WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground based research

  1. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  2. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  15. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  16. The emission function of ground-based light sources: State of the art and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2018-05-01

    To understand the night sky radiance generated by the light emissions of urbanised areas, different researchers are currently proposing various theoretical approaches. The distribution of the radiant intensity as a function of the zenith angle is one of the most unknown properties on modelling skyglow. This is due to the collective effects of the artificial radiation emitted from the ground-based light sources. The emission function is a key property in characterising the sky brightness under arbitrary conditions, therefore it is required by modellers, environmental engineers, urban planners, light pollution researchers, and experimentalists who study the diffuse light of the night sky. As a matter of course, the emission function considers the public lighting system, which is in fact the main generator of the skyglow. Still, another class of light-emitting devices are gaining importance since their overuse and the urban sprawl of recent years. This paper will address the importance of the emission function in modelling skyglow and the factors involved in its characterization. On this subject, the author's intention is to organise, integrate, and evaluate previously published research in order to state the progress of current research toward clarifying this topic.

  17. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  18. SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeffelin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA, an atmospheric observatory with these goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds, aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column. Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space (e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO. SIRTA observation and research activities take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the globe.

  19. Supporting a Diverse Community of Undergraduate Researchers in Satellite and Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. remains in grave danger of losing its global competitive edge in STEM. To find solutions to this problem, the Obama Administration proposed two new national initiatives: the Educate to Innovate Initiative and the $100 million government/private industry initiative to train 100,000 STEM teachers and graduate 1 million additional STEM students over the next decade. To assist in ameliorating the national STEM plight, the New York City College of Technology has designed its NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program in satellite and ground-based remote sensing to target underrepresented minority students. Since the inception of the program in 2008, a total of 45 undergraduate students of which 38 (84%) are considered underrepresented minorities in STEM have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. The program is comprised of the three primary components. The first component, Structured Learning Environments: Preparation and Mentorship, provides the REU Scholars with the skill sets necessary for proficiency in satellite and ground-based remote sensing research. The students are offered mini-courses in Geographic Information Systems, MATLAB, and Remote Sensing. They also participate in workshops on the Ethics of Research. Each REU student is a member of a team that consists of faculty mentors, post doctorate/graduate students, and high school students. The second component, Student Support and Safety Nets, provides undergraduates a learning environment that supports them in becoming successful researchers. Special networking and Brown Bag sessions, and an annual picnic with research scientists are organized so that REU Scholars are provided with opportunities to expand their professional community. Graduate school support is provided by offering free Graduate Record Examination preparation courses and workshops on the graduate school application process. Additionally, students are supported by college

  20. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  1. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  2. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  3. RESEARCH ON VISUALIZATION OF GROUND LASER RADAR DATA BASED ON OSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  4. Research on Visualization of Ground Laser Radar Data Based on Osg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Hu, C.; Zhang, F.; Xue, H.

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG) is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  5. Research on the evaluation indicators of skilled employees’ career success based on grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulei Chu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: summarized and sorted career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees Design/methodology/approach: Based on Grounded Theory, through interviews and questionnaires to railway skilled employees Findings and Originality/value: the study shows that “subjective career success”, including work-family balance, life satisfaction, career satisfaction, perception of career success, “objective career success”, including level of total revenue venue, growth rate of wage and times of promotion, “knowledge and skills career success” including upgrade of knowledge and skills, classification of skills, external competitiveness and job autonomy, are three important career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees. Originality/value: The results show that different age groups, different titles and different positions of skilled employees, there is a significant difference in the choice of career success evaluation indicators. It provides a useful reference to establish a career development system for the skilled employees.

  6. Preliminary Results from Powell Research Group on Integrating GRACE Satellite and Ground-based Estimates of Groundwater Storage Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Reitz, M.; Rodell, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Croteau, M. J.; McGuire, V. L.; Pool, D. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater storage depletion is a critical issue for many of the major aquifers in the U.S., particularly during intense droughts. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage changes have attracted considerable media attention in the U.S. and globally and interest in GRACE products continues to increase. For this reason, a Powell Research Group was formed to: (1) Assess variations in groundwater storage using a variety of GRACE products and other storage components (snow, surface water, and soil moisture) for major aquifers in the U.S., (2) Quantify long-term trends in groundwater storage from ground-based monitoring and regional and national modeling, and (3) Use ground-based monitoring and modeling to interpret GRACE water storage changes within the context of extreme droughts and over-exploitation of groundwater. The group now has preliminary estimates from long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations in water storage using different GRACE solutions, including CSR, JPL and GSFC. Approaches to quantifying uncertainties in GRACE data are included. This work also shows how GRACE sees groundwater depletion in unconfined versus confined aquifers, and plans for future work will link GRACE data to regional groundwater models. The wealth of ground-based observations for the U.S. provides a unique opportunity to assess the reliability of GRACE-based estimates of groundwater storage changes.

  7. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  8. Ground-based research on vestibular adaptation to g-level transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Eric L.; Nooij, Suzanne A E; Bos, Jelte E.

    2008-01-01

    At TNO research is ongoing on neuro-vestibular adaptation to altered G-levels. It is well-known that during the first days in weightlessness 50-80% of all astronauts suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS), which involves space motion sickness, spatial disorientation and motion illusions.

  9. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  10. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  11. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  12. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, C.B.; Hileman, J.A.; Turner, B.E.; Martin, G.R.

    1980-09-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications. (author)

  13. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  14. Research Schools: Grounding Research in Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Christina; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2008-01-01

    Education lacks a strong infrastructure for connecting research with educational practice and policy. The need for this linkage grows as findings in cognitive science and biology become ever more relevant to education. Teachers often lack the background knowledge needed to interpret scientific results, whereas scientists often lack an…

  15. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  16. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  17. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  19. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  20. The CMETS Program: Grounding Middle Grade Mathematics and Technology Professional Development in Research-Based Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Shannon; Dugdale, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The past few decades have seen middle school teachers in the United States hit especially hard by contradictory messages about the use and importance of technology in support of their standards-based mathematics teaching. This paper considers this dichotomy with respect to the California Mathematics Education Technology Site (CMETS), a…

  1. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  2. AugerNext: innovative research studies for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haungs Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings so far of the Pierre Auger Observatory and also of the Telescope Array define the requirements for a possible next generation experiment: it needs to be considerably increased in size, it needs a better sensitivity to composition, and it should cover the full sky. AugerNext aims to perform innovative research studies in order to prepare a proposal fulfilling these demands. Such R&D studies are primarily focused in the following areas iconsolidation of the detection of cosmic rays using MHz radio antennas; iiproof-of-principle of cosmic-ray microwave detection; iiitest of the large-scale application of a new generation photo-sensors; ivgeneralization of data communication techniques; vdevelopment of new ways of muon detection with surface arrays. These AugerNext studies on new innovative detection methods for a next generation cosmic-ray experiment are performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The AugerNext consortium consists presently of fourteen partner institutions from nine European countries supported by a network of European funding agencies and it is a principal element of the ASPERA/ApPEC strategic roadmaps.

  3. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  4. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  5. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  6. Overview of research and networking with ground based remote sensing for atmospheric profiling at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (Cesar) - the Netherlandse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley, A.; Russchenberg, H.; Marel, van der H.; Bosveld, F.; Boers, R.; Brink, ten H.; Leeuw, de G.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Abresser-Rastburg, B.; Röckmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    CESAR, the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, is the Dutch focal point for collaboration on climate monitoring and atmospheric research and is situated on the KNMI meteorological research site near Cabauw in the Netherlands (Cabauw, 51.97 N, 4.93 E). CESAR addresses challenging

  7. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  8. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  9. Research on advancement of technique for assessing ground seismic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Keiichi; Kaneko, Masahiro; Honda, Riki; Tabuchi, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    In the aseismatic design of nuclear power stations, as the characteristics of earthquake motion inputted in released base surface, the maximum amplitude and the frequency characteristics of earthquake motion, the presumption of earthquake motion using fault model, the time of continuation and the change of amplitude envelope with time are to be examined. In this research, in order to upgrade the earthquake motion used for aseismatic design, the method of evaluating quantitatively the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in unfair ground and the technique of setting design earthquake motion that can consider the change of structural state were investigated. The course of the research carried out so far is outlined. As to the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in unfair ground, the technique of analysis, the index showing the degree of amplifying of earthquake motion, the index showing the degree of unfairness of ground, the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in tray type base, and the evaluation of frequency zone of large degree of amplifying are reported. As to the design earthquake motion taking the plasticizing of structures in consideration, the analysis condition, the equivalent peculiar frequency and the equivalent damping constant and the design earthquake motion taking the plasticizing of structures in consideration are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  11. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  12. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  13. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  14. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  15. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  16. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  17. Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...

  18. Research on application of LADAR in ground vehicle recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Shen, Zhuoxun

    2009-11-01

    For the requirement of many practical applications in the field of military, the research of 3D target recognition is active. The representation that captures the salient attributes of a 3D target independent of the viewing angle will be especially useful to the automatic 3D target recognition system. This paper presents a new approach of image generation based on Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) data. Range image of target is obtained by transformation of point cloud. In order to extract features of different ground vehicle targets and to recognize targets, zernike moment properties of typical ground vehicle targets are researched in this paper. A technique of support vector machine is applied to the classification and recognition of target. The new method of image generation and feature representation has been applied to the outdoor experiments. Through outdoor experiments, it can be proven that the method of image generation is stability, the moments are effective to be used as features for recognition, and the LADAR can be applied to the field of 3D target recognition.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-04-28

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  1. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  2. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  3. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  4. Qualitative Research: A Grounded Theory Example and Evaluation Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...

  5. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  6. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  7. Ground-based measurements of ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Daniel; Chum, Jaroslav

    2018-05-01

    Different methods are used to research and monitor the ionospheric dynamics using ground measurements: Digisonde Drift Measurements (DDM) and Continuous Doppler Sounding (CDS). For the first time, we present comparison between both methods on specific examples. Both methods provide information about the vertical drift velocity component. The DDM provides more information about the drift velocity vector and detected reflection points. However, the method is limited by the relatively low time resolution. In contrast, the strength of CDS is its high time resolution. The discussed methods can be used for real-time monitoring of medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances. We conclude that it is advantageous to use both methods simultaneously if possible. The CDS is then applied for the disturbance detection and analysis, and the DDM is applied for the reflection height control.

  8. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of 'game-changer' advances in science and technology.

  9. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  10. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-01-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to 7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  11. Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a

  12. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  13. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

    2011-10-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  14. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  15. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  16. Overview of ground coupled heat pump research and technology transfer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, V. D.; Mei, V. C.

    Highlights of DOE-sponsored ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are presented. ORNL, in cooperation with Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Climate Master, Inc., and Brookhaven National Laboratory developed and demonstrated an advanced GCHP design concept with shorter ground coils that can reduce installed costs for northern climates. In these areas it can also enhance the competitiveness of GCHP systems versus air-source heat pumps by lowering their payback from 6 to 7 years to 3 to 5 years. Ground coil heat exchanger models (based primarily on first principles) have been developed and used by others to generate less conservative ground coil sizing methods. An aggressive technology transfer initiative was undertaken to publicize results of this research and make it available to the industry. Included in this effort were an international workshop, trade press releases and articles, and participation in a live teleconference on GCHP technology.

  17. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  18. Lonergan's philosophy as grounding for cross-disciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly, nurses conduct scientific inquiry into complex health-care problems by collaborating on teams with researchers from other highly specialized fields. As cross-disciplinary research proliferates and becomes institutionalized globally, researchers will increasingly encounter the need to integrate their particular research perspectives within inquiries without sacrificing the potential contributions of their discipline-specific expertise. The work of the philosopher Bernard Lonergan (1904–1984) offers the necessary philosophical grounding. Here, I defend a role for philosophy in cross-disciplinary research and present selected ideas in Lonergan's work. These include: (1) a dynamic, normative pattern that each inquirer operates uniquely also forms the common core, or unity, in knowing; (2) the possibility of cross-disciplinary knowledge development is dependent on each researcher's consciousness of her or his attentiveness, intelligence, reasonableness, and responsibleness; and (3) shifts in researchers' viewpoints, or horizons, facilitate their collaborative inquiry and their grasp of the unity in knowing. The desire to know, shared by team members, drives their inquiry. Lonergan's stance is consistent with nursing values because it respects, but does not unconditionally privilege, any researcher or discipline. Arguments support a claim that Lonergan's perspective is well suited to guide nurse researchers participating on cross-disciplinary health research teams.

  19. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  20. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  1. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  2. Global Research Patterns on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio Terenzio; Leucci, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the analysis of worldwide research patterns concerning ground penetrating radar (GPR) during 1995-2014. To do this, the Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and the Social Sciences Citation Index accessed via the Web of Science Core Collection were the two bibliographic databases taken as a reference. We pay attention to the document typology and language, the publication trend and citations, the subject categories and journals, the collaborations between authors, the productivity of the authors, the most cited articles, the countries and the institutions involved, and other hot issues. Concerning the main research subfields involving GPR use, there were five, physical-mathematical, sedimentological-stratigraphical, civil engineering/engineering geology/cultural heritage, hydrological (HD), and glaciological (GL), subfields.

  3. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  4. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  5. [Memorandum IV: Theoretical and Normative Grounding of Health Services Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, W; Farin, E; Menzel-Begemann, A; Meyer, T

    2016-05-01

    With Memoranda and other initiatives, the German Network for Health Service Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e.V. (DNVF)] is fostering the methodological quality of care research studies for years. Compared to the standards of empirical research, questions concerning the role and function of theories, theoretical approaches and scientific principles have not been taken up on its own. Therefore, the DNVF e.V. has set up a working group in 2013, which was commissioned to prepare a memorandum on "theories in health care research". This now presented memorandum will primarily challenge scholars in health care services research to pay more attention to questions concerning the theoretical arsenal and the background assumptions in the research process. The foundation in the philosophy of science, the reference to normative principles and the theory-bases of the research process are addressed. Moreover, the memorandum will call on to advance the theorizing in health services research and to strengthen not empirical approaches, research on basic principles or studies with regard to normative sciences and to incorporate these relevant disciplines in health services research. Research structures and funding of health services research needs more open space for theoretical reflection and for self-observation of their own, multidisciplinary research processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  7. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  8. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  9. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  10. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  11. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...

  12. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  13. Development and use of interactive displays in real-time ground support research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Donald C.; Hammons, Kvin R.; Malone, Jacqueline C.; Nesel, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is one of the world's most advanced aeronautical research flight test support facilities. A variety of advanced and often unique real-time interactive displays has been developed for use in the mission control centers (MCC) to support research flight and ground testing. These dispalys consist of applications operating on systems described as real-time interactive graphics super workstations and real-time interactive PC/AT compatible workstations. This paper reviews these two types of workstations and the specific applications operating on each display system. The applications provide examples that demonstrate overall system capability applicable for use in other ground-based real-time research/test facilities.

  14. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  15. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  16. Wavelet-based ground vehicle recognition using acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Howard C.; Karlsen, Robert E.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Meitzler, Thomas J.

    1996-03-01

    We present, in this paper, a wavelet-based acoustic signal analysis to remotely recognize military vehicles using their sound intercepted by acoustic sensors. Since expedited signal recognition is imperative in many military and industrial situations, we developed an algorithm that provides an automated, fast signal recognition once implemented in a real-time hardware system. This algorithm consists of wavelet preprocessing, feature extraction and compact signal representation, and a simple but effective statistical pattern matching. The current status of the algorithm does not require any training. The training is replaced by human selection of reference signals (e.g., squeak or engine exhaust sound) distinctive to each individual vehicle based on human perception. This allows a fast archiving of any new vehicle type in the database once the signal is collected. The wavelet preprocessing provides time-frequency multiresolution analysis using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Within each resolution level, feature vectors are generated from statistical parameters and energy content of the wavelet coefficients. After applying our algorithm on the intercepted acoustic signals, the resultant feature vectors are compared with the reference vehicle feature vectors in the database using statistical pattern matching to determine the type of vehicle from where the signal originated. Certainly, statistical pattern matching can be replaced by an artificial neural network (ANN); however, the ANN would require training data sets and time to train the net. Unfortunately, this is not always possible for many real world situations, especially collecting data sets from unfriendly ground vehicles to train the ANN. Our methodology using wavelet preprocessing and statistical pattern matching provides robust acoustic signal recognition. We also present an example of vehicle recognition using acoustic signals collected from two different military ground vehicles. In this paper, we will

  17. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  18. The Future of Ground Magnetometer Arrays in Support of Space Weather Monitoring and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2017-11-01

    A community workshop was held in Greenbelt, Maryland, on 5-6 May 2016 to discuss recommendations for the future of ground magnetometer array research in space physics. The community reviewed findings contained in the 2016 Geospace Portfolio Review of the Geospace Section of the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Science of the National Science Foundation and discussed the present state of ground magnetometer arrays and possible pathways for a more optimal, robust, and effective organization and scientific use of these ground arrays. This paper summarizes the report of that workshop to the National Science Foundation (Engebretson & Zesta, as well as conclusions from two follow-up meetings. It describes the current state of U.S.-funded ground magnetometer arrays and summarizes community recommendations for changes in both organizational and funding structures. It also outlines a variety of new and/or augmented regional and global data products and visualizations that can be facilitated by increased collaboration among arrays. Such products will enhance the value of ground-based magnetometer data to the community's effort for understanding of Earth's space environment and space weather effects.

  19. The COROT ground-based archive and access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; González-Riestra, R.; Catala, C.; Baglin, A.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the COROT ground-based archive and access system is presented here. The system has been developed at LAEFF and it is based on the experience gained at Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental (LAEFF) with the INES (IUE Newly Extracted System) Archive.

  20. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    terrains. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), in particular, has been effective for imaging ground ice. ERT measures the ability of materials to...13 2.2.1 Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT...Engineer Research and Development Center ERT Electrical Resistivity Tomography GPS Global Positioning System LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging SIPRE

  1. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  2. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun; Jane Mills; Kim Usher

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meanin...

  3. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  4. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  5. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  6. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics: Vehicle Dynamic Characterization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    subassemblies that would be common on ground vehicles. Powertrain Systems: Gas Powered, Diesel , Turbo Diesel , Gas Turbine, Hybrid: Gas- Electric...PROPULSE (Hybrid Diesel - Electric System with Export Power), Command Zone (integrated vehicle control and diagnostic system), and TerraMax (Unmanned... Diesel -Electric, Series, Parallel. Power Distribution: RWD, FWD, AWD, open diff, LSD, Torsen diff, differential braking (traction control), drive by

  7. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  8. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  9. Textbook research as scientific research: towards a common ground for research on mathematics textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lianghuo

    2011-01-01

    This article explores research issues and methods of textbook research. Drawing on literatures and the author’s own work in the area of mathematics textbook research, it conceptualizes textbooks as an intermediate variable in the context of education and hence defines textbook research as disciplined inquiry into issues about textbooks and the relationships between textbooks and other factors in education. Furthermore, it argues that to further advance the field of textbook research, research...

  10. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  11. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  12. Modal-pushover-based ground-motion scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake engineering is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate the performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. This paper presents a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure to scale ground motions for use in a nonlinear RHA of buildings. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match to a specified tolerance, a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-mode inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by the first-mode pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-mode dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-mode SDF systems in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for three actual buildings-4, 6, and 13-story-the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  13. Base Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett Sondreal; John Hendrikson

    2009-03-31

    In June 2009, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed 11 years of research under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40320 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy (OFE) and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A wide range of diverse research activities were performed under annual program plans approved by NETL in seven major task areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, (6) advanced materials, and (7) strategic studies. This report summarizes results of the 67 research subtasks and an additional 50 strategic studies. Selected highlights in the executive summary illustrate the contribution of the research to the energy industry in areas not adequately addressed by the private sector alone. During the period of performance of the agreement, concerns have mounted over the impact of carbon emissions on climate change, and new programs have been initiated by DOE to ensure that fossil fuel resources along with renewable resources can continue to supply the nation's transportation fuel and electric power. The agreement has addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration while expanding the supply and use of domestic energy resources for energy security. It has further contributed to goals for near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources (e.g., wind-, biomass-, and coal-based electrical generation).

  14. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  15. High energy astrophysics with ground-based gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F; Buckley, J; Kifune, T; Sinnis, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ground-based gamma ray astronomy have led to the discovery of more than 70 sources of very high energy (E γ ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays, falling into a number of source populations including pulsar wind nebulae, shell type supernova remnants, Wolf-Rayet stars, giant molecular clouds, binary systems, the Galactic Center, active galactic nuclei and 'dark' (yet unidentified) galactic objects. We summarize the history of TeV gamma ray astronomy up to the current status of the field including a description of experimental techniques and highlight recent astrophysical results. We also discuss the potential of ground-based gamma ray astronomy for future discoveries and describe possible directions for future instrumental developments

  16. A transit timing analysis with combined ground- and space-based photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raetz St.

    2015-01-01

    The CoRoT satellite looks back on six years of high precision photometry of a very high number of stars. Thousands of transiting events are detected from which 27 were confirmed to be transiting planets so far. In my research I search and analyze TTVs in the CoRoT sample and combine the unprecedented precision of the light curves with ground-based follow-up photometry. Because CoRoT can observe transiting planets only for a maximum duration of 150 days the ground-based follow-up can help to refine the ephemeris. Here we present first examples.

  17. Automatic Barometric Updates from Ground-Based Navigational Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-12

    ro fAutomatic Barometric Updates US Department from of Transportation Ground-Based Federal Aviation Administration Navigational Aids Office of Safety...tighter vertical spacing controls , particularly for operations near Terminal Control Areas (TCAs), Airport Radar Service Areas (ARSAs), military climb and...E.F., Ruth, J.C., and Williges, B.H. (1987). Speech Controls and Displays. In Salvendy, G., E. Handbook of Human Factors/Ergonomics, New York, John

  18. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  19. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  20. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  1. The importance of symbolic interaction in grounded theory research on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, D L

    2001-01-01

    A variety of grounded theory studies are presented in this issue of Health Care for Women International that attend to different factors and situations impacting women's health. In this paper I will provide the basic principles of symbolic interactionism (SI) for the reader unfamiliar with the conceptual underpinnings of the grounded theory research method. I will discuss why SI is a fitting perspective for use in the study of women, women's perspectives, and women's health. I will conclude with a brief discussion of challenges to researchers maintaining the symbolic interaction perspective in grounded theory research.

  2. Developing a Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies (GUREGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna

    2018-01-01

    theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...

  3. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  4. Ground Zero in the Debate over Stem-Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Describes how political, legal, and ethical battles over embryonic stem-cell research are focused on the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where the cells were first isolated. Addresses the issue of access to the university's stem cells and a recent presidential decision regarding funding for stem-cell research.(EV)

  5. School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…

  6. Ground-breaking virtual research in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Buck, Nuka

    2008-01-01

    MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument.......MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument....

  7. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  8. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  9. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  10. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  11. Strong Sporadic E Occurrence Detected by Ground-Based GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Ning, Baiqi; Yue, Xinan; Li, Guozhu; Hu, Lianhuan; Chang, Shoumin; Lan, Jiaping; Zhu, Zhengping; Zhao, Biqiang; Lin, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layer has significant impact on radio wave propagation. The traditional techniques employed for Es layer observation, for example, ionosondes, are not dense enough to resolve the morphology and dynamics of Es layer in spatial distribution. The ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technique is expected to shed light on the understanding of regional strong Es occurrence, owing to the facts that the critical frequency (foEs) of strong Es structure is usually high enough to cause pulse-like disturbances in GNSS total electron content (TEC), and a large number of GNSS receivers have been deployed all over the world. Based on the Chinese ground-based GNSS networks, including the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Beidou Ionospheric Observation Network, a large-scale strong Es event was observed in the middle latitude of China. The strong Es shown as a band-like structure in the southwest-northeast direction extended more than 1,000 km. By making a comparative analysis of Es occurrences identified from the simultaneous observations by ionosondes and GNSS TEC receivers over China middle latitude statistically, we found that GNSS TEC can be well employed to observe strong Es occurrence with a threshold value of foEs, 14 MHz.

  12. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs

  13. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  14. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Boettger, D. [Department of Astronomy, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Cukierman, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Delabrouille, J. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Ducout, A.; Feeney, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feng, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  15. ‘"Education-based Research"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper lays out a concept of education-based research-the production of research knowledge within the framework of tertiary design education-as an integration of problem-based learning and research-based education. This leads to a critique of reflective practice as the primary way to facilitate...... learning at this level, a discussion of the nature of design problems in the instrumentalist tradition, and some suggestions as to how design studies curricula may facilitate education-based research....

  16. The Flipped Classroom: Fertile Ground for Nursing Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean S

    2015-07-16

    In the flipped classroom (FC) students view pre-recorded lectures or complete pre-class assignments to learn foundational concepts. Class time involves problem-solving and application activities that cultivate higher-level cognitive skills. A systematic, analytical literature review was conducted to explore the FC's current state of the science within higher education. Examination of this model's definition and measures of student performance, student and faculty perceptions revealed an ill-defined educational approach. Few studies confirmed FC effectiveness; many lacked rigorous design, randomized samples, or control of extraneous variables. Few researchers conducted longitudinal studies to determine sufficiently trends related to FC practice. This study proves relevant to nurse educators transitioning from traditional teaching paradigms to learner-centered models, and provides insight from faculty teaching across disciplines around the world. It reveals pertinent findings and identifies current knowledge gaps that call for further inquiry.

  17. Csf Based Non-Ground Points Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A.; Zhang, W.; Shi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Region growing is a classical method of point cloud segmentation. Based on the idea of collecting the pixels with similar properties to form regions, region growing is widely used in many fields such as medicine, forestry and remote sensing. In this algorithm, there are two core problems. One is the selection of seed points, the other is the setting of the growth constraints, in which the selection of the seed points is the foundation. In this paper, we propose a CSF (Cloth Simulation Filtering) based method to extract the non-ground seed points effectively. The experiments have shown that this method can obtain a group of seed spots compared with the traditional methods. It is a new attempt to extract seed points

  18. Monitoring Hydraulic Fracturing Using Ground-Based Controlled Source Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.; Trevino, S., III; Everett, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing allows hydrocarbon production in low permeability formations. Imaging the distribution of fluid used to create a hydraulic fracture can aid in the characterization of fracture properties such as extent of plume penetration as well as fracture azimuth and symmetry. This could contribute to improving the efficiency of an operation, for example, in helping to determine ideal well spacing or the need to refracture a zone. A ground-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) technique is ideal for imaging the fluid due to the change in field caused by the difference in the conductive properties of the fluid when compared to the background. With advances in high signal to noise recording equipment, coupled with a high-power, broadband transmitter we can show hydraulic fracture extent and azimuth with minimal processing. A 3D finite element code is used to model the complete well casing along with the layered subsurface. This forward model is used to optimize the survey design and isolate the band of frequencies with the best response. In the field, the results of the modeling are also used to create a custom pseudorandom numeric (PRN) code to control the frequencies transmitted through a grounded dipole source. The receivers record the surface voltage across two grounded dipoles, one parallel and one perpendicular to the transmitter. The data are presented as the displays of amplitude ratios across several frequencies with the associated spatial information. In this presentation, we show multiple field results in multiple basins in the United States along with the CSEM theory used to create the survey designs.

  19. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  20. Research of the Effectiveness of Using Air and Ground Low-grade Heat for Buildings Heating in Different Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on zoning of the Russian Federation based on efficiency of utilization of the low-grade heat of ground and air as well as combinations thereof for heating buildings. When modeling thermal behavior of geothermal HHS in the climatic conditions of various regions of the Russian Federation we considered the effect of long-term recovery of geothermal heat on the thermal behavior of the ground, as well as the effect of the ground pore water phase transitions on the operational efficiency of geothermal heat pump heating systems. The zoning took into account temperature drop of the ground mass caused by many years of heat recovery from the ground. Ground temperatures expected for the 5th year of geothermal HHS operation were used as design ground mass temperatures.

  1. Ground-based observations coordinated with Viking satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Kirkwood, S.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumentation and the orbit of the Viking satellite made this first Swedish satellite mission ideally suited for coordinated observations with the dense network of ground-based stations in northern Scandinavia. Several arrays of complementing instruments such as magnetometers, all-sky cameras, riometers and doppler radars monitored on a routine basis the ionosphere under the magnetospheric region passed by Viking. For a large number of orbits the Viking passages close to Scandinavia were covered by the operation of specially designed programmes at the European incoherent-scatter facility (EISCAT). First results of coordinated observations on the ground and aboard Viking have shed new light on the most spectacular feature of substorm expansion, the westward-travelling surge. The end of a substorm and the associated decay of a westward-travelling surge have been analysed. EISCAT measurements of high spatial and temporal resolution indicate that the conductivities and electric fields associated with westward-travelling surges are not represented correctly by the existing models. (author)

  2. Reconstruction of Sky Illumination Domes from Ground-Based Panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, F.; Lelégard, L.; Brédif, M.; Paparoditis, N.; Briottet, X.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  3. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  4. RECONSTRUCTION OF SKY ILLUMINATION DOMES FROM GROUND-BASED PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coubard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  5. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  6. Satellite and Ground Based Monitoring of Aerosol Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Martin; Dorling, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Plumes of atmospheric aerosol have been studied using a range of satellite and ground-based techniques. The Sea-viewing WideField-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has been used to observe plumes of sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust around the coast of the United Kingdom. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) was retrieved from SeaWiFS for two events; a plume of Saharan dust transported over the United Kingdom from Western Africa and a period of elevated sulphate experienced over the Easternregion of the UK. Patterns of AOT are discussed and related to the synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions. Further observation of the sulphate aerosol event was undertaken using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument(AVHRR). Atmospheric back trajectories and weather conditions were studied in order to identify the meteorological conditions which led to this event. Co-located ground-based measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were obtained for 4sites within the UK and PM 2.5/10 ratios were calculated in order to identify any unusually high or low ratios(indicating the dominant size fraction within the plume)during either of these events. Calculated percentiles ofPM 2.5/10 ratios during the 2 events examined show that these events were notable within the record, but were in noway unique or unusual in the context of a 3 yr monitoring record. Visibility measurements for both episodes have been examined and show that visibility degradation occurred during both the sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust episodes

  7. Introducing the VISAGE project - Visualization for Integrated Satellite, Airborne, and Ground-based data Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Conover, H.; Berendes, T.; Maskey, M.; Naeger, A. R.; Wingo, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    A key component of NASA's Earth observation system is its field experiments, for intensive observation of particular weather phenomena, or for ground validation of satellite observations. These experiments collect data from a wide variety of airborne and ground-based instruments, on different spatial and temporal scales, often in unique formats. The field data are often used with high volume satellite observations that have very different spatial and temporal coverage. The challenges inherent in working with such diverse datasets make it difficult for scientists to rapidly collect and analyze the data for physical process studies and validation of satellite algorithms. The newly-funded VISAGE project will address these issues by combining and extending nascent efforts to provide on-line data fusion, exploration, analysis and delivery capabilities. A key building block is the Field Campaign Explorer (FCX), which allows users to examine data collected during field campaigns and simplifies data acquisition for event-based research. VISAGE will extend FCX's capabilities beyond interactive visualization and exploration of coincident datasets, to provide interrogation of data values and basic analyses such as ratios and differences between data fields. The project will also incorporate new, higher level fused and aggregated analysis products from the System for Integrating Multi-platform data to Build the Atmospheric column (SIMBA), which combines satellite and ground-based observations into a common gridded atmospheric column data product; and the Validation Network (VN), which compiles a nationwide database of coincident ground- and satellite-based radar measurements of precipitation for larger scale scientific analysis. The VISAGE proof-of-concept will target "golden cases" from Global Precipitation Measurement Ground Validation campaigns. This presentation will introduce the VISAGE project, initial accomplishments and near term plans.

  8. Ground measurements of fuel and fuel consumption from experimental and operational prescribed fires at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Andrew T. Hudak

    2014-01-01

    Ground-level measurements of fuel loading, fuel consumption, and fuel moisture content were collected on nine research burns conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida in November, 2012. A grass or grass-shrub fuelbed dominated eight of the research blocks; the ninth was a managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustrus) forest. Fuel loading ranged from 1.7 Mg ha-1 on a...

  9. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  10. Kennedy Space Center: Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan

    2010-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is NASA's spaceport, launching rockets into space and leading important human spaceflight research. This spring semester, I worked at KSC on Constellation Program electrical ground support equipment through NASA's Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP). This report includes a discussion of NASA, KSC, and my individual research project. An analysis of Penn State's preparation of me for an internship and my overall impressions of the Penn State and NASA internship experience conclude the report.

  11. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  12. Vision-based Ground Test for Active Debris Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous space development by mankind, the number of space objects including space debris in orbits around the Earth has increased, and accordingly, difficulties of space development and activities are expected in the near future. In this study, among the stages for space debris removal, the implementation of a vision-based approach technique for approaching space debris from a far-range rendezvous state to a proximity state, and the ground test performance results were described. For the vision-based object tracking, the CAM-shift algorithm with high speed and strong performance, and the Kalman filter were combined and utilized. For measuring the distance to a tracking object, a stereo camera was used. For the construction of a low-cost space environment simulation test bed, a sun simulator was used, and in the case of the platform for approaching, a two-dimensional mobile robot was used. The tracking status was examined while changing the position of the sun simulator, and the results indicated that the CAM-shift showed a tracking rate of about 87% and the relative distance could be measured down to 0.9 m. In addition, considerations for future space environment simulation tests were proposed.

  13. Long term landslide monitoring with Ground Based SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Luzi, Guido; Gili, Josep; Moya, Jose; Corominas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Ground-Based (GBSAR) has proven to be a reliable microwave Remote Sensing technique in several application fields, especially for unstable slopes monitoring. GBSAR can provide displacement measurements over few squared kilometres areas and with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. This work is focused on the use of GBSAR technique for long term landslide monitoring based on a particular data acquisition configuration, which is called discontinuous GBSAR (D-GBSAR). In the most commonly used GBSAR configuration, the radar is left installed in situ, acquiring data periodically, e.g. every few minutes. Deformations are estimated by processing sets of GBSAR images acquired during several weeks or months, without moving the system. By contrast, in the D-GBSAR the radar is installed and dismounted at each measurement campaign, revisiting a given site periodically. This configuration is useful to monitor slow deformation phenomena. In this work, two alternative ways for exploiting the D-GBSAR technique will be presented: the DInSAR technique and the Amplitude based Technique. The former is based on the exploitation of the phase component of the acquired SAR images and it allows providing millimetric precision on the deformation estimates. However, this technique presents several limitations like the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component that can make it non applicable in some cases, specially when working in natural environments. The second approach, that is based on the use of the amplitude component of GB-SAR images combined with a image matching technique, will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets avoiding two of the limitations commented above: the phase unwrapping and atmosphere contribution but reducing the deformation measurement precision. Two successful examples of D

  14. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  15. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  16. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  17. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  18. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. A project on research stage of investigating prediction from ground surface. Project report at fiscal year of 2000 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This was a detailed plan after fiscal year 2000 on the first stage of the Research stage at investigating prediction from ground surface' in three researches carried out at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) according to the 'Basic plan on research of underground science at MIU', based on progress of investigation and research before fiscal year 1999. This project contains following three items as its general targets; establishment of general investigating techniques for geological environment, collection of informations on deep underground environment, and development on foundation of engineering technology at super-deep underground. And, targets at investigating prediction stage from ground surface contain acquisition of geological environment data through investigations from ground surface to predict changes of the environment accompanied with underground geological environment and construction of experimental tunnel, to determine evaluating method on prediction results, and to determine plannings of an investigating stage accompanied with excavation of the tunnel by carrying out detail design of the tunnel. Here were introduced about results and problems on the investigation of the first phase, the integration of investigating results, and the investigation and researches on geology/geological structure, hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater, mechanical properties of rocks, and the mass transfer. (G.K.)

  19. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  20. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  1. A design for a ground-based data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  2. Ground-Based Correction of Remote-Sensing Spectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder-Golden, Steven M.; Rochford, Peter; Matthew, Michael; Berk, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Software has been developed for an improved method of correcting for the atmospheric optical effects (primarily, effects of aerosols and water vapor) in spectral images of the surface of the Earth acquired by airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing instruments. In this method, the variables needed for the corrections are extracted from the readings of a radiometer located on the ground in the vicinity of the scene of interest. The software includes algorithms that analyze measurement data acquired from a shadow-band radiometer. These algorithms are based on a prior radiation transport software model, called MODTRAN, that has been developed through several versions up to what are now known as MODTRAN4 and MODTRAN5 . These components have been integrated with a user-friendly Interactive Data Language (IDL) front end and an advanced version of MODTRAN4. Software tools for handling general data formats, performing a Langley-type calibration, and generating an output file of retrieved atmospheric parameters for use in another atmospheric-correction computer program known as FLAASH have also been incorporated into the present soft-ware. Concomitantly with the soft-ware described thus far, there has been developed a version of FLAASH that utilizes the retrieved atmospheric parameters to process spectral image data.

  3. Use of ground-based wind profiles in mesoscale forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent uses of ground-based wind profile data in mesoscale forecasting. Some of the applications are in real time, and some are after the fact. Not all of the work mentioned here has been published yet, but references are given wherever possible. As Gage and Balsley (1978) point out, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to examine tropospheric wind profiles since the 1970's. It was not until the early 1980's, however, that the potential contribution of these instruments to operational forecasting and numerical weather prediction became apparent. Profiler winds and radiosonde winds compare favorably, usually within a few m/s in speed and 10 degrees in direction (see Hogg et al., 1983), but the obvious advantage of the profiler is its frequent (hourly or more often) sampling of the same volume. The rawinsonde balloon is launched only twice a day and drifts with the wind. In this paper, I will: (1) mention two operational uses of data from a wind profiling system developed jointly by the Wave Propagation and Aeronomy Laboratories of NOAA; (2) describe a number of displays of these same data on a workstation for mesoscale forecasting developed by the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS); and (3) explain some interesting diagnostic calculations performed by meteorologists of the Wave Propagation Laboratory.

  4. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space Station) and thyroid cancer cells (SimBox/Shenzhou-8 space mission). The experiments enabled by the ESA-CORA-GBF programme gave us an optimal opportunity to study gravity-related cellular processes, validate ground-based facilities for our chosen cell system, and prepare long-term experiments under real microgravity conditions in space

  5. Ground-based detection of G star superflares with NGTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, James A. G.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pugh, Chloe E.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Gillen, Edward; Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Armstrong, David J.; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Chaushev, Alexander; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Goad, Michael R.; Grange, Andrew; Günther, Maximilian N.; Jenkins, James S.; McCormac, James; Raynard, Liam; Thompson, Andrew P. G.; Udry, Stéphane; Walker, Simon; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.

    2018-04-01

    We present high cadence detections of two superflares from a bright G8 star (V = 11.56) with the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS). We improve upon previous superflare detections by resolving the flare rise and peak, allowing us to fit a solar flare inspired model without the need for arbitrary break points between rise and decay. Our data also enables us to identify substructure in the flares. From changing starspot modulation in the NGTS data we detect a stellar rotation period of 59 hours, along with evidence for differential rotation. We combine this rotation period with the observed ROSAT X-ray flux to determine that the star's X-ray activity is saturated. We calculate the flare bolometric energies as 5.4^{+0.8}_{-0.7}× 10^{34}and 2.6^{+0.4}_{-0.3}× 10^{34}erg and compare our detections with G star superflares detected in the Kepler survey. We find our main flare to be one of the largest amplitude superflares detected from a bright G star. With energies more than 100 times greater than the Carrington event, our flare detections demonstrate the role that ground-based instruments such as NGTS can have in assessing the habitability of Earth-like exoplanets, particularly in the era of PLATO.

  6. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  7. Investigating Ground Swarm Robotics Using Agent Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Sze-Tek T

    2006-01-01

    The concept of employing ground swarm robotics to accomplish tasks has been proposed for future use in humanitarian de-mining, plume monitoring, searching for survivors in a disaster site, and other hazardous activities...

  8. Research progress in mutational effects of aerospace on crop and ground simulation on aerospace environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing; Zhao Linshu; Guo Huijun; Zhao Shirong; Zheng Qicheng; Yang Juncheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of aerospace botany research in aboard was briefly introduced. The research progress of mutational effects of aerospace on crop seed and its application in germplasm enhancement and new variety development by using recoverable satellite techniques in China has been reviewed. The approaches and its experimental advances of ground simulation on aerospace environmental factors were analyzed at different angles of particle biology, physical field biology and gravity biology

  9. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level-set-based

  10. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  11. Grounded theory, a kvalitatív kutatás klasszikus mérföldköve (Grounded theory, the classic milestone of qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitev, Ariel Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory olyan kutatási módszer, ahol az elmélet az empirikus adatokból fejlődik ki és abban gyökerezik (Glaser - Strauss, 1967). Annak ellenére, hogy a módszer nemzetközileg rendkívül népszerű, a grounded theory nem igazán vert gyökeret a hazai menedzsment- és marketingkutatás talajában. A cikk célja a grounded theory kulcsfontosságú mozzanatainak bemutatása és a módszer népszerűsítése. / === / Grounded theory is a research method in which theory emerges from the data and is grounde...

  12. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as

  13. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  15. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel

  16. Development of a Ground Test Concept Based on Multi-Rotors for In-Flight RVD Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Linux Real-Time work station • Ad-Hoc WiFi internal network for data streaming • High pressure air compressor and compressed air filling station. 12... Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research European Office of Aerospace Research and Development Unit 4515, APO...of screws and nuts, • the same rod is connected to a structure with a base on ground. 6 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is

  17. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...

  18. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatani, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  20. New frontiers in ground-based optical astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Steve

    1991-07-01

    Technological advances made in telescope designs during 1980's are outlined, including a segmented primary mirror for a 10-m telescope, new mirror-figuring techniques, and control systems based on computers and electronics. A new detector technology employing CCD's and advances in high-resolution telescopes are considered, along with such areas of research ready for major advances given new observing tools as the origin of large-scale structures in the universe, the creation and evolution of galaxies, and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Attention is focused on circumstellar disks, dust veils, jets, and brown dwarfs.

  1. New frontiers in ground-based optical astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, S.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances made in telescope designs during 1980's are outlined, including a segmented primary mirror for a 10-m telescope, new mirror-figuring techniques, and control systems based on computers and electronics. A new detector technology employing CCD's and advances in high-resolution telescopes are considered, along with such areas of research ready for major advances given new observing tools as the origin of large-scale structures in the universe, the creation and evolution of galaxies, and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Attention is focused on circumstellar disks, dust veils, jets, and brown dwarfs

  2. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  3. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  4. Review of commonly used remote sensing and ground-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of the use of remote sensing data, the development of spectral reflectance indices for detecting plant water stress, and the usefulness of field measurements for ground-truthing purposes. Reliable measurements of plant water stress over large areas are often required for management ...

  5. Large antennas for ground-based astronomy above 1 THz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Guesten, R.; Holland, W. S.; Ivison, R.; Stacey, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    In its history astronomy has continuously expanded access to new wavelength regions both from space and on the ground. Today, one of the few unexplored regimes is the terahertz (THz) frequency range, more specifically above 1 THz (< lambda 300 mum). Astronomical observations above 1 THz are

  6. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  7. Ground Motion Prediction Trends For Eastern North America Based on the Next Generation Attenuation East Ground Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Kutliroff, J.; Dangkua, D.

    2010-12-01

    A five-year Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) East project to develop new ground motion prediction equations for stable continental regions (SCRs), including eastern North America (ENA), has begun at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The initial effort focused on database design and collection of appropriate M>4 ENA broadband and accelerograph records to populate the database. Ongoing work has focused on adding records from smaller ENA earthquakes and from other SCRs such as Europe, Australia, and India. Currently, over 6500 horizontal and vertical component records from 60 ENA earthquakes have been collected and prepared (instrument response removed, filtering to acceptable-signal band, determining peak and spectral parameter values, quality assurance, etc.) for the database. Geologic Survey of Canada (GSC) strong motion recordings, previously not available, have also been added to the NGA East database. The additional earthquakes increase the number of ground motion recordings in the 10 - 100 km range, particularly from the 2008 M5.2 Mt. Carmel, IL event, and the 2005 M4.7 Riviere du Loup and 2010 M5.0 Val des Bois earthquakes in Quebec, Canada. The goal is to complete the ENA database and make it available in 2011 followed by a SCR database in 2012. Comparisons of ground motion observations from four recent M5 ENA earthquakes with current ENA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) suggest that current GMPEs, as a group, reasonably agree with M5 observations at short periods, particularly at distances less than 200 km. However, at one second, current GMPEs over predict M5 ground motion observations. The 2001 M7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake provides some constraint at large magnitudes, as geology and regional attenuation is analogous to ENA. Cramer and Kumar, 2003, have

  8. Methane Emissions from Bangladesh: Bridging the Gap Between Ground-based and Space-borne Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.; Bennartz, R.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Gaining an understanding of methane (CH4) emission sources and atmospheric dispersion is an essential part of climate change research. Large-scale and global studies often rely on satellite observations of column CH4 mixing ratio whereas high-spatial resolution estimates rely on ground-based measurements. Extrapolation of ground-based measurements on, for example, rice paddies to broad region scales is highly uncertain because of spatio-temporal variability. We explore the use of ground-based river stage measurements and independent satellite observations of flooded area along with satellite measurements of CH4 mixing ratio to estimate the extent of methane emissions. Bangladesh, which comprises most of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) delta, is a region of particular interest for studying spatio-temporal variation of methane emissions due to (1) broadscale rice cultivation and (2) seasonal flooding and atmospheric convection during the monsoon. Bangladesh and its deltaic landscape exhibit a broad range of environmental, economic, and social circumstances that are relevant to many nations in South and Southeast Asia. We explore the seasonal enhancement of CH4 in Bangladesh using passive remote sensing spectrometer CH4 products from the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The seasonal variation of CH4 is compared to independent estimates of seasonal flooding from water gauge stations and space-based passive microwave water-to-land fractions from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM-TMI). Annual cycles in inundation (natural and anthropogenic) and atmospheric CH4 concentrations show highly correlated seasonal signals. NOAA's HYSPLIT model is used to determine atmospheric residence time of ground CH4 fluxes. Using the satellite observations, we can narrow the large uncertainty in extrapolation of ground-based CH4 emission estimates from rice paddies

  9. Ground-Based Observations and Modeling of the Visibility and Radar Reflectivity in a Radiation Fog Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, R.; Baltink, K.H.; Hemink, H.J.; Bosveld, F.C.; Moerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a radiation fog layer at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research(51.97°N, 4.93°E) on 23 March 2011 was observed with ground-based in situ and remote sensing observationsto investigate the relationship between visibility and radar reflectivity. The fog layer thickness

  10. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. A detrimental soil disturbance prediction model for ground-based timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick A. Reeves; Matthew C. Reeves; Ann M. Abbott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected during ground-based harvest operations and site preparation. The degree of impact varies widely depending on topographic features and soil properties. Forest managers who understand site-specific limits to ground-based harvesting can alter harvest method or season to limit soil disturbance. To determine the...

  12. NO2 DOAS measurements from ground and space: comparison of ground based measurements and OMI data in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The combination of satellite data and ground based measurements can provide valuable information about atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In this work we present a comparison between measured ground based NO2 differential columns at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City, using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and NO2 total columns measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite using the same measurement technique. From these data, distribution maps of average NO2 above the Mexico basin were constructed and hot spots inside the city could be identified. In addition, a clear footprint was detected from the Tula industrial area, ~50 km northwest of Mexico City, where a refinery, a power plant and other industries are located. A less defined footprint was identified in the Cuernavaca basin, South of Mexico City, and the nearby cities of Toluca and Puebla do not present strong enhancements in the NO2 total columns. With this study we expect to cross-validate space and ground measurements and provide useful information for future studies.

  13. Decision making process and factors contributing to research participation among general practitioners: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Lee, Ping Yein; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Khoo, Ee Ming; Tahir, Noor Azizah; Idris, Iliza; Ismail, Mastura; Abdullah, Adina

    2018-01-01

    The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs' decision-making process to participate in research. We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels. The GPs' decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs' decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs' participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs' confidence in taking part in future research. The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs' social

  14. An In Depth Look at Lightning Trends in Hurricane Harvey using Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhausen, J.

    2017-12-01

    This research combines satellite measurements of lightning in Hurricane Harvey with ground-based lightning measurements to get a better sense of the total lightning occurring in the hurricane, both intra-cloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG), and how it relates to the intensification and weakening of the tropical system. Past studies have looked at lightning trends in hurricanes using the space based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) or ground-based lightning detection networks. However, both of these methods have drawbacks. For instance, LIS was in low earth orbit, which limited lightning observations to 90 seconds for a particular point on the ground; hence, continuous lightning coverage of a hurricane was not possible. Ground-based networks can have a decreased detection efficiency, particularly for ICs, over oceans where hurricanes generally intensify. With the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the GOES-16 satellite, researchers can study total lightning continuously over the lifetime of a tropical cyclone. This study utilizes GLM to investigate total lightning activity in Hurricane Harvey temporally; this is augmented with spatial analysis relative to hurricane structure, similar to previous studies. Further, GLM and ground-based network data are combined using Bayesian techniques in a new manner to leverage the strengths of each detection method. This methodology 1) provides a more complete estimate of lightning activity and 2) enables the derivation of the IC:CG ratio (Z-ratio) throughout the time period of the study. In particular, details of the evolution of the Z-ratio in time and space are presented. In addition, lightning stroke spatiotemporal trends are compared to lightning flash trends. This research represents a new application of lightning data that can be used in future study of tropical cyclone intensification and weakening.

  15. A Ground-based validation of GOSAT-observed atmospheric CO2 in Inner-Mongolian grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, X; Lei, L; Zeng, Z; Kawasaki, M; Oohasi, M

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to global warming. Long-term and continuous measurements of atmospheric CO 2 to investigate its global distribution and concentration variations are important for accurately understanding its potential climatic effects. Satellite measurements from space can offer atmospheric CO 2 data for climate change research. For that, ground-based measurements are required for validation and improving the precision of satellite-measured CO 2 . We implemented observation experiment of CO 2 column densities in the Xilinguole grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China, using a ground-based measurement system, which mainly consists of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), a sun tracker and a notebook controller. Measurements from our ground-based system were analyzed and compared with those from the Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT). The ground-based measurements had an average value of 389.46 ppm, which was 2.4 ppm larger than from GOSAT, with a standard deviation of 3.4 ppm. This result is slightly larger than the difference between GOSAT and the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). This study highlights the usefulness of the ground-based OSA measurement system for analyzing atmospheric CO 2 column densities, which is expected to supplement the current TCCON network

  16. Sujeito, sociedade e linguagem: uma reflexão sobre as bases teóricas da pesquisa com narrativas biográficas = Subject, society and language: a reflection on the theoretical grounds of biographic narratives research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanton, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O foco deste artigo é o esclarecimento de alguns dos principais conceitos utilizados pelo método das narrativas biográficas. Ainda que esta metodologia seja utilizada amplamente, as suas bases teóricas ainda não parecem ter sido sistematicamente elaboradas. Nesse sentido, os objetivos deste artigo são os seguintes: [i] desenvolver o método de entrevista narrativa e o método de análise de narrativas biográficas criado por Fritz Schütze; [ii] esclarecer algumas das teses teóricas que tal autor assume, no que diz respeito à tarefa da sociologia e de seu(s objeto(s de estudo, a partir dos conceitos de sujeito, sociedade e linguagem; [iii] explorar as influências da matriz teórica da sociologia fenomenológica de Alfred Schutz na metodologia de Schütze e realizar uma comparação entre ambas. Concluimos afirmando que a sociologia fenomenológica não pode ser considerada a única matriz teórica que fundamenta a metodologia de Schütze, o que aponta para novos questionamentos

  17. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  18. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  19. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  20. Space- and ground-based particle physics meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The fourth international conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (SpacePart12) will take place at CERN from 5 to 7 November. The conference will bring together scientists working on particle and fundamental physics in space and on ground, as well as space policy makers from around the world.   One hundred years after Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays using hot air balloons, the experimental study of particle and fundamental physics is still being pursued today with extremely sophisticated techniques: on the ground, with state-of-the-art accelerators like the LHC; and in space, with powerful observatories that probe, with amazing accuracy, the various forms of cosmic radiation, charged and neutral, which are messengers of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy. SpacePart12 will be the opportunity for participants to exchange views on the progress of space-related science and technology programmes in the field of particle and fundamental physics in space. SpacePar...

  1. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  2. A novel technique for extracting clouds base height using ground based imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The height of a cloud in the atmospheric column is a key parameter in its characterization. Several remote sensing techniques (passive and active, either ground-based or on space-borne platforms and in-situ measurements are routinely used in order to estimate top and base heights of clouds. In this article we present a novel method that combines thermal imaging from the ground and sounded wind profile in order to derive the cloud base height. This method is independent of cloud types, making it efficient for both low boundary layer and high clouds. In addition, using thermal imaging ensures extraction of clouds' features during daytime as well as at nighttime. The proposed technique was validated by comparison to active sounding by ceilometers (which is a standard ground based method, to lifted condensation level (LCL calculations, and to MODIS products obtained from space. As all passive remote sensing techniques, the proposed method extracts only the height of the lowest cloud layer, thus upper cloud layers are not detected. Nevertheless, the information derived from this method can be complementary to space-borne cloud top measurements when deep-convective clouds are present. Unlike techniques such as LCL, this method is not limited to boundary layer clouds, and can extract the cloud base height at any level, as long as sufficient thermal contrast exists between the radiative temperatures of the cloud and its surrounding air parcel. Another advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity and modest power needs, making it particularly suitable for field measurements and deployment at remote locations. Our method can be further simplified for use with visible CCD or CMOS camera (although nighttime clouds will not be observed.

  3. Review: Franz Breuer with Assistance of Barbara Dieris and Antje Lettau (2009. Reflexive Grounded Theory. Eine Einführung für die Forschungspraxis [Reflexive Grounded Theory: An Introduction to Research Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Da Rin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This textbook by Franz BREUER, produced with the assistance of Barbara DIERIS and Antje LETTAU, is of interest more for the introduction it provides to reflexive research praxis than to grounded theory methodology. This means the subjectivity of the researcher is included in the research process as a decisive source of cognition. Reflexive grounded theory methodology is characterized by three elements that also structure the textbook. In the present review, I focus on two of these in detail: the approach to the research field based on ethnography, particular its epistemological prerequisites, and the inclusion of (self- reflexivity. The latter points to questions that are addressed at the end of this review. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002140

  4. Intercomparison of ground based and satellite pictures of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.D.; Epstein, G.L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Neupert, W.M.; Thomas, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Using NASA facilities in space (OSO-7) and on the ground (Goddard Multi-Channel Spectrophotometer at Sacramento Peak, New Mexico) an active region has been mapped and by combining these ultraviolet, X-ray and visible data, a physical picture of this structured region has been constructed from the photosphere to the corona, corresponding to temperature regimes over the range 4500 K to 4 000 000 K. The morphology of the active region was then studied by comparing grey-shaded images in which fine details stand out more clearly than in the contour plots. One result of the study is that gross similarities persist from the low photosphere up to high in the transition region while some changes occur in the corona. (Auth.)

  5. Ground-based spectral measurements of solar radiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Keizo; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Goto, Ryozo; Yamauchi, Toyotaro

    1979-01-01

    A newly designed spectro-pyranometer was used for the measurement of the global (direct + diffuse) and the diffuse sky radiation reaching the ground. By the subtraction of the diffuse component from the global radiation, we got the direct radiation component which leads to the spectral distribution of the optical thickness (extinction coefficient) of the turbid atmosphere. The measurement of the diffuse sky radiation reveals the scattering effect of aerosols and that of the global radiation allows the estimation of total attenuation caused by scattering and absorption of aerosols. The effects of the aerosols are represented by the deviation of the real atmosphere measured from the Rayleigh atmosphere. By the combination of the measured values with those obtained by theoretical calculation for the model atmosphere, we estimated the amount of absorption by the aerosols. Very strong absorption in the ultraviolet region was recognized. (author)

  6. Modelling of Surface Fault Structures Based on Ground Magnetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, A.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Leka confines the exposure of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC) which contains mantle and crustal rocks and provides a rare opportunity to study the magnetic properties and response of these formations. The LOC is comprised of five rock units: (1) harzburgite that is strongly deformed, shifting into an increasingly olivine-rich dunite (2) ultramafic cumulates with layers of olivine, chromite, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. These cumulates are overlain by (3) metagabbros, which are cut by (4) metabasaltic dykes and (5) pillow lavas (Furnes et al. 1988). Over the course of three field seasons a detailed ground-magnetic survey was made over the island covering all units of the LOC and collecting samples from 109 sites for magnetic measurements. NRM, susceptibility, density and hysteresis properties were measured. In total 66% of samples with a Q value > 1, suggests that the magnetic anomalies should include both induced and remanent components in the model.This Ophiolite originated from a suprasubduction zone near the coast of Laurentia (497±2 Ma), was obducted onto Laurentia (≈460 Ma) and then transferred to Baltica during the Caledonide Orogeny (≈430 Ma). The LOC was faulted, deformed and serpentinized during these events. The gabbro and ultramafic rocks are separated by a normal fault. The dominant magnetic anomaly that crosses the island correlates with this normal fault. There are a series of smaller scale faults that are parallel to this and some correspond to local highs that can be highlighted by a tilt derivative of the magnetic data. These fault boundaries which are well delineated by the distinct magnetic anomalies in both ground and aeromagnetic survey data are likely caused by increased amount of serpentinization of the ultramafic rocks in the fault areas.

  7. Multisatellite and ground-based observations of transient ULF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Takahashi, K.; Erlandson, R.E.; Luehr, H.; Marklund, G.T.; Block, L.P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lepping, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A unique alignment of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) CCE and Viking satellites with respect to the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross has provided an opportunity to study transient ULF pulsations associated with variations in solar wind plasma density observed by the IMP 8 satellite. These observations were acquired during a relatively quiet period on April 24, 1986, during the Polar Region and Outer Magnetosphere International Study (PROMIS) period. An isolated 4-mHz (4-min period) pulsation was detected on the ground which was associated with transverse magnetic field oscillations observed by Viking at a ∼ 2-R E altitude above the auroral zone and by CCE at ∼ 8-R E in the equatorial plane on nearly the same flux tube. CCE detected a compressional oscillation in the magnetic field with twice the period (∼ 10 min) of the transverse waves, and with a waveform nearly identical to an isolated oscillation in the solar wind plasma density measured by IMP 8. The authors conclude that the isolated 10-min oscillation in solar wind plasma density produced magnetic field compression oscillations inside the magnetosphere at the same frequency which also enhanced resonant oscillations at approximately twice the frequency that were already present. The ground magnetic field variations are due to ionospheric Hall currents driven by the electric field of the standing Alfven waves. The time delay between surface and satellite data acquired at different local times supports the conclusion that the periodic solar wind density variation excites a tailward traveling large-scale magnetosphere wave train which excites local field line resonant oscillations. They conclude that these transient magnetic field variations are not associated with magnetic field reconnection or flux transfer events

  8. Large scale seismic test research at Hualien site in Taiwan. Results of site investigation and characterization of the foundation ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro; Kokusho, Takeharu; Nishi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    An international joint research program called ''HLSST'' is under way. Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) is to be conducted to investigate Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) during large earthquakes in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the excavated gravelly ground, and the backfill material of crushed stones was placed around the model plant. The model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumented to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after the base excavation, after the structure construction and after the backfilling. Main results are as follows. (1) The distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil are measured by various techniques including penetration tests and PS-logging and it found that the shear wave velocities (Vs) change clearly and it depends on changing overburden pressures during the construction process. (2) Measuring Vs in the surrounding soils, it found that the Vs is smaller than that at almost same depth in the farther location. Discussion is made further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (author)

  9. Education and Public Outreach for MSFC's Ground-Based Observations in Support of the HESSI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Newton, Elizabeth K.

    1999-01-01

    A primary focus of NASA is the advancement of science and the communication of these advances to a number of audiences, both within the science research community and outside it. The upcoming High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission and the MSFC ground-based observing program, provide an excellent opportunity to communicate our knowledge of the Sun, its cycle of activity, the role of magnetic fields in that activity, and its effect on our planet. In addition to ground-based support of the HESSI mission, MSFC's Solar Observatory, located in North Alabama, will involve students and the local education community in its day-to-day operations, an experience which is more immediate, personal, and challenging than their everyday educational experience. Further, by taking advantage of the Internet, our program can reach beyond the immediate community. By joining with Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, Georgia, we will leverage their almost 30 years'experience in science program delivery in diverse situations to a distance learning opportunity which can encompass the entire Southeast and beyond. This poster will outline our education and public outreach plans in support of the HESSI mission in which we will target middle and high school students and their teachers.

  10. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  11. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  12. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  13. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  15. Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based, Long-slit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996-12-08

    Dec 8, 1996 ... Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based,. Long-slit .... Figure 1 plots spectra from the 2-D array, after instrumental calibration and before correction for ..... which would merit attention and a better understanding.

  16. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  17. Chasing Small Exoplanets with Ground-Based Near-Infrared Transit Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, K. D.; Barentsen, G.; Vinicius, Z.; Vanderburg, A.; Coughlin, J.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Barclay, T.; Quintana, E.

    2017-11-01

    I will present results from a ground-based survey to measure the infrared radius and other properties of small K2 exoplanets and candidates. The survey is preparation for upcoming discoveries from TESS and characterization with JWST.

  18. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motenko, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motenko, R.G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geocryology; Grechishcheva, E.S. [Fundamentproek, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Ethical issues in bipolar disorders pedigree research: privacy concerns, informed consent, and grounds for waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S

    2002-02-01

    Focusing on bipolar disorders research, this article considers ethical issues of informed consent and privacy arising in genetic pedigree research at two stages: the construction of tentative pedigrees to determine family eligibility for study and, subsequently, the enrollment of subjects in and conduct of the family study. Increasing concern to protect the privacy of family members of primary subjects or probands, following ethical controversy over a survey study at Virginia Commonwealth University, has led some researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to apply informed consent requirements to those represented on a tentative pedigree at the initial stage of research. This article analyzes the possible benefits, risks, and burdens to prospective subjects of seeking prospective consent for pedigree construction at this initial stage. It argues that the likely risk-benefit ratio favors granting a waiver of consent requirements for this stage of pedigree research and presents grounds for IRBs to grant such a waiver. The article closes by considering particular ethical concerns that should be addressed in the informed consent discussion when enrolling subjects in pedigree studies of bipolar disorder, including concerns about subjects' competence to consent, management of interim and incidental findings, and issues particular to psychiatric research.

  1. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  2. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  3. Ground based mobile isotopic methane measurements in the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, B. H.; Rella, C.; Petron, G.; Sherwood, O.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Schwietzke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased development of unconventional oil and gas resources in North America has given rise to attempts to monitor and quantify fugitive emissions of methane from the industry. Emission estimates of methane from oil and gas basins can vary significantly from one study to another as well as from EPA or State estimates. New efforts are aimed at reconciling bottom-up, or inventory-based, emission estimates of methane with top-down estimates based on atmospheric measurements from aircraft, towers, mobile ground-based vehicles, and atmospheric models. Attributing airborne measurements of regional methane fluxes to specific sources is informed by ground-based measurements of methane. Stable isotopic measurements (δ13C) of methane help distinguish between emissions from the O&G industry, Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFO), and landfills, but analytical challenges typically limit meaningful isotopic measurements to individual point sampling. We are developing a toolbox to use δ13CH4 measurements to assess the partitioning of methane emissions for regions with multiple methane sources. The method was applied to the Denver-Julesberg Basin. Here we present data from continuous isotopic measurements obtained over a wide geographic area by using MegaCore, a 1500 ft. tube that is constantly filled with sample air while driving, then subsequently analyzed at slower rates using cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). Pressure, flow and calibration are tightly controlled allowing precise attribution of methane enhancements to their point of collection. Comparisons with point measurements are needed to confirm regional values and further constrain flux estimates and models. This effort was made in conjunction with several major field campaigns in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2014, including FRAPPÉ (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment), DISCOVER-AQ, and the Air Water Gas NSF Sustainability Research Network at the University of Colorado.

  4. Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y

    2018-06-01

    Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  5. From the high ground to the swamp: A model for immersive journalism research

    OpenAIRE

    Niblock, S

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a reflexive, praxis-based methodology for conducting journalism research from a practitioner-academic perspective. Journalism research methods that are interactive, iterative and which rest on a dynamic communicative partnership between academics and practitioners, offer the best way for understanding change in our dynamic field. This permits the researcher to coalesce and strengthen their identity as a practitioner-academic and develop research projects that are mutuall...

  6. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  7. New efforts using helicopter-borne and ground based electromagnetics for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Siemon, B.; Noell, U.; Gutzmer, J.; Spitzer, K.; Becken, M.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the last decades mineral resources, especially rare earth elements, gained a steadily growing importance in industry and therefore as well in exploration. New targets for mineral investigations came into focus and known sources have been and will be revisited. Since most of the mining for mineral resources in the past took place in the upper hundred metres below surface new techniques made deeper mining economically feasible. Consequently, mining engineers need the best possible knowledge about the full spatial extent of prospective geological structures, including their maximum depths. Especially in Germany and Europe, politics changed in terms not to rely only on the global mineral trade market but on national resources, if available. BGR and partners therefore started research programs on different levels to evaluate and develop new technologies on environmental friendly, non-invasive spatial exploration using airborne and partly ground-based electromagnetic methods. Mining waste heaps have been explored for valuable residual minerals (research project ROBEHA), a promising tin bearing ore body is being explored by airborne electromagnetics (research project E3) and a new airborne technology is aimed at to be able to reach investigation depths of about 1 km (research project DESMEX). First results of the projects ROBEHA and E3 will be presented and the project layout of DESMEX will be discussed.

  8. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  9. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  10. Knowledge-Base Application to Ground Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adve, R

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year in-house effort to apply knowledge-base control techniques and advanced Space-Time Adaptive Processing algorithms to improve detection performance and false alarm...

  11. Sequential Ground Motion Effects on the Behavior of a Base-Isolated RCC Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequential ground motion effects on the dynamic responses of reinforced concrete containment (RCC buildings with typical isolators are studied in this paper. Although the base isolation technique is developed to guarantee the security and integrity of RCC buildings under single earthquakes, seismic behavior of base-isolated RCC buildings under sequential ground motions is deficient. Hence, an ensemble of as-recorded sequential ground motions is employed to study the effect of including aftershocks on the seismic evaluation of base-isolated RCC buildings. The results indicate that base isolation can significantly attenuate the earthquake shaking of the RCC building under not only single earthquakes but also seismic sequences. It is also found that the adverse aftershock effect on the RCC can be reduced due to the base isolation applied to the RCC. More importantly, the study indicates that disregarding aftershocks can induce significant underestimation of the isolator displacement for base-isolated RCC buildings.

  12. The tourism encounter in community-based tourism in Northern Thailand: empty meeting ground or space for change?

    OpenAIRE

    Dolezal, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    "This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT) in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell's (1992) idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978), two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism enc...

  13. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    experimental data. The estimated time before a rollover differs from the experimental value by 2,7%. The relative error of other modelled characteristics of LNG does not exceed 2,5%.Conclusions are drawn on the possibility to use the technique based on the thermodynamics equations of irreversible processes in a binary methane-ethane mixture to forecast working parameters of LNG storages operation as a part of the ground complexes equipment. The techniques to except the rollover mode can be based on keeping a stable LNG composition in the storage and arranging the fuel mixing when performing operations of storage refill and its draining from rocket fuel tanks at start cancellation.

  14. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols using Ground-based Multiwavelength Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Thorsen, T. J.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Burton, S. P.; Goldsmith, J.; Holz, R.; Kuehn, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Marais, W.; Newsom, R. K.; Liu, X.; Sawamura, P.; Holben, B. N.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties are critical for developing and evaluating aerosol transport model parameterizations and assessing global aerosol-radiation impacts on climate. During the Combined HSRL And Raman lidar Measurement Study (CHARMS), we investigated the synergistic use of ground-based Raman lidar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements to retrieve aerosol properties aloft. Continuous (24/7) operation of these co-located lidars during the ten-week CHARMS mission (mid-July through September 2015) allowed the acquisition of a unique, multiwavelength ground-based lidar dataset for studying aerosol properties above the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The ARM Raman lidar measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 355 nm as well as profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and temperature. The University of Wisconsin HSRL simultaneously measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 532 nm and aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm. Recent advances in both lidar retrieval theory and algorithm development demonstrate that vertically-resolved retrievals using such multiwavelength lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction can help constrain both the aerosol optical (e.g. complex refractive index, scattering, etc.) and microphysical properties (e.g. effective radius, concentrations) as well as provide qualitative aerosol classification. Based on this work, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) HSRL group developed automated algorithms for classifying and retrieving aerosol optical and microphysical properties, demonstrated these retrievals using data from the unique NASA/LaRC airborne multiwavelength HSRL-2 system, and validated the results using coincident airborne in situ data. We apply these algorithms to the CHARMS multiwavelength (Raman+HSRL) lidar dataset to retrieve aerosol properties above the SGP site. We present some profiles of aerosol effective

  15. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: pyisoethein@yahoo.com [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  16. Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, D.; Sinyakov, V.; Semenov, V.

    Starting from 1995 the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms. At the station of Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since 1983. The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, 1650 meters above the sea level (42.6 N, 77.0 E). The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one. The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in 1996-2003. Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. Such agreement is analyzed with respect to different conditions (season, sun elevation), temporal/spatial criteria choice (actual overpass location, correction for diurnal variation) and data processing (GDP version 2.7, 3.0). In addition, NO2 vertical columns were integrated from simultaneous stratospheric profile measurements by NASA HALOE and SAGE-II/III satellite instruments and introduced to explain the differences with ground-based observations. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. Overall, summertime GOME NO2 vertical columns were found to be systematicaly lower than ground-based data. This work was supported by International Association

  17. Enhancing Ground Based Telescope Performance with Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    called the hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) that is based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with another process to perform phase-unwraping [36, 45...47]. The HDA requires phase diversity similar to the LM least squares method used for characterizing the HST [32]. The problem of generating...addition, the new phase retrieval algorithm proposed in this chapter has the advantage over NASA’s hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) planned for use on JWST

  18. Ground test of satellite constellation based quantum communication

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Chang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lin, Jin; Dai, Hui; Zhao, Shuang-Qiang; Li, Bo; Guan, Jian-Yu; Chen, Wei; Gong, Yun-Hong; Li, Yang; Lin, Ze-Hong; Pan, Ge-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global...

  19. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    parameter uncertainty decreased significantly when TLRG data was included in the inversion. The forced infiltration experiment caused changes in unsaturated zone storage, which were monitored using TLRG and ground-penetrating radar. A numerical unsaturated zone model was subsequently conditioned on both......Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between...

  20. Quantitative Estimation of Above Ground Crop Biomass using Ground-based, Airborne and Spaceborne Low Frequency Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, C.; Watanabe, M.; Shimada, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimation of crop biomass is one of the important challenges in environmental remote sensing related to agricultural as well as hydrological and meteorological applications. Usually passive optical data (photographs, spectral data) operating in the visible and near-infrared bands is used for such purposes. The virtue of optical remote sensing for yield estimation, however, is rather limited as the visible light can only provide information about the chemical characteristics of the canopy surface. Low frequency microwave signals with wavelength longer 20 cm have the potential to penetrate through the canopy and provide information about the whole vertical structure of vegetation from the top of the canopy down to the very soil surface. This phenomenon has been well known and exploited to detect targets under vegetation in the military radar application known as FOPEN (foliage penetration). With the availability of polarimetric interferometric SAR data the use PolInSAR techniques to retrieve vertical vegetation structures has become an attractive tool. However, PolInSAR is still highly experimental and suitable data is not yet widely available. In this study we focus on the use of operational dual-polarization L-band (1.27 GHz) SAR which is since the launch of Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, 2006-2011) available worldwide. Since 2014 ALOS-2 continues to deliver such kind of partial polarimetric data for the entire land surface. In addition to these spaceborne data sets we use airborne L-band SAR data acquired by the Japanese Pi-SAR-L2 as well as ultra-wideband (UWB) ground based SAR data operating in the frequency range from 1-4 GHz. By exploiting the complex dual-polarization [C2] Covariance matrix information, the scattering contributions from the canopy can be well separated from the ground reflections allowing for the establishment of semi-empirical relationships between measured radar reflectivity and the amount of fresh-weight above-ground

  1. Magnetoseismology ground-based remote sensing of Earth's magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Menk, Frederick W

    2013-01-01

    Written by a researcher at the forefront of the field, this first comprehensive account of magnetoseismology conveys the physics behind these movements and waves, and explains how to detect and investigate them. Along the way, it describes the principles as applied to remote sensing of near-Earth space and related remote sensing techniques, while also comparing and intercalibrating magnetoseismology with other techniques. The example applications include advanced data analysis techniques that may find wider used in areas ranging from geophysics to medical imaging, and remote sensing using radar systems that are of relevance to defense surveillance systems. As a result, the book not only reviews the status quo, but also anticipates new developments. With many figures and illustrations, some in full color, plus additional computational codes for analysis and evaluation. Aimed at graduate readers, the text assumes knowledge of electromagnetism and physical processes at degree level, but introductory chapters wil...

  2. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  3. Beyond Assessment: Conducting Theoretically Grounded Research on Service-Learning in Gerontology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Pearl, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning is a useful pedagogical tool and high-impact practice, providing multiple benefits. Gerontology (and other) courses frequently include service-learning activities but lack theory-based, intentional research on outcomes. Here, the authors define service-learning and contextualize it in higher education, provide an overview of research and assessment in service-learning and gerontology courses, demonstrate the shortcomings of program evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research to advance and generate theory.

  4. WHIPPED FLOUR CONFECTIONERY BASED UPON WHOLE GRAIN GROUND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Flour confectionery products for the Russian market are the traditional products and their sales occupy the 1st place among all types of confectionery. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at developing biscuits with increased food and biological value, meeting the existing in the human body requirements in nutrients. The use of flour from whole grain rye, wheat and amaranth allows to receive a quality product with a fine pore structure, pleasant taste and aroma and of high nutritional value. Using a mechanical method for dough loosening reduces operating costs, significantly intensifies the whole technological process, greatly reduces production area of enterprise, the duration of the entire technological process of biscuit production is reduced by 40%. In the developed biscuits protein content increases in 1,5 times; fiber in 6 times, potassium in 10.8 times, calcium in 11 times, phosphorus in 3 times, iron in 3.3 times, vitamin the B6 in4.1 times; B12 in 2.4 times, B9 in 12.4 times.

  5. Preparation of JEREMI Experiment: Development of the Ground Based Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnou, V.; Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of preparing the space experiment JEREMI (Japanese and European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities). The use of forced coaxial gas flow is proposed as a way to stabilize the Marangoni convection in liquid bridges, which might have important technological applications in the floating zone technique. A new set-up is under development and all sub-systems have passed severe tests. Here we present the design of this set-up and preliminary results of experiments for shear-driven two-phase flows in a confined volume of liquid under conditions of normal gravity. The geometry corresponds to a cylindrical liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel with external solid walls. Gas enters into the annular duct, flows between solid walls and upon reaching the liquid zone entrains initially quiescent liquid. The test liquids are ethanol, n-decane and 5 cSt silicone oil, which have different degrees of viscosity and of volatility. The gas flow along the interface strongly enhances the evaporation and, correspondingly, affects the interface shape. Silhouette measurements are used for optical determination of the interface shape. From the digital images the variation of the liquid volume as a function of flow rate is calculated.

  6. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. The new tender areas are located from 3 to 8 km from the coast. Ground-based scanning lidar...... located on land can partly cover this area out to around 15 km. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the project‘Reducing the Uncertainty of Near-shore Energy estimates from meso- and micro-scale wind models’ (RUNE) is established. The measurement campaign starts October....... The various observation types have advantages and limitations; one advantage of both the Sentinel-1 and the scanning lidar is that they both observe wind fields covering a large area and so can be combined for studying the spatial variability of winds. Sentinel-1 are being processed near-real-time at DTU Wind...

  7. Current uses of ground penetrating radar in groundwater-dependent ecosystems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Catarina; Alcalá, Francisco J; Carvalho, Jorge M; Ribeiro, Luís

    2017-10-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a high-resolution technique widely used in shallow groundwater prospecting. This makes GPR ideal to characterize the hydrogeological functioning of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE). This paper reviews current uses of GPR in GDE research through the construction of a database comprising 91 worldwide GPR case studies selected from the literature and classified according to (1) geological environments favouring GDE; (2) hydrogeological research interests; and (3) field technical and (4) hydrogeological conditions of the survey. The database analysis showed that inland alluvial, colluvial, and glacial formations were the most widely covered geological environments. Water-table depth was the most repeated research interest. By contrast, weathered-marl and crystalline-rock environments as well as the delineation of salinity interfaces in coastal and inland areas were less studied. Despite that shallow groundwater propitiated GDE in almost all the GPR case studies compiled, only one case expressly addressed GDE research. Common ranges of prospecting depth, water-table depth, and volumetric water content deduced by GPR and other techniques were identified. Antenna frequency of 100MHz and the common offset acquisition technique predominated in the database. Most of GPR case studies were in 30-50° N temperate latitudes, mainly in Europe and North America. Eight original radargrams were selected from several GPR profiles performed in 2014 and 2015 to document database classes and identified gaps, as well as to define experimental ranges of operability in GDE environments. The results contribute to the design of proper GPR surveys in GDE research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Concept extraction of graduate research by modified grounded theory approach and creating of rubric oriented to performance evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Sone, Tomomichi; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

      A revised core curriculum model for pharmaceutical education, developed on the basis of the principles of outcome-based education, will be introduced in 2015. Inevitably, appropriate assessments of students' academic achievements will be required. Although evaluations of the cognitive domain can be carried out by paper tests, evaluation methods for the attitude domain and problem-solving abilities need to be established. From the viewpoint of quality assurance for graduates, pharmaceutical education reforms have become vital to evaluation as well as learning strategies. To evaluate student academic achievements on problem-solving abilities, authentic assessment is required. Authentic assessment is the evaluation that mimics the context tried in work and life. Specifically, direct evaluation of performances, demonstration or the learners' own work with integrated variety knowledge and skills, is required. To clarify the process of graduate research, we obtained qualitative data through focus group interviews with six teachers and analyzed the data using the modified grounded theory approach. Based on the results, we clarify the performance students should show in graduate research and create a rubric for evaluation of performance in graduate research.

  9. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  11. High-precision ground-based photometry of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mooij Ernst J.W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-precision photometry of transiting exoplanet systems has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of their atmospheres. The best targets are the bright exoplanet systems, for which the high number of photons allow very high signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the current instruments are not optimised for these high-precision measurements, either they have a large read-out overhead to reduce the readnoise and/or their field-of-view is limited, preventing simultaneous observations of both the target and a reference star. Recently we have proposed a new wide-field imager for the Observatoir de Mont-Megantic optimised for these bright systems (PI: Jayawardhana. The instruments has a dual beam design and a field-of-view of 17' by 17'. The cameras have a read-out time of 2 seconds, significantly reducing read-out overheads. Over the past years we have obtained significant experience with how to reach the high precision required for the characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres. Based on our experience we provide the following advice: Get the best calibrations possible. In the case of bad weather, characterise the instrument (e.g. non-linearity, dome flats, bias level, this is vital for better understanding of the science data. Observe the target for as long as possible, the out-of-transit baseline is as important as the transit/eclipse itself. A short baseline can lead to improperly corrected systematic and mis-estimation of the red-noise. Keep everything (e.g. position on detector, exposure time as stable as possible. Take care that the defocus is not too strong. For a large defocus, the contribution of the total flux from the sky-background in the aperture could well exceed that of the target, resulting in very strict requirements on the precision at which the background is measured.

  12. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mark K.; Kwiatkowski, Jan W.; Nau, Robert F.; Oliver, Robert M.; Pister, Karl S.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains an analysis of four major California earthquake records using a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It has been possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters and test the residuals generated by these models. It has also been possible to show the connections, similarities and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed in this report is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. (author)

  13. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  14. TANGOO: A ground-based tilting-filter spectrometer for deriving the temperature in the mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, S.; Bittner, M.

    2009-04-01

    TANGOO (Tilting-filter spectrometer for Atmospheric Nocturnal Ground-based Oxygen & hydrOxyl emission measurements) is a passive, ground-based optical instrument for the purpose of a simultanously automatic long-term monitoring of OH(6-2) and O2 atm. Band (0-1) emissions (called "airglow"), yielding rotational temperatures in about 87 and 95 km, respectively. TANGOO, being a transportable and comparatively easy-to-use instrument, is the enhancement of the Argentine Airglow Spectrometer (Scheer, 1987) and shows significant improvements in the temporal resolution and throughput. It will be located on the German Enviromental Research Station "Schneefernerhaus", Zugspitze (47°,4 N, 11° E) and will start measurements in 2009. Objectives of TANGOO cover the analysis of dynamical processes such as gravity waves as well as the identification of climate signals. The observation method will be presented.

  15. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  16. A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rindell, PhD.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

  17. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Tavokol; S Torabi; AA Zeialoo

    2009-01-01

    This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  18. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tavokol

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  19. Asteroseismology of solar-type stars with Kepler: III. Ground-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Molenda-Żakowicz , J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler Asteroseis......We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler...

  20. Status of advanced ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, K L; Akutsu, T; Dwyer, S; Puppo, P

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave (GW) detection were first constructed starting 20 years ago and as of 2010 collection of several years’ worth of science data at initial design sensitivities was completed. Upgrades to the initial detectors together with construction of brand new detectors are ongoing and feature advanced technologies to improve the sensitivity to GWs. This conference proceeding provides an overview of the common design features of ground-based laser interferometric GW detectors and establishes the context for the status updates of each of the four gravitational-wave detectors around the world: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, GEO 600 and KAGRA. (paper)

  1. Status of advanced ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K. L.; Akutsu, T.; Dwyer, S.; Puppo, P.

    2015-05-01

    Ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave (GW) detection were first constructed starting 20 years ago and as of 2010 collection of several years’ worth of science data at initial design sensitivities was completed. Upgrades to the initial detectors together with construction of brand new detectors are ongoing and feature advanced technologies to improve the sensitivity to GWs. This conference proceeding provides an overview of the common design features of ground-based laser interferometric GW detectors and establishes the context for the status updates of each of the four gravitational-wave detectors around the world: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, GEO 600 and KAGRA.

  2. A spent coffee grounds based biorefinery for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, antioxidants and biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas. The in-situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds was carried out in a large scale (4 kg), which led to 80-83% biodiesel yield. In addition, a large number of value added and diversified products viz. polyhydroxyalkanoates, biosorbent, activated carbon, polyol, polyurethane foam, carotenoid, phenolic antioxidants, and green composite are obtained from spent coffee grounds. The principles of circular economy are applied to develop a sustanaible biorefinery based on valorisation of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fresh Faces, New Places: Moving beyond Teacher-Researcher Perspectives in Hip-Hop-Based Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Hall, H. Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in critical and culturally relevant theory, hip-hop-based education (HHBE) research documents the use of hip-hop in educational settings. Despite the richness of the emerging field, overreliance on teacher-researcher perspectives leaves much to be desired. Little is known of the extent and ways HHBE is used by nonresearching K-12…

  4. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  5. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid

    2017-07-01

    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R 2 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  6. Overview of Boundary Layer Clouds Using Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.; Wu, P.; Qiu, S.

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive summary of boundary layer clouds properties based on our few recently studies will be presented. The analyses include the global cloud fractions and cloud macro/micro- physical properties based on satellite measurements using both CERES-MODIS and CloudSat/Caliposo data products,; the annual/seasonal/diurnal variations of stratocumulus clouds over different climate regions (mid-latitude land, mid-latitude ocean, and Arctic region) using DOE ARM ground-based measurements over Southern great plain (SGP), Azores (GRW), and North slope of Alaska (NSA) sites; the impact of environmental conditions to the formation and dissipation process of marine boundary layer clouds over Azores site; characterizing Arctice mixed-phase cloud structure and favorable environmental conditions for the formation/maintainess of mixed-phase clouds over NSA site. Though the presentation has widely spread topics, we will focus on the representation of the ground-based measurements over different climate regions; evaluation of satellite retrieved cloud properties using these ground-based measurements, and understanding the uncertainties of both satellite and ground-based retrievals and measurements.

  7. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  10. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph D; Hagen, D E [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H V [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  11. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph.D.; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  12. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  13. Implications and Future Directions for a New Research Agenda Grounded on NonAffirmative Education Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljens, Michael; Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2017-01-01

    This non-affirmative, bridging research program sees education as deliberation-based activity. Non-affirmative education is critical regarding policies and cultural practices, yet being mindful that education preparing for life, work and agency in democratic societies must create spaces for growth that are not only socialization or transformation…

  14. OGLE-2015-BLG-0196: GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENS PARALLAX CONFIRMED BY SPACE-BASED OBSERVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Zhu, Wei; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Novati, S. Calchi [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello,” Uńiversitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bryden, C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; Spitzer Microlensing Team; and others

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the binary gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0196. The event lasted for almost a year, and the light curve exhibited significant deviations from the lensing model based on the rectilinear lens-source relative motion, enabling us to measure the microlens parallax. The ground-based microlens parallax is confirmed by the data obtained from space-based microlens observations using the Spitzer telescope. By additionally measuring the angular Einstein radius from the analysis of the resolved caustic crossing, the physical parameters of the lens are determined up to the twofold degeneracy, u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0, solutions caused by the well-known “ecliptic” degeneracy. It is found that the binary lens is composed of two M dwarf stars with similar masses, M {sub 1} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.50 ± 0.05 M {sub ⊙}) and M {sub 2} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.55 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙}), and the distance to the lens is D {sub L} = 2.77 ± 0.23 kpc (3.30 ± 0.29 kpc). Here the physical parameters outside and inside the parentheses are for the u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0 solutions, respectively.

  15. A Review of Research Ethics in Internet-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Ian; Cox, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based research methods can include: online surveys, web page content analysis, videoconferencing for online focus groups and/or interviews, analysis of "e-conversations" through social networking sites, email, chat rooms, discussion boards and/or blogs. Over the last ten years, an upsurge in internet-based research (IBR) has led…

  16. Take-off and Landing Using Ground Based Power - Landing Simulations Using Multibody Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, P.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel take-off and landing system using ground based power is proposed in the EUFP7 project GABRIEL. The proposed system has the potential benefit to reduce aircraft weight, emissions and noise. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility of the structural design of the connection mechanism

  17. ForestCrowns: a software tool for analyzing ground-based digital photographs of forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee; Phillip A. Araman

    2013-01-01

    Canopy coverage is a key variable used to characterize forest structure. In addition, the light transmitted through the canopy is an important ecological indicator of plant and animal habitat and understory climate conditions. A common ground-based method used to document canopy coverage is to take digital photographs from below the canopy. To assist with analyzing...

  18. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  19. Estimating and validating ground-based timber harvesting production through computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2003-01-01

    Estimating ground-based timber harvesting systems production with an object oriented methodology was investigated. The estimation model developed generates stands of trees, simulates chain saw, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip harvester felling, and grapple skidder and forwarder extraction activities, and analyzes costs and productivity. It also...

  20. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Francois; Munk, Jens; Jezek, K C

    2002-01-01

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) the distance from the scatterer is increased; and/or 2) the extinction...

  1. Validation of the CrIS fast physical NH3 retrieval with ground-based FTIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, E.; Shephard, M.W.; Palm, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Capps, S.; Lutsch, E.; Strong, K.; Hannigan, J.W.; Ortega, I.; Toon, G.C.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.; Jones, N.; Smale, D.; Siemons, J.; Hrpcek, K.; Tremblay, D.; Schaap, M.; Notholt, J.; Willem Erisman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Presented here is the validation of the CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder) fast physical NH3 retrieval (CFPR) column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. We use the total columns and profiles from seven FTIR sites in the Network for the

  2. A cost-performance model for ground-based optical communications receiving telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, J. R.; Robinson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical cost-performance model for a ground-based optical communications receiving telescope is presented. The model considers costs of existing telescopes as a function of diameter and field of view. This, coupled with communication performance as a function of receiver diameter and field of view, yields the appropriate telescope cost versus communication performance curve.

  3. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  4. Modern developments for ground-based monitoring of fire behavior and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert Kremens; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Advances in electronic technology over the last several decades have been staggering. The cost of electronics continues to decrease while system performance increases seemingly without limit. We have applied modern techniques in sensors, electronics and instrumentation to create a suite of ground based diagnostics that can be used in laboratory (~ 1 m2), field scale...

  5. Submillimetric motion detection with a 94 GHz ground based synthetic aperture radar

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Cervera, Arturo; Lort Cuenca, Marc; Aguasca Solé, Alberto; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the validation and experimental assessment of a 94 GHz (W-Band) CW-FM Radar that can be configured as a Ground Based SAR for high resolution imaging and interferometry. Several experimental campaigns have been carried out to assess the capability of the system to remotely observe submillimetric deformation and vibration in infrastructures. Peer Reviewed

  6. The Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions Framework for Competency-Based Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butland, Mark James

    2017-01-01

    Colleges facing pressures to increase student outcomes while reducing costs have shown an increasing interest in competency-based education (CBE) models. Regional accreditors created a joint policy on CBE evaluation. Two years later, through this grounded theory study, I sought to understand from experts the nature of this policy, its impact, and…

  7. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming

    2005-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  8. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Initial Defensive Operations Capability (IDOC) at Vandenberg Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-28

    Zielinski , EDAW, Inc., concerning utilities supply and demand for Vandenberg Air Force Base, 1 August. Rush, P., 2002. Personal communication between...Pernell W. Rush, Technical Sergeant, Water Utilities/Water Treatment NCO, USAF 30th CES/CEOIU, Vandenberg Air Force Base, and James E. Zielinski ... Dave Savinsky, Environmental Consultant, 30 CES/CEVC, Vandenberg Air Force Base, on the Preliminary Draft Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD

  9. The GNSS-based Ground Tracking System (GTS) of GFZ; from GITEWS to PROTECTS and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Carsten; Merx, Alexander; Ramatschi, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Introduction An automatic system for the near real-time determination and visualization of ground motions, respectively co-seismic deformations of the Earth's surface, was developed by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) within the project GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System). The system is capable to deliver 3D-displacement vectors for locations with appropriate GPS-equipment in the vicinity of an earthquake's epicenter with a delay of only a few minutes. These vectors can help to assess the earthquake causing tectonic movements, which must be known to make reliable early warning predictions, e.g., concerning the generation of tsunami waves. The GTS (Ground Tracking System) has been integrated into InaTEWS (Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is in operation at the national warning center in Jakarta since November 2008. After the end of the project GITEWS GFZ continues to support the GTS in Indonesia within the frame of PROTECTS (Project for Training, Education and Consulting for Tsunami Early Warning Systems) and recently some new developments have been introduced. We now aim to make further use of the achievements made, e.g., by developing a license model for the GTS software package. Motivation After the Tsunami of 26th December 2004 the German government initiated the GITEWS project to develop the main components for a tsunami early warning system in Indonesia. The GFZ, as the consortial leader of GITEWS, had several work packages, most of them related to sensor systems. The geodetic branch (Department 1) of GFZ was assigned to develop a GNSS-based component, which since then is known as the GTS (Ground Tracking System). System benefit The ground motion information delivered by the GTS is a valuable source for a fast understanding of an earthquake's mechanism with a high relevance to assess the probability and magnitude of a potentially following tsunami. The system may detect highest displacement vector values, where

  10. Evidence of Urban Precipitation Anomalies from Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, M.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world's population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters weather and climate processes. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-weather-climate system is incomplete. Recent literature continues to provide evidence that anomalies in precipitation exist over and downwind of major cities. Current and future research efforts are actively seeking to verify these literature findings and understand potential cause-effect relationships. The novelty of this study is that it utilizes rainfall data from multiple satellite data sources (e.g. TRMM precipitation radar, TRMM-geosynchronous-rain gauge merged product, and SSM/I) and ground-based measurements to identify spatial anomalies and temporal trends in precipitation for cities around the world. Early results will be presented and placed within the context of weather prediction, climate assessment, and societal applications.

  11. Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible DOAS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, G.; Bonasoni, P.; Cervino, M.; Evangelisti, F.; Ravegnani, F.

    1994-01-01

    GASCOD, a near-ultraviolet and visible differential optical spectrometer, was developed at CNR's FISBAT Institute in Bologna, Italy, and first tested at Terra Nova Bay station in Antarctica (74.6 deg S, 164.6 deg E) during the summer expeditions 1988-1990 of PNRA (PNRA is the national research program in Antarctica, 'Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Atartide'). A comparison with coincident O3 total column measurements taken in the same Antarctic area is presented, as is another comparison performed in Italy. Also introduced is an updated model for solar zenith measurements taken from a ground-based, upward-looking GASCOD spectrometer, which was employed for the 1991-92 winter campaign at Aer-Ostersund in Sweden (63.3 deg N, 13.1 deg E) during AESOE (European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment). The GASCOD can examine the spectra from 300 to 700 nm, in 50 nm steps, by moving the spectrometer's grating. At present, it takes measurements of solar zenith radiation in the 310-342 nm range for O3 and in the 405-463 nm range for NO2.

  12. Remote sensing of the lightning heating effect duration with ground-based microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sulin; Pan, Yun; Lei, Lianfa; Ma, Lina; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhenhui

    2018-06-01

    Artificially triggered lightning events from May 26, 2017 to July 16, 2017 in Guangzhou Field Experiment Site for Lightning Research and Test (GFESL) were intentionally remotely sensed with a ground-based microwave radiometer for the first time in order to obtain the features of lightning heating effect. The microwave radiometer antenna was adjusted to point at a certain elevation angle towards the expected artificially triggered lightning discharging path. Eight of the 16 successfully artificially triggered lightning events were captured and the brightness temperature data at four frequencies in K and V bands were obtained. The results from data time series analysis show that artificially triggered lightning can make the radiometer generate brightness temperature pulses, and the amplitudes of these pulses are in the range of 2.0 K to 73.8 K. The brightness temperature pulses associated with 7 events can be used to estimate the duration of lightning heating effect through accounting the number of the pulses in the continuous pulse sequence and the sampling interval between four frequencies. The maximum duration of the lightning heating effect is 1.13 s, the minimum is 0.172 s, and the average is 0.63 s.

  13. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D; Chait, Maria

    2016-09-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence-the coincidence of sound elements in and across time-is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals ("stochastic figure-ground": SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as "figures" popping out of a stochastic "ground." Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the "figure" from the randomly varying "ground." Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the "classic" auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis." © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  15. The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

  16. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...

  17. Response of base isolated structure during strong ground motions beyond design earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, some base isolated structures for fast breeder reactors (FBR) are tried to design. When a base isolated structure are designed, the relative displacement of isolators are generally limited so sa to be remain in linear state of those during design earthquakes. But to estimate safety margin of a base isolated structure, the response of that until the failure must be obtained experimentally to analytically during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquake. The aim of this paper is to investigate the response of a base isolated structure when the stiffness of the isolators hardens and to simulate the response during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquakes. The optimum characteristics of isolators, with which the margin of the structure are increased, are discussed. (author)

  18. Efficient prediction of ground noise from helicopters and parametric studies based on acoustic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei WANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the acoustic mapping, a prediction model for the ground noise radiated from an in-flight helicopter is established. For the enhancement of calculation efficiency, a high-efficiency second-level acoustic radiation model capable of taking the influence of atmosphere absorption on noise into account is first developed by the combination of the point-source idea and the rotor noise radiation characteristics. The comparison between the present model and the direct computation method of noise is done and the high efficiency of the model is validated. Rotor free-wake analysis method and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation are applied to the aerodynamics and noise prediction in the present model. Secondly, a database of noise spheres with the characteristic parameters of advance ratio and tip-path-plane angle is established by the helicopter trim model together with a parametric modeling approach. Furthermore, based on acoustic mapping, a method of rapid simulation for the ground noise radiated from an in-flight helicopter is developed. The noise footprint for AH-1 rotor is then calculated and the influence of some parameters including advance ratio and flight path angle on ground noise is deeply analyzed using the developed model. The results suggest that with the increase of advance ratio and flight path angle, the peak noise levels on the ground first increase and then decrease, in the meantime, the maximum Sound Exposure Level (SEL noise on the ground shifts toward the advancing side of rotor. Besides, through the analysis of the effects of longitudinal forces on miss-distance and rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI noise in descent flight, some meaningful results for reducing the BVI noise on the ground are obtained. Keywords: Acoustic mapping, Helicopter, Noise footprint, Rotor noise, Second-level acoustic radiation model

  19. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  20. Mapping Fractures in KAERI Underground Research Tunnel using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea occupies about 40 percent of the entire electricity production. Processing or disposing nuclear wastes, however, remains one of biggest social issues. Although low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes are stored temporarily inside nuclear power plants, these temporary storages can last only up to 2020. Among various proposed methods for nuclear waste disposal, a long-term storage using geologic disposal facilities appears to be most highly feasible. Geological disposal of nuclear wastes requires a nuclear waste repository situated deep within a stable geologic environment. However, the presence of small-scale fractures in bedrocks can cause serious damage to durability of such disposal facilities because fractures can become efficient pathways for underground waters and radioactive wastes. Thus, it is important to find and characterize multi-scale fractures in bedrocks hosting geologic disposal facilities. In this study, we aim to map small-scale fractures inside the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The KURT is situated in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The survey target is a section of wall cut by a diamond grinder, which preserves diverse geologic features such as dykes. We conducted grid surveys on the wall using 500 MHz and 1000 MHz pulseEKKO PRO sensors. The observed GPR signals in both frequencies show strong reflections, which are consistent to form sloping planes. We interpret such planar features as fractures present in the wall. Such fractures were also mapped visually during the development of the KURT. We confirmed their continuity into the wall from the 3D GPR images. In addition, the spatial distribution and connectivity of these fractures are identified from 3D subsurface images. Thus, we can utilize GPR to detect multi-scale fractures in bedrocks, during and after developing underground disposal facilities. This study was

  1. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Design-Based Research is an intervention method that researches educational design (products or processes) in real-life settings with the dual purpose of generating theories about the domain and develop the design iteratively. This paper is an integrative review with a personal ethnographic...... narrative that draws on Design-Based Research literature, and identifies and discusses elements from Interaction Design and Action Research that the Design-Based Research approach could apply, situating the research in online educational projects, where participants are distributed in time and space...

  2. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    28 Magnetometer Applied Physics Model 1540-digital 3-axis fluxgate 5 Amplifiers Alligator Technologies USBPGF-S1 programmable instrumentation...Acoustic, Seismic, magnetic, footstep, vehicle, magnetometer , geophone, unattended ground sensor (UGS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  3. Feature-Based Attention in Early Vision for the Modulation of Figure?Ground Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Wagatsuma, Nobuhiko; Oki, Megumi; Sakai, Ko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated psychophysically whether feature-based attention modulates the perception of figure–ground (F–G) segregation and, based on the results, we investigated computationally the neural mechanisms underlying attention modulation. In the psychophysical experiments, the attention of participants was drawn to a specific motion direction and they were then asked to judge the side of figure in an ambiguous figure with surfaces consisting of distinct motion directions. The results of these...

  4. Feature-based attention in early vision for the modulation of figure–ground segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiko eWagatsuma; Nobuhiko eWagatsuma; Megumi eOki; Ko eSakai

    2013-01-01

    We investigated psychophysically whether feature-based attention modulates the perception of figure–ground (F–G) segregation and, based on the results, we investigated computationally the neural mechanisms underlying attention modulation. In the psychophysical experiments, the attention of participants was drawn to a specific motion direction and they were then asked to judge the side of figure in an ambiguous figure with surfaces consisting of distinct motion directions. The results of these...

  5. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  6. Formation of Ground Truth Databases and Related Studies and Regional Seismic Monitoring Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    experiments (1997-1999) in the former Semipalatinsk test site , Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoDLDOE Seismic Research Symposium, Vol. I, U. S. Department of...DefenselEnergy, 55-66. Kim, Won-Young (1998), Waveform Data Information Product: Calibration Explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site , Kazakstan...from the aftershocks of a 100 ton chemical explosion at the Degelen, Kazakh Test Site on 22 August 1998 (Omega-1). Epicentral locations, based on P

  7. A knowledge system approach to the multinational company : conceptual grounding and implications for research

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Santos, José

    2009-01-01

    The role of knowledge, organizational learning, and innovation as levers of competitive advantage is now a commonly acknowledged insight in research in international management. However, while the agglomeration of insights of described as the “knowledge-based view” is a promising theoretical lens, insights are not organized into a unifying framework and there are significant holes in the understanding of how knowledge may be turned into a source of competitive advant...

  8. Meta-Analysis of Inquiry-Based Instruction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Rudyatmi, E.

    2017-04-01

    Inquiry-based instruction in biology has been the focus of educational research conducted by Unnes biology department students in collaboration with their university supervisors. This study aimed to describe the methodological aspects, inquiry teaching methods critically, and to analyse the results claims, of the selected four student research reports, grounded in inquiry, based on the database of Unnes biology department 2014. Four experimental quantitative research of 16 were selected as research objects by purposive sampling technique. Data collected through documentation study was qualitatively analysed regarding methods used, quality of inquiry syntax, and finding claims. Findings showed that the student research was still the lack of relevant aspects of research methodology, namely in appropriate sampling procedures, limited validity tests of all research instruments, and the limited parametric statistic (t-test) not supported previously by data normality tests. Their consistent inquiry syntax supported the four mini-thesis claims that inquiry-based teaching influenced their dependent variables significantly. In other words, the findings indicated that positive claims of the research results were not fully supported by good research methods, and well-defined inquiry procedures implementation.

  9. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  10. Gamma/hadron segregation for a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using machine learning methods: Random Forest leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma Mradul; Koul Maharaj Krishna; Mitra Abhas; Nayak Jitadeepa; Bose Smarajit

    2014-01-01

    A detailed case study of γ-hadron segregation for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope is presented. We have evaluated and compared various supervised machine learning methods such as the Random Forest method, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant method, Naive Bayes Classifiers, Support Vector Machines as well as the conventional dynamic supercut method by simulating triggering events with the Monte Carlo method and applied the results to a Cherenkov telescope. It is demonstrated that the Random Forest method is the most sensitive machine learning method for γ-hadron segregation. (research papers)

  11. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, F. M.; Hendrick, F.; Pinardi, G.; Fayt, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2013-12-01

    A retrieval approach has been developed to derive tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. Zenith radiance spectra are observed in the visible range by the BIRA-IASB Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument and analyzed by the DOAS technique, based on a least-squares spectral fitting. In recent years, this technique has shown to be a well-suited remote sensing tool for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. The retrieval algorithm is developed and validated based on a two month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). Once fully operational, the retrieval approach can be applied to observations from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The obtained tropospheric vertical column amounts are compared with the multi-axis retrieval from the BIRA-IASB MAX-DOAS instrument and the retrieval from a zenith-viewing only SAOZ instrument (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales), owned by Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS). First results show a good agreement for the whole time series with the multi-axis retrieval (R = 0.82; y = 0.88x + 0.30) as well as with the SAOZ retrieval (R = 0.85; y = 0.76x + 0.28 ). Main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of tropospheric and stratospheric air mass factors, the stratospheric NO2 abundances and the residual amount in the reference spectrum. However zenith-sky measurements have been commonly used over the last decades for stratospheric monitoring, this study also illustrates the suitability for retrieval of tropospheric column amounts. As there are long time series of zenith-sky acquisitions available, the developed approach offers new perspectives with regard to the use of observations from the NDACC

  12. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  13. Selection of Grounded Theory as an Appropriate Research Methodology for a Dissertation: One Student’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Jones, Ed.D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Doctoral students wanting to use grounded theory as a methodological approach for their dissertation often face multiple challenges gaining acceptance of their approach by their committee. This paper presents the case that the author used to overcome these challenges through the process of eliminating other methodologies, leaving grounded theory as the preferred method for the desired research issue. Through examining the approach used successfully by the author, other doctoral students will be able to frame similar arguments justifying the use of grounded theory in their dissertations and seeing the use of the method continue to spread into new fields and applications. This paper examines the case built for selecting grounded theory as a defensible dissertation approach. The basic research issue that I wanted to investigate was how practitioners in an applied field sought information in their work; in other words, how they researched. I further narrowed the investigation down to a more specific field, but the paper presented here is left in broader form so that other students can see the approach in more general terms.

  14. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; hide

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE

  15. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  16. Predicting Electron Population Characteristics in 2-D Using Multispectral Ground-Based Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Donald; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2018-01-01

    Ground-based imaging and in situ sounding rocket data are compared to electron transport modeling for an active inverted-V type auroral event. The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) mission successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, on 3 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the aurora. Multiple ground-based electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) imagers were positioned at Venetie, Alaska, and aimed toward magnetic zenith. The imagers observed the intensity of different auroral emission lines (427.8, 557.7, and 844.6 nm) at the magnetic foot point of the rocket payload. Emission line intensity data are correlated with electron characteristics measured by the GREECE onboard electron spectrometer. A modified version of the GLobal airglOW (GLOW) model is used to estimate precipitating electron characteristics based on optical emissions. GLOW predicted the electron population characteristics with 20% error given the observed spectral intensities within 10° of magnetic zenith. Predictions are within 30% of the actual values within 20° of magnetic zenith for inverted-V-type aurora. Therefore, it is argued that this technique can be used, at least in certain types of aurora, such as the inverted-V type presented here, to derive 2-D maps of electron characteristics. These can then be used to further derive 2-D maps of ionospheric parameters as a function of time, based solely on multispectral optical imaging data.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  18. Ground target geolocation based on digital elevation model for airborne wide-area reconnaissance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chuan; Ding, Yalin; Xu, Yongsen; Xiu, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    To obtain the geographical position of the ground target accurately, a geolocation algorithm based on the digital elevation model (DEM) is developed for an airborne wide-area reconnaissance system. According to the platform position and attitude information measured by the airborne position and orientation system and the gimbal angles information from the encoder, the line-of-sight pointing vector in the Earth-centered Earth-fixed coordinate frame is solved by the homogeneous coordinate transformation. The target longitude and latitude can be solved with the elliptical Earth model and the global DEM. The influences of the systematic error and measurement error on ground target geolocation calculation accuracy are analyzed by the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that this algorithm can improve the geolocation accuracy of ground target in rough terrain area obviously. The geolocation accuracy of moving ground target can be improved by moving average filtering (MAF). The validity of the geolocation algorithm is verified by the flight test in which the plane flies at a geodetic height of 15,000 m and the outer gimbal angle is <47°. The geolocation root mean square error of the target trajectory is <45 and <7 m after MAF.

  19. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Chait, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence—the coincidence of sound elements in and across time—is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals (“stochastic figure-ground”: SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as “figures” popping out of a stochastic “ground.” Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the “figure” from the randomly varying “ground.” Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the “classic” auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis.” PMID:27325682

  20. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ground-and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A.

    2015-01-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness...... over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass...... remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass...

  3. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  4. Model-Based Knowing: How Do Students Ground Their Understanding About Climate Systems in Agent-Based Computer Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markauskaite, Lina; Kelly, Nick; Jacobson, Michael J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper gives a grounded cognition account of model-based learning of complex scientific knowledge related to socio-scientific issues, such as climate change. It draws on the results from a study of high school students learning about the carbon cycle through computational agent-based models and investigates two questions: First, how do students ground their understanding about the phenomenon when they learn and solve problems with computer models? Second, what are common sources of mistakes in students' reasoning with computer models? Results show that students ground their understanding in computer models in five ways: direct observation, straight abstraction, generalisation, conceptualisation, and extension. Students also incorporate into their reasoning their knowledge and experiences that extend beyond phenomena represented in the models, such as attitudes about unsustainable carbon emission rates, human agency, external events, and the nature of computational models. The most common difficulties of the students relate to seeing the modelled scientific phenomenon and connecting results from the observations with other experiences and understandings about the phenomenon in the outside world. An important contribution of this study is the constructed coding scheme for establishing different ways of grounding, which helps to understand some challenges that students encounter when they learn about complex phenomena with agent-based computer models.

  5. (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    resolution SIFT grids in metric-topological SLAM ,” in Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009. [4] M. Bosse and R...single camera SLAM ,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1052–1067, 2007. [7] D. Nister, O. Naroditsky, and J. Bergen...segmentation with ground-based and airborne LIDAR range data,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on 3D Data Processing

  6. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Kiefer, Michael; Lossow, Stefan; Gomez, R. Michael; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Lainer, Martin; Forkman, Peter; Christensen, Ole Martin; Oh, Jung Jin; Hartogh, Paul; Anderson, John; Bramstedt, Klaus; Dinelli, Bianca M.; Garcia-Comas, Maya; Hervig, Mark; Murtagh, Donal; Raspollini, Piera; Read, William G.; Rosenlof, Karen; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Walker, Kaley A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards) and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically ˜ 1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0-1 % yr-1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr-1 and 0.7 % yr-1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr-1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii) and -0.1 % yr-1 (at Lauder, New Zealand).

  7. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Nedoluha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II, we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically  ∼  1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0–1 % yr−1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr−1 and 0.7 % yr−1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr−1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and −0.1 % yr−1 (at Lauder, New Zealand.

  8. Further Studies of Forest Structure Parameter Retrievals Using the Echidna® Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing work with the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), a full-waveform, ground-based scanning lidar (1064 nm) developed by Australia's CSIRO and deployed by Boston University in California conifers (2008) and New England hardwood and softwood (conifer) stands (2007, 2009, 2010), confirms the importance of slope correction in forest structural parameter retrieval; detects growth and disturbance over periods of 2-3 years; provides a new way to measure the between-crown clumping factor in leaf area index retrieval using lidar range; and retrieves foliage profiles with more lower-canopy detail than a large-footprint aircraft scanner (LVIS), while simulating LVIS foliage profiles accurately from a nadir viewpoint using a 3-D point cloud. Slope correction is important for accurate retrieval of forest canopy structural parameters, such as mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass. Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. A test of three methods at southern Sierra Nevada conifer sites improved the range of correlations of these EVI-retrieved parameters with field measurements from 0.53-0.68 to 0.85-0.93 for the best method. EVI scans can detect change, including both growth and disturbance, in periods of two to three years. We revisited three New England forest sites scanned in 2007-2009 or 2007-2010. A shelterwood stand at the Howland Experimental Forest, Howland, Maine, showed increased mean DBH, above-ground biomass and leaf area index between 2007 and 2009. Two stands at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, suffered reduced leaf area index and reduced stem count density as the result of an ice storm that damaged the stands. At one stand, broken tops were

  9. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  10. Study of the unknown hemisphere of mercury by ground-based astronomical facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2011-08-01

    The short exposure method proved to be very productive in ground-based observations of Mercury. Telescopic observations with short exposures, together with computer codes for the processing of data arrays of many thousands of original electronic photos, make it possible to improve the resolution of images from ground-based instruments to almost the diffraction limit. The resulting composite images are comparable with images from spacecrafts approaching from a distance of about 1 million km. This paper presents images of the hemisphere of Mercury in longitude sectors 90°-180°W, 215°-350°W, and 50°-90°W, including, among others, areas not covered by spacecraft cameras. For the first time a giant S basin was discovered in the sector of longitudes 250°-290°W, which is the largest formation of this type on terrestrial planets. Mercury has a strong phase effects. As a result, the view of the surface changes completely with the change in the planetary phase. But the choice of the phase in the study using spacecrafts is limited by orbital characteristics of the mission. Thus, ground-based observations of the planet provide a valuable support.

  11. Intercomparison of ground-based ozone and NO2 measurements during the MANTRA 2004 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Strong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The MANTRA (Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment 2004 campaign took place in Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52° N, 107° W from 3 August to 15 September, 2004. In support of the main balloon launch, a suite of five zenith-sky and direct-Sun-viewing UV-visible ground-based spectrometers was deployed, primarily measuring ozone and NO2 total columns. Three Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs that were part of the balloon payload also performed ground-based measurements of several species, including ozone. Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 differential slant column densities from the zenith-viewing UV-visible instruments are presented herein. They are found to partially agree within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change standards for instruments certified for process studies and satellite validation. Vertical column densities of ozone from the zenith-sky UV-visible instruments, the FTSs, a Brewer spectrophotometer, and ozonesondes are compared, and found to agree within the combined error estimates of the instruments (15%. NO2 vertical column densities from two of the UV-visible instruments are compared, and are also found to agree within combined error (15%.

  12. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  13. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  14. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  15. The Tourism Encounter in Community-Based Tourism in Northern Thailand: Empty Meeting Ground or Space for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dolezal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell’s (1992 idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978, two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism encounter, this article suggests moving away from binaries towards understanding the space of the tourism encounter and its potential for change. Building on empirical research conducted in Ban Mae Kampong, a CBT village in Northern Thailand, findings suggest that CBT shows signs of resident-host interactions that are based on understanding and learning rather than exploitation. While also in CBT friendships and meaning take time to emerge and the ‘Other’ is used as attraction, villagers’ agency and control over tourism are acknowledged. This paper therefore calls for a revisiting of the theoretical grounding that influences our understanding of the tourism encounter and argues for an investigation of community power relations in connection to the tourism encounter and its potential for residents’ empowerment in CBT.

  16. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  17. Retrieval and analysis of atmospheric XCO2 using ground-based spectral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Chun; Lei, Li-Ping; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Masafumi, Ohashi; Takahiro, Kuroki; Zeng, Zhao-Cheng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 column concentration (column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide) data obtained by ground-based hyperspectral observation is an important source of data for the verification and improvement of the results of CO2 retrieval based on satellite hyperspectral observation. However, few studies have been conducted on atmospheric CO2 column concentration retrieval based on ground-based spectral hyperspectral observation in China. In the present study, we carried out the ground-based hyperspectral observation in Xilingol Grassland, Inner Mongolia of China by using an observation system which is consisted of an optical spectral analyzer, a sun tracker, and some other elements. The atmospheric CO2 column concentration was retrieved using the observed hyperspectral data. The effect of a wavelength shift of the observation spectra and the meteorological parameters on the retrieval precision of the atmospheric CO2 concentration was evaluated and analyzed. The results show that the mean value of atmospheric CO2 concentration was 390.9 microg x mL(-1) in the study area during the observing period from July to September. The shift of wavelength in the range between -0.012 and 0.042 nm will generally lead to 1 microg x mL(-1) deviation in the CO2 retrievals. This study also revealed that the spectral transmittance was sensitive to meteorological parameters in the wavelength range of 6 357-6 358, 6 360-6 361, and 6 363-6 364 cm(-1). By comparing the CO2 retrievals derived from the meteorological parameters observed in synchronous and non-synchronous time, respectively, with the spectral observation, it was showed that the concentration deviation caused by using the non-synchronously observed meteorological parameters is ranged from 0.11 to 4 microg x mL(-1). These results can be used as references for the further improvement of retrieving CO2 column concentration based on spectral observation.

  18. PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF BASE-ISOLATED NPPS SUBJECTED TO STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMER ALI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  19. Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using a Ground-based Lunar Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Tim; Omar, Ali; Haggard, Charles; Pippin, Margaret; Tasaddaq, Aasam; Stone, Tom; Rodriguez, Jon; Slutsker, Ilya; Eck, Tom; Holben, Brent; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was proposed to combine AERONET network photometer capabilities with a high precision lunar model used for satellite calibration to retrieve columnar nighttime AODs. The USGS lunar model can continuously provide pre-atmosphere high precision lunar irradiance determinations for multiple wavelengths at ground sensor locations. When combined with measured irradiances from a ground-based AERONET photometer, atmospheric column transmissions can determined yielding nighttime column aerosol AOD and Angstrom coefficients. Additional demonstrations have utilized this approach to further develop calibration methods and to obtain data in polar regions where extended periods of darkness occur. This new capability enables more complete studies of the diurnal behavior of aerosols, and feedback for models and satellite retrievals for the nighttime behavior of aerosols. It is anticipated that the nighttime capability of these sensors will be useful for comparisons with satellite lidars such as CALIOP and CATS in additional to ground-based lidars in MPLNET at night, when the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than daytime and more precise AOD comparisons can be made.

  20. Probabilistic seismic assessment of base-isolated NPPs subjected to strong ground motions of Tohoku earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer; Hayah, Nadin Abu; Kim, Doo Kie [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [R and D Center, JACE KOREA Company, Gyeonggido (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA) as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  1. Recent successes and emerging challenges for coordinated satellite/ground-based magnetospheric exploration and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    With the availability of a distributed constellation of spacecraft (THEMIS, Geotail, Cluster) and increased capability ground based arrays (SuperDARN, THEMIS/GBOs), it is now pos-sible to infer simply from timing significant information regarding mapping of magnetospheric phenomena. Optical, magnetometer and radar data can pinpoint the location and nature of onset signatures. On the other hand, magnetic field modeling constrained by physical bound-aries (such as the isotropy boundary) the measured magnetic field and total pressure values at a distibuted network of satellites has proven to do a much better job at correlating ionospheric precipitation and diffuse auroral boundaries to magnetospheric phenomena, such as the inward boundary of the dipolarization fronts. It is now possible to routinely compare in-situ measured phase space densities of ion and electron distributions during ionosphere -magnetosphere con-junctions, in the absense of potential drops. It is also possible to not only infer equivalent current systems from the ground, but use reconstruction of the ionospheric current system from space to determine the full electrodynamics evolution of the ionosphere and compare with radars. Assimilation of this emerging ground based and global magnetospheric panoply into a self consistent magnetospheric model will likely be one of the most fruitful endeavors in magnetospheric exploration during the next few years.

  2. Integration between ground based and satellite SAR data in landslide mapping: The San Fratello case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Bianchini, Silvia; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Moretti, Sandro; Basile, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of the integration of PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and GB-InSAR (Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) for landslide hazard mitigation was evaluated for mapping and monitoring activities of the San Fratello landslide (Sicily, Italy). Intense and exceptional rainfall events are the main factors that triggered several slope movements in the study area, which is susceptible to landslides, because of its steep slopes and silty-clayey sedimentary cover. In the last three centuries, the town of San Fratello was affected by three large landslides, developed in different periods: the oldest one occurred in 1754, damaging the northeastern sector of the town; in 1922 a large landslide completely destroyed a wide area in the western hillside of the town. In this paper, the attention is focussed on the most recent landslide that occurred on 14 February 2010: in this case, the phenomenon produced the failure of a large sector of the eastern hillside, causing severe damages to buildings and infrastructures. In particular, several slow-moving rotational and translational slides occurred in the area, making it suitable to monitor ground instability through different InSAR techniques. PS-InSAR™ (permanent scatterers SAR interferometry) techniques, using ERS-1/ERS-2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, and COSMO-SkyMed SAR images, were applied to analyze ground displacements during pre- and post-event phases. Moreover, during the post-event phase in March 2010, a GB-InSAR system, able to acquire data continuously every 14 min, was installed collecting ground displacement maps for a period of about three years, until March 2013. Through the integration of space-borne and ground-based data sets, ground deformation velocity maps were obtained, providing a more accurate delimitation of the February 2010 landslide boundary, with respect to the carried out traditional geomorphological field survey. The integration of GB-InSAR and PSI techniques proved to

  3. Techniques For Near-Earth Interplanetary Matter Detection And Characterisation From Optical Ground-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    PhD Thesis defended the 5th June 2017. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.This dissertation undertakes the research of the interplanetary matter near the Earth using two different observational approaches.The first one is based on the detection of the sunlight reflected by the bodies. The detection and characterisation of these nearby population require networks of medium-sized telescopes to survey and track them. We design a robotic system (the TBT telescopes) for the European Space Agency as a prototype for a future network. The first unit is already installed in Spain and we present the results of the commissioning. Additionally we evaluate the expected performance of such an instrument using a simulation with a synthetic population. We consider that the system designed is a powerful instrument for nearby asteroid discovery and tracking. It is based on commercial components, and therefore ready for a scalable implementation in a global network.Meanwhile the bodies smaller than asteroids are observed using the atmosphere as a detector. When these particles collide with the atmospheric molecules they are heated, ablated, sublimated, and finally light is emitted by these hot vapours, what we call meteors. We conduct the investigation of these meteors to study the meteoroids. In particular we address two different topics: On one hand we explore the size/mass frequency distribution of meteoroids using flux determination when the collide into the atmosphere. We develop a method to determine this flux using video observations of meteors and analyse the properties of meteors as an optical proxy to meteoroids in order to maximise the detection. It yields three ground-based observational solutions that we transform into instrumental designs. First we design and develop a meteor all-sky detection station for Observatorio UCM and use the Draconids 2011 campaign as a showcase for the flux determination, with successful results. Then we investigate the observation of meteors

  4. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  5. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  6. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  7. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  8. Remote sensing of high-latitude ionization profiles by ground-based and spaceborne instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ionospheric specification and modeling are now largely based on data provided by active remote sensing with radiowave techniques (ionosondes, incoherent-scatter radars, and satellite beacons). More recently, passive remote sensing techniques have been developed that can be used to monitor quantitatively the spatial distribution of high-latitude E-region ionization. These passive methods depend on the measurement, or inference, of the energy distribution of precipitating kilovolt electrons, the principal source of the nighttime E-region at high latitudes. To validate these techniques, coordinated measurements of the auroral ionosphere have been made with the Chatanika incoherent-scatter radar and a variety of ground-based and spaceborne sensors

  9. Plant diversity to support humans in a CELSS ground based demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J. M.; Hoff, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for human habitation in preparation for future long duration space flights is considered. The success of such a system depends upon the feasibility of revitalization of food resources and the human nutritional needs which are to be met by these food resources. Edible higher plants are prime candidates for the photoautotrophic components of this system if nutritionally adequate diets can be derived from these plant sources to support humans. Human nutritional requirements information based on current knowledge are developed for inhabitants envisioned in the CELSS ground based demonstrator. Groups of plant products that can provide the nutrients are identified.

  10. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  11. A cooperative NRC/CEA research project on earthquake ground motion on soil sites: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1989-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a multi-phase experiment being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The objective of the experiment is to collect a comprehensive set of data on the propagation of earthquake ground motions vertically through a shallow soil column (on the order of several tens of meters). The data will be used to validate several of the available engineering computer codes for modeling earthquake ground motion. The data set will also be used to develop an improved understanding of the earthquake source function and the potential for non-linear effects controlling the propagation through the shallow soil column

  12. Ground penetrating radar measurements at the ONKALO research tunnel and eastern part of the Olkiluoto investigation area at July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipola, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out at ONKALO research site in summer 2006. Measurements included 400 metres of measurements inside ONKALO access tunnel and about 1800 metres of measurements on the ground, at the eastern parts of Olkiluoto investigation area. The purpose of the measurements done inside the access tunnel was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate deformation structures or long fractures in the rock mass below the tunnel. The purpose of the measurements made on top of the ground was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate glacio-isostatic faults from the soils. A secondary target was to try and locate the rock surface. The chosen part of ONKALO tunnel was measured using five different frequencies, which enabled comparing the results to each other. It also enabled getting a higher resolution picture of the top rock, than what would have been possible using only one low-frequency antenna. The on-the-ground measurements were measured using only one frequency. (orig.)

  13. Preparatory research to develop an operational method to calibrate airborne sensor data using a network of ground calibration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, E.J.; Smith, G.M.; Lawless, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an operational method to convert airborne spectral radiance data to reflectance using a number of well-characterized ground calibration sites located around the UK. The study is in three phases. First, a pilot study has been conducted at a disused airfield in southern England to test the feasibility of the open-quote empirical line close-quote method of sensor calibration. The second phase is developing methods to predict temporal changes in the bidirectional reflectance of ground calibration sites. The final phase of the project will look at methods to extend such calibrations spatially. This paper presents some results from the first phase of this study. The viability of the empirical line method of correction is shown to depend upon the use of ground targets whose in-band reflectance encompasses that of the targets of interest in the spectral band(s) concerned. The experimental design for the second phase of the study, in which methods to predict temporal trends in the bidirectional reflectance of these sites will be developed, is discussed. Finally, it is planned to develop an automated method of searching through Landsat TM data for the UK to identify a number of candidate ground calibration sites for which the model can be tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Grounding new institutional theory on a micro-sociological and practice-based foundation - exploring models of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    interested in explaining how and why ideas travel in and out of organizations and become institutionalized in organizational fields. More specifically the paper focuses on the way actor-network theory and the concept of translation have been translated by researchers trying to understand institutionalization......Institutional and more practice-based perspectives on organizing and change are increasingly being combined in order to understand the micro-processes on which institutional "orders" are built and changed. The aim of this paper is to analyze how this work is done in practice by researchers...... processes related to ideas that travel from one place in time and space to another. The paper suggests that combining the concept of translation and theories about institutional change will make it possible to ground macro-sociological claims about how ideas travel and become institutionalized...

  15. The ten-year pattern (1978-1987) of stratospheric aerosol loading using ground-based radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Pearson, E.W.; LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the procedures used to obtain a stratospheric measurement with ground-based sun radiometry are reviewed briefly. The five-wavelength optical depths are then used to study the evolution of aerosol size during the decade. The time history of loading from the instruments described are compared. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Garmisch-Partenkirchen data because their latitude is very nearly that of the PNL site. The most useful data for this study are those observational records that measure total stratospheric aerosol burden and include the early period and continue throughout the eruption and decay of El Chichon. The lidar data from Langley Research Center and Fraunhofer-Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the SAM II satellite data, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) sun radiometry are the published contiguous measurements of the stratosphere aerosol burden during this period. 16 refs., 6 figs

  16. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols and the activity of Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs enzyme on 32 samples of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom (top and bottom and subjected to heat treatments (blanching, boiling and freezing. The protein content was ranged between the values of 16.9 and 25.1g/ 100g and the Vitamin C content within the range of values presented 64.32-564.95 mg/100g. The polyphenol content results varied significantly in the analyzed samples varying between 1.887 – 7.667 mg GAE / 100 g vegetable product. The determination of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatically blackening of the fungus presented values in the range 0.274- 0.610mg / 100g.

  17. Research Base for Improved Classroom Learning: Brain or Behavior? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit in recent Evidence Speaks postings is the need to develop evidence-based interventions for improving student achievement. Comparative analysis of the education research literature versus the educational neuroscience literature suggests that education research, grounded in the behavioral and cognitive sciences, is currently the better…

  18. Review of research in feature based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems

  19. Multi-story base-isolated buildings under a harmonic ground motion. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fagung; Ahmadi, G.; Tadjbakhsh, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    The performances of several leading base-isolation devices (Pure-Friction/Sliding-Joint, Rubber Bearing, French System, New Zealand System, and Resilient-Friction) and a newly proposed system (Sliding Resilient-Friction) for a multi-story building subject to a horizontal harmonic ground motion are studied. The governing equations of motion of various systems and the criteria for stick-slip transition are described and a computational algorithm for obtaining their numerical solutions is developed. The responses of the structure with different base-isolation systems under various conditions are analyzed. The peak absolute acceleration, the maximum structural deflection, and the peak base-displacement responses are obtained. The effectiveness of various base isolators are studied and advantages and disadvantages of different systems are discussed. The results show that the base-isolation devices effectively reduce the column stresses and the acceleration transmitted to the superstructure. (orig.)

  20. A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of

  1. Summer planetary-scale oscillations: aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Meek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of satellite based sampling brings with it the opportunity to examine virtually any part of the globe. Aura MLS mesospheric temperature data are analysed in a wavelet format for easy identification of possible planetary waves (PW and aliases masquerading as PW. A calendar year, 2005, of eastward, stationary, and westward waves at a selected latitude is shown in separate panels for wave number range −3 to +3 for period range 8 h to 30 days (d. Such a wavelet analysis is made possible by Aura's continuous sampling at all latitudes 82° S–82° N. The data presentation is suitable for examination of years of data. However this paper focuses on the striking feature of a "dish-shaped" upper limit to periods near 2 d in mid-summer, with longer periods appearing towards spring and fall, a feature also commonly seen in radar winds. The most probable cause is suggested to be filtering by the summer jet at 70–80 km, the latter being available from ground based medium frequency radar (MFR. Classically, the phase velocity of a wave must be greater than that of the jet in order to propagate through it. As an attempt to directly relate satellite and ground based sampling, a PW event of period 8d and wave number 2, which appears to be the original rather than an alias, is compared with ground based radar wind data. An appendix discusses characteristics of satellite data aliases with regard to their periods and amplitudes.

  2. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  3. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on-orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground-based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and image workstation, and the communication simulator. The input verification module, consisting of hardware and software of the master, is used to verify the input ability. The onboard verification module, consisting of the same hardware and software as the onboard processor, is used to verify the processor's computing ability and execution schedule. In addition, the dynamic and image workstation calculates the dynamic response of the space robot and target, and generates emulated camera images, including the hand-eye cameras, global-vision camera and rendezvous camera. The communication simulator provides fidelity communication conditions, i.e., time delays and communication bandwidth. Lastly, we integrated a teleoperation system and conducted many experiments on the system. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verified teleoperation technology.

  4. Removal of lead and fluoride from contaminated water using exhausted coffee grounds based bio-sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Babu, A; Reddy, D Srinivasa; Kumar, G Suresh; Ravindhranath, K; Krishna Mohan, G V

    2018-07-15

    Water pollution by industrial and anthropogenic actives has become a serious threat to the environment. World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that lead and fluoride amid the environmental pollutants are most poisonous water contaminants with devastating impact on the human race. The present work proposes a study on economical bio-adsorbent based technique using exhausted coffee grounds in the removal of lead and fluoride contaminants from water. The exhausted coffee grounds gathered from industrial wastes have been acid-activated and examined for their adsorption capacity. The surface morphology and elemental characterization of pre-and-post adsorption operations by FESEM, EDX and FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the potential of the exhausted coffee ground as successful bio-sorbent. However, thermodynamic analysis confirmed the adsorption to be spontaneous physisorption with Langmuir mode of homogenous monolayer deposition. The kinetics of adsorption is well defined by pseudo second order model for both lead and fluoride. A significant quantity of lead and fluoride is removed from the synthetic contaminated water by the proposed bio-sorbent with the respective sorption capabilities of 61.6 mg/g and 9.05 mg/g. However, the developed bio-sorbent is also recyclable and is capable of removing the lead and fluoride from the domestic and industrial waste-water sources with an overall removal efficiency of about 90%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Component design challenges for the ground-based SP-100 nuclear assembly test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, R.A.; Disney, R.K.; Brown, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program involves a ground test of the nuclear subsystems to demonstrate their design. The GES nuclear assembly test (NAT) will be performed in a simulated space environment within a vessel maintained at ultrahigh vacuum. The NAT employs a radiation shielding system that is comprised of both prototypical and nonprototypical shield subsystems to attenuate the reactor radiation leakage and also nonprototypical heat transport subsystems to remove the heat generated by the reactor. The reactor is cooled by liquid lithium, which will operate at temperatures prototypical of the flight system. In designing the components for these systems, a number of design challenges were encountered in meeting the operational requirements of the simulated space environment (and where necessary, prototypical requirements) while also accommodating the restrictions of a ground-based test facility with its limited available space. This paper presents a discussion of the design challenges associated with the radiation shield subsystem components and key components of the heat transport systems

  6. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  7. Validation of OMI erythemal doses with multi-sensor ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Taylor, Michael; Kazadzis, Stelios; Arola, Antti; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Chariklia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) erythemal dose rates using ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece. In the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 radiometer measures the erythemal dose rates every minute, and a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) multi-filter radiometer provides multi-filter based irradiances that were used to derive erythemal dose rates for the period 2005-2014. Both these datasets were independently validated against collocated UV irradiance spectra from a Brewer MkIII spectrophotometer. Cloud detection was performed based on measurements of the global horizontal radiation from a Kipp & Zonen pyranometer and from NILU measurements in the visible range. The satellite versus ground observation validation was performed taking into account the effect of temporal averaging, limitations related to OMI quality control criteria, cloud conditions, the solar zenith angle and atmospheric aerosol loading. Aerosol optical depth was also retrieved using a collocated CIMEL sunphotometer in order to assess its impact on the comparisons. The effect of total ozone columns satellite versus ground-based differences on the erythemal dose comparisons was also investigated. Since most of the public awareness alerts are based on UV Index (UVI) classifications, an analysis and assessment of OMI capability for retrieving UVIs was also performed. An overestimation of the OMI erythemal product by 3-6% and 4-8% with respect to ground measurements is observed when examining overpass and noontime estimates respectively. The comparisons revealed a relatively small solar zenith angle dependence, with the OMI data showing a slight dependence on aerosol load, especially at high aerosol optical depth values. A mean underestimation of 2% in OMI total ozone columns under cloud-free conditions was found to lead to an overestimation in OMI erythemal

  8. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudnik, B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) The much anticipated launch of NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late Novermber. [The LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140-day mission.] We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and members of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  9. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-Based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudnik, Brian; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2014-05-01

    The much anticipated launch of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late November. [the LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140 day mission] .We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteoroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and member of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  10. Using Open Access Satellite Data Alongside Ground Based Remote Sensing: An Assessment, with Case Studies from Egypt’s Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Parcak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will assess the most recently available open access high-resolution optical satellite data (0.3 m–0.6 m and its detection of buried ancient features versus ground based remote sensing tools. It also discusses the importance of CORONA satellite data to evaluate landscape changes over the past 50 years surrounding sites. The study concentrates on Egypt’s Nile Delta, which is threatened by rising sea and water tables and urbanization. Many ancient coastal sites will be lost in the next few decades, thus this paper emphasizes the need to map them before they disappear. It shows that high resolution satellites can sometimes provide the same general picture on ancient sites in the Egyptian Nile Delta as ground based remote sensing, with relatively sandier sedimentary and degrading tell environments, during periods of rainfall, and higher groundwater conditions. Research results also suggest potential solutions for rapid mapping of threatened Delta sites, and urge a collaborative global effort to maps them before they disappear.

  11. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  12. Ground-based SMART-COMMIT Measurements for Studying Aerosol and Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations cover large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite data sets. The development and deployment of SMARTCOMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile facilities are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instruments fall into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of SMART-COMMIT in recent field campaigns (e.g., CRYSTAL-FACE, UAE 2, BASEASIA, NAMMA) that were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in temporal scale of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols (e.g., biomass-burning smoke, airborne dust) and cirrus clouds. We envision robust approaches in which well-collocated ground-based measurements and space-borne observations will greatly advance our knowledge of extensive aerosols and clouds.

  13. Kepler and Ground-Based Transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro V.; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W.; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Haase, Plynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp = 4.31 R xor 0.06 R xor and Rs = 0.683 R solar mass 0.009 R solar mass, both about 3 sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases 0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12 deg 5 deg to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  14. Automated cloud classification using a ground based infra-red camera and texture analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Emal; Kerr, David; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Sandford, Andrew P.; Brettle, Mike J.

    2013-10-01

    Clouds play an important role in influencing the dynamics of local and global weather and climate conditions. Continuous monitoring of clouds is vital for weather forecasting and for air-traffic control. Convective clouds such as Towering Cumulus (TCU) and Cumulonimbus clouds (CB) are associated with thunderstorms, turbulence and atmospheric instability. Human observers periodically report the presence of CB and TCU clouds during operational hours at airports and observatories; however such observations are expensive and time limited. Robust, automatic classification of cloud type using infrared ground-based instrumentation offers the advantage of continuous, real-time (24/7) data capture and the representation of cloud structure in the form of a thermal map, which can greatly help to characterise certain cloud formations. The work presented here utilised a ground based infrared (8-14 μm) imaging device mounted on a pan/tilt unit for capturing high spatial resolution sky images. These images were processed to extract 45 separate textural features using statistical and spatial frequency based analytical techniques. These features were used to train a weighted k-nearest neighbour (KNN) classifier in order to determine cloud type. Ground truth data were obtained by inspection of images captured simultaneously from a visible wavelength colour camera at the same installation, with approximately the same field of view as the infrared device. These images were classified by a trained cloud observer. Results from the KNN classifier gave an encouraging success rate. A Probability of Detection (POD) of up to 90% with a Probability of False Alarm (POFA) as low as 16% was achieved.

  15. Development of ground-based wind energy in DOM and Corsica - Joint CGEDD / CGEIET report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joannis de Verclos, Christian de; Albrecht, Patrick; Iselin, Philippe; Legait, Benoit; Vignolles, Denis

    2012-09-01

    Addressing the peculiar cases of the French overseas districts (DOM: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyana, Mayotte, La Reunion) and Corsica, this report analyzes four main topics: the objectives and challenges of ground-based wind energy (sustainable development, not-interconnected areas, and public service of electricity supply), the local situations and their cartography, the legal issues and the possible evolution options (energy law, environmental law, urban planning law, local community law), and the modalities of devolution of project. The authors highlight the issues which require a new legal framework, notably governance and the devolution procedure

  16. Tests of the gravitational redshift effect in space-born and ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of experiments as concerns with the tests of the gravitational redshift (GRS) effect in ground-based and space-born experiments. In particular, we consider the GRS effects in the gravitational field of the Earth, the major planets of the Solar system, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) where this effect is confirmed with a higher accuracy. We discuss availabilities to confirm the GRS effect for galaxies and galaxy clusters in visible and X-ray ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  17. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  18. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  19. Pulsation of IU Per from the Ground-based and ‘Integral’ Photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundra E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available IU Per is an eclipsing semi-detached binary with a pulsating component. Using our own ground-based, as well as INTEGRAL satellite photometric observations in the B and V passbands, we derived geometrical and physical parameters of this system. We detected the short-term variations of IU Per in the residuals of brightness after the subtraction of synthetic light curves. Analysis of these residuals enabled us to characterize and localize the source of short-term variations as the pulsations of the primary component typical to δ Scuti-type stars.

  20. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  1. a Universal De-Noising Algorithm for Ground-Based LIDAR Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based lidar, working as an effective remote sensing tool, plays an irreplaceable role in the study of atmosphere, since it has the ability to provide the atmospheric vertical profile. However, the appearance of noise in a lidar signal is unavoidable, which leads to difficulties and complexities when searching for more information. Every de-noising method has its own characteristic but with a certain limitation, since the lidar signal will vary with the atmosphere changes. In this paper, a universal de-noising algorithm is proposed to enhance the SNR of a ground-based lidar signal, which is based on signal segmentation and reconstruction. The signal segmentation serving as the keystone of the algorithm, segments the lidar signal into three different parts, which are processed by different de-noising method according to their own characteristics. The signal reconstruction is a relatively simple procedure that is to splice the signal sections end to end. Finally, a series of simulation signal tests and real dual field-of-view lidar signal shows the feasibility of the universal de-noising algorithm.

  2. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation program for ground-based radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eric P.; Black, Dennis W.; Ebisu, Jason S.; Magallon, Julianna

    2011-06-01

    A radar system created using an embedded computer system needs testing. The way to test an embedded computer system is different from the debugging approaches used on desktop computers. One way to test a radar system is to feed it artificial inputs and analyze the outputs of the radar. More often, not all of the building blocks of the radar system are available to test. This will require the engineer to test parts of the radar system using a "black box" approach. A common way to test software code on a desktop simulation is to use breakpoints so that is pauses after each cycle through its calculations. The outputs are compared against the values that are expected. This requires the engineer to use valid test scenarios. We will present a hardware-in-the-loop simulator that allows the embedded system to think it is operating with real-world inputs and outputs. From the embedded system's point of view, it is operating in real-time. The hardware in the loop simulation is based on our Desktop PC Simulation (PCS) testbed. In the past, PCS was used for ground-based radars. This embedded simulation, called Embedded PCS, allows a rapid simulated evaluation of ground-based radar performance in a laboratory environment.

  3. Ground-based VHE γ ray astronomy with air Cherenkov imaging telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, R.

    2000-01-01

    The history of astronomy has been one of the scientific discovery following immediately the introduction of new technology. In this report, we will review shortly the basic development of the atmospheric air Cherenkov light detection technique, particularly the imaging telescope technique, which in the last years led to the firm establishment of a new branch in experimental astronomy, namely ground-based very high-energy (VHE) γ ray astronomy. Milestones in the technology and in the analysis of imaging technique will be discussed. The design of the 17 m diameter MAGIC Telescope, being currently under construction, is based on the development of new technologies for all its major parts and sets new standards in the performance of the ground-based γ detectors. MAGIC is one of the next major steps in the development of the technique being the first instrument that will allow one to carry out measurements also in the not yet investigated energy gap i.e. between 10 and 300 GeV

  4. Automatic vetting of planet candidates from ground based surveys: Machine learning with NGTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David J.; Günther, Maximilian N.; McCormac, James; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Bayliss, Daniel; Bouchy, François; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Casewell, Sarah; Eigmüller, Philipp; Gillen, Edward; Goad, Michael R.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Jenkins, James S.; Louden, Tom; Metrailler, Lionel; Pollacco, Don; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Queloz, Didier; Raynard, Liam; Rauer, Heike; Udry, Stéphane; Walker, Simon R.; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Wheatley, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    State of the art exoplanet transit surveys are producing ever increasing quantities of data. To make the best use of this resource, in detecting interesting planetary systems or in determining accurate planetary population statistics, requires new automated methods. Here we describe a machine learning algorithm that forms an integral part of the pipeline for the NGTS transit survey, demonstrating the efficacy of machine learning in selecting planetary candidates from multi-night ground based survey data. Our method uses a combination of random forests and self-organising-maps to rank planetary candidates, achieving an AUC score of 97.6% in ranking 12368 injected planets against 27496 false positives in the NGTS data. We build on past examples by using injected transit signals to form a training set, a necessary development for applying similar methods to upcoming surveys. We also make the autovet code used to implement the algorithm publicly accessible. autovet is designed to perform machine learned vetting of planetary candidates, and can utilise a variety of methods. The apparent robustness of machine learning techniques, whether on space-based or the qualitatively different ground-based data, highlights their importance to future surveys such as TESS and PLATO and the need to better understand their advantages and pitfalls in an exoplanetary context.

  5. The Monitoring Case of Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Zhai, Q. P.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. J.; Zhou, K. Q.; Wang, Y. S.; Dou, Y. D.

    2017-09-01

    The features of the landslide geological disaster are wide distribution, variety, high frequency, high intensity, destructive and so on. It has become a natural disaster with harmful and wide range of influence. The technology of ground-based synthetic aperture radar is a novel deformation monitoring technology developed in recent years. The features of the technology are large monitoring area, high accuracy, long distance without contact and so on. In this paper, fast ground-based synthetic aperture radar (Fast-GBSAR) based on frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system is used to collect the data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing. The device can reduce the atmospheric errors caused by rapidly changing environment. The landslide deformation can be monitored in severe weather conditions (for example, fog) by Fast-GBSAR with acquisition speed up to 5 seconds per time. The data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing are analyzed in this paper. The result verifies that the device can monitor landslide deformation under severe weather conditions.

  6. A New Technique to Observe ENSO Activity via Ground-Based GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, Wayan; Iskandar, Ahmad; Singh, Mandeep Singh Jit

    In an attempt to study the effects of global climate change in the tropics for improving global climate model, this paper aims to detect the ENSO events, especially El Nino phase by using ground-based GPS receivers. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology measurements in line with the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTa) are used to connect their response to El Niño activity. The data gathered from four selected stations over the Southeast Asia, namely PIMO (Philippines), KUAL (Malaysia), NTUS (Singapore) and BAKO (Indonesia) for the year of 2009/2010 were processed. A strong correlation was observed for PIMO station with a correlation coefficient of -0.90, significantly at the 99 % confidence level. In general, the relationship between GPS PWV and SSTa at all stations on a weekly basis showed with a negative correlation. The negative correlation indicates that during the El Niño event, the PWV variation was in decreased trend. Decreased trend of PWV value is caused by a dry season that affected the GPS signals in the ocean-atmospheric coupling. Based on these promising results, we can propose that the ground-based GPS receiver is capable used to monitor ENSO activity and this is a new prospective method that previously unexplored.

  7. Towards designing and implementing an empirically grounded research for humanitarian logistics after nepal earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, M.; Lauras, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper proposes a research design for effective use of qualitative data from field research in a quantitative analysis of humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach Our research design is composed of qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part has four steps:

  8. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  9. Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

  10. Market Research in Public Education: AASA Keeps Its Ear to the Ground to Devise Strategic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of marketing research can be gauged simply through an examination of the wide range of organizations that use research. These organizations include small and large businesses, manufacturing and technology companies, policymakers, nonprofit organizations and government agencies. Marketing research focuses on the identification of…

  11. Human Walking Pattern Recognition Based on KPCA and SVM with Ground Reflex Pressure Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms based on the ground reflex pressure (GRF signal obtained from a pair of sensing shoes for human walking pattern recognition were investigated. The dimensionality reduction algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA for walking pattern data compression were studied in order to obtain higher recognition speed. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM, SVM-PCA, and SVM-KPCA were designed, and the classification performances of these three kinds of algorithms were compared using data collected from a person who was wearing the sensing shoes. Experimental results showed that the algorithm fusing SVM and KPCA had better recognition performance than the other two methods. Experimental outcomes also confirmed that the sensing shoes developed in this paper can be employed for automatically recognizing human walking pattern in unlimited environments which demonstrated the potential application in the control of exoskeleton robots.

  12. Soil "ecosystem" services and natural capital: Critical appraisal of research on uncertain ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of ecosystem services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that allegedly started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005. The careful analysis of the literature proposed in this article shows that, in fact, interest in the multifunctionality of soils emerged already in the mid-60s, at a time when hundreds of researchers worldwide were trying, and largely failing, to figure out how to put price tags meaningfully on nature's services. Soil scientists, since, have tried to better understand various functions/services of soils, as well as their possible relation with key soil characteristics, like biodiversity. They have also tried to make progress on the challenging quantification of soil functions/services. However, researchers have shown very little interest in monetary valuation, undoubtedly in part because it is not clear what economic and financial markets might do with prices of soil functions/services, even if we could somehow come up with such numbers, and because there is no assurance at all, based on neoclassical economic theory, that markets would manage soil resources optimally. Instead of monetary valuation, focus in the literature has been put on decision-making methods, like Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, which do not require the systematic monetization of soil functions/services and easily accommodate deliberative approaches involving a variety of stakeholders. A prerequisite to progress in such public deliberations is that participants be very cognizant of the extreme relevance of soils

  13. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  14. How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

  15. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus

    2017-08-01

    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  16. Exploring the relationship between monitored ground-based and satellite aerosol measurements over the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project studied the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite, and ground-based monitored particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations measured...

  17. Information Technology Management: Select Controls for the Information Security of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truex, Kathryn M; Lamar, Karen J; Leighton, George A; Woodruff, Courtney E; Brunetti, Tina N; Russell, Dawn M

    2006-01-01

    ... to the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Communications Network should read this report to reduce the risk of interruption, misuse, modification, and unauthorized access to information in the system...

  18. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  19. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  20. Experimental research on dispersion parameters of ground water around the area of CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    1993-01-01

    The dispersion are important parameters in modeling the migration of pollutant in the ground water. Due to the complexity of geological media, variant dispersion is expected according to the difference of the geological media. Three parts are included in physical simulation in the laboratory column, tracer experiment in the field and the prediction of dispersion using the stochastic model. Experimental results show that the dispersion obtained in the column are three orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained in the field. Using the field values of conductivity and stochastic theory, the calculated asymptotic longitudinal and lateral dispersion are 370 and 0.45 meters respectively and the correlation length is 400 meters approximately. Using the dispersion obtained from the formula in the paper can enhance the precision of the model prediction, the distance heeded to reach the Fick's dispersion is 6 km approximately

  1. Coordinated Ground-Based Observations and the New Horizons Fly-by of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot; Young, Leslie; Parker, Joel; Binzel, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft is scheduled to make its closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015. NH carries seven scientific instruments, including separate UV and Visible-IR spectrographs, a long-focal-length imager, two plasma-sensing instruments and a dust counter. There are three arenas in particular in which ground-based observations should augment the NH instrument suite in synergistic ways: IR spectra at wavelengths longer than 2.5 µm (i.e., longer than the NH Ralph spectrograph), stellar occultation observations near the time of the fly-by, and thermal surface maps and atmospheric CO abundances based on ALMA observations - we discuss the first two of these. IR spectra in the 3 - 5 µm range cover the CH4 absorption band near 3.3 µm. This band can be an important constraint on the state and areal extent of nitrogen frost on Pluto's surface. If this band depth is close to zero (as was observed by Olkin et al. 2007), it limits the area of nitrogen frost, which is bright at that wavelength. Combined with the NH observations of nitrogen frost at 2.15 µm, the ground-based spectra will determine how much nitrogen frost is diluted with methane, which is a basic constraint on the seasonal cycle of sublimation and condensation that takes place on Pluto (and similar objects like Triton and Eris). There is a fortuitous stellar occultation by Pluto on 29-JUN-2015, only two weeks before the NH closest approach. The occulted star will be the brightest ever observed in a Pluto event, about 2 magnitudes brighter than Pluto itself. The track of the event is predicted to cover parts of Australia and New Zealand. Thanks to HST and ground based campaigns to find a TNO target reachable by NH, the position of the shadow path will be known at the +/-100 km level, allowing SOFIA and mobile ground-based observers to reliably cover the central flash region. Ground-based & SOFIA observations in visible and IR wavelengths will characterize the haze opacity and vertical

  2. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  3. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  4. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  5. Preparing for TESS: Precision Ground-based Light-curves of Newly Discovered Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Monson, Andy; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John; Huehnerhoff, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), to be launched in early 2018, is expected to catalog a myriad of transiting exoplanet candidates ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, orbiting a diverse range of stellar types in the solar neighborhood. In particular, TESS will find small planets orbiting the closest and brightest stars, and will enable detailed atmospheric characterizations of planets with current and future telescopes. In the TESS era, ground-based follow-up resources will play a critical role in validating and confirming the planetary nature of the candidates TESS will discover. Along with confirming the planetary nature of exoplanet transits, high precision ground-based transit observations allow us to put further constraints on exoplanet orbital parameters and transit timing variations. In this talk, we present new observations of transiting exoplanets recently discovered by the K2 mission, using the optical diffuser on the 3.5m ARC Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. These include observations of the mini-Neptunes K2-28b and K2-104b orbiting early-to-mid M-dwarfs. In addition, other recent transit observations performed using the robotic 30cm telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile will be presented.

  6. Retrieval of tropospheric HCHO in El Salvador using ground based DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, W.; Gamez, K.; Rudamas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant carbonyl in the atmosphere, being an intermediate product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs). HCHO is carcinogenic, and highly water soluble [1]. HCHO can originate from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion and has been observed from satellite and ground-based sensors by using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique [2].DOAS products can be used for air quality monitoring, validation of chemical transport models, validation of satellite tropospheric column density retrievals, among others [3]. In this study, we report on column density levels of HCHO measured by ground based Multi-Axis -DOAS in different locations of El Salvador in March, 2015. We have not observed large differences of the HCHO column density values at different viewing directions. This result points out a reasonably polluted and hazy atmosphere in the measuring sites, as reported by other authors [4]. Average values ranging from 1016 to 1017 molecules / cm2 has been obtained. The contribution of vehicular traffic and biomass burning to the column density levels in these sites of El Salvador will be discussed. [1] A. R. Garcia et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 4545 (2006) [2] E. Peters et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11179 (2012) [3] T. Vlemmix, et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 941-963, 2015 [4] A. Heckel et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, (2005)

  7. Relationship between soft stratum thickness and predominant frequency of ground based on microtremor observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kenny; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-07-01

    Despite categorized as low seismicity group, until being affected by distant earthquake ground motion from Sumatra and the recent 2015 Sabah Earthquake, Malaysia has come to realize that seismic hazard in the country is real and has the potential to threaten the public safety and welfare. The major concern in this paper is to study the effect of local site condition, where it could amplify the magnitude of ground vibration at sites. The aim for this study is to correlate the thickness of soft stratum with the predominant frequency of soil. Single point microtremor measurements were carried out at 24 selected points where the site investigation reports are available. Predominant period and frequency at each site are determined by Nakamura's method. The predominant period varies from 0.22 s to 0.98 s. Generally, the predominant period increases when getting closer to the shoreline which has thicker sediments. As far as the thickness of the soft stratum could influence the amplification of seismic wave, the advancement of micotremor observation to predict the thickness of soft stratum (h) from predominant frequency (fr) is of the concern. Thus an empirical relationship h =54.917 fr-1.314 is developed based on the microtremor observation data. The empirical relationship will be benefited in the prediction of thickness of soft stratum based on microtremor observation for seismic design with minimal cost compared to conventional boring method.

  8. GROUND-BASED TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mooij, E. J. W. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Karjalainen, R.; Hrudkova, M. [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma (Spain); Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-12-20

    We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2 m class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ∼700 and ∼250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190{sub −0.0027}{sup +0.0023} from the 2013 observations and 0.0200{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0017} from the 2014 observations. The two data sets combined result in a radius ratio of 0.0198{sub −0.0014}{sup +0.0013}. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-sized telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite around bright stars. We expect it also will be possible to place constraints on the atmospheric characteristics of those planets by devising observational strategies to minimize scintillation noise.

  9. The Polarization-Sensitive Bolometers for SPICA and their Potential Use for Ground-Based Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveret, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    CEA is leading the development of Safari-POL, an imaging-polarimeter aboard the SPICA space observatory (ESA M5). SPICA will be able to reach unprecedented sensitivities thanks to its cooled telescope and its ultra-sensitive detectors. The detector assembly of Safari-POL holds three arrays that are cooled down to 50 mK and correspond to three spectral bands : 100, 200 and 350 microns. The detectors (silicon bolometers), benefit from the Herschel/PACS legacy and are also a big step forward in term of sensitivity (improved by two orders of magnitude compared to PACS bolometers) and for polarimetry capabilities. Indeed, each pixel is intrinsically sensitive to two polarization components (Horizontal and Vertical). We will present the Safari-POL concept, the first results of measurements made on the detectors, and future plans for possible ground-based instruments using this technology. We will also present the example of the ArTéMiS camera, installed at APEX, that was developped as a ground-based conterpart of the PACS photometer.

  10. Prospects for Ground-Based Detection and Follow-up of TESS-Discovered Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakian, Matthew; Deming, Drake

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will monitor over 200,000 main sequence dwarf stars for exoplanetary transits, with the goal of discovering small planets orbiting stars that are bright enough for follow-up observations. We here evaluate the prospects for ground-based transit detection and follow-up of the TESS-discovered planets. We focus particularly on the TESS planets that only transit once during each 27.4 day TESS observing window per region, and we calculate to what extent ground-based recovery of additional transits will be possible. Using simulated exoplanet systems from Sullivan et al. and assuming the use of a 60-cm telescope at a high quality observing site, we project the S/N ratios for transits of such planets. We use Phoenix stellar models for stars with surface temperatures from 2500K to 12000K, and we account for limb darkening, red atmospheric noise, and missed transits due to the day-night cycle and poor weather.

  11. Sensitivity of Base-Isolated Systems to Ground Motion Characteristics: A Stochastic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Yavuz; Safak, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Base isolators dissipate energy through their nonlinear behavior when subjected to earthquake-induced loads. A widely used base isolation system for structures involves installing lead-rubber bearings (LRB) at the foundation level. The force-deformation behavior of LRB isolators can be modeled by a bilinear hysteretic model. This paper investigates the effects of ground motion characteristics on the response of bilinear hysteretic oscillators by using a stochastic approach. Ground shaking is characterized by its power spectral density function (PSDF), which includes corner frequency, seismic moment, moment magnitude, and site effects as its parameters. The PSDF of the oscillator response is calculated by using the equivalent-linearization techniques of random vibration theory for hysteretic nonlinear systems. Knowing the PSDF of the response, we can calculate the mean square and the expected maximum response spectra for a range of natural periods and ductility values. The results show that moment magnitude is a critical factor determining the response. Site effects do not seem to have a significant influence

  12. Development and calibration of a ground-based active collector for cloud- and fogwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kins, L.; Junkermann, W.; Meixner, F.X.; Muller, K.P.; Ehhalt, D.H.

    1986-04-01

    In spring 1985, field experiments were started to study the scavenging processes of atmospheric trace substances. Besides the chemical analysis of precipitation sample, these studies required simultaneous collection of cloud water for chemical analysis. In particular, a ground-based cloud water collector was needed, suitable for use on the top of a TV-tower. Existing designs of ground-based cloud or fogwater samplers be divided into two general classes: a) passive collectors, which utilize the ambient wind to impact the droplets on the collection surface; b) active collectors, which accelerate the droplets to a certain velocity as they approach the collection surface. Teflon-strings are extended between two disks which are 1m apart. The disadvantage of this collector, for these experiments, was that the collector strings are always exposed to the ambient air, so that contamination by aerosol impact during dry periods can not be excluded. Furthermore, because of the length of the strings, impacted droplets need a certain time to drain off, during which they remain exposed to the ambient air stream and continue to scavenge trace gases.

  13. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.

  15. Ground-based telescope pointing and tracking optimization using a neural controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, D; Brescia, M; Schipani, P

    2003-01-01

    Neural network models (NN) have emerged as important components for applications of adaptive control theories. Their basic generalization capability, based on acquired knowledge, together with execution rapidity and correlation ability between input stimula, are basic attributes to consider NN as an extremely powerful tool for on-line control of complex systems. By a control system point of view, not only accuracy and speed, but also, in some cases, a high level of adaptation capability is required in order to match all working phases of the whole system during its lifetime. This is particularly remarkable for a new generation ground-based telescope control system. Infact, strong changes in terms of system speed and instantaneous position error tolerance are necessary, especially in case of trajectory disturb induced by wind shake. The classical control scheme adopted in such a system is based on the proportional integral (PI) filter, already applied and implemented on a large amount of new generation telescopes, considered as a standard in this technological environment. In this paper we introduce the concept of a new approach, the neural variable structure proportional integral, (NVSPI), related to the implementation of a standard multi layer perceptron network in new generation ground-based Alt-Az telescope control systems. Its main purpose is to improve adaptive capability of the Variable structure proportional integral model, an already innovative control scheme recently introduced by authors [Proc SPIE (1997)], based on a modified version of classical PI control model, in terms of flexibility and accuracy of the dynamic response range also in presence of wind noise effects. The realization of a powerful well tested and validated telescope model simulation system allowed the possibility to directly compare performances of the two control schemes on simulated tracking trajectories, revealing extremely encouraging results in terms of NVSPI control robustness and

  16. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  17. Atomic oxygen effects on boron nitride and silicon nitride: A comparison of ground based and space flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were evaluated in a low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiment and in a ground based simulation facility. In both the inflight and ground based experiments, these materials were coated on thin (approx. 250A) silver films, and the electrical resistance of the silver was measured in situ to detect any penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the inflight and ground based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the inflight or ground based experiments. The ground based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, indicating that ground based facilities such as the one at Los Alamos National Lab can reproduce space flight data from LEO.

  18. Aircraft and ground-based measurements of hydroperoxides during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Nunnermacker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide were determined aboard the US Department of Energy G-1 Research Aircraft during the March, 2006 MILAGRO field campaign in Mexico. Ground measurements of total hydroperoxide were made at Tecámac University, about 35 km NW of Mexico City. In the air and on the ground, peroxide mixing ratios near the source region were generally near 1 ppbv. Strong southerly flow resulted in transport of pollutants from Mexico City to two downwind surface sites on several flight days. On these days, it was observed that peroxide concentrations slightly decreased as the G-1 flew progressively downwind. This observation is consistent with low or negative net peroxide production rates calculated for the source region and is due to the very high NOx concentrations in the Mexico City plateau. However, relatively high values of peroxide were observed at takeoff and landing near Veracruz, a site with much higher humidity and lower NOx concentrations.

  19. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  20. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  1. The Formation Mechanism of Consumer Purchase Intention for Remanufactured Products:Grounded Theory Research Based on Remanufactured Cell-phones%消费者对再制造产品购买意愿的形成机制--基于官翻手机的扎根理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞明南; 王成成; 高翔

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of environmental protection ,resource saving and cost saving ,re‐manufactured products have been widely recognized by the government ,the public and the enter‐prises .However ,in areas such as electronic products ,consumers’ market reaction is not so posi‐tive ,which limits the sustainable development of remanufactured products .This paper uses the basic method of grounded theory ,based on effective consumer comments collected from online fo‐rums ,to tap first hand feedback information provided by consumers .It aims to find the main fac‐tors affecting consumer purchase intention for remanufactured products and the formation mecha‐nism of purchase intention .T his study finds that :(1)Due to the special attributes of remanufac‐tured products ,the formation process of consumers’ purchase intention comprises the formation stage of attitude and the evaluation stage of perceived value ,the positive attitude being the pre‐condition to entering the stage of perceived value evaluation .(2)In the specific context of stud‐ying consumers purchase intention for remanufactured products ,consumer attitudes comprise two dimensions of trust degree and psychological acceptance of remanufactured products .These new findings reveal that the formation mechanism of purchase intention for remanufactured products is different from that of ordinary products ;it has its own characteristics .This paper also answers why the remanufactured products (such as auto parts)that cater to corporate customers develop more rapidly than the direct‐to‐consumer remanufactured products (such as electronics ) ,w hich has enriched the research on purchase behavior .%再制造产品以其环保、节约资源和低成本的优势得到了政府、公众和企业的广泛认同,但在电子产品等领域,消费者并不积极的市场反应在一定程度上限制了再制造产品的持续发展。本研究采用扎根理论的基本方法,依据从网络

  2. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  3. The field-tested and grounded technological rule as product of mode 2 management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The relevance problem of academic management research in organization and management is an old and thorny one. Recent discussions on this issue have resulted in proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge production in our field. These discussions focused mainly on the process of research itself and less

  4. 传统商业伦理在服务型企业的嵌入--基于六家“中华老字号”的扎根研究%The Embedding of the Traditional Business Ethics in the Service Enterprises:The Grounded Research Based on Six “China Time-honored Brands”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭会斌; 李魁; 陈芳丽

    2016-01-01

    为了厘清传统商业伦理在服务型企业的价值,归纳特色服务的整合图示,本文遵循自然主义哲学方法论,运用扎根理论方法对来自不同行业、不同所有制、不同规模和不同资本构成的六家“中华老字号”的营销与运营进行了研究。研究提炼出了特色服务的构成元素和运营模式,并提出了四个研究命题和一个概念构型,在此基础上,与社会心理学和服务管理学的相关理论进行了对话。研究结果既能初步反映服务营销与管理的研究传统,又能初步刻画传统伦理所独有的商业价值形态,亦能给传统服务型企业的管理者带来启发。%In order to clarify the value of traditional business ethics ,and reveal the integrated schema of the special service ,this paper follow s the naturalistic philosophical methodology ,and uses the grounded theory method to research six “China Time‐honored Brands” ,w hich are from different industries ,of different ownership ,different size and different capital structure .After this analysis ,constituent elements and the operation mode of special service were identified .On this basis ,four research propositions and the concept configuration were put forward to ,in light of the relevant theories of social psychology and service management .It can roughly reflect the research tradition of service marketing and management theory ,describe the commercial value form of unique oriental traditional ethics ,and bring inspirations to the traditional service enter‐prise managers .

  5. Websim3d: A Web-based System for Generation, Storage and Dissemination of Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    Synthetic time histories from large-scale 3D ground motion simulations generally constitute large 'data' sets which typically require 100's of Mbytes or Gbytes of storage capacity. For the same reason, getting access to a researchers simulation output, for example for an earthquake engineer to perform site analysis, or a seismologist to perform seismic hazard analysis, can be a tedious procedure. To circumvent this problem we have developed a web-based ``community model'' (websim3D) for the generation, storage, and dissemination of ground motion simulation results. Websim3D allows user-friendly and fast access to view and download such simulation results for an earthquake-prone area. The user selects an earthquake scenario from a map of the region, which brings up a map of the area where simulation data is available. Now, by clicking on an arbitrary site location, synthetic seismograms and/or soil parameters for the site can be displayed at fixed or variable scaling and/or downloaded. Websim3D relies on PHP scripts for the dynamic plots of synthetic seismograms and soil profiles. Although not limited to a specific area, we illustrate the community model for simulation results from the Los Angeles basin, Wellington (New Zealand), and Mexico.

  6. The Holy Grail of Resource Assessment: Low Cost Ground-Based Measurements with Good Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-06-22

    Using performance data from some of the millions of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules with micro-inverters may afford the opportunity to provide ground-based solar resource data critical for developing PV projects. The method used back-solves for the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) from the micro-inverter ac production data. When the derived values of DNI and DHI were then used to model the performance of other PV systems, the annual mean bias deviations were within +/- 4%, and only 1% greater than when the PV performance was modeled using high quality irradiance measurements. An uncertainty analysis shows the method better suited for modeling PV performance than using satellite-based global horizontal irradiance.

  7. z'-BAND GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF WASP-19b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P.; Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gibson, N. P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ground-based detection of the secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet WASP-19b. The observations were made in the Sloan z' band using the ULTRACAM triple-beam CCD camera mounted on the New Technology Telescope. The measurement shows a 0.088% {+-} 0.019% eclipse depth, matching previous predictions based on H- and K-band measurements. We discuss in detail our approach to the removal of errors arising due to systematics in the data set, in addition to fitting a model transit to our data. This fit returns an eclipse center, T{sub 0}, of 2455578.7676 HJD, consistent with a circular orbit. Our measurement of the secondary eclipse depth is also compared to model atmospheres of WASP-19b and is found to be consistent with previous measurements at longer wavelengths for the model atmospheres we investigated.

  8. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  9. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  10. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  11. Metadata database and data analysis software for the ground-based upper atmospheric data developed by the IUGONET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Hori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Abe, S.; Kagitani, M.; Kouno, T.; Yoshida, D.; Ueno, S.; Kaneda, N.; Yoneda, M.; Tadokoro, H.; Motoba, T.; Umemura, N.; Iugonet Project Team

    2011-12-01

    The Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a Japanese inter-university project by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. The IUGONET institutes/universities have been collecting various types of data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. at various locations all over the world and at various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. The metadata database will be of great help to researchers in efficiently finding and obtaining these observational data spread over the institutes/universities. This should also facilitate synthetic analysis of multi-disciplinary data, which will lead to new types of research in the upper atmosphere. The project has also been developing a software to help researchers download, visualize, and analyze the data provided from the IUGONET institutes/universities. The metadata database system is built on the platform of DSpace, which is an open source software for digital repositories. The data analysis software is written in the IDL language with the TDAS (THEMIS Data Analysis Software suite) library. These products have been just released for beta-testing.

  12. Enhancing our Understanding of Snowfall Modes with Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, C.; Kulie, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Bliven, L. F.; Wood, N.

    2016-12-01

    Snowfall can be broadly categorized into deep and shallow events based on the vertical distribution of the precipitating ice. Remotely sensed data refine these precipitation categories and aid in discerning the underlying macro- and microphysical mechanisms. The unique patterns in the remotely sensed instruments observations can potentially connect distinct modes of snowfall to specific processes. Though satellites can observe and recognize these patterns in snowfall, these measurements are limited - particularly in cases of shallow and light precipitation, as the snow may be too close to the surface or below the detection limits of the instrumentation. By enhancing satellite measurements with ground-based instrumentation, whether with limited-term field campaigns or long-term strategic sites, we can further our understanding and assumptions about different snowfall modes and how they are measured from spaceborne instruments. Presented are three years of data from a ground-based instrument suite consisting of a MicroRain Radar (MRR; optimized for snow events) and a Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP). These instruments are located at the Marquette, Michigan National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office to: a) use coincident meteorological measurements and observations to enhance our understanding of the thermodynamic drivers and b) showcase these instruments in an operational setting to enhance forecasts of shallow snow events. Three winters of MRR and PIP measurements are partitioned, based on meteorological surface observations, into two-dimensional histograms of reflectivity and particle size distribution data. These statistics improve our interpretation of deep versus shallow precipitation. Additionally, these statistical techniques are applied to similar datasets from Global Precipitation Measurement field campaigns for further insight into cloud and precipitation macro- and microphysical processes.

  13. A Near-Term Concept for Trajectory Based Operations with Air/Ground Data Link Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Mueller, Eric; Thipphavong, David; Paielli, Russell; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei; Lee, Chuhan; Sahlman, Scott; Walton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    An operating concept and required system components for trajectory-based operations with air/ground data link for today's en route and transition airspace is proposed. Controllers are fully responsible for separation as they are today, and no new aircraft equipage is required. Trajectory automation computes integrated solutions to problems like metering, weather avoidance, traffic conflicts and the desire to find and fly more time/fuel efficient flight trajectories. A common ground-based system supports all levels of aircraft equipage and performance including those equipped and not equipped for data link. User interface functions for the radar controller's display make trajectory-based clearance advisories easy to visualize, modify if necessary, and implement. Laboratory simulations (without human operators) were conducted to test integrated operation of selected system components with uncertainty modeling. Results are based on 102 hours of Fort Worth Center traffic recordings involving over 37,000 individual flights. The presence of uncertainty had a marginal effect (5%) on minimum-delay conflict resolution performance, and windfavorable routes had no effect on detection and resolution metrics. Flight plan amendments and clearances were substantially reduced compared to today s operations. Top-of-descent prediction errors are the largest cause of failure indicating that better descent predictions are needed to reliably achieve fuel-efficient descent profiles in medium to heavy traffic. Improved conflict detections for climbing flights could enable substantially more continuous climbs to cruise altitude. Unlike today s Conflict Alert, tactical automation must alert when an altitude amendment is entered, but before the aircraft starts the maneuver. In every other failure case tactical automation prevented losses of separation. A real-time prototype trajectory trajectory-automation system is running now and could be made ready for operational testing at an en route

  14. First retrievals of methane isotopologues from FTIR ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Whitney; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley; Buzan, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Whitney Bader has received funding from the European Union's Horizon2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement n˚ 704951, and from the University of Toronto through a Faculty of Arts & Science Postdoctoral Fellowship Award. References Bader, W., Bovy, B., Conway, S., Strong, K., Smale, D., Turner, A. J., Blumenstock, T., Boone, C., Coulon, A., Garcia, O., Griffith, D. W. T., Hase, F., Hausmann, P., Jones, N., Krummel, P., Murata, I., Morino, I., Nakajima, H., O'Doherty, S., Paton-Walsh, C., Robinson, J., Sandrin, R., Schneider, M., Servais, C., Sussmann, R. and Mahieu, E.: Ten years of atmospheric methane from ground-based NDACC FTIR observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 1-31, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-699, 2016. Buzan, E. M., Beale, C. A., Boone, C. D. and Bernath, P. F.: Global stratospheric measurements of the isotopologues of methane from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(3), 1095-1111, doi:10.5194/amt-9-1095-2016, 2016. Marsh, D. R., Mills, M. J., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Calvo, N. and Polvani, L. M.: Climate Change from 1850 to 2005 Simulated in CESM1(WACCM), J. Clim., 26(19), 7372-7391, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00558.1, 2013. Rothman, L. S., Gordon, I. E., Babikov, Y., Barbe, A., Chris Benner, D., Bernath, P. F., Birk, M., Bizzocchi, L., Boudon, V., Brown, L. R., Campargue, A., Chance, K., Cohen, E. A., Coudert, L. H., Devi, V. M., Drouin, B. J., Fayt, A., Flaud, J.-M., Gamache, R. R., Harrison, J. J., Hartmann, J.-M., Hill, C., Hodges, J. T., Jacquemart, D., Jolly, A., Lamouroux, J., Le Roy, R. J., Li, G., Long, D. A., Lyulin, O. M., Mackie, C. J., Massie, S. T., Mikhailenko, S., Müller, H. S. P., Naumenko, O. V., Nikitin, A. V., Orphal, J., Perevalov, V., Perrin, A., Polovtseva, E. R., Richard, C., Smith, M. A. H., Starikova, E., Sung, K., Tashkun, S., Tennyson, J., Toon, G. C., Tyuterev, V. G. and Wagner, G.: The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic

  15. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration

  16. Optimal Geometric Deployment of a Ground Based Pseudolite Navigation System to Track a Landing Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Matthew P

    2006-01-01

    .... This testing is especially necessary for precise tasks such as landing an aircraft. Currently, research is being conducted into using a pseudolite-based reference system to use as a truth model for the GPS jamming test...

  17. Methods for the performance enhancement and the error characterization of large diameter ground-based diffractive telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haolin; Liu, Hua; Lizana, Angel; Xu, Wenbin; Caompos, Juan; Lu, Zhenwu

    2017-10-30

    This paper is devoted to the improvement of ground-based telescopes based on diffractive primary lenses, which provide larger aperture and relaxed surface tolerance compared to non-diffractive telescopes. We performed two different studies devised to thoroughly characterize and improve the performance of ground-based diffractive telescopes. On the one hand, we experimentally validated the suitability of the stitching error theory, useful to characterize the error performance of subaperture diffractive telescopes. On the other hand, we proposed a novel ground-based telescope incorporated in a Cassegrain architecture, leading to a telescope with enhanced performance. To test the stitching error theory, a 300 mm diameter, 2000 mm focal length transmissive stitching diffractive telescope, based on a three-belt subaperture primary lens, was designed and implemented. The telescope achieves a 78 cy/mm resolution within 0.15 degree field of view while the working wavelength ranges from 582.8 nm to 682.8 nm without any stitching error. However, the long optical track (35.49 m) introduces air turbulence that reduces the final images contrast in the ground-based test. To enhance this result, a same diameter compacted Cassegrain ground-based diffractive (CGD) telescope with the total track distance of 1.267 m, was implemented within the same wavelength. The ground-based CGD telescope provides higher resolution and better contrast than the transmissive configuration. Star and resolution tests were experimentally performed to compare the CGD and the transmissive configurations, providing the suitability of the proposed ground-based CGD telescope.

  18. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  19. Forward modeling of seepage of reservoir dam based on ground penetrating radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of the reservoir dam seepage will bring the waste of water resources and the loss of life and property. The ground penetrating radar (GPR is designed as a daily inspection system of dams to improve the existing technology which can't determine the actual situation of the dam seepage tunnel coordinates. The finite difference time domain (FDTD is used to solve the Yee's grids discreatization in two-dimensional space, and its electromagnetic distribution equation is obtained as well. Based on the actual structure of reservoir dam foundation, the ideal model of air layer, concrete layer, clay layer and two water seepage holes is described in detail, and the concrete layer interference model with limestone interference point is established. The system architecture is implemented by using MATLAB, and the forward modeling is performed. The results indicate that ground penetrating radar can be used for deep target detection. Through comparing the detection spectrum of three kinds of frequency electromagnetic wave by changing the center frequency of the GPR electromagnetic wave of 50 MHz, 100 MHz and 200 MHz, it is concluded that the scanning result is more accurate at 100 MHz. At the same time, the simulation results of the interference model show that this method can be used for the detection of complex terrain.

  20. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  1. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making in stress situations, the associated responsibilities are typically divided between a number of operators and computerized systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. One such a Decision Support System (DSS, a threat evaluation and weapon assignment system, assigns threat values to aircraft (with respect to DAs in real-time and uses these values to propose possible engagements of observed enemy aircraft by anti-aircraft WSs. In this paper a design of the threat evaluation part of such a DSS is put forward. The design follows the structured approach suggested in [Roux JN & van Vuuren JH, 2007, Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art, ORiON, 23(2, pp. 151-187], phasing in a suite of increasingly complex qualitative and quantitative model components as more (reliable data become available.

  2. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-12-17

    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  3. Spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon preparation for sequestering of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Keat-Ying; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Yeong, Yin-Fong; Lam, Man-Kee; Ho, Yeek-Chia

    2016-11-01

    The key of reported work was to optimize the fabricating factors of spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon (SCG-bAC) used to sequester Malachite Green (MG) form aqueous solution via adsorption process. The fabricating factors of impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid, activation temperature and activation time were simultaneously optimized by central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) targeting on maximum removal of MG. At the optimum condition, 96.3% of MG was successfully removed by SCG-bAC at the impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid of 0.50, activation temperature of 554°C and activation time of 31.4 min. Statistical model that could predict the MG removal percentage was also derived and had been statistically confirmed to be significant. Subsequently, the MG adsorption equilibrium data was found well-fitted to Langmuir isotherm model, indicating the predominance of monolayer adsorption of MG on SCG-bAC surface. To conclude, the findings from the this study unveil the potential of spent coffee grounds as an alternative precursor in fabricating low-cost AC for the treatment of wastewater loaded with MG pollutant.

  4. Reaching for the stars - New developments in ground-based astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will briefly review the state-of-the-art in ground-based astronomy - both on the telescope side and the instrument side. Interesting parallels can be drawn in cost, construction and operations with the particle physics facilities. I will then present some recent results in the two hottest topics in astronomy, driving the requests for more advanced facilities: exoplanets and the hunt for life beyond the solar system (calling for Extremely Large Telescope); and cosmology and the understanding of dark energy (calling for large survey telescopes). This will lead to a description of the latest telescope project developments on the ground: the on-going construction of the Large Synoptic Telescope on a quest to better understand dark energy, and the start of the construction of three Extremely Large Telescopes by European and US-led international consortia, hoping to find life on planets around nearby stars.   ATS Seminars Organisers: H. Burkhardt (BE), M. Modena (TE), T. Stora (EN) Coffee / tea will ...

  5. The SPQR experiment: detecting damage to orbiting spacecraft with ground-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, Antonio; Porfilio, Manfredi; Currie, Douglas G.; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the Specular Point-like Quick Reference (SPQR) experiment was to evaluate the possibility of improving the resolution of ground-based telescopic imaging of manned spacecraft in orbit. The concept was to reduce image distortions due to atmospheric turbulence by evaluating the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a point-like light reference and processing the spacecraft image accordingly. The target spacecraft was the International Space Station (ISS) and the point-like reference was provided by a laser beam emitted by the ground station and reflected back to the telescope by a Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) mounted on an ISS window. The ultimate objective of the experiment was to demonstrate that it is possible to image spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a resolution of 20 cm, which would have probably been sufficient to detect the damage which caused the Columbia disaster. The experiment was successfully performed from March to May 2005. The paper provides an overview of the SPQR experiment.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE, MINERALOGY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Madai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the utilization of deposited fly ash as a main component of geopolymer. After determination of particle size distribution, moisture content, real and bulk density and specific surface area of the raw fly ash, mechanical activation was performed by laboratory scale ball mill. This step is introduced for improving the reactivity of raw material. Then test specimens were produced by geopoliomerisation using a caustic spent liquor (NaOH. Compressive strength was determined on cilindrical specimens. Finally, samples of the ground fly ash based geopolymer specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results prove that geopolymer production with proper strength from the investigated F-type deposited fly ash is possible. The uniaxial compressive strength of obtained composites strongly depends on the fineness of the ground fly ash. XRD results show that comparing the crystalline components for different geopolymer samples, zeolite-A appears and its amount increases gradually from 0T sample till 30T and then decreases for 60T sample. The same trend holds for sodalite type structure phases, however its amount is much lower than for zeolite-A. SEM+EDS investigation revealed that Na-content is elevated in the interstitial fine-grained matrix, especially for the 30T sample when highest strength was observed. Si and Al are abundant mainly in anhedral and spherical grains and in rarely occurring grains resembling some crystal shape.

  7. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  8. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  9. Study of the relations between cloud properties and atmospheric conditions using ground-based digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Kalinka

    The aerosol constituents of the earth atmosphere are of great significance for the radiation budget and global climate of the planet. They are the precursors of clouds that in turn play an essential role in these processes and in the hydrological cycle of the Earth. Understanding the complex aerosol-cloud interactions requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamical processes moving the water vapor through the atmosphere, and of the physical mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of cloud particles. Ground-based observations on regional and short time scale provide valuable detailed information about atmospheric dynamics and cloud properties, and are used as a complementary tool to the global satellite observations. The objective of the present paper is to study the physical properties of clouds as displayed in ground-based visible images, and juxtapose them to the specific surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions. The observations are being carried out over the urban area of the city of Sofia, Bulgaria. The data obtained from visible images of clouds enable a quantitative description of texture and morphological features of clouds such as shape, thickness, motion, etc. These characteristics are related to cloud microphysical properties. The changes of relative humidity and the horizontal visibility are considered to be representative of the variations of the type (natural/manmade) and amount of the atmospheric aerosols near the earth surface, and potentially, the cloud drop number concentration. The atmospheric dynamics is accounted for by means of the values of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity, etc., observed at the earth's surface. The advantage of ground-based observations of clouds compared to satellite ones is in the high spatial and temporal resolution of the obtained data about the lowermost cloud layer, which in turn is sensitive to the meteorological regimes that determine cloud formation and evolution. It turns out

  10. Evaluation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Lopez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solar resource is essential for a wide spectrum of applications including renewable energy, climate studies, and solar forecasting. Solar resource information can be obtained from ground-based measurement stations and/or from modeled data sets. While measurements provide data for the development and validation of solar resource models and other applications modeled data expands the ability to address the needs for increased accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed and regular updates modeled solar resource through the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The recent NSRDB dataset was developed using the physics-based Physical Solar Model (PSM) and provides gridded solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and diffuse horizontal irradiance) at a 4-km by 4-km spatial and half-hourly temporal resolution covering 18 years from 1998-2015. A comprehensive validation of the performance of the NSRDB (1998-2015) was conducted to quantify the accuracy of the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiation data. Further, the study assessed the ability of NSRDB (1998-2015) to accurately capture inter-annual variability, which is essential information for solar energy conversion projects and grid integration studies. Comparisons of the NSRDB (1998-2015) with nine selected ground-measured data were conducted under both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions. These locations provide a high quality data covering a variety of geographical locations and climates. The comparison of the NSRDB to the ground-based data demonstrated that biases were within +/- 5% for GHI and +/-10% for DNI. A comprehensive uncertainty estimation methodology was established to analyze the performance of the gridded NSRDB and includes all sources of uncertainty at various time-averaged periods, a method that is not often used in model evaluation. Further, the study analyzed the inter

  11. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Rapoport

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs, which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100–420 m s−1. Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical–numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1 of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 − f1 in the altitude ranges 0–0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2 of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1–20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz and VLF (kHz ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere–ionosphere system

  12. MetaSensing's FastGBSAR: ground based radar for deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödelsperger, Sabine; Meta, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    The continuous monitoring of ground deformation and structural movement has become an important task in engineering. MetaSensing introduces a novel sensor system, the Fast Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (FastGBSAR), based on innovative technologies that have already been successfully applied to airborne SAR applications. The FastGBSAR allows the remote sensing of deformations of a slope or infrastructure from up to a distance of 4 km. The FastGBSAR can be setup in two different configurations: in Real Aperture Radar (RAR) mode it is capable of accurately measuring displacements along a linear range profile, ideal for monitoring vibrations of structures like bridges and towers (displacement accuracy up to 0.01 mm). Modal parameters can be determined within half an hour. Alternatively, in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) configuration it produces two-dimensional displacement images with an acquisition time of less than 5 seconds, ideal for monitoring areal structures like dams, landslides and open pit mines (displacement accuracy up to 0.1 mm). The MetaSensing FastGBSAR is the first ground based SAR instrument on the market able to produce two-dimensional deformation maps with this high acquisition rate. By that, deformation time series with a high temporal and spatial resolution can be generated, giving detailed information useful to determine the deformation mechanisms involved and eventually to predict an incoming failure. The system is fully portable and can be quickly installed on bedrock or a basement. The data acquisition and processing can be fully automated leading to a low effort in instrument operation and maintenance. Due to the short acquisition time of FastGBSAR, the coherence between two acquisitions is very high and the phase unwrapping is simplified enormously. This yields a high density of resolution cells with good quality and high reliability of the acquired deformations. The deformation maps can directly be used as input into an Early

  13. Reflection: Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The article "Research by design: Design-based research and the higher degree research student" (Kennedy-Clark, 2013) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 6, Issue 2 in 2013. Two years on, Shannon Kennedy-Clark reflects upon her original article. Upon being asked to revisit this article the author reflected upon…

  14. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Feature-based attention in early vision for the modulation of figure–ground segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eWagatsuma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated psychophysically whether feature-based attention modulates the perception of figure–ground (F–G segregation and, based on the results, we investigated computationally the neural mechanisms underlying attention modulation. In the psychophysical experiments, the attention of participants was drawn to a specific motion direction and they were then asked to judge the side of figure in an ambiguous figure with surfaces consisting of distinct motion directions. The results of these experiments showed that the surface consisting of the attended direction of motion was more frequently observed as figure, with a degree comparable to that of spatial attention (Wagatsuma, Shimizu, and Sakai, 2008. These experiments also showed that perception was dependent on the distribution of feature contrast, specifically the motion direction differences. These results led us to hypothesize that feature-based attention functions in a framework similar to that of spatial attention. We proposed a V1–V2 model in which feature-based attention modulates the contrast of low-level feature in V1, and this modulation of contrast changes directly the surround modulation of border-ownership-selective cells in V2; thus, perception of F–G is biased. The model exhibited good agreement with human perception in the magnitude of attention modulation and its invariance among stimuli. These results indicate that early-level features that are modified by feature-based attention alter subsequent processing along afferent pathway, and that such modification could even change the perception of object.

  16. Feature-Based Attention in Early Vision for the Modulation of Figure–Ground Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Nobuhiko; Oki, Megumi; Sakai, Ko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated psychophysically whether feature-based attention modulates the perception of figure–ground (F–G) segregation and, based on the results, we investigated computationally the neural mechanisms underlying attention modulation. In the psychophysical experiments, the attention of participants was drawn to a specific motion direction and they were then asked to judge the side of figure in an ambiguous figure with surfaces consisting of distinct motion directions. The results of these experiments showed that the surface consisting of the attended direction of motion was more frequently observed as figure, with a degree comparable to that of spatial attention (Wagatsuma et al., 2008). These experiments also showed that perception was dependent on the distribution of feature contrast, specifically the motion direction differences. These results led us to hypothesize that feature-based attention functions in a framework similar to that of spatial attention. We proposed a V1–V2 model in which feature-based attention modulates the contrast of low-level feature in V1, and this modulation of contrast changes directly the surround modulation of border-ownership-selective cells in V2; thus, perception of F–G is biased. The model exhibited good agreement with human perception in the magnitude of attention modulation and its invariance among stimuli. These results indicate that early-level features that are modified by feature-based attention alter subsequent processing along afferent pathway, and that such modification could even change the perception of object. PMID:23515841

  17. Feature-based attention in early vision for the modulation of figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Nobuhiko; Oki, Megumi; Sakai, Ko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated psychophysically whether feature-based attention modulates the perception of figure-ground (F-G) segregation and, based on the results, we investigated computationally the neural mechanisms underlying attention modulation. In the psychophysical experiments, the attention of participants was drawn to a specific motion direction and they were then asked to judge the side of figure in an ambiguous figure with surfaces consisting of distinct motion directions. The results of these experiments showed that the surface consisting of the attended direction of motion was more frequently observed as figure, with a degree comparable to that of spatial attention (Wagatsuma et al., 2008). These experiments also showed that perception was dependent on the distribution of feature contrast, specifically the motion direction differences. These results led us to hypothesize that feature-based attention functions in a framework similar to that of spatial attention. We proposed a V1-V2 model in which feature-based attention modulates the contrast of low-level feature in V1, and this modulation of contrast changes directly the surround modulation of border-ownership-selective cells in V2; thus, perception of F-G is biased. The model exhibited good agreement with human perception in the magnitude of attention modulation and its invariance among stimuli. These results indicate that early-level features that are modified by feature-based attention alter subsequent processing along afferent pathway, and that such modification could even change the perception of object.

  18. Comparison of atmospheric CO2 columns at high latitudes from ground-based and satellite-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, N.; Simpson, W. R.; Parker, H. A.; Tu, Q.; Blumenstock, T.; Dubey, M. K.; Hase, F.; Osterman, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Total column measurements of carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite have been validated at mid-latitudes by comparison to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), but there are still a limited number of sites providing high-latitude validation data for satellite observations of CO2, and no TCCON sites in Alaska. To understand the global distribution of CO2 sources and sinks, it is essential that we increase the abundance of validation sites, particularly in the climate-sensitive high-latitude Boreal forest. Therefore, we began the Arctic Mobile Infrared Greenhouse Gas Observations (AMIGGO) campaign in the Boreal Forest region around Fairbanks, Alaska with the goal of satellite validation and measurement of natural ecosystem fluxes. In this campaign, we used the EM27/SUN mobile solar-viewing Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (EM27/SUN FTS) to retrieve the total CO2 column and column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the GGG2014 algorithm. The EM27/SUN FTS was developed by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in collaboration with Bruker optics (Gisi et al., 2012, doi:10.5194/amt-5-2969-2012) and has been deployed in urban areas to measure anthropogenic fluxes of CO2 and CH4. To evaluate the EM27/SUN performance, co-located observations were made with two EM27/SUN spectrometers, and we found that XCO2 differences between spectrometers were small (0.24ppm on average) and very stable over time. In this presentation, we report on 14 OCO-2 targeted overpasses that occurred from August 2016 through July 2017, along with additional targets obtained during ongoing observations in 2017. We investigate underlying reasons for observed differences between OCO-2 and ground-based XCO2 using methods developed by Wunch et al. (2017, doi:10.5194/amt-10-2209-2017). As an additional point of comparison, coincident aircraft observations by NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring

  19. Agent-based simulation in entrepreneurship research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.-J.S.; Chandra, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) has wide applications in natural and social sciences yet it has not been widely applied in entrepreneurship research. We discuss the nature of ABM, its position among conventional methodologies and then offer a roadmap for developing, testing and extending theories of

  20. Brain-Based Learning. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What does brain-based research say about how adolescents learn? The 1990s was declared as the Decade of the Brain by President Bush and Congress. With the advancement of MRIs (Magnetic Resonance Imagining) and PET (positron emission tomography) scans, it has become much easier to study live healthy brains. As a result, the concept of…

  1. Ethics in Animal-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A. de la; Lapayese, F.; Pacios, L.; Carrasco, R.

    2005-01-01

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation

  3. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A. de la [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: a.delapena@ciemat.es; Lapayese, F. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, R. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation.

  4. An Analysis of Conjugate Ground-based and Space-based Measurements of Energetic Electrons during Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, N.; Semeter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Substorms within the Earth's magnetosphere release energy in the form of energetic charged particles and several kinds of waves within the plasma. Depending on their strength, satellite-based navigation and communication systems are adversely affected by the energetic charged particles. Like many other natural phenomena, substorms can have a severe economic impact on a technology-driven society such as ours. Though energization of charged particles is known to occur in the magnetosphere during substorms, the source of this population and its relation to traditional acceleration region dynamics, are not completely understood. Combining measurements of energetic charged particles within the plasmasheet and that of charged particles precipitated in to the ionosphere will provide a better understanding of the role of processes that accelerate these charged particles. In the current work, we present energetic electron flux measured indirectly using data from ground-based Incoherent Scatter Radar and that measured directly at the plasmasheet by the THEMIS spacecraft. Instances of low-altitude-precipitation observed from ground suggest electrons of energy greater than 300 keV, possibly arising from particle injection events during substorms at the magnetically conjugate locations in the plasmasheet. The differences and similarities in the measurements at the plasmasheet and the ionosphere indicate the role different processes play in influencing the journey of these energetic particles form the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. Our observations suggest that there is a lot more to be understood of the link between magnetotail dynamics and energetic electron precipitation during substorms. Understanding this may open up novel and potentially invaluable ways of diagnosing the magnetosphere from the ground.

  5. Searching for a Common Ground--A Literature Review of Empirical Research on Scientific Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…

  6. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  7. Grounded Theory as a Method for Research in Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…

  8. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  9. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  10. Identifying effective actions to guide volunteer-based and nationwide conservation efforts for a ground-nesting farmland bird

    OpenAIRE

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. Here, we use 6 years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest pro...

  11. Lightning discrimination by a ground-based nuclear burst detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbrough, A.D.

    1978-04-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing for the U.S. Army a Ground-Based Nuclear Burst Detection System to provide pertinent information for its field commanders and higher authorities. The equipment must operate in all kinds of weather and produce very low false alarms under all types of conditions. With these requirements, a study of the effects during thunderstorms, which includes thousands of lightning flashes, was conducted. The results of these studies were that, with suitable discrimination, the system had no false alarms during a period of high thunderstorm activity in the Albuquerque area for the time from September 13 to October 3, 1977. Data and plots are included of those false alarms that were recorded before the final discriminants were implemented to provide an inventory of waveshapes for additional analysis

  12. Lightning discrimination by a ground-based nuclear burst detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornbrough, A.D.

    1978-04-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing for the U.S. Army a Ground-Based Nuclear Burst Detection System to provide pertinent information for its field commanders and higher authorities. The equipment must operate in all kinds of weather and produce very low false alarms under all types of conditions. With these requirements, a study of the effects during thunderstorms, which includes thousands of lightning flashes, was conducted. The results of these studies were that, with suitable discrimination, the system had no false alarms during a period of high thunderstorm activity in the Albuquerque area for the time from September 13 to October 3, 1977. Data and plots are included of those false alarms that were recorded before the final discriminants were implemented to provide an inventory of waveshapes for additional analysis.

  13. Using Gaia as an Astrometric Tool for Deep Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Schriefer, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Gaia DR1 positions are used to astrometrically calibrate three epochs' worth of Subaru SuprimeCam images in the fields of globular cluster NGC 2419 and the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Distortion-correction ``maps'' are constructed from a combination of offset dithers and reference to Gaia DR1. These are used to derive absolute proper motions in the field of NGC 2419. Notably, we identify the photometrically-detected Monoceros structure in the foreground of NGC 2419 as a kinematically-cold population of stars, distinct from Galactic-field stars. This project demonstrates the feasibility of combining Gaia with deep, ground-based surveys, thus extending high-quality astrometry to magnitudes beyond the limits of Gaia.

  14. Portable laser spectrometer for airborne and ground-based remote sensing of geological CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike; Allan, Graham R; Chiarugi, Antonio

    2017-07-15

    A 24 kg, suitcase sized, CW laser remote sensing spectrometer (LARSS) with a ~2 km range has been developed. It has demonstrated its flexibility in measuring both atmospheric CO2 from an airborne platform and terrestrial emission of CO2 from a remote mud volcano, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia, from a ground-based sight. This system scans the CO2 absorption line with 20 discrete wavelengths, as opposed to the typical two-wavelength online offline instrument. This multi-wavelength approach offers an effective quality control, bias control, and confidence estimate of measured CO2 concentrations via spectral fitting. The simplicity, ruggedness, and flexibility in the design allow for easy transportation and use on different platforms with a quick setup in some of the most challenging climatic conditions. While more refinement is needed, the results represent a stepping stone towards widespread use of active one-sided gas remote sensing in the earth sciences.

  15. A Rule-Based Local Search Algorithm for General Shift Design Problems in Airport Ground Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    We consider a generalized version of the shift design problem where shifts are created to cover a multiskilled demand and fit the parameters of the workforce. We present a collection of constraints and objectives for the generalized shift design problem. A local search solution framework with mul......We consider a generalized version of the shift design problem where shifts are created to cover a multiskilled demand and fit the parameters of the workforce. We present a collection of constraints and objectives for the generalized shift design problem. A local search solution framework...... with multiple neighborhoods and a loosely coupled rule engine based on simulated annealing is presented. Computational experiments on real-life data from various airport ground handling organization show the performance and flexibility of the proposed algorithm....

  16. Atmospheric effect on the ground-based measurements of broadband surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Manninen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based pyranometer measurements of the (clear-sky broadband surface albedo are affected by the atmospheric conditions (mainly by aerosol particles, water vapour and ozone. A new semi-empirical method for estimating the magnitude of the effect of atmospheric conditions on surface albedo measurements in clear-sky conditions is presented. Global and reflected radiation and/or aerosol optical depth (AOD at two wavelengths are needed to apply the method. Depending on the aerosol optical depth and the solar zenith angle values, the effect can be as large as 20%. For the cases we tested using data from the Cabauw atmospheric test site in the Netherlands, the atmosphere caused typically up to 5% overestimation of surface albedo with respect to corresponding black-sky surface albedo values.

  17. Managing a big ground-based astronomy project: the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary H.

    2008-07-01

    TMT is a big science project and its scale is greater than previous ground-based optical/infrared telescope projects. This paper will describe the ideal "linear" project and how the TMT project departs from that ideal. The paper will describe the needed adaptations to successfully manage real world complexities. The progression from science requirements to a reference design, the development of a product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and an organization that parallels the WBS, the implementation of system engineering, requirements definition and the progression through Conceptual Design to Preliminary Design will be summarized. The development of a detailed cost estimate structured by the WBS, and the methodology of risk analysis to estimate contingency fund requirements will be summarized. Designing the project schedule defines the construction plan and, together with the cost model, provides the basis for executing the project guided by an earned value performance measurement system.

  18. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  19. Conference on the exploitation, maintenance and resale of ground-based photovoltaic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven; Christmann, Ralf; Bozonnat, Cedric; Le Pivert, Xavier; Vaassen, Willi; Dumoulin, Cedric; Kiefer, Klaus; Semmel, Andreas; Doose, Eckhard; Bion, Alain; Sanches, Frederico; Daval, Xavier; Pampouille, Antoine; Goetze, Holger; Stahl, Wolf-Ruediger; Merere, Karine

    2017-11-01

    This document gathers contributions and debate contents of a conference. A first set of contributions addressed the situation and recent developments of ground-based photovoltaic power plants in France and in Germany with presentations of legal frameworks in these both countries. The second set addressed the optimisation of such power plants: meteorological prediction and follow-up at the service of production, risks to which these power plants are exposed during operation, and the issue of right price and good practices for maintenance contracts for these plants. A round table addressed the issue of the balance between optimisation and established practices in a new economic framework. The next set of contributions addressed reasons for and effects of the resale of photovoltaic fleet during their exploitation: actors and financing solutions, value components, point of attention and legal view on re-financing contracts. A round table discussed trends and success factors for the re-financing of photovoltaic projects

  20. Compact binary coalescences in the band of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As the ground-based gravitational-wave telescopes LIGO, Virgo and GEO 600 approach the era of first detections, we review the current knowledge of the coalescence rates and the mass and spin distributions of merging neutron-star and black-hole binaries. We emphasize the bi-directional connection between gravitational-wave astronomy and conventional astrophysics. Astrophysical input will make possible informed decisions about optimal detector configurations and search techniques. Meanwhile, rate upper limits, detected merger rates and the distribution of masses and spins measured by gravitational-wave searches will constrain astrophysical parameters through comparisons with astrophysical models. Future developments necessary to the success of gravitational-wave astronomy are discussed.

  1. Perturbations of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling by powerful VLF emissions from ground-based transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A. S.; Markov, G. A.; Ryabov, A. O.; Parrot, M.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the plasma-wave disturbances stimulated in the near-Earth plasma by powerful VLF radiation from ground-based transmitters are investigated. Radio communication VLF transmitters of about 1 MW in power are shown to produce artificial plasma-wave channels (density ducts) in the near-Earth space that originate in the lower ionosphere above the disturbing emission source and extend through the entire ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth along the magnetic field lines. Measurements with the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite have revealed that under the action of emission from the NWC transmitter, which is one of the most powerful VLF radio transmitters, the generation of quasi-electrostatic (plasma) waves is observed on most of the satellite trajectory along the disturbed magnetic flux tube. This may probably be indicative of stimulated emission of a magnetospheric maser.

  2. Status and plans for future generations of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Several medium- to large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave antennas have been constructed around the world. Although these antennas of the first generation could detect gravitational waves within a few years, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of the detectors significantly with advanced technologies to ensure more frequent detection of gravitational waves. Stronger seismic isolation and reduction of thermal noise, especially using cryogenic mirrors, are among the most important technologies that can lead us to the realization of advanced detectors. Some of the advanced technologies are already implemented in some of the existing detectors and others are currently being investigated for the future-generation detectors such as advanced LIGO, LCGT, upgrade of GEO600, AIGO, and EURO. We expect that such advanced detectors will eventually open a new window to the universe and establish a new field, 'gravitational wave astronomy'

  3. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  4. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Heffern, Edward L.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M.K.; Smeltzer, Charles; Hower, James C.; Hower, Judith M.; Prakash, Anupma; Kolker, Allan; Eatwell, Robert J.; ter Schure, Arnout; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L.; Stracher, Glenn B.; Henke, Kevin R.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Román-Colón, Yomayara

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7–4.4 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3–9.5 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation.

  5. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  6. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  7. Polarimetric mountain based radio-occultation for rain detection: The ROHP-PAZ ground campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulles, Ramon; Cardellach, Estel; Tomas, Sergio; de la Torre, Manuel; Turk, Joe

    2014-05-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter (ROHP-PAZ) is a mission of opportunity: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) approved in 2009 a proposal to include a polarimetric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio-Occultation (RO) payload on board of the Spanish Earth Observation satellite PAZ. This will be a new technique that has never been tested before, that aims to improve the knowledge of precipitation through simultaneous thermodynamic and vertical rain profiles. Prior to the launch of the satellite, expected for 2014, a ground experimental campaign is being conducted with the goal of starting the process of identifying and understanding all the factors that might affect the polarimetric RO observables. The campaign is being carried out at the top of Puig Sesolles, a 1667m peak in the Natural Park of Montseny (41º46'24 N, 2º26'17 E), 50 km N-NE from Barcelona, with clear views over the horizon to the South (East to West) direction, an area in which intense precipitation events tend to occur a few times per year. The campaign uses a ICE-CSIC/IEEC's GOLD-RTR open-loop receiver initially designed for collecting GNSS signals reflected off the sea surface. The receiver has been adjusted to track occulting GNSS radio-links. A double polarization (H and V) GNSS antenna has been designed and manufactured by the Polytechnic University of Barcelona (UPC) team for this particular ground-based experiment. The antenna is a phase-array made of 7 elements, each of them being a square patch built using a Rogers 4003 substrate, and symmetrically fed by four probes. It provides a pattern of 12.9 dB peak gain, 45 degrees half-power beam-width, and <-35 dB cross-polar isolation at the peak (better than -30 dB in the main lobe). The preliminary results show that not only precipitation, but also other factors are affecting the GNSS signal, wich means that the polarimetric signal is richer than expected

  8. Cross Validation of Rain Drop Size Distribution between GPM and Ground Based Polarmetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Biswas, S.; Le, M.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite has reflectivity measurements at two independent frequencies, Ku- and Ka- band. Dual-frequency retrieval algorithms have been developed traditionally through forward, backward, and recursive approaches. However, these algorithms suffer from "dual-value" problem when they retrieve medium volume diameter from dual-frequency ratio (DFR) in rain region. To this end, a hybrid method has been proposed to perform raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrieval for GPM using a linear constraint of DSD along rain profile to avoid "dual-value" problem (Le and Chandrasekar, 2015). In the current GPM level 2 algorithm (Iguchi et al. 2017- Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document) the Solver module retrieves a vertical profile of drop size distributionn from dual-frequency observations and path integrated attenuations. The algorithm details can be found in Seto et al. (2013) . On the other hand, ground based polarimetric radars have been used for a long time to estimate drop size distributions (e.g., Gorgucci et al. 2002 ). In addition, coincident GPM and ground based observations have been cross validated using careful overpass analysis. In this paper, we perform cross validation on raindrop size distribution retrieval from three sources, namely the hybrid method, the standard products from the solver module and DSD retrievals from ground polarimetric radars. The results are presented from two NEXRAD radars located in Dallas -Fort Worth, Texas (i.e., KFWS radar) and Melbourne, Florida (i.e., KMLB radar). The results demonstrate the ability of DPR observations to produce DSD estimates, which can be used subsequently to generate global DSD maps. References: Seto, S., T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2013: The basic performance of a precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's single/dual-frequency radar measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and

  9. An assessment of the performance of global rainfall estimates without ground-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Massari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based rainfall estimates over land have great potential for a wide range of applications, but their validation is challenging due to the scarcity of ground-based observations of rainfall in many areas of the planet. Recent studies have suggested the use of triple collocation (TC to characterize uncertainties associated with rainfall estimates by using three collocated rainfall products. However, TC requires the simultaneous availability of three products with mutually uncorrelated errors, a requirement which is difficult to satisfy with current global precipitation data sets. In this study, a recently developed method for rainfall estimation from soil moisture observations, SM2RAIN, is demonstrated to facilitate the accurate application of TC within triplets containing two state-of-the-art satellite rainfall estimates and a reanalysis product. The validity of different TC assumptions are indirectly tested via a high-quality ground rainfall product over the contiguous United States (CONUS, showing that SM2RAIN can provide a truly independent source of rainfall accumulation information which uniquely satisfies the assumptions underlying TC. On this basis, TC is applied with SM2RAIN on a global scale in an optimal configuration to calculate, for the first time, reliable global correlations (vs. an unknown truth of the aforementioned products without using a ground benchmark data set. The analysis is carried out during the period 2007–2012 using daily rainfall accumulation products obtained at 1° × 1° spatial resolution. Results convey the relatively high performance of the satellite rainfall estimates in eastern North and South America, southern Africa, southern and eastern Asia, eastern Australia, and southern Europe, as well as complementary performances between the reanalysis product and SM2RAIN, with the first performing reasonably well in the Northern Hemisphere and the second providing very good performance in the Southern

  10. Register-based research on twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Holm, Niels V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry (DTR) has for more than 50 years been based on surveys and clinical investigations and over the two last decades also on register linkage. Currently these two approaches are merged within Statistics Denmark. Research topics: Here we report on three major...... groups of register-based research in the DTR that used the uniqueness of twinning. First, we focus on the ''long-term prognosis'' of being a twin compared with being a singleton and show that Danish twins have health trajectories in adulthood similar to singletons, which is a result of interest for twins...... illustrate how the co-twin control method in a register setting can be used to control for the effect of rearing environment and genetic factors in studies of the association between exposures and health. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of register-based twin studies is very wide and have changed in accordance...

  11. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  12. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-M. Zempila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4 UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh, in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990 and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5

  13. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  14. Developing a Framework for Social Technologies in Learning via Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaxi, Antigoni; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of design-based research (DBR) for the development of a framework that grounds the use of social technologies in learning. The paper focuses on three studies which step on the learning theory of constructionism. Constructionism assumes that knowledge is better gained when students find this knowledge for themselves…

  15. Development of a Mixed Methods Investigation of Process and Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Alegria, Margarita; Greene-Moton, Ella; Israel, Barbara; Kastelic, Sarah; Magarati, Maya; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Schulz, Amy; Villegas, Malia; White Hat, Emily R.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods study of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership practices and the links between these practices and changes in health status and disparities outcomes. Directed by a CBPR conceptual model and grounded in indigenous-transformative theory, our nation-wide, cross-site study showcases the value…

  16. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes: What can we gain from ground-based remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützun, V.; Quaas, J.; Morcrette, C. J.; Ament, F.

    2013-09-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based remote sensing such as lidar, microwave, and radar to evaluate prognostic distribution moments using the "perfect model approach." This means that we employ a high-resolution weather model as virtual reality and retrieve full three-dimensional atmospheric quantities and virtual ground-based observations. We then use statistics from the virtual observation to validate the modeled 3-D statistics. Since the data are entirely consistent, any discrepancy occurring is due to the method. Focusing on total water mixing ratio, we find that the mean ratio can be evaluated decently but that it strongly depends on the meteorological conditions as to whether the variance and skewness are reliable. Using some simple schematic description of different synoptic conditions, we show how statistics obtained from point or line measurements can be poor at representing the full three-dimensional distribution of water in the atmosphere. We argue that a careful analysis of measurement data and detailed knowledge of the meteorological situation is necessary to judge whether we can use the data for an evaluation of higher moments of the humidity distribution used by a statistical cloud scheme.

  17. Sounding rocket/ground-based observation campaign to study Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ishisaka, K.; Saito, S.; Larsen, M.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An observation campaign is under preparation. It is to launch sounding rockets S-520-27 and S-310-42 from Uchinoura Space Center of JAXA while ground-based instruments measure waves in the ionosphere. It is scheduled in July/August 2013. The main purpose of the experiment is to reveal generation mechanism of Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (MSTID). The MSTID is the ionospheric wave with 1-2 hour periodicity, 100-200 km horizontal wavelength, and southwestward propagation. It is enhanced in the summer nighttime of the mid-latitude ionosphere. The MSTID is not only a simple atmospheric-wave modulation of the ionosphere, but shows similarity to characteristics of the Perkins instability. A problem is that growth rate of the Perkins instability is too small to explain the phenomena. We now hypothesize a generation mechanism that electromagnetic coupling of the F- and E-regions help rapid growth of the MSTID especially at its initial stage. In the observation campaign, we will use the sounding rocket S-520-27 for in-situ measurement of ionospheric parameters, i.e., electron density and electric fields. Wind velocity measurements in both F- and E-regions are very important as well. For the F-region winds, we will conduct Lithium-release experiment under the full-moon condition. This is a big technical challenge. Another rocket S-310-42 will be used for the E-region wind measurement with the TMA release. On the ground, we will use GEONET (Japanese vast GPS receiver network) to monitor horizontal distribution of GPS-TEC on the realtime bases. In the presentation we will show MSTID characteristics and the proposed generation mechanism, and discuss plan and current status of the project.

  18. Development and verification of ground-based tele-robotics operations concept for Dextre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2013-05-01

    The Special Purpose Dextreous Manipulator (Dextre) is the latest addition to the on-orbit segment of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS); Canada's contribution to the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in March 2008, the advanced two-armed robot is designed to perform various ISS maintenance tasks on robotically compatible elements and on-orbit replaceable units using a wide variety of tools and interfaces. The addition of Dextre has increased the capabilities of the MSS, and has introduced significant complexity to ISS robotics operations. While the initial operations concept for Dextre was based on human-in-the-loop control by the on-orbit astronauts, the complexities of robotic maintenance and the associated costs of training and maintaining the operator skills required for Dextre operations demanded a reexamination of the old concepts. A new approach to ISS robotic maintenance was developed in order to utilize the capabilities of Dextre safely and efficiently, while at the same time reducing the costs of on-orbit operations. This paper will describe the development, validation, and on-orbit demonstration of the operations concept for ground-based tele-robotics control of Dextre. It will describe the evolution of the new concepts from the experience gained from the development and implementation of the ground control capability for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System; Canadarm 2. It will discuss the various technical challenges faced during the development effort, such as requirements for high positioning accuracy, force/moment sensing and accommodation, failure tolerance, complex tool operations, and the novel operational tools and techniques developed to overcome them. The paper will also describe the work performed to validate the new concepts on orbit and will discuss the results and lessons learned from the on-orbit checkout and commissioning of Dextre using the newly developed tele-robotics techniques and capabilities.

  19. Ground- and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A; Verger, Aleixandre; Samimi, Cyrus; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-04-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass of woody species, herb biomass, and woody species abundance in different ecosystems located in the Sahel zone of Senegal. We found that the positive trend observed in satellite vegetation time series (+36%) is caused by an increment of in situ measured biomass (+34%), which is highly controlled by precipitation (+40%). Whereas herb biomass shows large inter-annual fluctuations rather than a clear trend, leaf biomass of woody species has doubled within 27 years (+103%). This increase in woody biomass did not reflect on biodiversity with 11 of 16 woody species declining in abundance over the period. We conclude that the observed greening in the Senegalese Sahel is primarily related to an increasing tree cover that caused satellite-driven vegetation indices to increase with rainfall reversal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Solar energy prediction and verification using operational model forecasts and ground-based solar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmopoulos, P.G.; Kazadzis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Bais, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the predictions and verification of these predictions of solar energy using ground-based solar measurements from the Hellenic Network for Solar Energy and the National Observatory of Athens network, as well as solar radiation operational forecasts provided by the MM5 mesoscale model. The evaluation was carried out independently for the different networks, for two forecast horizons (1 and 2 days ahead), for the seasons of the year, for varying solar elevation, for the indicative energy potential of the area, and for four classes of cloud cover based on the calculated clearness index (k_t): CS (clear sky), SC (scattered clouds), BC (broken clouds) and OC (overcast). The seasonal dependence presented relative rRMSE (Root Mean Square Error) values ranging from 15% (summer) to 60% (winter), while the solar elevation dependence revealed a high effectiveness and reliability near local noon (rRMSE ∼30%). An increment of the errors with cloudiness was also observed. For CS with mean GHI (global horizontal irradiance) ∼ 650 W/m"2 the errors are 8%, for SC 20% and for BC and OC the errors were greater (>40%) but correspond to much lower radiation levels (<120 W/m"2) of consequently lower energy potential impact. The total energy potential for each ground station ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 MWh/m"2, while the mean monthly forecast error was found to be consistently below 10%. - Highlights: • Long term measurements at different atmospheric cases are needed for energy forecasting model evaluations. • The total energy potential at the Greek sites presented ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 MWh/m"2. • Mean monthly energy forecast errors are within 10% for all cases analyzed. • Cloud presence results of an additional forecast error that varies with the cloud cover.