ZHANG Li-Jie; JIANG Yin

    2012-01-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods.A series of numerical tests were performed,and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio,ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account.Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5,1.0 and 2.0,respectively,were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed.The ground heating intensity,which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature,ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests.The results showed that under calm conditions,ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1,which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon.It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio.When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study,the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious,and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon.When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold,the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects.The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon,which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  3. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Ground heat flux: An analytical review of 6 models evaluated at 88 sites and globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, A. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Goulden, M. L.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty in ground heat flux (G) means that evaluation of the other terms in the surface energy balance (e.g., latent and sensible heat fluxes (LE and H)) remains problematic. Algorithms that calculate LE and H require available energy, the difference between net radiation, RNET, and G. There are a wide range of approaches to model G for large-scale applications, with a subsequent wide range of estimates and accuracies. We provide the largest review of these methods to date (N = 6), evaluating modeled G against measured G from 88 FLUXNET sites. The instantaneous midday variability in G is best captured by models forced with net radiation, while models forced by temperature show the least error at both instantaneous and daily time scales. We produce global decadal data sets of G to illustrate regional and seasonal sensitivities, as well as uncertainty. Global model mean midmorning instantaneous G is highest during September, October, and November at 63.42 (±16.84) Wm-2, while over December, January, and February G is lowest at 53.86 (±18.09) Wm-2 but shows greater intermodel uncertainty. Results from this work have the potential to improve evapotranspiration estimates and guide appropriate G model selection and development for various land uses.

  5. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  6. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  7. Estimation of ground heat flux from soil temperature over a bare soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kedong; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Yang, Zeyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Ground soil heat flux, G 0, is a difficult-to-measure but important component of the surface energy budget. Over the past years, many methods were proposed to estimate G 0; however, the application of these methods was seldom validated and assessed under different weather conditions. In this study, three popular models (force-restore, conduction-convection, and harmonic) and one widely used method (plate calorimetric), which had well performance in publications, were investigated using field data to estimate daily G 0 on clear, cloudy, and rainy days, while the gradient calorimetric method was regarded as the reference for assessing the accuracy. The results showed that harmonic model was well reproducing the G 0 curve for clear days, but it yielded large errors on cloudy and rainy days. The force-restore model worked well only under rainfall condition, but it was poor to estimate G 0 under rain-free conditions. On the contrary, the conduction-convection model was acceptable to determine G 0 under rain-free conditions, but it generated large errors on rainfall days. More importantly, the plate calorimetric method was the best to estimate G 0 under different weather conditions compared with the three models, but the performance of this method is affected by the placement depth of the heat flux plate. As a result, the heat flux plate was recommended to be buried as close as possible to the surface under clear condition. But under cloudy and rainy conditions, the plate placed at depth of around 0.075 m yielded G 0 well. Overall, the findings of this paper provide guidelines to acquire more accurate estimation of G 0 under different weather conditions, which could improve the surface energy balance in field.

  8. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  9. Discussion on the Ground Source Heat Pump Pechnology%浅谈地源热泵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐游洋; 辛立民

    2015-01-01

    The ground source heat pump system is the use of shallow geothermal heating and cooling system can be used in a new type of energy. Efficient use of ground source heat pump technology offers cold energy to the building, in order to meet a variety of building functions, for easy, fast and comfortable en-vironment is the goal of ground source heat pump technology. In order to solve the problem of building energy consumption is too serious, the best way is to research more new and renewable en-ergy, so as to achieve the purpose of building energy efficiency. This paper details the principle of ground source heat pump tech-nology, as well as ground-source heat pump classification and characteristics, and prospects of its development prospects.%地源热泵系统是利用浅层地能进行供热制冷的新型能源所使用的系统。高效利用地源热泵技术提供给建筑的冷热能量,以满足建筑的各种使用功能,实现方便、快捷、舒适的环境,是地源热泵技术实现的目标。为了解决建筑耗能过于严重的问题,最好的办法就是更多地去研究新的可再生能源,从而达到建筑节能的目的。本文主要详细阐述了地源热泵技术的原理,以及地源热泵的分类及其特点,并展望其发展前景。

  10. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  11. Optimization design and compare of different solar-ground source heat pump system of office building in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; He, S.; Fu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two different operation modes of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump System (SGSHP(S)). With the simulation tool TRNSYS, two different SGSHP system models were built to taking simulation. After making analysis and compare of different simulation results, series operation mode was believed to be better than parallel in the target building.

  12. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  13. On the Technology of Ground Source Heat Pump%浅谈地源热泵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈东升

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ground source heat pump technology is described. The working principle and classification, the composition of ground source heat pump is introduced. The characteristics and actual application of ground source heat pump is analyzed. It is pointed out that the ground source heat pump which is a renewable energy has broad developing and applying prospects in energy saving and exhaustion-reducing, environmental protection, sustainable development in our country.%阐述地源热泵技术的概念。介绍地源热泵系统的组成部分、工作原理和分类,分析地源热泵系统的特点和实际应用情况。提出地源热泵这种可再生能源在我国节能降耗、生态环保、可持续发展中具有广阔的发展和应用前景。

  14. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  15. Outbreaks of Salmonella infections attributed to beef --United States, 1973-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, A S; Grass, J; Holt, K; Whichard, J M; Griffin, P M; Gould, L H

    2015-07-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is estimated to be the most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing an estimated one million domestically acquired foodborne illnesses annually. Recent, large outbreaks have highlighted the importance of ground beef as an important source of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. We analysed the epidemiology of salmonellosis outbreaks that were attributed to beef in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1973 to 2011. During 1973-2011, of the 1965 outbreaks of Salmonella where a food vehicle was implicated, 96 were attributed to beef, accounting for 3684 illnesses. We observed a shift in the type of beef implicated in salmonellosis outbreaks, from roast to ground beef. Delicatessen-style roast beef cooked in commercial processing establishments was the predominant type during the 1970s and early 1980s; regulations on cooking and processing essentially eliminated this problem by 1987. Ground beef emerged as an important vehicle in the 2000s; it was implicated in 17 (45%) of the 38 beef-attributed outbreaks reported during 2002-2011. Although this emergence was likely due in part to increased participation in CDC's PulseNet, which was established in 1996, and proactive decisions by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, stronger measures are needed to decrease contamination of ground beef with Salmonella.

  16. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  17. Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined

  18. Optimum bleeding rate of open loop ground source heat pump systems determined by hydrogeological modeling in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, W. H.; Kim, N.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of open loop ground source heat pump systems operation on hydrological conditions of aquifer. Test bed is located in Chuncheon, Korea. The step drawdown test was conducted in five stages for 300 minutes. The variation of groundwater levels by open loop ground source heat pump systems operation was estimated using Visual MODFLOW. Transmissivity ranged from 2.02×10-4 to 9.36×10-4, and storage coefficient ranged from 0.00067 to 0.021. The amount of optimum bleeding was calculated to be 240 m3/day. When bleeding will be 50, 90, 240 and 450 m3/day for 5 years, groundwater levels may decrease 1.84, 3.31, 8.89 and 17.0 m, respectively. If the amount of bleeding is 50 m3/day, the influence of bleeding will not reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. Regarding the open loop ground source heat pump system installed at the test bed, the amount of optimum bleeding in accordance with the stand are proposed by the government is 90 m3/day, which is 20% of the 450 m3/day circulation quantity of the system. However, if continuous bleeding of more than 90 m3/day occurs, then the radius of influence is expected to reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. These results indicate that amount of optimum bleeding differ in each open loop ground soured heat pump system. Therefore, the debate for the amount of optimum bleeding in open loop ground source heat pump systems is demanded. This work is supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  19. Dynamics Near the Ground State for the Energy Critical Nonlinear Heat Equation in Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Charles; Merle, Frank; Raphaël, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We consider the energy critical semilinear heat equation partial_tu = Δ u + |u|^{4/d-2}u, quad x in R^d and give a complete classification of the flow near the ground state solitary wave Q(x) = 1/(1+{|x|^2/{d(d-2)})^{d-2/2}} in dimension {d ≥ 7} , in the energy critical topology and without radial symmetry assumption. Given an initial data {Q + ɛ_0} with {|nabla ɛ_0|_{L^2} ≪ 1} , the solution either blows up in the ODE type I regime, or dissipates, and these two open sets are separated by a codimension one set of solutions asymptotically attracted by the solitary wave. In particular, non self similar type II blow up is ruled out in dimension {d ≥ 7} near the solitary wave even though it is known to occur in smaller dimensions (Schweyer, J Funct Anal 263(12):3922-3983, 2012). Our proof is based on sole energy estimates deeply connected to Martel et al. (Acta Math 212(1):59-140, 2014) and draws a route map for the classification of the flow near the solitary wave in the energy critical setting. A by-product of our method is the classification of minimal elements around Q belonging to the unstable manifold.

  20. Evaluation of federal and state subsidies for ground-source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumsack, S.; Kleit, A. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 213 Hosler Building University Park, PA (United States); Smith, S.W. [Westcott Consulting, 110 Hosler Building, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Energy efficiency can be a powerful way to lower energy bills, as well as the external (social) costs associated with energy consumption. Previous experience and research, however, has demonstrated that consumers are often unwilling to make investments in energy efficiency, even when such investments have relatively short payback periods. Because energy efficiency can contribute to correcting negative externalities associated with energy use, subsidies and other programs have been proposed as a way to increase efficiency investments. Thus, under the right circumstances, such subsidies can improve economic efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the economics of energy-efficient space conditioning using data from an actual household in rural Pennsylvania to evaluate ground-source heat pumps (GHP). GHP technology has been advocated as a potentially appealing energy efficiency measure for rural communities. We find that with current subsidies GHP is economically viable for a wide range of electricity prices. We also find, however, that current subsidies are actually greater than those that can be economically justified. Using the efficient level of subsidies reduces, but does not eliminate, the economic case for GHP technology. We also evaluate the economics of efficiency subsidies using an ambitious program in Pennsylvania as a case study. The program, known as the Alternative Energy Investment Act (AEIA), provides subsidies for GHP among other technologies. We find that the substantial federal subsidies for GHP undercut the economic efficiency arguments for the AEIA with respect to GHP.

  1. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  2. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  3. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    -temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  4. Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

  5. Energy performance of a ventilation system for a block of apartments with a ground source heat pump as generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Valdiserri, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the annual performance of two different systems: a traditional one composed by a gas boiler-chiller pair and one consisting of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) both coupled to two thermal storage tanks. The systems serve a bloc of flats located in northern Italy and are assessed over a typical weather year, covering both the heating and cooling seasons. The air handling unit (AHU) coupled with the GSHP exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of temperature control, and has high performance parameters (EER and COP), which make conduction costs about 30% lower than those estimated for the traditional plant.

  6. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolis Januševičius; Giedrė Streckienė

    2013-01-01

    .... Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country...

  7. Ground-Source Heat Pumps. Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Lisle, Heather [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Burgos, Javier [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-02-03

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  8. An In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and lighting, appliance, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs) through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and LAMELs.

  9. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... second day after heating produced in beef suya 3.3 x 103/g. Shigella ... However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of ... Growth in peptone water was used for .... vendor to re-heat the suya before purchasing.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Radiator and Radiant Floor Heating Systems for an Office Room Connected to a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP system used to provide the space heating for an office room is a renewable, high performance technology. This paper discusses vapour compression-based HP systems, briefly describing the thermodynamic cycle calculations, as well as the coefficient of performance (COP and CO2 emissions of a HP with an electro-compressor and compares different heating systems in terms of energy consumption, thermal comfort and environmental impact. It is focused on an experimental study performed to test the energy efficiency of the radiator or radiant floor heating system for an office room connected to a GCHP. The main performance parameters (COP and CO2 emissions are obtained for one month of operation of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these parameters is presented. Additionally, two numerical simulation models of useful thermal energy and the system COP in heating mode are developed using the Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS software. Finally, the simulations obtained from TRNSYS software are analysed and compared to the experimental data, showing good agreement and thus validating the simulation models.

  11. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  12. Air/ground heat exchanger (GHE): Modelling, design, performance; Luft-/Erdwaermetauscher EWT: Modellierung, Auslegung und Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, A. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Pfafferott, J. [Energieversorgung Spree-Schwarze Elster AG (ESSAG), Cottbus (Germany); Dibowski, G. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Abt. Sonnenofen

    1998-02-01

    Air/Ground Heat Exchanger (GHE) utilize soil for seasonal heat storage and are used for air preheating or -cooling. Design and layout require suitable tools which adequately describe the complex heat temperature mechanisms in soils. Since heat densities in soil and heat exchange coefficients between air and GHE are both low, a detailed characterization of the soil and a precise modeling of the heat exchange processes within the GHE are needed. Tools for the design and yield prediction of GHE are presented by way of examples. Results are compared with measured data and both opportunities and limitations of GHEs are discussed using calculated and actual data. (orig.) [Deutsch] Luft-/Erdwaermetauscher EWT nutzen das Erdreich als saisonalen Energiespeicher, sie werden beispielsweise zur Zuluft-Vorerwaermung oder -kuehlung eingesetzt. Die Planung und Auslegung von Luft-/Erdwaermetauschern erfordert geeignete Hilfsmittel, um das komplizierte Temperaturfeld im Erdreich mit ausreichender Genauigkeit abbilden zu koennen. Da die Waermestromdichten im Erdreich und der Waermeuebergang zwischen der Luft im Luft-/Erdwaermetauscher und dem umgebenden Erdreich gering sind, ist sowohl eine detaillierte Abbildung des Erdreichs als auch die Modellierung des Waermeuebergangs im Luft-/Erdwaermetauscher erforderlich. Verfahren zur Auslegung und Ertragsvorhersage von Luft-/Erdwaermetauschern werden vorgestellt und deren Anwendung demonstriert. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Betriebserfahrungen von realisierten Luft-/Erdwrmetauschern verglichen. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen von Luft-/Erdwaermetauschern werden anhand von Praxis und Simulationsrechnungen diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. An early attempt at an integrated home energy system including solar thermal, ground source heat pump, radiant floor heating, reflective and dynamic insulation and ground-tempered makeup air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.

    2005-07-01

    This paper described an attempt to design and build a comfortable and energy efficient home that integrates solar thermal panels with active and passive features. The exterior walls of the 1700 square foot house were interlocking concrete blocks with radiant floor heating pipes fastened to the outside, which was later covered with rigid insulation and stucco. The active heating system included 4 solar panels and a ground source heat pump with supply lines buried horizontally 5 feet below the surface of the back yard on the south side of the building. The solar panels were used for different purposes in different seasons. The system was monitored for the first winter only. For 4 hours a day in January, 10 per cent more solar energy was measured on the vertical collectors than is available from direct solar insolation at summer solstice. With an outside temperature of -33 degrees C, the solar collectors were capable of maintaining an almost constant core wall temperature of 12 degrees C. The total electricity bill for this all-electric house averaged $60 month during for an entire year, with a single occupant. Despite these results, funding to optimize the control system was not granted. The house was sold at a loss and the heat pump was eventually replaced by a natural gas boiler, which reduced the energy efficiency of the house, but which satisfied the bank who wanted a conventional heating system before approving a mortgage. 2 figs.

  14. 地源热泵的地埋管群换热特性研究%Heat transfer characteristics of underground heat exchanger group in ground-source heat pump systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於仲义; 陈焰华; 雷建平

    2012-01-01

    结合武汉某实际工程的地埋管群阵列布置情况和地源热泵系统的运行情况,对典型区域的地埋管群运行5年中的埋管换热特性进行了动态数值模拟和分析.提出了温度偏离度和换热保证度的概念,并研究了二者在地源热泵长期运行过程中的变化规律.建议尽量减小冷热负荷不平衡率,以保证地源热泵系统稳定可靠的运行.%Based on the arrangement of the underground heat exchanger group and the operation conditions of the ground-source heat pump system of an actual project in Wuhan, performs a dynamic numerical simulation and analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the underground heat exchanger group during a five-year operation period in typical zones. Presents the concepts of temperature deviation degree and heat transfer assurance factor, and studies their variation in a long term operation process of ground-source heat pump systems. Proposes that the imbalance rate between cooling and heating load should be reduced as much as possible to ensure the stability and reliability of ground-source heat pump system operation.

  15. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  16. Optimization of ground source heat pumps related to soil and groundwater conditions as well as grouting material; Optimierung von Waermepumpen in Bezug auf Boden- und Grundwasserverhaeltnisse sowie Verpressmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Clauss, F.; Waberseck, T. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. und Versuchsanstalt fuer Geotechnik; Sass, J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Fachgebiet Ingenieurgeologie

    2006-07-01

    The capacity and the performance of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems with borehole heat exchangers depend on the conditions of the encountered subsoil and the groundwater and furthermore on the thermal properties of the grouting material used for conclusive backfilling of the annular space after installing the heat exchanger pipes in the borehole. Intensive investigations are carried out at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt with the aim of an economical optimisation of the dimensioning of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems. (orig.)

  17. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; McMahon, C M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S; Harrington, D

    2000-04-01

    D-values were obtained for Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C in vacuum-packed minced beef samples heated in a laboratory water-bath. The experiment was repeated using vacutainers, which allowed heating of the beef to the desired temperature before inoculation. D-values of between 0.15 and 36.1 min were obtained for L. monocytogenes. Pre-heating the beef samples significantly affected (P < 0.05) the D60 value only. D-values for Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.55 to 21.2 min and all the D-values were significantly different (P < 0.05) after pre-heating. In general, the D-values obtained for core inoculated solid beef samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those generated in minced beef when heated in a Barriquand Steriflow commercial retort.

  18. Heat flow and ground water flow in the Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, William D.

    1985-12-01

    Regional groundwater flow in deep aquifers adds advective components to the surface heat flow over extensive areas within the Great Plains province. The regional groundwater flow is driven by topographically controlled piezometric surfaces for confined aquifers that recharge either at high elevations on the western edge of the province or from subcrop contacts. The aquifers discharge at lower elevations to the east. The assymetrical geometry for the Denver and Kennedy Basins is such that the surface areas of aquifer recharge are small compared to the areas of discharge. Consequently, positive advective heat flow occurs over most of the province. The advective component of heat flow in the Denver Basin is on the order of 15 mW m -2 along a zone about 50 km wide that parallels the structure contours of the Dakota aquifer on the eastern margin of the Basin. The advective component of heat flow in the Kennedy Basin is on the order of 20 mW m -2 and occurs over an extensive area that coincides with the discharge areas of the Madison (Mississippian) and Dakota (Cretaceous) aquifers. Groundwater flow in Paleozoic and Mesozoic aquifers in the Williston Basin causes thermal anomalies that are seen in geothermal gradient data and in oil well temperature data. The pervasive nature of advective heat flow components in the Great Plains tends to mask the heat flow structure of the crust, and only heat flow data from holes drilled into the crystalline basement can be used for tectonic heat flow studies.

  19. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  20. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen.

  2. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon3, 4. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear3. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...

  3. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Moller, Anders Bjorn;

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon3, 4. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear3. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...

  4. Study on the Optimizing Operation of Exhaust Air Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Combined Thermal Compensation System for Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.

  5. 土壤源热泵系统地下温度场的热平衡模拟分析%On heat balance simulation analysis of temperature field in ground heat source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智军

    2012-01-01

    以成都来福士广场的土壤源热泵工程为例,采用Fluent6.2软件的TransientSolver模块对该项目的地下温度场进行了模拟计算,分别按照土壤源热泵间歇运行模式和连续运行模式来模拟计算地下温度场20年,从模拟结果可以清楚的看到,间歇运行模式下土壤的热平衡状况良好,突出了地下温度场的取热量和排热量的平衡是保证土壤源热泵系统长期稳定运行的重要因素。%Taking the project of the ground source heat pump on Laifushi Square of Chengdu as the example, the paper adopts the Transient Solver Module of the Fluent6.2 software to have the simulation calculation for the underground temperature field of the program, simulates and cal- culates the twenty years of the underground temperature field by adopting the intermittent operation module and its continuous operation one of the ground source heat pump, and shows from the simulation result that the heat balance of the soil in the intermittent operation module has better heat balance, and highlights the balance of the accumulated heat and the extracted heat of the underground temperature field is important for en- suring the long-term and stable operation of the ground source heat pump.

  6. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  7. Optimization of ground source heat pumps systems through the implementation of hybrid systems; Optimizacion de las instalaciones de bomba de calor geotermica mediante la implementacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, M. S.; Martinez, S.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental aspects to consider in the design of a ground heat pump system is the heat balance in the ground since thermal saturation of the ground produces a decreasing of the performance of the system throughout its useful life. The hybrid geothermal system which combined geothermal heat pump system with other systems for generation or dissipation energy are very suitable for balancing the heat exchanger meters needed for the proper functioning of the system, important aspect to reduce costs and achieve attractive return periods of the initial investment. Energesis Ingenieria has developed and implemented in two office buildings, a design of hybrid systems based on the combination of a geothermal heat pump and air-condensed units (dry coolers) that can ensure energy efficiencies comparable to geothermal pure systems, reducing substantially the investment cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Shallow Groundwater Temperatures and the Urban Heat Island Effect: the First U.K City-wide Geothermal Map to Support Development of Ground Source Heating Systems Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Newell, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    The first UK city-wide heat map is described based on measurements of groundwater from a shallow superficial aquifer in the coastal city of Cardiff, Wales, UK. The UK Government has a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 (Climate Change Act 2008) and low carbon technologies are key to achieving this. To support the use of ground source heating we characterised the shallow heat potential of an urban aquifer to produce a baseline dataset which is intended to be used as a tool to inform developers and to underpin planning and regulation. We exploited an existing network of 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across the city, recording the water temperature in each borehole at 1m depth intervals up to a depth of 20m. We recorded groundwater temperatures during the coldest part of 2014, and repeat profiling of the boreholes in different seasons has added a fourth dimension to our results and allowed us to characterise the maximum depth of seasonal temperature fluctuation. The temperature profiles were used to create a 3D model of heat potential within the aquifer using GOCAD® and the average borehole temperatures were contoured using Surfer® 10 to generate a 2D thermal resource map to support future assessment of urban Ground Source Heat Pumps prospectively. The average groundwater temperature in Cardiff was found to be above the average for England and Wales (11.3°C) with 90% of boreholes in excess of this figure by up to 4°C. The subsurface temperature profiles were also found to be higher than forecast by the predicted geothermal gradient for the area. Potential sources for heat include: conduction from buildings, basements and sub-surface infrastructure; insulation effects of the urban area and of the geology, and convection from leaking sewers. Other factors include recharge inhibition by drains, localised confinement and rock-water interaction in specific geology. It is likely to be a combination of multiple factors which we are hoping

  9. Influence of heat storage mode of domestic hot water on the performance of ground heat exchanger in ground-source heat pump system%卫生热水蓄热方式对地埋管换热性能的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 唐曦

    2012-01-01

    竖埋管地源热泵系统为室内环境控制提供冷热量。在空调工况下,热回收机组可以提供卫生热水。卫生热水的供应在冬夏不同的运行模式下,对地埋管的换热性能影响不同。通过某地源热泵工程设计,分析了冬夏季卫生热水系统在蓄热方式下对地源热泵系统地埋管换热性能的影响。利用卫生热水的蓄热能力,对地埋管换热器在不同工况下的动态换热性能进行了对比分析,并通过数值计算得到了不同运行模式下地埋管的换热性能参数。根据计算结果提出了在该工程负荷特性下的系统调节方式。%The vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system provides cold and heat for the controlling of indoor environment.Under the air-conditioning condition,the vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump system with heat recovery can provide domestic hot water.The influence of supplying domestic hot water on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers is different under different operating modes in summer and winter.Through a project design of ground-source heat pump system,the influence of supplying domestic hot water under heat storage mode on the heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in summer and winter is respectively analyzed.The dynamic performance of heat exchangers under different working conditions is analyzed,and through numerical calculation,the heat transfer performance parameters of ground heat exchangers under different operating modes are obtained.From the calculation results,the adjusting methods based on the load characteristics of this project represent.

  10. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  11. Application Study on Ground Source Heat Pump System%地源热泵系统的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异; 石新会

    2011-01-01

    为了减少一次性能源的使用和对环境的污染,本文以陕西安康市某综合建筑为例,通过对比地源热泵系统和常规空调系统的初投资和运行费用,论证了地源热泵系统的经济性.%In order to reduce the pollution to environment of the primary energy, a packaged building in Ankang is taken for example, and this paper proves the ground-source heal pumps economy by comparing the initial investment and operating costs of ground-source heat pumps system and conventional air conditioning systems.

  12. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change1, 2. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been...... organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated...... by microbial heat production with crucial implications for the amounts of carbon being decomposed. The same is shown to be true for organic middens5 with the risk of losing unique evidence of early human presence in the Arctic....

  13. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  15. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  16. The Netherlands. Complex ground source heat drilling for horticultural works; Niederlande. Komplexe Erdwaermebohrung fuer Gartenbaubetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Dieter [DrillTec GUT GmbH, Deggendorf (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For the past six months, the Dutch gardening industry looked to Honselersdijk near Rotterdam with great expectations. There, five market gardening businesses planned to heat their greenhouses with geothermal heat instead of natural gas. After technically complex drilling operations, hot water is now flowing at a rate of up to 50 litres per second; the drilling project remained fascinating to the last for everybody involved.

  17. Investigation on A Ground Source Heat Pump System Integrated With Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Defeng; Niu, Fuxin; Kavanaugh, Steven; O'Neill, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Buildings consumed 40% of the energy and represented 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. This is more than any other sector of the U.S. economy, including transportation and industry. About 24% of all energy used in the nation is for space heating, cooling and water heating in buildings. Enhancing building efficiency represents one of the easiest, most immediate and most cost effective ways to reduce carbon emissions. One of energy efficient and environment friendly technologies...

  18. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  19. Integration of solar heat storage in the ground floor; Bygningsintegreret varmelagring af solvarme i terraendaek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzmann, P.; Holck, O.; Svendsen, S.

    2001-07-01

    In this report the thermal properties of heat storage of solar heating in floors is examined. The floor examined is built using two decks, where the lower can be used for heat storage. It is the purpose of the work that has been carried out, to be able to quantify the potential for a reduction of the heating demand in a house, through the use of heat storage of solar heating. The report starts out with an introduction to the problem that is to be examined, namely to perform detailed calculations of the temperature and heat flows in floors. A description of the theory for the implementation of the model for solar collector, solar tank, floor, foundation and control strategies, can be found. The model described here has been implemented into the programming language Matlab and Simulink. Especially the model of the floor is described in great detail. The section begins with a description of the floor construction. It is then described how the floor construction is implemented into a detailed finite element model, and converted into a less detailed RC-model, where the temperature is calculated only in a few points. Each of the points had a heat capacity, and between the points a thermal resistance is included. The reason for using a RC-model is, that it proved impossible to do yearly calculations using the finite element model because of unacceptably long calculation times. Instead the procedure for the conversion between the two models is shown. After the conversion results from the two methods are compared to estimate the error introduced by this conversion to a less detailed model. The two methods are found to differ only by around 5%. The coefficients to be used in the RC-model are shown for seven different layouts of the floor concerning pipe spacing, distribution of insulation, thickness of heat storage layer and type of heat storage layer (sand or concrete). A number of different control strategies for the distribution of flow in solar tank and heat storage

  20. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...

  1. 地源热泵与混合式地源热泵应用对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正顺

    2014-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps(GSHPs) and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pumps(HGSHPs) in-stalled in several public buildings are compared. The annual energy consumption of buildings are simulated respectively, taking selection calculation of GSHPs and HGSHPs, as well as the initial investment, annual operating costs and the comprehensive fee of two programs.%对合肥几种常见公共建筑已完全使用地埋管换热器的地源热泵系统与混合式地源热泵系统进行了比较。分别对各类型建筑进行了全年能耗模拟,对地源热泵、混合式地源热泵系统进行了选型计算,并对比了两种方案的初投资、年运行费用、年综合费用。

  2. Comparison of the Calculations Results of Heat Exchange Between a Single-Family Building and the Ground Obtained with the Quasi-Stationary and 3-D Transient Models. Part 2: Intermittent and Reduced Heating Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides comparative results of calculations of heat exchange between ground and typical residential buildings using simplified (quasi-stationary and more accurate (transient, three-dimensional methods. Such characteristics as building’s geometry, basement hollow and construction of ground touching assemblies were considered including intermittent and reduced heating mode. The calculations with simplified methods were conducted in accordance with currently valid norm: PN-EN ISO 13370:2008. Thermal performance of buildings. Heat transfer via the ground. Calculation methods. Comparative estimates concerning transient, 3-D, heat flow were performed with computer software WUFI®plus. The differences of heat exchange obtained using more exact and simplified methods have been specified as a result of the analysis.

  3. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  4. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  5. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  6. The construction and crack control of floor heating concrete ground%地暖混凝土地面施工和裂缝控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭运勇; 刘国辉; 岳钊; 曹霞

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis and summary on the construction procedure and process of a engineering floor heating,this paper summarized the causes,control measures etc. of floor heating concrete ground cracks,so as to effectively control the floor heating ground cracks.%通过对某工程地暖工程施工工序和工艺进行分析和归纳,总结了地暖混凝土地面裂缝的产生原因、控制措施等,以有效控制地暖地面产生裂缝。

  7. 包头市某地源热泵工程设计%Ground-source heat pump project design in Baotou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士领

    2014-01-01

    Ground heat exchanger system is the key to the smooth running of the ground-source heat pump system.Through the ground-source heat pump system design idea,the ground heat exchanger system selection calculation,and the project cooling and heating load comparative analysis,adopts the gas boiler as the system peak load heat source.To reduce the energy consumption,combined with the characteristics of radiant cooling terminal,supplies the ground source water cooling directly in transition seasons,and obtains good energy conservation effect.%地埋管换热系统是整个地源热泵系统能否良好运行的关键。通过对地源热泵系统设计思路、地埋管换热系统选择计算、工程冷热负荷的对比分析,采用燃气锅炉作为系统的调峰热源。为减少能源消耗,结合工程末端为辐射供冷的特点,在过渡季节使用地源水直接供冷,取得了较好的节能效果。

  8. Simulation and design of ground source heat pump systems%地源热泵系统的模拟与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeffreyD.Spitler; CenkYavuzturk; 等

    2003-01-01

    总结了近年来地源热泵系统的模拟和设计方面的研究和进展.首先给出了地源热泵系统各部件建模方面的进展,包括竖直埋管地热换热器、单井循环系统以及在地源热泵混合系统中采用的几种辅助散热装置.其次,讨论现场测定深层岩土热物性的技术.第三,介绍竖直埋管地热换热器的设计方法.最后,给出在设计地源热泵系统中采用系统模拟的几个应用实例.%This paper gives an overview of recent research and developments in ground source heat pump system simulation and design. First, developments related to modeling of components of the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system are presented-vertical ground loop heat exchanger, water source heat pump, standing column well, and several types of supplemental heat rejecters used in hybrid GSHP systems. Second, in situ measurement techniques for ground thermal properties are discussed. Third, a methodology for the design of the vertical ground loop heat exchanger is introduced. Last, several applications of using system simulation in the design of GSHP systems are presented.

  9. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  10. How to Ensure Long -term Stable Operation of Ground Source Heat Pump System for Heating Biogas Digester%如何保证地源热泵式沼气池加温系统长期稳定运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 石惠娴; 朱洪光; 雷勇; 王卓

    2011-01-01

    针对地源热泵式沼气池加温系统中出现的冬夏季取排热不平衡从而影响其长期稳定运行的问题,本文在采取控制运行方式、增加辅助热源和蓄热系统解决方法的分析基础上,从充分利用可再生能源和地源热泵设备的角度出发,提出热泵供热和制冷互补模式与太阳能-地源热泵多功能互补模式,并对其可行性进行分析.%To address the problem of heat imbalance of soil between winter and summer led by ground source heat pump system for heating biogas digester and to ensure the system running more stably, effectively in a long time , the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of controlling operation model and solar assisted ground source heat pump system with heat storage.What's more, the paper also proposes complementary models of heafing and cooling of heat pump and multifunctional system integrationg solar energy with ground source heat pump, and analyses the possibility of the above two solutions from the perspective of making full use of renewable energy and the equipment of ground soure heat pump.

  11. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing energy consumption in buildings is key to reducing or limiting the negative environmental impacts from the building sector. According to the United States (U.S.) Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2013, commercial buildings consumed 18.1 quads of primary energy, which was 18.6% of the total U.S. primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption in the commercial sector is projected to increase by 2.8 quads from 2013 to 2040, the second largest increase after the industrial sector. Further space heating, space cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) services accounted for 31% of the energy consumption in commercial buildings. The technical objective of this project is to demonstrate the capability of the new GS-IHP system to reduce overall energy use for space heating, space cooling, and water heating by at least 45% vs. a conventional electric RTU and electric WH in a light commercial building application. This project supports the DOE-Building Technologies Office (BTO) goals of reducing HVAC energy use by 20% and water heating by 60% by 2030.

  12. Temperature distributions in pavement and bridge slabs heated by using vertical ground-source heat pump systems - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.15712

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Balbay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution which occurs in pavement and bridge slabs heated for de-icing and snow melting during cold periods is determined by using vertical ground-source heat pump (GSHP systems with U-tube ground heat exchanger (GHE. The bridge and pavement models (slabs for de-icing and snow melting were constructed. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM was developed to simulate temperature distribution of bridge slab (BS and pavement slab (PS. The temperature distribution simulations of PS and BS were conducted numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD program named ‘Fluent’. Congruence between the simulations and experimental data was determined.   

  13. Construction Technology of Soil Source Heat Exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump%地源热泵土壤源换热器的施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金明; 王巧真

    2007-01-01

    地源热泵(Ground Source Heat Pump, GSHP)作为最有发展潜力的热泵技术在各级政府的积极推介下发展迅速,但由于地源换热器施工安装成本高,技术的发展遇到了很大的阻力.探讨了土壤源换热器施工技术和土壤源换热器的热平衡问题,力图提高土源换热器施工技术,降低地源热泵成本,促进该技术的推广应用.

  14. 土壤含水率及渗流对土壤源热泵影响研究进展%Research development on the impact of ground moisture content and seepage upon ground source heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段妍; 晋华; 刘虎

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了土壤含水率和地下水渗流两个主要水文地质因素,具体分析了两因素在实验和数值模拟方面对土壤源热泵地埋管换热能力的影响,并指出了土壤源热泵在水文地质因素研究方面存在的问题和今后发展的方向,为土壤源热泵运行的稳定性及经济效益的最大化提供保障。%The thesis mainly introduces ground moisture content and underground water seepage,specifically analyzes the impact of ground moisture content and underground water seepage upon ground source heat pump heat-exchanging ability in the two aspects of experiments and numerical simulation,and points out existing problems and development trend of ground source heat pump in the angle of hydrogeology,which has provided maximum guarantee for stable and economic operation of ground source heat pump.

  15. Composite ground source heat pump used in scattered oilfield%复合地源热泵在油田边零井中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 杨鹏; 侯静

    2012-01-01

    In the Remote areas, oil is stored in storage tanks, and needed to be heated in order to output. Compared with fuel, gas boilers and electric heating system, ground source heat pump heating system has the features as safe, energy saving, environmentally friendly. But a separate ground source heat pump sys- tem only take the heat from soil, not release heat to the soil. To overcome this shortcoming the paper pro- poses solar--assisted ground-source heat pump system. Through the use of trnsys software simulation, it is proved that this system is feasible, and should be promoted.%油田边零井中的原油储存在储油罐中,需要加热才能输出,地源热泵加热系统较燃油、燃气锅炉和电加热系统,具有安全,节能,环保的特点,但是单独地源热泵系统地下地埋管只取热不放热,为了克服这个缺点,提出了太阳能辅助地源热泵系统,通过运用trnsys软件模拟,证明此系统用于油田边零井是可行的,值得推广的。

  16. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Since around 1990, Indonesia had been importing about 40% of its entire beef consumption. To reduce its reliance on imports, Indonesia launched the beef selfsufficiency programme (BSSP), which operated between 2005 and 2014, with the aim being to reduce imports of beef cattle to 10% of national...... focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...

  17. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage.

  18. The Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump Applied in Mianyang City%地源热泵在绵阳地区的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 蒋斌; 韩如冰; 邹国荣

    2013-01-01

      介绍了地源热泵的工作原理,并结合绵阳地区的地质情况及地源热泵系统形式,分析了地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的应用方式,并针对地表水、地下水和地下耦合地源热泵系统的可行性进行了分析和说明,为地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的工程应用提供参考。%This paper introduced the operational principle of ground source heat pump. Based on the geologic environment of Mianyang city and the ground source heat pump forms, the application of different ground source heat pump were compared. And analyses the feasibility of surface water,ground water and underground coupling source heat pump in Mianyang city. This paper can provide the reference for the ground source heat pump engineering application in Mianyang city.

  19. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  20. Research Progress of Composite Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System%复合地源热泵系统的研究进展探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晋洋; 朱彩霞; 李晓光

    2015-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces the advantages of ground source heat pump and its development trend, the classification and working principle of composite ground source heat pump depend on various forms of cold and heat source. The research status both at home and abroad in different times are expounded, analyzing the reason of heat imbalance and coefficient of performance reduction caused by long-term use of ground source heat pump system. A series of recommendations are proposed to improve the performance of ground source heat pump as the direction for the future research.%主要介绍地源热泵的优点及其发展趋势,以及不同冷热源形式的复合地源热泵的分类及其工作原理。探讨了不同时期复合地源热泵国内外的研究现状,分析了地源热泵长期使用系统热量失衡、COP 减小的原因,并提出一些改善地源热泵性能的建议,为其今后的研究提供方向。

  1. Exergy cost analysis of ground source heat pump system%土壤源热泵系统的火用成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚光彩; 冯启辉; 苏欢; 徐春雯

    2011-01-01

    在对火用分析与经济学原理研究的基础上,利用火用成本分析方法,建立了土壤源热泵系统的(火用) 成本分析模型.以实际的建筑空调系统为背景,运用所建火用成本分析模型与能量成本分析方法,对土壤源热泵系统与风冷热泵系统进行了对比分析计算,并以空气源热泵为基础对土壤源热泵进行了敏感性分析.对土壤源热泵的实际应用具有指导意义.%Based on the study of the exergy analysis and economics theory, an exergy cost analysis model of ground source heat pump system was established by using the exergy cost analysis method. With the background of an actual building air - conditioning system, the ground source heat pump system and the air source heat pump system were calculated by using exergy cost analysis model and energy cost analysis method. And the sensitivity analysis method was used in the exergy cost of ground source heat pump basing on air source heat pump. The analysis method has guiding significance for practical application of ground source heat pump.

  2. 铁路站房地源热泵系统工程热平衡分析%Analysis on Heat Balance of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德安

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In regard to an actual railway station,based on its design circumstance of air-condition heating system and its testing report of ground heat transfer characteristics,the ground source heat pump system was adopted as its cold and heat source.Considering the need for heat balance of the ground source heat pump system,this thesis analyzes the two different schemes used in railway station buildings:the one is a ground source heat pump system assisted by boiler,and the other is a coupled system of solar energy with ground source heat pump.And then respectively for both schemes,this thesis calculates the required capacity of ground source heat pump unit and the required design scale of ground heat exchanger.This thesis also discusses how to achieve the cold and heat balance for the two different schemes,and analyzes each characteristics and applicability in actual projects.Finally this thesis points out:it is necessary to use suitable and customized heat balance modes for different projects on the basis of local conditions.%结合具体工程,根据某车站空调采暖系统设计工况及该工程地埋管换热特性测试报告,采用地源热泵系统作为冷热源.考虑地源热泵系统的冷热平衡需要,分析采用地源热泵+锅炉辅助系统及太阳能地源热泵耦合系统两种不同热平衡方案用于铁路站房,计算各自需要的热泵机组容量及室外埋管换热器具体设计规模.详细介绍两种系统的冷热平衡方式,并对各自特点及工程运用进行论述,提出在具体工程中因地制宜,应根据不同情况,采用合适的系统热平衡方式.

  3. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  4. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  5. The Effect of Heating on the Degradation of Ground Laboratory and Space Irradiated Teflon(r) FEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Martin, Morgana

    2002-01-01

    The outer most layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is back surface aluminized Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene). As seen by data collected after each of the three servicing missions and as observed during the second servicing mission (SM2), the FEP has become embrittled in the space environment, leading to degradation of the mechanical properties and severe on-orbit cracking of the FEP. During SM2, a sample of aluminized-FEP was retrieved from HST that had cracked and curled, exposing its aluminum backside to space. Because of the difference in optical properties between FEP and aluminum, this insulation piece reached 200 C on-orbit, which is significantly higher than the nominal MLI temperature extreme of 50 C. This piece was more brittle than other retrieved material from the first and third servicing missions (SM1 and SM3A, respectively). Due to this observation and the fact that Teflon thermal shields on the solar array bi-stems were heated on-orbit to 130 C, experiments have been conducted to determine the effect of heating on the degradation of FEP that has been irradiated in a ground laboratory facility or in space on HST. Teflon FEP samples were X-ray irradiated in a high vacuum facility in order to simulate the damage caused by radiation in the space environment. Samples of pristine FEP, X-ray irradiated FEP and FEP retrieved from the HST during SM3A were heat treated from 50 to 200 C at 25 intervals in a high vacuum facility and then tensile tested. In addition, samples were tested in a density gradient column to determine the effect of the radiation and heating on the density of FEP. Results indicate that although heating does not degrade the tensile properties of non-irradiated Teflon, there is a significant dependence of the percent elongation at failure of irradiated Teflon as a function of heating temperature. Irradiated Teflon was found to undergo increasing degradation in the elongation

  6. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  7. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  8. 地源热泵技术的推广与应用%The Promotion and Application of Ground Source Heat Pump Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 张力; 田忠春

    2013-01-01

      阐述了地源热泵的发展历程、工作原理、地源热泵种类和技术特点,例举了地源热泵技术在工程中的应用实例,分析了目前存在的需要注意的问题,对地源热泵技术的发展前景进行了展望。%In this text, several problems on the ground source heat pump are researched, such as its development history, principle of operation, the kind of ground source heat pump, technical characteristics and application examples of engineering technology. The paper also analyses the current problems and look further into the future of ground source heat pump.

  9. On-Orbit Daytime Solar Heating Effects: A Comparison of Ground Chamber Arcing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment is to make direct comparisons between the arcing results obtained from the diffusion pumped vertical chamber and our newly renovated Teney vacuum chamber which is equipped with a cryogenic pump. Recall that the prior reported results obtained for the Vertical chamber were nominal at best, showing only a slight reduction in the arc rate after five heating cycles at the lower bias potentials and virtually no changes at high potential biases. It was concluded that the vertical chamber was unable to remove enough water vapor from the chamber to adequately test the arcing criterion. Because the cryo-pumped Teney chamber has a ten times better pumping speed, (40,000 liters per sec compared to 4,000 liters per sec for the diffusion pumped vertical chamber), a decision was made to retest that experiment in both the Teney and Vertical vacuum chambers. A comparison of the various data is presented with encouraging results.

  10. On Orbit Daytime Solar Heating Effects: A Comparison of Ground Chamber Arcing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment is to make direct comparisons between the arcing results obtained from the diffusion pumped vertical chamber and our newly renovated Teney vacuum chamber which is equipped with a cryogenic pump. Recall that the prior reported results obtained for the Vertical chamber were nominal at best, showing only a slight reduction in the arc rate after 5 heating cycles at the lower bias potentials and virtually no changes at high potential biases. It was concluded that the vertical chamber was unable to remove enough water vapor from the chamber to adequately test the arcing criterion. Because the cryo-pumped Teney chamber has a ten times better pumping speed, (40,000 liters per sec compared to 4,000 liters per sec for the diffusion pumped vertical chamber), a decision was made to retest that experiment in both the Teney and Vertical vacuum chambers. A comparison of the various data is presented with encouraging results.

  11. Simulating the thermal operating conditions in the thermal wells of ground-source heat-pump heat supply systems. Part I: Porous moisture freezing processes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Peskov, N. V.; Lichman, V. A.; Gornov, V. F.; Kolesova, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical models laid down in the new blocks of the INSOLAR.GSHP.12 software system simulating unsteady operating conditions of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) heat supply systems are presented. The new model blocks take into account the effect the freezing of porous moisture in soil has on the GSHP system performance efficiency. Illustration is given to the need of taking into account the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes in soil, and the results from investigations devoted to the opening possibilities of constructing adaptive GSHP systems with controlled intensity of heat transfer in the soil-thermal well system are presented. The development of software simulating the porous moisture phase state variation processes in soil was preceded by development of mathematical equations representing the thermal conditions of soil body involving porous moisture freezing/thawing processes. A description of these equations is also given in the article. In constructing the mathematical model, the notion "effective thermal conductivity" of soil was introduced for taking into account the latent heat of phase transition that releases during the freezing of moisture. The above-mentioned effective thermal conductivity of soil involves two components: the soil thermal conductivity coefficient itself and an additional term modifying the thermal conductivity value for taking into account the influence of phase transition. For quantitatively evaluating the soil effective thermal conductivity component that takes into account the influence of phase transition, the soil freezing zone radius around the thermal well was determined. The obtained analytic solutions have been implemented in the form of computer program blocks, after which a "numerical experiment" was carried out for estimating the effect the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes have on the soil thermal conditions. It was demonstrated during that experiment that the soil thermal conductivities determined

  12. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  13. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  14. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  15. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  16. Characterisation of Seasonal Temperature Variation in a Shallow, Urban Aquifer: Implications for the Sustainable Development of Ground Source Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater thermally enhanced by the Urban Heat Island effect can be utilised by ground source heating systems (GSHSs). However, the near subsurface is subject to seasonal temperature variation reflected in shallow groundwater that can differ by several degrees throughout the year. To sustainably manage the near surface thermal resource an understanding of factors which control variation in groundwater temperature and how these are transmitted through the aquifer is needed. We show that even in relatively small urban areas (Cardiff, U.K., situated on a shallow gravel aquifer) the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation (ZSF) can vary in depth by 8m. GSHSs are more efficient if they are sited below the ZSF, where temperatures are more stable. In Spring 2014, 48 groundwater monitoring boreholes were profiled at a 1m resolution to measure groundwater temperature across Cardiff. These were reprofiled that Autumn and compared to the Spring temperatures, defining the ZSF. The average depth to the base of the ZSF was 9.5mbgl but ranged from 7.1-15.5mbgl. The amplitude of the differences between Spring and Autumn temperatures also varied. To better understand the high spatial variability 60 boreholes were instrumented with in situ temperature loggers, recording at half-hourly intervals. The first year's data revealed the amplitudes of temperature variation within boreholes with loggers at similar depths were not always consistent. It was also noted that lag times between air temperature and groundwater temperature were not uniform across the sites. The data also showed that where gravels occurred at shallower depths the ZSF tended to be shallower and lag times shorter. The wide spatial variability of the ZSF may be partially explained by differing landuse. Those boreholes in open, grassed areas showed a deeper ZSF than those in built-up areas but built-up areas generally showed the greatest variation between Spring and Autumn temperature profiles, suggesting heat loss from buildings

  17. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  18. New-Measurement Techniques to Diagnose Charged Dust and Plasma Layers in the Near-Earth Space Environment Using Ground-Based Ionospheric Heating Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudian, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Recently, experimental observations have shown that radar echoes from the irregularitysource region associated with mesospheric dusty space plasmas may be modulated by radio wave heating with ground-based ionospheric heating facilities. These experiments show great promise as a diagnostic for the associated dusty plasma in the Near-Earth Space Environment which is believed to have links to global change. This provides an alternative to more complicated and costly space-based observational app...

  19. Building ground analyses and expert opinions in district heating pipeline construction. Geotechnical investigations according to DIN 4020; Baugrunduntersuchungen und Baugrundgutachten im Fernwaermeleitungsbau. Geotechnische Untersuchungen nach DIN 4020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Ingo [AGFW Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    During construction of district heating pipelines, the specifications of the pertinent technical rules must be observed in order to ensure regular construction and to prevent damage. In principle, analyses of the building ground are required depending on the construction project and the pertinent DIN standards. The author lists the standards that are relevant for geotechnical operation, makes an evaluation of these standards, and explains their relevance in the construction of district heating pipelines. (orig.)

  20. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  2. A system for vertical profile measurements of sensible heat and chemical concentrations near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyppoenen, M.; Walden, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The design, construction and measurements of a computer controlled system applicable to flux measurements of a scalar quantity by the gradient technique are described. Accuracy requirements for the measured variables which are used for flux calculations are considered, together with some practical aspects concerning data storage and control. The construction includes the hardware and the data acquisition, sample intake, and temperature measurement systems. The measurements comprise laboratory tests of the temperature probes and the hardware as well as field tests over wheat and grass land for temperature and wind speed and ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentration profiles. The hardware takes care of most of the operation and only the necessary part is done by the software. The data acquisition system is flexible, accepting the input of either digital and/or analog signals. It also controls the whole system, storing all the data in a single data file. The sample intake unit is designed to take continuous samples in to the monitors as well as grab samples into the canisters. Samples can be selected from one to four levels with no dead volumes in the sampling tubes. The temperature measurement system is constructed using a pair of temperature probes, Pt-100, which are connected to the same signal processing card, in order to remove the offset of the electronic components as well as the bias associated with single probes. This ensures the accuracy of the probes down to 0.005 deg C. According to the field measurements, the relative error limits for the sensible heat fluxes varied from 7 to 20 % in an unstable atmospheric situation. For the ozone flux, the error limits varied from 20 to 100 %, indicating a much poorer accuracy of the monitor compared to the temperature probes. (orig.) 16 refs.

  3. 地源热泵系统冷凝热回收在降温除湿工况的研究%Cooling and Dehumidifying Conditions of the Condensation Heat Recovery of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江盼; 陈剑波; 陈希望

    2015-01-01

    Considering the reheat process in cooling and dehumidifying conditions during the transitional season causes problems that cold and hot counteraction does not meet the energy requirements, and heat accumulation exists generally in the ground -source heat pump system in cold and wet load dominated area. The thesis proposes a ground-source heat pump system which can recover the condensation heat to reheat air. This system can not only reduce the emission of heat to the soil to relieve heat accumulation of the soil and improve the coefficient of performance, but also effectively use the waste heat from the water of the heat of condensation. Through simulation and experimental analysis, the advantages and feasibility can be drawn with a condensing heat recovery ground source heat pump system.%综合考虑在过渡季节降温除湿工况的再热过程会造成冷热抵消引起的不符合节能要求的问题和地源热泵系统在冷(湿)负荷为主的地区普遍存在的热堆积问题,提出了一种利用冷凝热再热空气的地源热泵系统。此系统既能减少向土壤侧排放的热量,缓解土壤的热堆积,并提高机组的运行效率,同时,又有效地利用了冷凝排放的热量。通过模拟计算和实验分析,得出带有冷凝热回收的地源热泵系统的可行性和应用优势。

  4. 地源热泵技术的概念及应用%The Concept and Application of Ground Source Heat Pump Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程应欣

    2014-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a new air conditioning heating method which features high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection. The application of ground source heat pump technology facilitates the solvement of two major problems: energy crisis and environmental pol ution and thus brings opportunity of sustainable development of China. The development of ground source heat pump in China has a vast prospect. This paper starts with the origin of ground source heat pump, and then combines with analysis of its development both in China and abroad so as to put forward opinions and sug-gestions for the development of ground source heat pump technology in China.%地源热泵是一种集高效、节能、环保、有利于可持续发展于一身的新型空调采暖方式,地源热泵技术的应用有利于解决能源危机和环境污染这两个困扰中国发展的重大问题,进而为中国的可持续发展带来了契机,地源热泵在中国有广阔的发展前景。从地源热泵的由来入手,结合国内外地源热泵发展情况的分析,得出地源热泵的特点,从而为中国发展地源热泵技术提出了意见和建议。

  5. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70oC for 5 min) and cold-storage (4oC up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activi...

  6. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...

  7. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-05-11

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day(-1) ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg(-1) Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no practical adverse impact on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. 暖通空调设计中地源热泵的运用%The Use of Ground Source Heat Pump in HVAC Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志宏; 陈昀; 米泉龄; 尤炜

    2011-01-01

    地源热泵的能量来源是由各种资源所提供,主要包括了地源、水源、空气源等,当这些能量集中到一起之后能够与建筑物供冷供热的热泵技术想结合,由此处理成为城市供冷供暖的最佳方式.本文结合工程案例针对暖通空调设计中地源热泵问题进行了多方面的研究.%The energy sources of ground source heat pump are provided by various resources, including ground source, water source, air source, and others. When these energy is concentrated together, it can combine with cooling and heating heat pump technology of building, which became the best way to deal with urban cooling and heating. In this paper, the problems of ground source heat pump in design for HVAC are analyzed from many aspects with the projects.

  9. 地源热泵的应用与技术性分析%Application and Technical Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝刚

    2015-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a shallow underground resources of both cooling and heating functions heat pump system. The unit has the advantages of easy maintenance, energy saving, no secondary environment pollution. Taking a ground source heat pump works as a technical analysis examples, the number of options the air conditioning units were analyzed and compared. The development prospects of ground-source heat pump system were discussed.%地源热泵是一种利用地下浅层资源兼有制冷制热功能的热泵空调系统,其机组维护方便、节能环保,对环境没有二次污染。文中通过对地源热泵工程实例的技术性分析,对多个方案的空调机组进行了分析比较,对地源热泵系统的发展前景进行了展望。

  10. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  11. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  12. 地源热泵单U型地埋管换热器的传热模拟分析%Simulation Analysis of Single U-tube Underground Heat Exchanger for Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 曹红奋

    2016-01-01

    Aunderground heat exchanger heat transfer model for single U -tube underground heat exchanger was es-tablished based on the heat transfer characteristics of the ground source heat pump .The influences of the different in-let water temperature , different flow rate and different backfill materials on the single U -tube underground heat ex-changer capability were simulation analysis .The results may provide guidance for the same type of ground source heat pump.%本文针对地源热泵单U型地埋管换热器的换热特性,建立了地埋管换热器的传热模型,模拟分析了不同的进口水温、不同的流速以及不同的回填材料对单U型地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,研究结果可为同类型的地源热泵项目提供参考和借鉴。

  13. Sideband cooling an ion to the quantum ground state in a Penning trap with very low heating rate

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J F; Thompson, R C; Segal, D M

    2014-01-01

    We report the laser cooling of a single $^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole $S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$ transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the $D_{5/2}$ and $P_{3/2}$ levels. We find the final phonon number to be $\\bar{n}=0.012\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be exceptionally low with $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=0.08\\pm 0.12~\\textrm{s}^{-1}$ and a scaled spectral noise density of $\\omega S_{\\omega}<1.6\\times10^{-10}~\\textrm{V}^{2}\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of $0.7\\pm 0.1~\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is limited primarily by the intensity noise of the probe laser.

  14. 太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统的仿真性能研究%Research on the Simulation of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump and Heating Network Complementary Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红; 付晓晨; 冯国会; 张剑

    2014-01-01

    以沈阳地区典型民用住宅建筑为例,对太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统进行仿真研究。利用TRNSYS软件,建立太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统仿真模型和地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统仿真模型,对2种系统的蒸发器进出水温度、热泵机组COP,及热网加热量进行对比分析,结果表明:太阳能-地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统相比地源热泵与热网互补供暖系统的平均出水温度提高了50.41%;平均进水温度提高了53.08%;平均COP由3.167增加到4.65;热网运行时间由1540h增加到2032h;热网供暖季的平均换热量由114566.62kJ/h减少到101257.27kJ/h。%Taking the typical building in severe cold region as an example,the simulation of solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system was studied. By using TRNSYS software, build a solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system simulation model and ground source heat pump and heating network comple-mentary heating system simulation model, then make the contrast analysis of the in and out of the water temperature of evapora-tor, the COP of heat pump units, and the heating capacity of heat supply network in the two systems. The results show that com-pare ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system with solar-ground source heat pump and heating network complementary heating system, the average inlet water temperature increased by 50. 41%,the average outlet water tem-perature increased by 53. 08%;the average COP increased from 3. 167 to 3. 167; heat supply network running time increased from 1540 h to 2032 h, the average heat transfer of heat supply network heating season from 114566. 62kJ/h is reduced to 101257. 27kJ/h .

  15. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  16. Application on Ground Source Heat Pump in Urumqi%地源热泵在乌鲁木齐的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亮

    2016-01-01

    地源热泵技术就是充分利用地热能的一种可再生能源的高效、节能、环保型工程系统。阐述地源热泵技术的工作原理,并以新疆电力科学研究院地源热泵工程系统为例,通过运用对季节系统能效比和能源利用系数的计算,分析了地源热泵系统的节能优势;通过与传统燃煤锅炉对环境影响的对比,分析了地源热泵在环境保护方面的优势。通过分析得出,地源热泵系统在主要靠燃煤锅炉供热的乌鲁木齐推广很有意义,可以替代传统的燃煤锅炉,减少原煤的使用,减少污染物的排放,对解决乌鲁木齐冬季空气污染起到很好的作用。%Ground source heat pump technology is a kind of high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protec-tion engineering system of renewable en-ergy sources by the use of geothermal energy. In the study, operating principle of ground source heat pump technology was expounded, ground source heat pump engineering system of Xinjiang electric power research institute was tak-en as an example. Energy-saving advan-tages of ground-source heat pump system was analyzed by the calculation of ener-gy ratio and seasonal system energy effi-ciency ratio. The results showed that there was an important significance on the promotion of ground-source heat pump system in Urumqi. At present, the major heat addition system of Urumqi was still coal-fired boiler, the application of ground-source heat pump system could reduce the use of raw coal and the emissions of pollutants, which had a pos-itive influence on the solution of air pol-lution in winter in Urumqi.

  17. Analysis on the construction technology of heat exchanger of Ground-Source Heat Pump(GSHP) system%土壤源热泵换热器施工工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祁生

    2011-01-01

    以实际工程为背景,研究了土壤源热泵技术的工作原理,详细阐述了土壤源热泵换热器施工工艺和操作要点以及注意事项,旨在推广土壤源热泵技术的应用,实现节能环保目标。%Taking actual engineering as the background,it studies the working principle of Ground-Source Heat Pump technology,describes the cosntruciton technology and operation points and attentions of heat exchanger of Ground-Source Heat Pump,with a view to promot

  18. Development of design software on ground heat exchanger based on coupling method%基于耦合法的地埋管换热器设计软件的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜朋; 沈意成; 陈振乾; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    由于地埋管换热器与土壤换热的复杂性,其设计一直是地埋管地源热泵技术的难点.介绍了一种基于地埋管地源热泵动态模型的设计方法,综合考虑了地下土壤热物性、热泵机组的动态特性及建筑的动态负荷模型等,开发出了具有操作简便、交互界面的软件,为地埋管地源热泵的设计提供技术支持.%Complexity of heat transfer between ground heat exchanger and soil results in technical difficulties in design of the ground heat exchanger ground-source heat pump. Presents a new design method based on dynamic model of ground heat exchanger ground-source heat pump in which the influence of the soil thermal properties, the heat pump unit's dynamic property and building dynamic load model are considered. Develops a user-friendly software interface, providing support for the ground heat exchanger ground-source heat pump design.

  19. 地源热泵的研究与应用现状%Research and Application Status of Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武曈; 刘钰莹; 董喆; 方莹; 刘益才

    2014-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief introduction to the classification and working principle of ground source heat pump (GSHP) in three aspects of ground coupled heat pump system, ground water source heat pump system, surface water source heat pump system, and a brief overview of these three ground source heat pump systems is illustrated on the basis of the features and quality. Based on the research and application at home and abroad, new trends and new research progress of ground source heat pump in twenty-first century are mainly analyzed, i. e. using modern means to analysis and improve the water carrying capacity and the performance of the pump system. At the same time, the concise examples about the combination of the new technology and the original technology of heat pump are listed in the paper, such as the summary of solar, ice storage and waste heat utilization. A conclusion can be drawn that notable advantages of GSHP with respects to energy saving and environment protection must lead to a wide application prospect of GSHP system in China.%本文从土壤耦合热泵系统、地下水地源热泵系统、地表水地源热泵系统三个方面,介绍了地源热泵的分类及工作原理,并在分类的基础上对三大地源热泵系统进行了简要的概述,说明其特点和优劣。在综合国内外研究应用的基础上,重点总结分析了21世纪地源热泵的研究进展及新研究趋势--针对水体承载能力、热泵系统的效能等利用现代手段进行分析和提高。同时,本文对新技术与热泵原有技术的结合进行了简明例举,列举出与太阳能、冰蓄冷、余热利用相关的概要。通过本文表明地源热泵在节能环保方面的显著优势,也证明其在我国拥有广泛的应用前景。

  20. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  1. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  2. 地源热泵系统节能潜力分析%Analysis of energy saving potential of ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新付

    2015-01-01

    在三星级绿色公共建筑中采用地源热泵系统供冷供热,可以在建筑全寿命期内最大限度地节约能源、保护环境减少污染。本文通过对安阳市民之家(三星绿建)采用的地下室地源热泵进行定性定量分析,阐明地源热泵系统的巨大节能空间。%The use of ground source heat pump system for cold heating in the three star green building, can save energy and protect the environment to reduce pollution in the whole life period. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the ground source heat pump is carried out, and the great energy saving space of the ground source heat pump system is expounded.

  3. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  4. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  5. 牛半腱肌肉结缔组织胶原蛋白热力特性热诱导变化DSC分析%DSC Analysis of Heat-induced Changes in Thermal Characteristics of Connective Tissue Collagen from Beef Semitendinosus Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海军; 王强; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the heat-induced changes of thermal characteristics of connective tissue collagen from beef Semitendinosus muscle.Muscle samples were heated to an internal core temperature of 40,50,60,70,80 or 90 ℃ in a water bath and in a microwave oven respectively.The changes of filter residues content and thermal characteristics of connective tissue collagen were examined with internal core temperature.The results indicated that filter residues were increased during heating,and presented significant differences(P 0.05) at the internal core temperatures of 60,70 ℃ and 80 ℃ between water bath and microwave heated meat samples.Internal core temperatures ranging from 40 to 60 ℃ were critical heating temperatures which affect thermal shrinkage temperatures of connective tissue collagen for both water bath and micro-wave heated meat samples.The significant differences in thermal shrinkage temperatures between water bath and microwave heated beef muscle samples were attributed to the heat-induced changes in thermal characteristics of connective tissue collagen.%探讨牛半腱肌肉结缔组织胶原蛋白热力特性的热诱导变化。牛半腱肌肉分别采用水浴和微波加热到内部终点温度分别为40、50、60、70、80℃和90℃,研究结缔组织滤渣和热力特性在热处理过程中的变化。结果表明:结缔组织滤渣含量随着热处理温度的升高而增加,当加热温度分别为60、70℃和80℃时,结缔组织滤渣含量在两种热处理方式间存在显著差异(P〈0.05)。在两种热处理方式中,40℃至60℃的内部终点温度是影响结缔组织胶原蛋白热收缩温度的关键加热温度。热诱导的结缔组织胶原蛋白热力特性的变化是水浴和微波加热牛肉胶原蛋

  6. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  7. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  8. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  9. Ground source heat pump technology in colleges and universities to explore application%地源热泵技术在高校的探索应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚伟申

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the Nanjing Railway,Suzhou Vocational and Technical College Campus Library case of ground-source heat pump systems engineering and operational effectiveness analysis that the ground-source heat pump air-conditioning and domestic water in the school application is feasible,energy-efficient,economy is also clear is worthy of dissemination and application.%介绍了南京铁道职业技术学院苏州校区图书馆地源热泵系统工程案例及运行效果分析,认为土壤源热泵在学校空调及生活用水的应用是可行的、节能的,经济性也是明显的,值得推广应用.

  10. Monitoring actual performance of ground source heat pump system using GPRS-based data transmission:A case analysis in Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红普; 孔祥飞; 李敏; 齐承英

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency monitoring is an essential precondition for ground source heat pump system’s controlling and energy saving operation. Based on the data monitoring applied in the school building, this work is focused on the parameters acquisition and operation analysis of the GSHP system in Tangshan. Results show the average COPs (coefficient of performance) are 2.85 and 2.70 in summer and winter, respectively, and heat(cold) unbalance underground existed after whole year operation. The analysis of data also indicates that the direct borehole air-conditioning saved some power consumption obviously in the early stage of summer and energy saving of the GSHP system depended remarkably on its operation and management level. Besides the observation points of ground temperature are laid for a large-scale GSHP system, and the hydraulic balance of the pipes group needs to be concerned specially in safeguarding better reliability.

  11. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  12. Investigating the effect of bottom boundary condition placement on ground heat storage in climate time scale simulations using ParflowE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Ehsan; Kollet, Stefan; Venema, Victor; Simmer, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Heat and water fluxes are key variables affecting the atmosphere-land surface interactions as well as transpiration by plants and geochemical cycles. At climate timescales, the subsurface thermal regime may impact the land surface energy balance via the ground heat flux and associated temperature feedbacks. As a matter of fact, since there is no real lower energy boundary condition, except the natural geothermal heat flux, the subsurface may act as an infinite heat sink in case of a positive temperature trend at the surface. However, due to computational reasons, climate models incorporate a shallow subsurface domain, and thus a shallow temperature boundary condition, which generally is of the Neumann type. This leads to a cumulative ground heat flux of zero over large time scales, which is not realistic, in case of a trend in air temperature. Additionally, the convection term of heat transfer in the subsurface and the memory effect of soil moisture on energy transport is also neglected in climate models by simplified parameterizations. Single soil column model experiments were performed with ParflowE as a subsurface model, which incorporates the more complete heat equation coupled to variably saturated flow, to study the effect of bottom boundary condition placement on ground heat storage and propagated temperature signals over large time-scale with respect to the hydro dynamic process and energy balances. Simulations were carried out over one hundred years (2002-2101) using 4 simple soil columns with the same soil characteristic, lateral boundary conditions and atmosphere forcing, but differing in depth (12, 24, 75 and 150m). After a spin-up period, the models were forced with step-change air temperature and GCM model results namely the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenarios, in order to identify the climate change signals in the subsurface and the associated feedbacks at the land surface. While in the deep soil column, temperature profiles show a heat distribution which is

  13. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rós, Patrícia C M Da; Castro, Heizir F de; Carvalho, Ana K F; Soares, Cleide M F; Moraes, Flavio F de; Zanin, Gisella M

    2012-04-01

    Optimal conditions for the microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel have been developed by a full 2² factorial design leading to a set of seven runs with different combinations of molar ratio and temperature. The main goal was to reduce the reaction time preliminarily established by a process of conventional heating. Reactions yielding biodiesel, in which beef tallow and ethanol used as raw materials were catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on silica-PVA and microwave irradiations within the range of 8-15 W were performed to reach the reaction temperature. Under optimized conditions (1:6 molar ratio of beef tallow to ethanol molar ratio at 50°C) almost total conversion of the fatty acid presented in the original beef tallow was converted into ethyl esters in a reaction that required 8 h, i.e., a productivity of about 92 mg ethyl esters g⁻¹ h⁻¹. This represents an increase of sixfold for the process carried out under conventional heating. In general, the process promises low energy demand and higher biodiesel productivity. The microwave assistance speeds up the enzyme catalyzed reactions, decreases the destructive effects on the enzyme of the operational conditions such as, higher temperature, stability, and specificity to its substrate, and allows the entire reaction medium to be heated uniformly.

  14. 集群竖埋管地热换热器传热简化分析方法%Simplified analysis of heat transfer for vertical multi-boreholes ground heat exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明志; 马腾腾; 张凯; 胡爱娟; 崔萍; 方肇洪

    2016-01-01

    提出利用几何对称性和部分埋管周围温度场呈近似相同周期性变化的特点,对集群竖埋管地热换热器传热分析进行简化的方法.在有限长线热源模型基础上,以无渗流矩阵形式布置的集群竖埋管地热换热器为例,利用该方法进行简化分析,提出采用代表性埋管矩阵代替原集群埋管地热换热器进行传热分析.结合代表性埋管矩阵和相应工况下的单根埋管传热进行分析,认为可以通过单根埋管的传热影响半径,确定地质条件、埋管几何参数、负荷及运行条件等相同情况下大型集群埋管换热器的代表性埋管矩阵.土壤热导率大小影响代表性埋管矩阵的规模,本文条件下土壤热导率越大,确定的代表性埋管矩阵越小.%Taking geometric symmetry and the approximately same periodic variation of the temperature field around partial buried pipes into account, simplified analysis of heat transfer for vertical multi-boreholes ground heat exchangers was carried out. On the basis of finite line heat source model, an example of non-seepage matrix layout of vertical multi-boreholes ground heat exchangers was selected to simplify the analysis of heat transfer. For the purpose of simplification on heat transfer analysis, representative buried pipe matrix (RBPM) was proposed in place of the original vertical multi-boreholes ground heat exchangers. Through the analysis on heat transfer of a single buried pipe and RBMP, it was considered that the heat transfer of RBPM can be determined according to the influencing radius of heat transfer of a single buried pipe under the same conditions of the geological conditions, geometry parameters, loads and operation conditions. Thermal conductivity of soil affects the scale of RBPM. Under the conditions in this article, the larger thermal conductivity of the soil is, the smaller scale of RBPM is.

  15. Extension and application of a scaling technique for duplication of in-flight aerodynamic heat flux in ground test facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    To enable direct experimental duplication of the inflight heat flux distribution on supersonic and hypersonic vehicles, an aerodynamic heating scaling technique has been developed. The scaling technique is based on the analytical equations for convective heat transfer for laminar and turbulent bound

  16. On application of heating ventilation air-conditioner energy-saving issue and ground source heat pump%谈暖通空调节能问题与地源热泵的实际应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长晖

    2012-01-01

    针对暖通空调:市能问题进行了研究,结合实际案例介绍了地源热泵在工程项目中的应用,通过与以城市供热为热源的室内散热器取暖方案进行对比分析,得出地源热泵系统能够有效解决空调系统节能问题,值得推广。%The paper researches the energy-saving issue of heating air-conditioner, introduces the application of the ground source heat pump in the engineering program by combining with the factual cases, undertakes the comparative analysis of the heating scheme for the indoor radiator which regards the urban heating supply as the source, and concludes the ground source heat pump system can solve the energy-saving issue of the air-conditioner system, so it can be further applied.

  17. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  18. DSC Analysis of Heat-induced Changes of Thermal Characteristics for Perimy- sium and Endomysium Collagen from Beef semitendinosus Muscle%来自牛半腱肌肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白热力学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海军; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    探讨牛半腱肌肉肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白热力特性的热诱导变化。牛半腱肌肉分别采用水浴和微波加热到内部终点温度分别为20、40、50、60、70、80℃和90℃,用示差扫描量热法研究肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白热力特性(起始、最高和最终热收缩温度)在热处理过程中的变化。结果表明:牛半腱肌肉肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白的热收缩温度在两种热处理方式间都存在显著差异,在两种热处理方式中,内部终点温度60℃是影响肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白热收缩温度的关键加热温度。热诱导的肌束膜和肌内膜胶原蛋白热力特性的变化是水浴和微波加热牛肉胶原蛋白热收缩温度存在差异的主要原因。%The main objective of this study was to investigate the heat-induced changes of thermal characteristics for perimysium and endomysium collagen from beef semitendinosus muscle. Muscle samples were heated to an internal core temperature of 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 ℃ and 90 ℃ in water bath and in microwave oven respectively. The changes of thermal shrinkage temperatures (To: onset temperature; Tp: peak temperature; To: end temperature) of perimysium and endomysium collagen for beef semitendinosus muscle during heating were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The results indicated that the thermal shrinkage temperatures (To, Tp and To) of perimysium and endomysium collagen both showed significant differences at different internal core temperatures during water-bath and microwave heating. And an internal core temperature of 60 ℃ was the critical heating temperature which affects thermal shrinkage temperatures of perimysium and endomysium collagen for both waterbath and microwave heated meat. The significant differences in thermal shrinkage temperatures between water bath and microwave heated beef muscle samples were attributed to the heat-induced changes in thermal

  19. 某商业建筑地下水源热泵系统设计%The System Design of Ground Water Heat Pumps in a Commercial Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮

    2014-01-01

    地下水源热泵是地源热泵的一种形式。与土壤源热泵比,其具有投资小、运行费用低的特点,因此在工程实际中可推广性更强。文章以某商业建筑为例,以建筑形式、面积为基础,进行了水源热泵系统设计,并对工程投资和运行费用进行了估算。%Ground water heat pump is a form of ground source heat pumps, and compare with the soil source heat pump, its investment smal and operating cost low, so it has stronger generalization in engineering practice. This article takes a commercial building as example and based on the architectural form and area, designs the water heat pump system and estimate the engineering investment and operation cost.

  20. 多功能地源热泵机组的节能性分析%Energy-saving Analysis on Multifunction Ground Source Heat Pump Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永存; 曾庆新

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirements of cooling, heating and hot-water for villa project in Zhengzhou, the advantages and disadvantages of the two kinds of air-conditioning system are compared, those are household air-conditioning unit plus heat-pump water heater, and multifunction ground source heat pump unit. And its energy-saving is analyzed.%结合郑州某别墅工程对供冷、供暖、热水的需求,对比了两种不同空调系统:户式空调机组+热泵热水器,和多功能地源热泵机组性能的优劣;并进行了节能性分析。

  1. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  2. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-02-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  3. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  4. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  5. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  6. Application and Design of Ground Source Heat Pump in Villa Air-conditioning System%地源热泵空调系统在某别墅中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞; 崔璐

    2012-01-01

    总结了别墅地源热泵系统的形式,以工程为例,详细介绍了地源热泵+风机盘管+地板采暖+全热交换新风系统的设计。%Summarize systems of ground source heat pump used in the villa. With an engineering example, show details of ground source heat pump contains fan coil floor heating and total heat exchange of the fresh air system design.

  7. Applied research of a ground water thermoelectric heat pump system%地下水源热电热泵的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国远

    2001-01-01

    Develops a mathematical model of the system and simulates it with computer based on the state-of-the-art performance of the thermoelectric material, compares the results with those of a conventional ground water heat pump system under the identical inlet water temperature and water flow rate and finds that the thermoelectric system is more competitive especially when the ground water temperature is under 18 ℃ but much poorer in heating performance leading it to be suitable for applications with primary heating demand.%建立了以地下水为热源的热电热泵系统的数学模型,并根据热电材料的技术性能对该系统作了计算机模拟分析,比较计算结果与进水温度和流量相同的传统地下水源热泵系统发现,热电热泵在制冷工况特别是地下水温低于18 ℃时具有很强的竞争力,但制热性能较差,因此适用于全年以制冷负荷为主的场合。

  8. Research on heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in continuous and intermittent operation condition%连续与间歇运行工况下地埋管换热器的换热特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳芳; 王磊; 曾召田; 金樾

    2014-01-01

    为了研究地埋管换热器在变负荷下连续运行与间歇运行的换热性能,基于有限长线热源渗流模型建立竖直地埋管钻孔外准三维非稳态传热模型,应用叠加原理计算钻孔群中钻孔壁温度场及地埋管内流体温度场.在存在地下水水平渗流的情况下,研究了变负荷连续运行模式下不同渗流速度、不同运行工况及不同钻孔位置对地埋管换热器的换热性能的影响.结果表明,在连续运行模式下,边缘位置的钻孔及较大的渗流速度能够增强地埋管换热器的换热性能;在间歇运行模式下,地埋管换热器的运行份额越小,其制冷效果越好,反之,制冷效果越差;在间歇运行工况下,土壤温度能在系统间歇期内得到一定程度的恢复,从而更好地提高地热能的利用率.%In order to investigate heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in continuous and intermittent operation mode under condition of dynamic load,a quasi-three-dimensional transient heat transfer model for borehole exterior of vertical ground exchanger is built based on finite line heat source groundwater advection model; The superposition principle is used to calculate borehole wall temperature field and temperature field of fluid in buried pipe among the boreholes.While groundwater is flowing in horizontal direction,the heat transfer performances of vertical ground heat exchangers are mainly studied at different seepage velocity,different operational states and different positions of borehole in continuous operation mode under dynamic load.The results show that the heat transfer performance,under the condition that boreholes are at the edge or the seepage velocity is high,may be enhanced in continuous running; and at low proportion of operation time of ground heat exchangers in the intermittent operation mode,cooling effect is better,whereas theirs cooling effect is worse.Temperature of the soil gets recovery in certain degree in the

  9. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  10. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  11. Study on Recharge Ability of Ground Water Heat Pump System%地下水源热泵系统中回灌能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏亮

    2012-01-01

    近年,地下水源热泵技术在我国被广泛应用,并在节能、环保等方面取得了一定效益.但是,回灌问题仍是困扰我国地下水源热泵发展的瓶颈.以唐山市丰润区乡居假日住宅区A4区地下水源热泵系统的应用为例,从区域水文地质条件方面,对水源热泵系统中地下水回灌能力进行了分析,指出开展地下水源热泵项目时,掌握热源井所在区域水文地质条件的重要性.探讨了影响地下水回灌能力的关键因素,其中包括区域水文地质条件、热源井成井工艺、回灌井阻塞以及地下水回灌方式.%In recent years, ground water beat pump technology has been widely applied in China and has made certain benefits in energy saving and environmental protection. However, groundwater recharge is still the main difficulty. This paper studied on the recharge of ground water heat pump according to the local hydrogeologic conditions at A4 area in the Fengrun countryside holiday block in Tangshan City, pointed out that the local hydrogeological condition is very important, and discussed the key factors impacting the recharge ability of ground water heat pump, including local hydrogeologic conditions,heat source well completion technology, clogging problem of disposal well and groundwater recharge mode.

  12. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TI-AL-NI SYSTEM COVERING, APPLIED ON THE STEEL GROUND USING ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Murashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the system Ti-Al-Ni covering, received by means of self-distributing high-temperature synthesis, initiated by electron-beam heating, on the basis of steel St3 is investigated.

  13. Ground-water-coupled heat pump for heating the field and for cooling rooms at the Arnheim multi-purpose ``Gelredome`` stadium; Grundwassergekoppelte Waermepumpe fuer die Spielfeldheizung und Raumkuehlung des Mehrzweckstadiums ``Gelredome`` in Arnheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakema, G.; Snijders, A.L. [IF Technology bv, Arnheim (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    Some of the things that the Gelredome multi-purpose stadium will be equipped with will be a horizontal draw-out lawn, solar collectors, and a sliding roof. But the nicest piece of technology that the site has to offer has been buried in the ground for several ten thousand years: a ground water aquifer. This layer of sand is conditioned for temporary storage of surplus energy obtained by heating and cooling with the aid of a heat pump. The paper deals with this specific aspect of energy storage. But to begin with, a general overview of the use of heat pumps in the Netherlands is given, especially where they are combined with energy storage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Gelredome-Stadium, ein Mehrzweckstadium, wird unter anderem mit einer ausfahrbaren Grasflaeche, mit Sonnenkollektoren und mit einem Schiebedach ausgestattet. Das schoenste Stueckchen Technik verbirgt sich dort jedoch schon seit mehreren zehntausend Jahren unter der Erdoberflaeche: Ein Grundwasserleiter. Diese Sandschicht wird fuer die zeitweilige Speicherung des Energieueberschusses, der beim Heizen und Kuehlen mit einer Waermepumpe zur Verfuegung kommt, eingerichtet werden. Auf diesen spezifischen Fall der Energiespeicherung wird gleich eingegangen. Zuerst aber noch eine allgemeine Uebersicht ueber die Lage in den Niederlanden in bezug auf Waermepumpen und insbesondere, wenn diese mit Energiespeicherung kombiniert wird. (orig.)

  14. Efficient ground-state cooling of an ion in a large room-temperature linear Paul trap with a sub-Hertz heating rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gregers; Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient resolved sideband laser cooling (99±1% ground-state population) of a single 40Ca+ ion in a large linear Paul trap (electrode spacing of 7 mm) operated at an rf drive frequency of just 3.7 MHz. For ion oscillation frequencies in the range 280–585 kHz, heating rates below...... or about one motional quantum per second have been measured at room temperature. The results, obtained under these unconventional sideband cooling conditions, pave the way for a range of new types of cold ion experiments, including spectroscopy of molecular ions as well as ultracold chemistry....

  15. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  16. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  17. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  18. The Comparison Analysis of Energy Saving Performance of Ground-source Heat Pump and Air Cooled Heat Pump%土壤源热泵与风冷热泵节能性能比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 苏令宇

    2013-01-01

    本课题通过一定的实验方案和实验平台,以及数据采集和比较,较全面地反映了土壤源热泵系统和风冷热泵系统在基本相同的外界条件下,采用土壤源热泵的节能优势。%This topic through a certain experiment schemes and experiment platform, and the data collection and comparison, reflects the energy saving advantage of ground-source heat pump in basically the same external conditions.

  19. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  1. Performance and Carbon Emission Analysis on Glass-covering Greenhouse Heating with Ground Source Heat Pump Technology%玻璃温室地源热泵供暖性能与碳排放分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟

    2012-01-01

    The heating test was conducted in a glass-covering multi-span greenhouse ( 756 m ) with groundwater-style GSHP technology. The heat quantity estimating models based on air enthalpy difference method ( AEDM) were developed according to the heating characteristics of GSHP. The economical performance and carbon footprint ( greenhouse gas emission level) of the GSHP was analyzed and compared with currently widely used coal fired heating system ( CFHs) and natural gas fired heating system (GFHs) based on investigated various energy sources price during heating tests. According to the compared results, the GSHPs heating cost is higher than CFHs, but lower than GFHs. Meanwhile, GSHPs CO2 emission during heating is higher than GFHs, but lower than CFHs.In view of the strong coupling between temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse simulation system, an adaptive decoupling method based on dynamic matrix control was proposed. Taking the measure of feedforward compensation to eliminate interaction between channels of temperature and humidity, an adaptive decoupling algorithm by weighting was designed. The proposed method can adjust the decoupling parameters online under different operating modes, effectively overcome the effect of model severe mismatch to control accuracy. Compared with the traditional PID control, simulation and experimental results both indicated the proposed strategy greatly improved the control performance.%在北京地区一栋玻璃连栋温室(756 m2)中采用地下水式地源热泵(ground source heat pump,简称GSHP)技术进行了冬季供暖试验,并结合GSHP技术的供热特点构建了基于供热末端空气焓差法的供热量计算模型以及供热系统性能分析方法.根据供暖期北京地区能源价格水平,对比当前广泛使用的燃煤供暖系统和天然气供暖系统,系统地评价了GSHP技术的碳排放(温室气体排放水平)和供暖经济性.GSHP供暖成本低于同期燃气供暖,但

  2. Effect of pomegranate powder on the heat inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H4 in ground chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health concerns have led to a search for natural plant-based antimicrobials. Ellagic acid has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a high-ellagic acid commercial pomegranate on the heat resistance of Escherich...

  3. Coastal versus estuarine nursery grounds: Effect of differential temperature and heat waves on juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Narciso, Luís; Cabral, Henrique N.; Costa, Maria J.; Rosa, Rui

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the biological responses of juvenile fish (Dicentrarchus labrax), that live in both coastal and estuarine nurseries, to differential temperatures and summer heat wave events. More specifically, we compared mortality, growth, condition, metabolic response and thermal sensitivity of 0-group juveniles of D. labrax at temperatures that reflect the average summer temperature that they encounter in coastal and estuarine nurseries, and also the temperatures that they endure inside estuaries during heat wave events. The low mortality and peak growth and condition values registered at 24 °C suggest that estuarine average summer temperatures are more beneficial for the juveniles than coastal ones. The estuarine water temperature attained during heat waves resulted in higher mortality, arrested growth, lower condition and a steep increase in metabolism, indicating that this species is probably under thermal stress at 28 °C. Consequently, future predictions of frequent and prolonged heat waves in Southern Europe are expected to induce negative impacts in the biology and metabolic ecology of 0-group seabass juveniles in estuarine nurseries.

  4. 新型混合地源热泵的土壤热平衡性能模拟%Soil Thermal Balance Performance Simulation of the New Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小银; 彭彪

    2015-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a new kind of green energy technologies which is advantage in energy conservation and environmental protection. O ne of the severe problems in the process of application is the thermal imbalance of the heat absorption and release to the ground. To solve this problem, this paper presents a new type of hybrid ground source heat pump in which hot w ater systemis combined with air conditioning systemof ground source heat pump. As an example, make a simulation of a new ly designed air conditioning systemof a hotel in Changsha. By comparison of the conventional single ground source heat pump, this new hybrid ground source heat pump has been confirmed to solve the imbalance of the heat absorption and release to the ground, effectively improved the operation efficiency ofairconditioning unitmean while.%地源热泵是一种新型节能环保的绿色能源利用技术,在应用过程中,存在的较大问题之一就是对土壤的吸放热不平衡。针对此问题本文提出了一种新的混合地源热泵形式,将热水系统和地源热泵空调系统进行耦合,对长沙某宾馆进行了系统设计并用T R N SY S进行了长达30年的模拟。通过和传统单一的地源热泵空调系统比较,证实了该系统不仅能有效地解决土壤吸放热不平衡问题,而且有效地提高了机组的运行效率。

  5. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.

  6. HVAC system design of liquid desiccant fresh air unit combined with ground-source heat pump%溶液调湿新风机组与地源热泵相结合的空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟程; 滕汜颖

    2013-01-01

    以上海虹桥产业楼空调系统为例,介绍了溶液调湿新风机组与地源热泵系统的设计,重点介绍了干式末端设备、冷热源主机、地埋管系统、空调水系统及自控系统设计的要点.根据实际运行调试情况,对冷热源水系统、干式风机盘管、高温型地源热泵机组、免费冷热源板式换热器、地源热泵与冷水机组的运行策略及生活热水应用进行了经验总结.%Taking the Shanghai Hongqiao Industrial Building air conditioning system as example, presents the liquid desiccant fresh air unit and ground-source heat pump design. Highlights the design points of the dry terminal device, cold and heat source unit, ground buried pipe system, air conditioning water system and automatic control system. According to the actual operation and commissioning, summarizes experiences of designing the cold and heat sources water system, dry fan-coil unit, high temperature ground-source heat pump, free cold and heat sources plate heat exchanger, water chiller and ground-source heat pump operation strategy and domestic hot water supply.

  7. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  8. Energy storage and heat transfer characteristics of ground heat exchanger with phase change backfill materials%相变材料回填地埋管换热器蓄能传热特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫波; 孙露露; 吴晅

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨相变回填材料固液相变对地埋管换热器蓄能传热性能的影响,建立了带有相变的垂直U型埋管换热器传热数学模型,并利用显热容法对相变材料的相变问题进行了处理。基于模型的数值求解,分析了夏冬季运行工况下相变材料固液相变对U型埋管换热器蓄能性能及其周围土壤温度热响应特性的影响规律,结果表明:同样条件下,相变材料固液相变会减缓埋管周围土壤温度变化趋势,缩小埋管热影响区域;夏季工况采用较低相变温度、冬季采用较高相变温度的相变材料均可以明显改善其换热效果,同时相变潜热大的相变材料可以明显增加地埋管的蓄能效果。研究结论对于缓解土壤热影响区域、改善地埋管换热器的蓄能传热性能具有重要意义。%Ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been recognized as being among the cleanest, most energy efficient and cost effective systems for residential and commercial space’s heating and cooling applications. The main advantage of using the ground as the heat source or sink of the system is that the soil temperature at tens to hundreds of meters in depth is relatively constant and is generally lower in summer and higher in winter than that of ambient air temperature. This results in an overall improvement of the system performance and thus reduces operation costs. Therefore, GSHP systems have become increasingly popular in commercial and institutional buildings. Heat transfer around vertical ground heat exchanger (GHE) is a common problem for the design and operation of GSHP. The energy storage performance of GHE and its influences on the temperature thermal response characteristics of soil around it are important for a long-term high-efficient and steady operation of GSHP systems. Thus, to enhance energy storage performance of GHE and, at the same time, reduce the effects of thermal diffuse on soil temperature are key

  9. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  10. Ground-coupled bore-hole heat exchanger installation: new building in Wattwil; EWS-Anlage, Neubau CAS, Wattwil. Erdwaermesondenanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, R.; Kapp, Ch.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a monitoring programme carried out on the bore-hole heat exchangers of a geothermal energy system used in a newly constructed commercial building in Wattwil, Switzerland. The geothermal installation is described, which uses two different types of geothermal probes, a normal duplex exchanger and the so-called umbrella probe. The results of the measurement campaigns that were carried out over two winter periods are presented, and the performance of the two types of heat-exchanger are compared. Using correlation diagrams, the two main factors influencing the performance of the probes - temperature and flow - are calculated. The report describes the monitoring configurations used and presents detailed results of the measurements made.

  11. Numerical simulation and validation on heat exchange performance of pile spiral coil ground heat exchanger%桩基螺旋型地埋管换热器换热性能的数值模拟与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫波; 杨晶晶; 孔磊

    2016-01-01

    The new trends in energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions are expecting to explore the utilization of shallow geothermal energy. The most popular way to exploit shallow geothermal energy resources is the ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with using ground as a heat source. Because underground temperature is rather constant compared with ambient air temperature, the GCHP could achieve higher efficiency as well as more stable performance compared with traditional air source heat pumps. Thus the GCHP system becomes increasingly popular in commercial and institutional buildings. In general, a vertical borehole with ground heat exchanger (GHE) is used as the mainstream of GCHP system. However, the wide application of this type of GCHP technology has been limited by its higher initial cost and substantial land areas required to install the GHE. For this reason, the foundation piles of buildings have been used as part of GHE in recent years to reduce the cost of drilling borehole and save the required land area. This innovative idea of utilizing what are usually called “energy piles”, has led to notable progress in the field of GCHP systems. It has become particularly attractive because it lowers total cost and spatial requirements, and offers the higher renewable contribution. In this paper, a novel configuration of an energy pile with a spiral coil was proposed. In order to investigate the effects of various factors on heat exchange performance of the pile spiral coil GHE, a numerical model of the pile with a spiral coil was developed. Based on the numerical solution of the model, the effects of pile diameter, pile depth, spiral coil group number and soil type on the heat exchange rate and soil temperature distribution of the spiral pile GHE were analyzed. The results indicated that increasing foundation pile diameter can improve the thermal storage capacity and thus enhance heat exchange rate of pile. But increase in foundation pile diameter can also

  12. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  13. Applicative analysis of Ground-coupled Heat Pump System in Suqian Area%地埋管地源热泵系统在宿迁地区的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾胜辉; 曹亚丽; 顾小雷

    2012-01-01

    The types and work process of ground-coupled heat pump are introduced. The effect of the soil on the ground-coupled heat pump system is analyzed. The application of ground-coupled heat pump system under the Suqian' s climatologic and geological conditions is analyzed. Following a engineering example in Suqian area listed, the reasons why the ground-coupled heat pump system has not been widely used in this area are analyzed. Finally, the suggestions of ground-coupled heat pump system are put forward.%介绍了地埋管地源热泵的系统类型和工作过程,分析了土壤在地埋管地源热泵系统中的作用.结合宿迁地区的气候和地质条件分析地埋管地源热泵系统的适用性并列举工程实例,分析了地埋管地源热泵未普遍应用的原因,最后提出了促进地埋管地源热泵系统在宿迁地区科学发展的建议.

  14. Wuhan Ground Source Heat Pump Engineering Economic Evaluation Based on the Life Cycle%基于全寿命周期的地源热泵工程经济性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付红阳; 陈伟; 张国辉

    2012-01-01

    通过分析我国地源热泵工程的发展现状及国家和武汉地区政策标准,实地调研武汉地区8个地源热泵工程项目相关经济数据,构建武汉地区地源热泵工程经济性评价体系,通过费用构成分析、能耗分析、运行费用分析和环境评价分析对地源热泵工程进行全寿命周期经济性评价,从而为武汉地区乃至全国推广地源热泵工程提供相关依据和建议。%By analyzing development situation of ground source heat pump engineering and policy standards of China and Wuhan province,the paper investigates related economic data of Wuhan eight ground source heat pump engineering,establishes the economic evaluation system of Wuhan ground source heat pump engineering,and do economic evaluates to ground source heat pump engineering of Wuhan from the analysis of expense components,the energy consumption,the operation cost and the environment evaluation,in order to provide relevant basis and suggestions to promote the promote ground source heat pump engineering of Wuhan to the whole nation.

  15. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  16. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  17. Contaminación de carne molida con cepas de Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC provenientes de comercios minoristas de San Martín, Buenos Aires, categorizados según nivel socioeconómico Contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in fresh ground beef from butcher shops in San Martin, Buenos Aires Province, among different socioeconomic strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Miccio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli shigatoxigénico (STEC produce enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, desde diarreas leves a Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico, enfermedad de impacto en Argentina. Dentro de los alimentos implicados se destaca la carne bovina insuficientemente cocida. La contaminación de la carne molida y su relación con los estratos socioeconómicos no ha sido estudiada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar en muestras de carne cepas STEC y establecer su perfil de virulencia, considerando la zona socioeconómica de procedencia y la persistencia de la contaminación en el local de venta. Se seleccionó el 30% de las bocas de expendio habilitadas en cada nivel socioeconómico. Se analizaron 72 muestras provenientes de 36 carnicerías de San Martín, Buenos Aires, en dos muestreos independientes utilizando PCR múltiple para stx1/stx2 e inmunocaptura para O157 al tamizaje. Se obtuvieron 11 cepas de 26 muestras sospechosas, 7% de los aislamientos fueron STEC O157. La proporción en la contaminación ponderada fue mayor en las zonas media y baja. No se comprobó persistencia. El grado de contaminación por STEC en carne para el área estudiada fue elevado y las cepas aisladas fueron altamente virulentas. En consideración a ello es necesario implementar programas de capacitación y control para reducir los riesgos para la salud pública.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes foodborne diseases, from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome which impact in Argentina. Many human infections were acquired from eating undercooked contaminated beef. The contamination of ground beef and their relation to socio-economic strata has not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify STEC in meat samples and establish virulence profile, considering the socio-economic area of origin and persistence of contamination in local sales. It was selected 30% of the butcher shop of each socioeconomic level. It was analyzed 72 samples from 36

  18. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  19. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  1. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  2. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  3. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  4. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  5. Application of Construction Technology of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Dongying Software Park Project%土壤源热泵系统施工技术在东营软件大厦工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚秀委; 刘乐

    2011-01-01

    土壤源热泵是一种利用土壤所储藏的太阳能资源作为冷热源,进行能量转换的供暖制冷空调系统,是清洁的可再生能源的一种新技术.笔者结合工程实际情况,详细介绍了土壤源热泵系统的优点、组成及施工工艺,并且重点介绍了室外地埋管换热器的施工工艺,为今后土壤源热泵空调系统施工质量控制提供了宝贵经验.%The ground source heat pump is a heating and ventilating air conditioning system using the solar energy resources stored by earth as cold and heat sources,and also a new technology of the clean renewable energy.In combination with the project practice,the article expounds in detail the advantages,compositions and construction craft of the ground source heat pump(GSHP)system,and the introduction focuses on the construction craft of the outdoor ground heat exchanger,which provides valuable experience for the construction quality control of the future ground source heat pump air-conditioning system.

  6. 地下水渗流对垂直埋管换热器换热性能影响的实验研究%Experiment on the Factors that Ground Water Flow Influence the Performance of the Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琛琛; 王沣浩; 张鑫; 姜宇光; 王新轲

    2011-01-01

    地埋管换热器的换热性能是地源热泵空调系统设计的关键问题之一。建立了地源热泵砂箱实验台,实验研究了地下水渗流对地源热泵地埋管换热器换热性能的影响。研究结果表明:地下水渗流可以强化地埋管的换热,且随着渗流速度的增大,强化换热作用越明显。另外,实验结果也表明,u型管周围温度峰值的位置会沿渗流方向向下游偏移,地埋管群布置时应避开该位置,以强化埋管的换热。%To determining the capacity of the ground heat exchanger is one of the key issues of Ground-Source Heat Pump system. In this paper, a Ground-Source Heat Pump experiment rig with sand box was established, and the experiments on the influence of ground water flow rate and the performance of the heat exchanger were conducted. The experimental results show that ground water enhances heat transfer of underground pipe heat exchanger. With the groundwater flow rate increasing, heat transfer enhancement is visible. In addition, the results show that the position of the highest temperature around the U-tube will shift to the lower reaches along the flow direction. Therefore, in order to enhance the heat transfer, multi-pipe arrangement should consider this factor and avoid the position.

  7. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  8. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  9. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  10. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Van Ba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 μg/g, 60 (15.75 μg/g, 49 (107.61 μg/ml and 50 (7.20 μg/g volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05. Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature. This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

  11. Carbon footprint of ground source heat pump system in heating solar greenhouse based on life cycle assessment%日光温室地源热泵供暖碳足迹的生命周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟; 刘明池; 王宝驹; 武占会; 许勇

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse, characterized by east-west orientation, a transparent camber south roof, and a solid north roof and east and west walls, is utilized primarily in horticulture in northern China. This design of greenhouse can keep the sheltering plants from freezing in winter because of the“greenhouse effect”. However, the healthy growing of plants still needs assisted heating especially during winter nights. The coal-fired heating system (CFHs) and the natural gas-fired heating system (GFHs) both have been widely applied to heat greenhouses. However, the conventional fossil energy sources, such as coal and natural gas, are non-renewable and are the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. The overusing of fossil fuel in agricultural production has been directly or indirectly related to the global climate change, environmental pollution, and energy crisis. Therefore, renewable and clean energy, such as solar, geothermal, and shallow geothermal has been increasingly applied for greenhouse heating or cooling across the world. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology has dual functions in heating and cooling. It is one of the most rapidly growing green technologies for heating and air-conditioning in recent years. The GSHP application for solar greenhouse heating has proven to have a high primary energy ratio or coefficient of performance (COP) in previously studies. However, the environmental performance of the GSHP in heating solar greenhouse, such as its carbon footprint, is still unknown. Systematic and long-term study of the specific GSHP greenhouse-heating was required to evaluate its carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The GSHP in a Chinese solar greenhouse was studied to evaluate its environmental performance in greenhouse heating. The environmental performance of the GSHP was analyzed based on the field test data and the performance analysis models that were developed in this study. According to the study, in a 480 m

  12. Design of Ground Source Heat Pump Monitoring System Based on MCGS%基于MCGS的地源热泵监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商家伟; 苏华

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring system is developed for a ground source heat pump system in Chengdu. Equipments are controlled by PLC and monitoring data is transported from PLC to PC. The host PC moni-toring system is developed by MCGS whose functions cover controlling, operation status displaying, data logging and displaying and alarming.%针对成都某别墅地源热泵系统,设计了一个监控系统方案。利用PLC控制空调设备、监测并上传现场数据给上位机。利用MCGS开发上位机监控系统。该监控系统包含设备控制、状态显示、参数采集及显示、报警等功能。

  13. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  14. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  15. Influences of ground source heat pump operation mode on energy consumption of northern residential heating%地源热泵运行模式对北方住宅供暖能耗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 句德胜; 李胜会; 郭朝辉

    2016-01-01

    在对一栋满足节能65%设计标准的住宅进行逐时能耗分析的基础上,得出间歇运行的最大热负荷约为连续运行时的3倍,但是连续运行和间歇运行的累计耗热量分别为39.4 kW·h/(m2·a)和33.6 kW·h/(m2·a),建议地源热泵尽量采用连续运行的方式。分析实际项目的装机容量和土壤温度逐年变化情况,所调研的住宅1第一年土壤计算温降为1.81℃,实际温降为1.9℃。提出为了避免土壤温度逐年降低,可采用具有分区补热功能的跨季节蓄热空气源-土壤源复合式系统。%Based on the hourly energy consumption analysis of one residential building which meets the 65% energy-saving design standards,it is concluded that the maximum heat load of the intermittent operation is about 3 times of the continuous operation.How-ever,the accumulated heat consumption of the continuous operation and intermittent oper-ation are 39.4 kW·h/(m2 ·a)and 33.6 kW·h/(m2 ·a),respectively.In view of the a-bove,it is suggested that ground source heat pump uses the mode of continuous operation as far as possible.The installed capacity of the actual proj ect and the change of the soil’s tempera-ture year by year are analyzed and the actual soil’s temperature drop is 1 .9 ℃ of residential building 1 which is researched when the calculation temperature drop is 1 .8 1 ℃.In order to avoid soil’s temperature decreasing year by year,seasonal storage hot air source and ground source hy-brid system which has the function of partition heat supplementary can be used.

  16. Design of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System in WILO China Ltd. New Production Project%北京某工厂地源热泵系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2015-01-01

    本文以北京某工厂混合式地源热泵空调系统为例,对于混合式地源热泵系统的设计、施工、自控作了较详细的论述,供同行借鉴参考。%Taking Uhybrid ground source heat pump system of a factory in Beijing as a example,design,construction,automatic control and operation about the hybrid ground source heat pump system are demonstrated in details for reference.

  17. Elementary analysis Ground source heat pump system design &Discussion on application prospect%地源热泵系统简介及其应用前景探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅志宝

    2012-01-01

    介绍地源热泵系统设计形式及设计时应注意的问题,简单介绍在具体工程中设计案例及保障措施,探讨地源热泵系统的应用前景。%Introduction of Ground Source Heat Pump system design and the problems should be attention in the design,Simply introduce a engineering design case in the Specific project guarantee measures,The application prospect of Ground Source Heat Pump system.

  18. Application research for ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project%地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强

    2009-01-01

    结合工程设计实例,对地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用进行了探讨.对地源热泵和普通中央空调系统的运行费用进行估算和比较.%Combining with practical design example, this paper discusses the application of ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project, and carries out an estimation and comparison of the operating costs between the ground-source heat pump system and common HVAC system.

  19. Selection of pipe diameter for ground-source heat pump system%地埋管地源热泵地埋管管径的选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琳; 余跃进; 胡纯良

    2012-01-01

    详细阐述了地埋管管径对水泵能耗和地埋管换热性能的影响,在地埋管内水流量一定的情况下,选取5种不同管径进行了分析.结果显示,适当增大地埋管管径可减小流体在地埋管内流动时的沿程阻力,降低水泵运行能耗;减小地埋管管径可以增强地埋管内循环水与管壁的对流换热.应该综合考虑,确定最佳管径.%Analyses the influence of pipe diameter on the energy consumption of the water pump and the ground heat exchanger performance in detail. Selects five kinds of different pipe diameter to analyse on the condition of the constant water flow in pipe. The results show that an appropriate increase in pipe diameter can reduce the frictional resistance caused by water flowing in pipe, and reduce the energy consumption of the water pump; a decrease in pipe diameter can enhance the convection heat transfer between the circulating water and the pipe wall. A comprehensive consideration should be given to determining an optimal pipe diameter.

  20. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF SOLAR ASSISTED GROUND SOURCE HEAT HUMP%太阳能+地源热泵联合循环项目综合评标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洲阳; 陈武

    2013-01-01

    Selection of heating-ventilation-air conditioning (HVAC) cooling and heating source is a multiattribute problem,involving lots of unmeasurable factors.The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method transfers qualitative indexes into quantitative indexes utilizing fuzzy membership,and solves the problem very well.Evaluation cases include:(1) solar assisted ground source heat hump central air-conditioning; (2) lithium bromide direct-fired absorption chiller; (3) chiller and fuel boiler; (4) chiller and gas boiler; (5) chiller and electrical boiler.The evaluate results show that the case (1) is the best.%提出一种基于模糊数学的综合评价方法——模糊综合评价法.该方法利用模糊隶属度理论把定性指标合理定量化,把定性评价转化为定量评价.评估方案包括:①太阳能+地源热泵联合循环;②溴化锂吸收式直燃机组;③冷水机组+燃油热水锅炉;④冷水机组+燃气热水锅炉;⑤冷水机组+电锅炉.事实证明,利用模糊综合评价方法得出的最终结果与实际评标结果吻合较好,具有良好的实用价值.

  1. Examples of cost reduction and energy saving by thermal storage heat pump system. Part 5. Control of the flowering season of alstroemeria by using 'ice storage ground cooler'. Chikunetsushiki heat pump system katsuyo ni yoru costdown sho energy jirei no shokai. 5. 'Kori chikunetsushiki chichu reikyaku sochi' ni yori arusutoromeria no kaika jiki wo chosetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Alstroemeria has a habit to flower by sensing temperature through an organ in rhizome. Since its market price is higher in late fall and early winter, a culture method cooling the ground in summer is in wide use. Although the ground is cooled with an equipment composed of a chiller, ground piping for heat exchange and cold water pump during the whole day, cost reduction is a major problem. To study a heat storage ground cooler, its culture test was made by using a prototype ice storage ground cooler. The test result showed that ground temperature of both test zone and reference zone was constantly 18-20 degrees C during the test period, and both the whole yield and that every class were nearly equivalent between the test and reference zones. The estimation result on the profitability of a full-scale ice storage ground cooler based on the above result showed that this ground cooler probably can reduce annual electric charge by nearly 200,000 yen as compared with a cooler without heat storage. (NEDO)

  2. Examples of cost reduction and energy saving by thermal storage heat pump system. Part 5. Control of the flowering season of alstroemeria by using `ice storage ground cooler`; Chikunetsushiki heat pump system katsuyo ni yoru costdown sho energy jirei no shokai. 5. `Kori chikunetsushiki chichu reikyaku sochi` ni yori arusutoromeria no kaika jiki wo chosetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Alstroemeria has a habit to flower by sensing temperature through an organ in rhizome. Since its market price is higher in late fall and early winter, a culture method cooling the ground in summer is in wide use. Although the ground is cooled with an equipment composed of a chiller, ground piping for heat exchange and cold water pump during the whole day, cost reduction is a major problem. To study a heat storage ground cooler, its culture test was made by using a prototype ice storage ground cooler. The test result showed that ground temperature of both test zone and reference zone was constantly 18-20 degrees C during the test period, and both the whole yield and that every class were nearly equivalent between the test and reference zones. The estimation result on the profitability of a full-scale ice storage ground cooler based on the above result showed that this ground cooler probably can reduce annual electric charge by nearly 200,000 yen as compared with a cooler without heat storage. (NEDO)

  3. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  4. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  5. 热回收地源热泵机组的水温控制%Control of water temperature for ground-source heat pump units with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方徐根; 王建奎; 陆麟; 曾宪纯; 林奕

    2012-01-01

    Presents the indirect control scheme of variable flow rate, I. E. Regulating the temperature of hot water of heat recovery by regulating the water flow rate in ground side to safeguard the steady temperature of chilled water and heat recovery water. Presents the control principle and scheme. With an example project in Hangzhou, verifies the control accuracy of the system, and the result shows that the control effect is favorable.%提出了变流量间接控制方案,即通过调节地源侧水流量间接控制热回收热水温度,以保证冷水和热回收热水温度恒定的方法.给出了控制原理和控制方案.结合杭州某办公楼示范工程,验证了该系统的控制精度,结果表明该系统控制效果良好.

  6. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  7. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  8. 地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统运行性能的影响因素%Influencing factors of operating performance of ground-source heat pump hot water supply systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成勇; 雷俊; 王雁生; 宋月贤

    2012-01-01

    建立了地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统实验平台,研究了环境温度、间歇/连续运行工况、管内循环液流速等对地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,并研究了地埋管换热器周围土壤温度场的变化.结果表明,地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统基本不受环境温度的影响;采用间歇运行,有利于提高地埋管换热器的换热能力;地埋管换热器平均单位井深换热量随管内循环液流速的增大而增大,但当流速增大到一定程度时,其增幅趋于平缓.%Establishes an experimental platform for ground-source heat pump system (GCHP) hot water supply system. Studies the influences of ambient temperature, intermittent or continuous operation mode and flow rate of circulating fluid on the heat exchange efficiency, and studies the variation of soil temperature field around ground heat exchangers. The results show that the GSHP hot water supply system is little influenced by the ambient temperature; intermittent operation mode is conducive to improving the heat exchange capacity of the ground heat exchanger; the heat flow of unit borehole depth of the ground heat exchanger increases along with the fluid flow rate until the fluid flow rate rises to a certain extent when the increasing trends became flat.

  9. An investigation of the effect of rapid slurry chilling on blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P; Kerry, J; Bolton, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days. The onset and progress of BPS was monitored using the following scale; 0-no gas bubbles in drip; 1-gas bubbles in drip; 2-loss of vacuum; 3-'blown'; 4-presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and 5-tightly stretched, 'overblown' packs/packs leaking. Rapid slurry chilling (as compared to conventional chilling) did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the time to the onset or progress of BPS. It was therefore concluded that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals, using an ice slurry system, may not be used as a control intervention to prevent or retard blown pack spoilage. This study adds to our growing understanding of blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals and suggests that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals is not a control option for the beef industry. The results suggest that neither eliminating the heat shrinkage step nor rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef retard the time to blown pack spoilage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. On the Application of Ground Source Heat Pump System in the Airport Hotel%机场宾馆地源热泵系统方案的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇竑

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the airport hotel needs to consider air conditioning supply and hot water service throughout the year. From the perspective of energy saving transformation, the construction of ground source heat pump system has huge difference with the conventional system in economic and environmental protection terms. From the basic principle of ground source heat pump system, this paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the application of ground source heat pump system in airport hotel to explore the practical application value and broad prospects of the development of ground source heat pump system.%机场宾馆建设需要考虑全年提供冷暖空调、热水服务等,从节能改造的角度出发,建设地源热泵系统对比常规系统在经济方面和环保方面将产生巨大差异.本文从地源热泵系统的基本原理出发,分析研究地源热泵系统在机场宾馆应用中的优势与劣势,并由此探究地源热泵系统发展的实际应用价值和广阔前景.

  11. System Design and Energy Saving Technology Analysis of Ground-source Heat Pump%土壤源热泵系统设计与节能技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金秀; 周红星

    2009-01-01

    The design scheme and characteristics of the ground-source heat pump system were introduced.In addition,the energy consumption during operation periods was briefly analyzed.%主要介绍了土壤源热泵系统的设计及特点,并初步分析了该系统的运行能耗情况.

  12. 太阳能—地源热泵联合循环技术研究%Study on Technologies of Solar Energy and Ground Source Heat Pump Combined Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洲阳; 陈武

    2011-01-01

    太阳能—地源热泵系统联合循环的研究目前还没有形成完备的理论体系,可供应用的基础数据不足,还不能为工程实际应用提供充足的理论依据.本文就太阳能与地源热泵系统联合运行的必要性和可行性进行探讨,提出了相应的技术方案;总结太阳能—地源热泵空调系统的特性,提出太阳能—地源热泵空调系统有待解决的问题,为太阳能—地源热泵联合循环技术在建筑上应用提供参考和借鉴.%Theory system of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump has not been mature, thereby lack basic data and theory thereunder for engineering application. Necessarity and feasibility of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump is discussed, bring forward corresponding technique scheme. Character of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump system is summarized, and bring forward await settle problems, provide reference for architecture application of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump.

  13. 地源热泵数据监测系统技术评价与应用分析%Technical evaluation and application analysis of ground-source heat pump data monitoring systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华军; 齐承英; 赵冰; 湛文贤

    2012-01-01

    根据当前地源热泵数据监测系统的实施情况,将其分为地下型、地上型、地下+地上型,并进行了技术评价.结合工程实例,介绍了地上型地源热泵数据监测系统的应用情况.提出了尽快完善地源热泵数据监测系统标准体系的建议.%Based on the implementation practice of ground-source heat pump data monitoring systems, classifies the ground-source heat pump data monitoring systems as underground type, overground type and underground plus overground type, and evaluates each of them. With a project example, presents the application of overground type ground-source heat pump data monitoring systems. Proposes to develop ground-source heat pump data monitoring technology standard system as soon as possible.

  14. 浙江地区地源热泵系统适应性研究和设计方法%Adaptability and Design Method for Ground-source Heat Pump System in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐峰; 胡吉士

    2014-01-01

    Currently, ground-source heat pump technology is widely applied as a renewable energy technology in Zhejiang. From a practical application point of view, there are still many errors in the appli-cable building types and design of the technology. The adaptability of ground-source heat pump system in different building types is analyzed with years of experience in designing ground-source heat pump system. The design methods are presented. The work would provide method and reference for reasonable applica-tion of ground-source heat pump technology in places with hot summer and cold winter.%目前,地源热泵技术作为一项可再生能源技术在浙江地区大力推进。从实际应用看,该技术在适用的建筑类型和设计方面尚存在诸多误区。结合笔者对地源热泵系统多年的设计经验,研究分析了浙江地区地源热泵系统在不同建筑类型中的适应性,并提出了相应的设计方法,可为夏热冬冷地区合理应用地源热泵技术提供参考。

  15. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  16. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  17. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  18. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  19. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  20. Fanning in open-topped cowshed and chromium added to diet improving growth performance of heat-stressed beef cattle%敞篷牛舍接力送风及饲粮添加铬改善肉牛生产性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡景义; 冯堂超; 师筑俊; 廖阔遥; 易宗容

    2015-01-01

    of the barn, fanning, and spraying cooling, additive in diet etc, were used to relief the hot stress of livestock. To improving the production properties of cattle, fanning in open-topped cowshed combining with chromium added to diet were investigation. A 2×2 factorial trial was conducted to determine the effects of fanning and chromium added to diet on thermal environment, physiological indexes and growth performance of beef cattle in summer in the Southern China. Thirty-six Simmental crossbred beef cattle ( average body weight 392.8 kg ) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups, and were raised in open feedlot barn for 30 days. In treatment 1 (T1), fans were installed and chromium nicotinate was added to beef cattle diet; In treatment 2 (T2), fans were only assembled; In treatment 3 (T3), chromium nicotinate was added to diet; In the control treatment (T4), the beef cattle were raised in feedlot barn without fans and without chromium nicotinate in diet. The dosage of chromium was 800µg/kg. The indexes such as environmental factors, temperature-humidity index, rectal temperature, respiration rate, average daily gain and economic benefits were collected. The results showed as following: 1) Compared with the control barn without fan, average room temperature was lower by 1.9℃ (P < 0.01), wind speed was increased by 5.6 times (P < 0.01), THI reduce by 5.65% (P < 0.01) in 14:00 in treatment barn with fan. 2) For the cattle suffered from the heat stress, the respiration rate was reduced by 2.37 times (P< 0.01), and rectal temperature were reduced by 0.18℃ (P<0.01) by chromium supplementation, and the respiration rate was reduced by 6.97 times (P < 0.01) by fanning. No interaction effects on respiration rate and rectal temperature was obtained between chromium supplementation and fanning. 2) The average daily gain of beef cattle in T1 were increased by 44.16% (P< 0.05), 35.37% (P < 0.05) and 79.03% (P < 0.05) than that in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Gross

  1. The Effect of Social Desirability Bias on Willingness-To-Pay for Organic Beef.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Researchers regularly conduct willingness-to-pay or valuation studies for product marketing or public policy purposes. However, a large volume of research suggests valuation tools such as conjoint analysis may be subject to social desirability bias, where subjects misrepresent their true preferences to create a favorable impression. The objective of this study is to measure the effects of social desirability bias on conjoint survey responses. Consumers were asked to rank organic ground beef r...

  2. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  3. Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2013-09-26

    In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.

  4. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  5. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  6. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  7. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  8. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  9. Monitoring Groundwater Temperatures in a Shallow Urban Aquifer Before, During and After Installation of a Ground Source Heat System in Cardiff, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Tucker, David; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of shallow urban aquifers, warmed by the Urban Heat Island Effect, is a relatively new concept in the U.K. An extensive groundwater temperature baseline monitoring network has been established for a shallow superficial aquifer in the city of Cardiff, U.K., to characterise groundwater temperatures and monitor the impacts of the first open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed in the city. In Spring 2014, temperature profiling was carried out at 1m depth intervals at 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across Cardiff, establishing baseline groundwater temperatures within the shallow (form the first U.K. 2D city heat map. During the warmest time of year, Autumn 2014, a subset of boreholes were re-profiled to ascertain seasonal temperature variation, defining the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation. Re-profiling was again carried out at these boreholes in Autumn 2015 to confirm these temperatures as normal for that time of year. By comparing Spring and Autumn profiles, the average depth to the base of the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation was found to be 9.5mbgl. Two >100m boreholes showed the urban warming effect may extend to 80mbgl, before temperatures follow the predicted geothermal gradient. We term this the Zone of Anthropogenic Influence. After initial baseline temperatures were established, a site was selected for the installation of a shallow GSHP. Before installation work began, a monitoring network was set up to establish a temperature baseline for future GSHPs and identify any impacts on the thermal resource caused by removing ~2°C from the abstracted groundwater prior to reinjection into the aquifer. This comprised of 97 temperature loggers in 60 boreholes, including the abstraction and recharge boreholes and boreholes up and down gradient of the site. Some of these boreholes have multiple loggers at different depths, including the near-surface, but the majority of loggers were placed within the boreholes' slotted sections, below the base of the

  10. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  11. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  12. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  13. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  14. Performance on Solar-Assisted Ground-Source Heat Pump System%太阳能-地源热泵串联复合式系统的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁力勤

    2016-01-01

    对于总热负荷与总冷负荷不平衡的建筑,单独采用土壤源热泵系统供暖或供冷时,系统运行末期土壤温度发生很大的变化,降低了系统的运行性能。针对此类建筑,搭建太阳能-土壤源串联复合式热泵系统,从集热器单位面积流量、存储水箱体积的影响因素出发,研究供暖期热泵机组蒸发器侧进水温度、系统运行性能和能耗的变化情况,为常规土壤源热泵系统引起的土壤热平衡问题提出解决方案,为今后的实际工程设计及应用提供参考依据。%In the heating load dominated area of cold winter zone, the heat taken and released to the soil is unbalanced, when the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is responsible for all air conditioning loads in most cases. Then it results that the soil temperature would change greatly, and the performance of the system would bring down. The paper builds the ground source heat pump system and the solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system, and then analyzes the different inlet water temperature of heat pump, the different performance and energy consumption according to different collector unit area and tank volume parameters. It is important to provide reference to build the integrated heat pump system and solution for the soil thermal balance.

  15. Feasibility Analysis of Applying Ground-source Heat Pump System in Huaian Urban Planning Area%淮安城市规划区地源热泵系统应用可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪名鹏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了淮安城市规划区水文地质条件、岩土体结构、地温场特征以及岩土层的热物理参数,结合地下水地源热泵系统和垂直地埋管地源热泵系统的应用特点,对两种类型的地源热泵系统在淮安规划区应用的可行性进行了分析.结果表明城市规划区面积约97.5%的区域不适宜应用地下水地源热泵系统,仅在规划区西北角小范围内较适宜应用;而垂直地埋管地源热泵系统可适宜在规划区内大面积推广应用,地埋管深度一般100m左右;最后对规划区两种类型的地源热泵系统应用过程中需要注意的几个问题进行了阐述,为淮安城市规划区地源热泵系统规划与试点工作提供了科学依据.%This paper introduces the hydrogeological conditions, rock mass structure, characteristics of ground temperature field and thermophysical parameters of rock mass in urban planning area of Huaian. Combining with the features of groundwater source heat pump system and vertical ground pipe heat pump system, the feasibility application of two kinds of heat pump systems in Huaian planning area is analyzed. The results show that the groundwater source heat pump system is unsuitable for urban planning area about 97.5% ,only the northwest corner of the planning area is less suitable for groundwater source heat pump system;the urban planning area is suitable for vertical ground pipel heat pump system with a large area of the promotion, the depth of underground pipe is about 100m. Finally, some issues to which much attention should be described in the course of application two types of ground-source heat pump systems in urban planning area of Huaian, and it provides scientific references for planning and pilot of application two types of ground-source heat pump systems in urban planning area of Huaian.

  16. Gentle cooling with ground-coupled heat pumps in the 'Cosy Place' MINERGIE-P residence - Final report; Sanfte Kuehlung mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen im MINERGIE-P Wohngebaeude CosyPlace - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, R.; Afjei, T.; Genkinger, A.; Witmer, A.

    2010-02-15

    The first multi-family apartment house according to the Swiss MINERGIE-P standard in the city of Basel was built in 2007. The building is heated with a ground coupled heat pump combined with a low temperature floor heating system. A passive cold generation out of the borehole heat exchanger combined with the floor heating system raises the thermal comfort in summer. The field monitoring should bring further knowledge about the behaviour in the field application and the user influence. A previous theoretical study about 'Heating and cooling with ground coupled heat pumps' showed that if the heat pump and the floor heating system are designed for the heating application an additional passive cooling mode could raise the thermal comfort in summer time with low additional expense. The measurements could be successfully accomplished in the period November 2007 until September 2009. A good thermal comfort could be reached with room temperatures in the winter period in the range 19 - 24 o{sup C} and 21 - 26 o{sup C} in the summer period. The room air humidity in the winter seasons was temporarily rather dry, measured values were mostly within a range of 21 %{sub r.H.} to 62 %{sub r.H.}. The generator seasonal performance factor showed an energy efficient system in domestic hot water mode with 2.7 for both years, while heating mode efficiency could be improved from 4.0 to a value of 4.3 for the second year of operation. In passive cooling mode weekly average of the generator performance factor reached values as high as 15.2 after optimizations during the second summer period. Cooling power reached an average value of 5 kW for the 3 apartments whose inhabitants were using the passive cooling. The heat supply for space heating was lower than standard buildings yet with 103 MJ/m{sup 2} in the first, respectively 111 MJ/m{sup 2} in the second heating season higher than the calculated value. (authors)

  17. Energy saving analysis of ground-source heat pump and air-source heat pump in Shanghai area%上海地区地埋管地源热泵和空气源热泵的节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静波; 吴建兵; 寿炜炜

    2011-01-01

    从热力学角度对地埋管地源热泵和空气源热泵的节能性进行对比分析,提出了在上海地区地埋管地源热泵相对于空气源热泵节能的设计条件:地埋管换热器出水温度夏季低于30℃,冬季高于10℃.%Compares the energy saving performance of ground-source heat pump and air-source heat pump from the aspect of thermodynamics. Brings forward some suggestions for the application of groundsource heat pump in Shanghai area that the temperature of water from the ground heat exchanger should be less than 30 ℃ in summer and higher than 10 ℃ in winter.

  18. Effect of marination in gravy on the radio frequency and microwave processing properties of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran-Akgul, Nese; Rasco, Barbara A

    2015-02-01

    Dielectric properties (the dielectric constant (ε') and the dielectric loss factor (ε″)) and the penetration depth of raw eye of round beef Semitendinosus muscle, raw beef marinated in gravy, raw beef cooked in gravy, and gravy alone were determined as a function of the temperature (20-130 °C) and frequency (27-1,800 MHz). Both ε' and ε″ values increased as the temperature increased at low frequencies (27 and 40 MHz). At high frequencies (915 and 1,800 MHz), ε' showed a 50 % decrease while ε″ increased nearly three fold with increasing temperature in the range from 20 to 130 °C. ε' increased gradually while ε″ increased five fold when the temperature increased from 20 to 130 °C. Both ε' and ε″ of all samples decreased with increase in frequency. Marinating the beef in gravy dramatically increased the ε″ values, particularly at the lower frequencies. Power penetration depth of all samples decreased with increase temperature and frequency. These results are expected to provide useful data for modeling dielectric heating processes of marinated muscle food.

  19. Analysis of Operating Characteristics of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Assisted with Chiller%冷机辅助复合式地源热泵运行特性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世玉; 崔文智

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid ground source heat pump system assisted with chiller is proposed in this paper, and also two kinds of operation scheme. System operation of 30 years is simulated using TRNSYS software. Compared with conventional ground source heat pump system, operating characteristics and the feasibility of the hybrid ground source heat pump system are analyzed from the ground temperature increase, system performance, energy consumption and also the technical and economic aspects.%提出了冷水机组和热泵机组分设的复合式地源热泵系统,并提出了两种运行方案。采用 TRNSYS软件模拟其30年的系统运行,并分别从地温增幅、系统性能、能耗及技术经济角度和常规地源热泵系统进行比较,分析了该复合式地源热泵系统的运行特性及其可行性。

  20. 太中银铁路沿线站区地源热泵运行与维护管理%On operation of ground source heat pump and maintenance management at stations along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉小洁

    2015-01-01

    在对地源热泵工作理论分析的基础上,结合太中银铁路太原局管段五站地埋管地源热泵实际使用中存在的管路断裂、换热量不足等问题,从系统运行与维护管理角度提出了一些改进建议,为地埋管地源热泵系统的推广应用提供了技术支持。%Based on the theoretic analysis of the ground source heat pump,the paper points out some improvement suggestions from the system op-eration and maintenance by combining with pipeline fracture,shortage of heat problems in the uses of the ground source heat pump at the five sta-tion of Taiyuan Bureau Segment along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway,so as to provide some technical support for the application of the bur-ied ground source heat pump system.

  1. BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BEEF CATTLE IN INTENSIVE REARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of beef cattle reared in intensive systems in northern Italy under different climatic conditions. In particular, it considered 3 levels of THI (Temperature-Humidity-Index in order to evaluate the coping response to heat stress conditions regarding changes of beef cattle nutritional and social behaviours, drinking frequency and resting time. Behavioural observations were carried out from July to October 2005, during hot (THI above 78, mild (THI 76 and cool (THI below 72 conditions, on 24 finishing French crossbred bulls. The animals were housed in 6 fully slatted floor group pens of 4 bulls each. Within each class of THI, behaviours were recorded in two sessions of 24 hours using a 5 minute interval scan sampling technique. A focal animal was chosen in order to count the number of visits at the waterer. Results showed that eating behaviour was maximum during the first 8 hours after fresh feed delivery. However, in the same interval, when THI was above 78, eating activity was penalized while an increase of ruminating was observed. The overall number of visits at the waterer was increased by the heat stress condition and they were mainly concentrated in the hottest hours of the day. Hot environment also affected beef cattle social behaviour increasing agonistic interactions and mounts among penmates. Since heat stress affected bulls behaviour impairing their welfare, the adoption of cooling devices should be recommended.

  2. Numerical Investigation on the Heat Transfer Performance of Pile Spiral Pipe Heat Exchanger in Ground Source Heat Pump System%地源热泵桩基螺旋埋管传热性能的数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 吴春材

    2016-01-01

    对地源热泵桩基埋管的传热性能进行了数值研究。以螺旋桩基埋管作为研究对象,采用CFD软件进行模型建立及数值求解,对埋管内水温特性、土壤及桩基内的传热特性进行了分析。结果表明,不同运行模式下,埋管内水温沿埋管长度方向呈线性下降且出口水温均随运行时间而缓慢增长;对于短时间歇运行模式,埋管向桩基的排热量大于土壤排热量,运行时间内,土壤及桩基温升均满足规范要求,不会对其结构特性产生影响。%Numerical study of the heat transfer performance of pile heat exchanger in GSHP (ground source heat pump) system was carried out in this paper. Aims at the spiral pipe heat exchanger, the computation model was created and solved through CFD software. The heat transfer characteristics, including in-pipe water temperature, soil and pipe temperature distribution, were analyzed. The result shows that under different operation conditions, the in-pipe water temperature has a characteristic of liner reduction along flow direction, also the outlet water temperature is rising gradually over time. For on-off operation condition, the heat amount released into pile is bigger than that released into soil. The temperature rise of soil and pile caused by heat absorbing during operation period meets the requirements of the design code, which will cause little impact on the structure characteristic of pile.

  3. Optimization for Complex System of Ground Source Heat Pump Based on TRNSYS%基于 TRNSYS 的地源热泵复合系统运行策略的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓曼; 刘金祥; 陈高峰; 李帅

    2015-01-01

    TRNSYS is utilized to establish the composite system model of ground source heat pump and cooling tower, and simulate running situation of the composite ground source heat pump system in of-fice building for a long time in the hot summer and cold winter region. On the basis of theoretical analysis and the measured data validation, considering weather conditions, cooling tower open time, soil factors such as heat dissipation, the paper analyzes the joint operation characteristics of cooling tower and the ground source heat pump in local office building. Opening the cooling tower at night with normal operation mode of the ground source heat pump during the day is proposed for office building in the refrigeration period.%利用 TRNSYS 瞬时仿真模拟软件建立地源热泵与冷却塔复合系统模型,模拟出夏热冬冷地区办公楼地源热泵复合系统长期运行情况。在理论分析和实测数据验证的基础上,考虑气象条件、冷却塔开启时间、土壤散热等因素,分析该地区办公建筑冷却塔与地源热泵联合运行的特点;提出制冷期办公建筑夜间开启冷却塔蓄冷、白天地源热泵正常运行的模式。

  4. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  5. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  6. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  9. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  10. 地源热泵系统在上海地区学校建筑中的应用%Application of ground-source heat pump system into the school building of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚哲卿; 邓波

    2012-01-01

    上海地区学校建筑空调系统可以以土壤作为热源/热汇.针对学校案例分析介绍地源热泵系统流程、系统的控制及经济性等,认为地源热泵空调系统应该与生活热水系统相结合,并综合考虑冷热平衡问题.%The school building may adopt soil as the heat source/sink of the heat pump system in Shanghai. The system flow,control system and economics in school project are presented and analyzed. The ground-source heat pump system should be combined with domestic hot water system. It's necessary to pay attention to the heat balance.

  11. 北方地区应用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵效能分析%Efficiency Analysis of Utilizing Solar-assisted Ground Source Heat Pump in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金秀

    2015-01-01

    针对北方寒冷地区气候特点,指出了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵或单独的太阳能应用的技术特点。对北方寒冷地区某学校综合楼建筑进行了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统设计;并针对该建筑采用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统、采用单独的土壤源热泵系统或采用传统采暖空调系统,从三者经济效益、社会效益、环境效益等方面进行了比较,从而体现了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵系统或传统采暖空调系统的高效、经济、节能、环保等优异性。%For the cold climate characteristics of the Northern China, the paper introduces the technical characteristics of solar-assisted ground source heat pump system relative to the separate ground source heat pump system or the separate solar energy application. For a complex building of a university in the cold northern area, the solar -assisted ground source heat pump system is designed, and economic benefits, social benefits, environmental benefits and other aspects about using the solar-assisted ground source heat pump system or using the ground source heat pump system alone or using the traditional air conditioning system are compared, thus reflects the excellent efficiency, cost-saving and energy -saving characteristics, and environmental protection about the solar assisted ground source heat pump system.

  12. 土壤源热泵空调系统的性能模拟分析%Performance Simulation and Analysis of Ground-Source Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚伟

    2011-01-01

    以上海某小型办公楼为例,用DEST模拟出了该建筑全年累计冷热负荷和逐时冷热负荷的需求,采用集中参数的方法建立能耗模拟模型,分别模拟出空气源热泵和土壤源热泵空调系统的能效.反映出一定条件下热泵空调系统能效随系统负荷变化等条件改变的变化趋势,得出土壤源热泵空调系统较空气源热泵系统具有系统性能系数(COP)高、运行稳定、受外部气候条件干扰小的结论.%The demand for annual total cooling and heating loads, as well as the hourly cooling and heating loads was simulated for an office building in Shanghai by DEST.The method of energy consumption simulation model was established by lumped parameter.The model was simulated air-source heat pump and ground-source heat pump system energy efficiency.The results reflected that the trends in energy efficiency of the heat pump system changes with the system-load conditions under certain conditions.The results showed that ground-source heat pump air-conditioning system has the advantages of higher COP value, more stable heating and less interference by external climate than air-source heat pump air-conditioning system.

  13. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  14. Soil-Temperature Monitoring and Analysis of a Ground Source Heat Pump System During the Operating Period%地埋管地源热泵系统运行期地温监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小清; 王万忠

    2013-01-01

      以上海地区某工程为例,通过设置地温监测系统并对地温进行监测,根据监测结果和地源热泵系统运行情况,对地埋管地源系统运行期地温场的变化特征进行分析研究。结果表明:换热区地温变化与地源热泵系统的运行情况相关,呈现规律性的变化;经过一个运行年度,换热区的地温场能够基本恢复至原始状态;系统运行对换热区外围区域地温场的影响范围有限。研究成果可为浅层地温能的开发利用提供技术支持。%  This paper reports the results of a soil-temperature monitoring project in the Shanghai area. A soil-temperature monitoring system was installed to monitor fluctuations in soil temperature. Measurements of temperature and of the operating status of the ground source heat pump system indicate that the soil temperature field in the ground-coupled heat pump system varied during the operating period. The results show that the soil temperature distribution in the heat exchanger is associated with the operation of the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. After one year of operation, the soil temperature distribution in the heat exchanger returns essential y to the original condition. The running of a GSHP system cannot affect temperature changes outside the heat exchanger. The results should provide technical support for the development and utilization of shal ow geothermal resources.

  15. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid Ground-source Heat Pump Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Glenn [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Moon, Tess [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This project team analyzed supplemental heat rejection/recovery (SHR) devices or systems that could be used in hybrid ground source heat pump (HGHP) systems located in arid or semi-arid regions in southwestern U.S. Identification of effective SHR solutions would enhance the deployment of ground source heat pumps (GHP) in these regions. In a parallel effort, the team developed integrated GHP models that coupled the building load, heat pump, and ground loop subsystems and which could be applied to residential and commercial office buildings. Then GHP and HGHP performances could be compared in terms of operational performance and life-cycle costs. Several potential SHR devices were analyzed by applying two strategies: 1) to remove heat directly from the water in the ground loop before it enters the ground and 2) to remove heat in the refrigerant loop of the vapor compression cycle (VCC) of the heat pump so less heat is transferred to the water loop at the condenser of the VCC. Cooling towers, adsorption coolers, and thermoelectric liquid coolers were included in strategy 1, and expanded desuperheaters, thermosyphons, and an optimized VCC were included in strategy 2. Of all SHR devices analyzed, only the cooling tower provided a cost-effective performance enhancement. For the integrated GHP model, the project team selected the building load model HAMBASE and its powerful computational Simulink/MatLab platform, empirical performance map models of the heat pumps based upon manufacturers’ performance data, and a ground loop model developed by Oklahoma State University and rewritten for this project in Simulink/MatLab. The design process used GLHEPRO, also from Oklahoma State University, to size the borehole fields. The building load and ground loop models were compared with simulations from eQuest, ASHRAE 140-2008 standards, EnergyPlus, and GLHEPRO and were found to predict those subsystems’ performance well. The integrated GHP model was applied to a 195m2

  16. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  17. 上海地源热泵应用综论%SUMMARY OF APPLICATION OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP IN SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐益群; 张墨丹

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,application prospects of the ground-source heat pump (GSHP) in Shanghai were comprehensively analyzed from geothermal resources,geological conditions,technical and economic conditions and so on. The result showed that the GSHP has broad application in the future of Shanghai, because of not only the abundant occurrence condition (12 prospective areas of geothermal resources in Shanghai) but also being relatively more economical compared with the traditional air-conditioning system. Finally,some specific suggestions to application and development planning of GSHP in Shanghai were proposed by analyzing and exploring some potential problems of application of the GSHP.%本文从地热资源、地质条件、技术经济等方面分析了地源热泵在上海的应用前景.从地源热泵的赋存条件上来看,上海可分为12个地热资源远景区,而从技术经济的可行性分析上,相比传统的空调系统,也体现了其优越性;综合证明了地源热泵在上海广阔的应用前景.最后从科学合理开发利用浅层地温能以及地下空间稳定性角度,通过总结分析地热资源利用上潜在的一些问题,对上海地源热泵的利用和发展规划提出了具体建议.

  18. 挤密条件下U型地埋管换热器换热效率的理论分析及数值模拟%Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Heat Exchange Efficiency of U-Tube Ground Heat Exchanger Under the Condition of Soil Compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝义; 岳韬; 曹品鲁; 王如生; 王茂森; 博坤; 龙翔; 鲁思宇

    2016-01-01

    土层的导热系数是影响地源热泵地埋管换热器换热效率的重要因素之一,与土样的密度密切相关。为了提高地源热泵换热器换热效率,本文基于柱热源理论,建立了挤密钻进条件下换热器的传热理论模型,对换热器的换热效率进行了计算,并利用 Ansys有限元软件对土层挤密条件下换热器的换热效果进行了数值分析。结果表明,与传统方法相比,土层挤密可有效降低钻孔周围的热阻,U 型管换热器的换热效率可提高17%~20%。%The coefficient of thermal conductivity of soil,which has close relationship to the density of the soil,is one of the important factors that impact the heat transfer efficiency of ground heat exchanger (GHE).In order to enhance the heat transfer efficiency of ground source heat pump heat exchanger.The heat transfer model of GHE under the condition of compaction drilling based on the cylindrical heat source theory has been established and thermal efficiency of heat exchanger has been calculated in this paper.Finally the heat transfer efficiency of GHE under the condition of soil compaction have been simulated using Ansys finite element software .With comparison to the traditional methods,the soil compaction can effectively reduce the thermal resistance around the borehole and the heat transfer efficiency of U-tube heat exchanger can be enhanced by 17% 20%.

  19. Use of air/ground heat exchangers for heating and cooling of buildings - in-situ measurements, analytical modeling, numerical simulation and system analysis[Dissertation 3357]; Utilisation des echangeurs air/sol pour le chauffage et le rafraichissement des batiments. Mesures in situ, modelisation analytique, simulation numerique et analyse systemique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmuller, P.

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, physical properties and practical implementation of air/ground heat exchangers were studied. These exchangers consist in ducts placed in the upper ground layer (up to a depth of several meters). Air is circulated through the ducts, with heat transfer from and to the surrounding earth/sand/gravel material, with heat diffusion (conductive and capacitive effects) through this material. Air/ground heat exchangers are used to preheat or cool the air needed by the ventilation system of a building (open loop systems), or to heat up or cool the air in a greenhouse (closed loop systems). The reported study consisted in: (i) case studies of built examples, by detailed measuring and monitoring and data analysis. (ii) modeling the basic system. (iii) solving the basic equations both numerically (by computerized simulation) and analytically. (iv) identifying the basic features of these systems. (v) establishing recommendations for the practical implementation, especially in what regards sizing. It turned out that daily and seasonal heat storage/delivery by means of an air/ground heat exchanger have to be considered separately, with ad hoc rules of thumb each. Depending on parameter values a phase shift by as much as half the period may even be observed, with very little damping of the temperature oscillation. In Switzerland the main relevance for these systems is for improving thermal comfort in buildings in the summer time when outdoor temperature is higher than 26 {sup o}C, and for damping the amplitude of day/night temperature variations in horticultural greenhouses. The work carried out can be considered as of basic relevance for all applications of the systems studied.

  20. Optimization Design and Construction of Ground-Source Heat Pump System for a Fivestar Hotel in Jiangsu Province%某五星级酒店土壤源热泵系统设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 孙家顺

    2015-01-01

    详细分析了酒店建筑的冷、热负荷特性,通过对各冷热源方案的技术性、经济性比较,并结合业主的意见,设计采用地源热泵系统作为本项目的冷热源。对室外地埋管及热泵机房的设计作了介绍,分析了地源热泵系统地埋管换热器的冷热平衡问题。%The cold and heat load characteristic of hotel buildings are analyzed. The ground-source heat pump system is selected as the cold and heat source, with the technical and economical comparison of different heat and cold source programs and owners’ opinions. The design of the outdoor buried tube and the heat pump equipment room is introduced, and the cold and heat balance of soil heat exchanger is analyzed.