WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground based lidar

  1. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  2. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  3. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  4. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  5. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols using Ground-based Multiwavelength Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Thorsen, T. J.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Burton, S. P.; Goldsmith, J.; Holz, R.; Kuehn, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Marais, W.; Newsom, R. K.; Liu, X.; Sawamura, P.; Holben, B. N.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties are critical for developing and evaluating aerosol transport model parameterizations and assessing global aerosol-radiation impacts on climate. During the Combined HSRL And Raman lidar Measurement Study (CHARMS), we investigated the synergistic use of ground-based Raman lidar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements to retrieve aerosol properties aloft. Continuous (24/7) operation of these co-located lidars during the ten-week CHARMS mission (mid-July through September 2015) allowed the acquisition of a unique, multiwavelength ground-based lidar dataset for studying aerosol properties above the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The ARM Raman lidar measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 355 nm as well as profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and temperature. The University of Wisconsin HSRL simultaneously measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 532 nm and aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm. Recent advances in both lidar retrieval theory and algorithm development demonstrate that vertically-resolved retrievals using such multiwavelength lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction can help constrain both the aerosol optical (e.g. complex refractive index, scattering, etc.) and microphysical properties (e.g. effective radius, concentrations) as well as provide qualitative aerosol classification. Based on this work, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) HSRL group developed automated algorithms for classifying and retrieving aerosol optical and microphysical properties, demonstrated these retrievals using data from the unique NASA/LaRC airborne multiwavelength HSRL-2 system, and validated the results using coincident airborne in situ data. We apply these algorithms to the CHARMS multiwavelength (Raman+HSRL) lidar dataset to retrieve aerosol properties above the SGP site. We present some profiles of aerosol effective

  6. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  7. a Universal De-Noising Algorithm for Ground-Based LIDAR Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based lidar, working as an effective remote sensing tool, plays an irreplaceable role in the study of atmosphere, since it has the ability to provide the atmospheric vertical profile. However, the appearance of noise in a lidar signal is unavoidable, which leads to difficulties and complexities when searching for more information. Every de-noising method has its own characteristic but with a certain limitation, since the lidar signal will vary with the atmosphere changes. In this paper, a universal de-noising algorithm is proposed to enhance the SNR of a ground-based lidar signal, which is based on signal segmentation and reconstruction. The signal segmentation serving as the keystone of the algorithm, segments the lidar signal into three different parts, which are processed by different de-noising method according to their own characteristics. The signal reconstruction is a relatively simple procedure that is to splice the signal sections end to end. Finally, a series of simulation signal tests and real dual field-of-view lidar signal shows the feasibility of the universal de-noising algorithm.

  8. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  9. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. The new tender areas are located from 3 to 8 km from the coast. Ground-based scanning lidar...... located on land can partly cover this area out to around 15 km. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the project‘Reducing the Uncertainty of Near-shore Energy estimates from meso- and micro-scale wind models’ (RUNE) is established. The measurement campaign starts October....... The various observation types have advantages and limitations; one advantage of both the Sentinel-1 and the scanning lidar is that they both observe wind fields covering a large area and so can be combined for studying the spatial variability of winds. Sentinel-1 are being processed near-real-time at DTU Wind...

  10. Csf Based Non-Ground Points Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A.; Zhang, W.; Shi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Region growing is a classical method of point cloud segmentation. Based on the idea of collecting the pixels with similar properties to form regions, region growing is widely used in many fields such as medicine, forestry and remote sensing. In this algorithm, there are two core problems. One is the selection of seed points, the other is the setting of the growth constraints, in which the selection of the seed points is the foundation. In this paper, we propose a CSF (Cloth Simulation Filtering) based method to extract the non-ground seed points effectively. The experiments have shown that this method can obtain a group of seed spots compared with the traditional methods. It is a new attempt to extract seed points

  11. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  12. Aerosol characteristics inversion based on the improved lidar ratio profile with the ground-based rotational Raman-Mie lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongzhu; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2018-06-01

    An iterative method, based on a derived inverse relationship between atmospheric backscatter coefficient and aerosol lidar ratio, is proposed to invert the lidar ratio profile and aerosol extinction coefficient. The feasibility of this method is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Simulation results show the inversion accuracy of aerosol optical properties for iterative method can be improved in the near-surface aerosol layer and the optical thick layer. Experimentally, as a result of the reduced insufficiency error and incoherence error, the aerosol optical properties with higher accuracy can be obtained in the near-surface region and the region of numerical derivative distortion. In addition, the particle component can be distinguished roughly based on this improved lidar ratio profile.

  13. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  14. Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners.

  15. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; hide

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE

  16. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  17. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  18. Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Verdejo, María; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Orlandi, Emiliano; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity profiles is important for many applications, e.g., assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. Nowadays there are a wide variety of ground-based sensors for atmospheric humidity profiling. Unfortunately there is no single instrument able to provide a measurement with complete vertical coverage, high vertical and temporal resolution and good performance under all weather conditions, simultaneously. For example, Raman lidar (RL) measurements can provide water vapor with a high vertical resolution, albeit with limited vertical coverage, due to sunlight contamination and the presence of clouds. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) receive water vapor information throughout the troposphere, though their vertical resolution is poor. In this work, we present an MWR and RL system synergy, which aims to overcome the specific sensor limitations. The retrieval algorithm combining these two instruments is an optimal estimation method (OEM), which allows for an uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information, taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied to a 2-month field campaign around Jülich (Germany), focusing on clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyze the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity uncertainty is reduced above the last usable lidar range by a factor of ˜ 2 with respect to the case where only RL measurements are used. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom per signal reveal that most information is gained above the usable lidar range, especially important during daytime when the lidar vertical coverage is limited. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using

  19. Lidar-based estimates of aboveground biomass in the continental US and Mexico using ground, airborne, and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Nelson; Hank Margolis; Paul Montesano; Guoqing Sun; Bruce Cook; Larry Corp; Hans-Erik Andersen; Ben deJong; Fernando Paz Pellat; Thaddeus Fickel; Jobriath Kauffman; Stephen Prisley

    2017-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar...

  20. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (<80%) of the cirrus have values less than 0.1. Optical depth shows a strong dependence with cirrus geometrical thickness and mid-cloud height. The monthly mean cirrus extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  1. Characteristics of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Observed by CALIOP and Ground Based Lidar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the relation between major tropical volcanic eruptions in the equatorial region and the stratospheric aerosol data, which have been collected by the ground based lidar observations at at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar site between 2004 and 2015 and the CALIOP observations in low latitude between 2006 and 2015. We found characteristic dynamic behavior of volcanic stratospheric aerosol layers over equatorial region.

  2. Coastal change analysis of Lovells Island using high resolution ground based LiDAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jennifer K.

    Many methods have been employed to study coastline change. These methods range from historical map analysis to GPS surveys to modern airborne LiDAR and satellite imagery. These previously used methods can be time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive and have varying degrees of accuracy and temporal coverage. Additionally, it is often difficult to apply such techniques in direct response to an isolated event within an appropriate temporal framework. Here we utilize a new ground based Canopy Biomass LiDAR (CBL) system built at The University of Massachusetts Boston (in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology) in order to identify and analyze coastal change on Lovells Island, Boston Harbor. Surveys of a bluff developing in an eroding drumlin and beach cusps on a high-energy cobble beach on Lovells Island were conducted in June, September and December of 2013. At each site for each survey, the CBL was set up and multiple scans of each feature were taken on a predetermined transect that was established parallel to the high-water mark at distances relative to the scale of the bluff and cusps. The scans from each feature were compiled, integrated and visualized using Meshlab. Results from our surveys indicate that the highly portable and easy to deploy CBL system produces images of exceptional clarity, with the capacity to resolve small-scale changes to coastal features and systems. The CBL, while still under development (and coastal surveying protocols with it are just being established), appears to be an ideal tool for analyzing coastal geological features and is anticipated to prove to be a useful tool for the observation and analysis of coastal change. Furthermore, there is significant potential for utilizing the low cost ultra-portable CBL in frequent deployments to develop small-scale erosion rate and sediment budget analyses.

  3. Further Studies of Forest Structure Parameter Retrievals Using the Echidna® Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing work with the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), a full-waveform, ground-based scanning lidar (1064 nm) developed by Australia's CSIRO and deployed by Boston University in California conifers (2008) and New England hardwood and softwood (conifer) stands (2007, 2009, 2010), confirms the importance of slope correction in forest structural parameter retrieval; detects growth and disturbance over periods of 2-3 years; provides a new way to measure the between-crown clumping factor in leaf area index retrieval using lidar range; and retrieves foliage profiles with more lower-canopy detail than a large-footprint aircraft scanner (LVIS), while simulating LVIS foliage profiles accurately from a nadir viewpoint using a 3-D point cloud. Slope correction is important for accurate retrieval of forest canopy structural parameters, such as mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass. Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. A test of three methods at southern Sierra Nevada conifer sites improved the range of correlations of these EVI-retrieved parameters with field measurements from 0.53-0.68 to 0.85-0.93 for the best method. EVI scans can detect change, including both growth and disturbance, in periods of two to three years. We revisited three New England forest sites scanned in 2007-2009 or 2007-2010. A shelterwood stand at the Howland Experimental Forest, Howland, Maine, showed increased mean DBH, above-ground biomass and leaf area index between 2007 and 2009. Two stands at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, suffered reduced leaf area index and reduced stem count density as the result of an ice storm that damaged the stands. At one stand, broken tops were

  4. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  5. Determination of the smoke-plume heights and their dynamics with ground-based scanning LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2015-01-01

    Lidar-data processing techniques are analyzed, which allow determining smoke-plume heights and their dynamics and can be helpful for the improvement of smoke dispersion and air quality models. The data processing algorithms considered in the paper are based on the analysis of two alternative characteristics related to the smoke dispersion process: the regularized...

  6. Calibrating a ground-based backscatter lidar for continuous measurements of PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Markus; Oderbolz, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    One of the main issues of atmospheric research and air quality control is the reduction of harmful particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Small particles can enter the human airways and cause serious health problems such as COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), asthma or even lung cancer. Recently, interest has shifted from PM10 to finer fractions of particulate matter, e.g. PM2.5, because the health impact of finer particles is considered to be more severe. Up to now measurements of particulate matter were carried out mainly at ground level. However important atmospheric processes, i.e. particle formation, transport and vertical mixing processes, take place predominantly at higher altitudes in the planetary boundary layer. Lidar in principle provides the ability to observe these processes where they occur. The new method outlined in this paper demonstrates the use of a small sized and quite inexpensive lidar in stand-alone operation to investigate transport processes of particulate matter, and PM2.5 in particular. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 as a reference are gained with a conventional in-situ monitor, installed on a tower at an altitude of 325 m in the North of Berlin (Frohnauer Turm). These PM2.5 measurements will be compared with backscatter Lidar data (1064 nm) taken from approx. 60 m over ground up to an altitude of 15 km with a spatial resolution of 15 m. The vertical backscatter profiles at 325 m will be correlated to the concentrations obtained by the PM2,5 monitor on the tower. Both measurements have a time resolution of 180 s to observe also processes that take place at short time scales. The objective is to gain correlation functions for estimating PM2.5 concentrations from backscatter Lidar data. Such a calibrated Lidar system is a valuable instrument for environmental agencies and atmospheric research groups to observe and investigate causes of high level PM concentrations. First results show a reasonably good linear correlation

  7. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  8. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Arctic Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 78.9° N, 11.9° E (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research – AWI and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor – IPEV, supported the airborne campaign. This included lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL, located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days. From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the concurrent MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview of particle detection based on their optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as depolarization, backscatter and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  9. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  10. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer in tehran using combined lidar remote sensing and ground base measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Hossein; Khalesifard, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    The vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been studied by use of a depolarized LiDAR over Tehran, Iran. The boundary layer height (BLH) remains under 1km, and its retrieval from LiDAR have been compared with sonding measurements and meteorological model outputs. It is also shown that the wind speed and direction as well as topography lead to the persistence of air pollution in Tehran. The situation aggravate in fall and winter due to temperature inversion.

  11. Multiscale influence of woody riparian vegetation on fluvial topography quantified with ground-based and airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater-Reyes, Sharon; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Diehl, Rebecca M.

    2017-06-01

    Coupling between riparian vegetation and river processes can result in the coevolution of plant communities and channel morphology. Quantifying biotic-abiotic interactions remains difficult because of the challenges in making and analyzing appropriately scaled observations. We measure the influence of woody vegetation on channel topography at the patch and reach scales in a sand bed, dryland river system (Santa Maria River, Arizona) with native Populus and invasive Tamarix. At the patch scale, we use ground-based lidar to relate plant morphology to "tail bars" formed in the lee of vegetation. We find vegetation roughness density (λf) to most influence tail-bar shape and size, suggesting coherent flow structures associated with roughness density are responsible for sediment deposition at this scale. Using airborne lidar, we test whether relationships between topography and vegetation morphology observed at the patch scale are persistent at the reach scale. We find that elevation of the channel (relative to the local mean) covaries with a metric of vegetation density, indicating analogous influences of vegetation density on topography across spatial scales. While these results are expected, our approach provides insight regarding interactions between woody riparian vegetation and channel topography at multiple scales, and a means to quantify such interactions for use in other field settings.

  12. CALIPSO-Inferred Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects: Bias Estimates Using Ground-Based Raman Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Tyler; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Observational constraints on the change in the radiative energy budget caused by the presence of aerosols, i.e. the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE), have recently been made using observations from the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO). CALIPSO observations have the potential to provide improved global estimates of aerosol DRE compared to passive sensor-derived estimates due to CALIPSO's ability to perform vertically-resolved aerosol retrievals over all surface types and over cloud. In this study we estimate the uncertainties in CALIPSO-inferred aerosol DRE using multiple years of observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Raman lidars (RL) at midlatitude and tropical sites. Examined are assumptions about the ratio of extinction-to-backscatter (i.e. the lidar ratio) made by the CALIPSO retrievals, which are needed to retrieve the aerosol extinction profile. The lidar ratio is shown to introduce minimal error in the mean aerosol DRE at the top-of-atmosphere and surface. It is also shown that CALIPSO is unable to detect all radiatively-significant aerosol, resulting in an underestimate in the magnitude of the aerosol DRE by 30-50%. Therefore, global estimates of the aerosol DRE inferred from CALIPSO observations are likely too weak.

  13. Test of ground-based Lidar instrument WLS200S-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the test performed for the given Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. The test aims at establishing a relation between the reference wind measurements and corresponding lidar wind indications, and evaluating a set of quality...

  14. Test of ground-based Lidar instrument WLS200S-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the test performed for the given Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. The test aims at establishing a relation between the reference wind measurements and corresponding lidar wind indications, and evaluating a set of quality...

  15. Test of ground-based Lidar instrument WLS7-106

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the test performed for the given Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. The test aims at establishing a relation between the reference wind measurements and corresponding lidar wind indications, and evaluating a set of quality...

  16. Test of ground-based lidar instrument WLS7-159

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report presents the result of the test performed for the given Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. The test aims at establishing a relation between the reference wind measurements and corresponding lidar wind indications, and evaluating a set of quality...

  17. Calibration of ground-based Lidar instrument WLS7-73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given WLS7 Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertain...

  18. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  19. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homburg

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  20. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Freudenthaler

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  1. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification. The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R and volume linear depolarization (δV ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4, which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l. since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p- and perpendicular (s- polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times. Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC, as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS, parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function

  2. Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

    2009-12-01

    The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal

  3. Terrain Classification and Identification of Tree Stems Using Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    diameters using lidar data (e.g. Henning & Radtke , 2006; Maas et al., 2008) with RMS errors of 1.0 cm, but this has been done with little or no understory...occlusion or data sparsity. Here, the range is selected to balance these two competing effects. In the literature (Aschoff et al., 2004; Henning & Radtke ...restrictions in the assumed fits. While the dbh estimates are not as accurate as some previously reported (e.g. Henning & Radtke (2006)), this is to be

  4. First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A; Gardiner, T D; Innocenti, F; Finlayson, A; Woods, P T; Few, J F M

    2014-08-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources is one of the main anthropogenic contributors to the greenhouse effect. Direct remote sensing of CO2 emissions using optical methods offers the potential for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. We report the development and demonstration of a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) able to measure the mass emission rate of CO2 in the plume from a power station. To our knowledge DIAL has not previously been successfully applied to the measurement of emission plumes of CO2 from industrial sources. A significant challenge in observing industrial CO2 emission plumes is the ability to discriminate and observe localised concentrations of CO2 above the locally observed background level. The objectives of the study were to modify our existing mobile infrared DIAL system to enable CO2 measurements and to demonstrate the system at a power plant to assess the feasibility of the technique for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. The results of this preliminary study showed very good agreement with the expected emissions calculated by the site. The detection limit obtained from the measurements, however, requires further improvement to provide quantification of smaller emitters of CO2, for example for the detection of fugitive emissions. This study has shown that in principle, remote optical sensing technology will have the potential to provide useful direct data on CO2 mass emission rates.

  5. A comparison of mixing depths observed by ground-based wind profilers and an airborne lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B.; Senff, C. [Univ. of Colorado/NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Banta, R.M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The mixing depth is one of the most important parameters in air pollution studies because it determines the vertical extent of the `box` in which pollutants are mixed and dispersed. During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study (SOS95), scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) deployed four 915-MHz boundary-layer radar/wind profilers (hereafter radars) in and around the Nashville, Tennessee metropolitan area. Scientists from NOAA/ETL also operated an ultraviolet differential absorption lidar (DIAL) onboard a CASA-212 aircraft. Profiles from radar and DIAL can be used to derive estimates of the mixing depth. The methods used for both instruments are similar in that they depend on information derived from the backscattered power. However, different scattering mechanisms for the radar and DIAL mean that different tracers of mixing depth are measured. In this paper we compare the mixing depth estimates obtained from the radar and DIAL and discuss the similarities and differences that occur. (au)

  6. Comparison of lidar-derived PM10 with regional modeling and ground-based observations in the frame of MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach using mobile lidar measurements was implemented to test the performances of chemistry-transport models in simulating mass concentrations (PM10 predicted by chemistry-transport models. A ground-based mobile lidar (GBML was deployed around Paris onboard a van during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer experiment in July 2009. The measurements performed with this Rayleigh-Mie lidar are converted into PM10 profiles using optical-to-mass relationships previously established from in situ measurements performed around Paris for urban and peri-urban aerosols. The method is described here and applied to the 10 measurements days (MD. MD of 1, 15, 16 and 26 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and atmospheric conditions, are analyzed here in more details. Lidar-derived PM10 are compared with results of simulations from POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models (CTM and with ground-based observations from the AIRPARIF network. GBML-derived and AIRPARIF in situ measurements have been found to be in good agreement with a mean Root Mean Square Error RMSE (and a Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPE of 7.2 μg m−3 (26.0% and 8.8 μg m−3 (25.2% with relationships assuming peri-urban and urban-type particles, respectively. The comparisons between CTMs and lidar at ~200 m height have shown that CTMs tend to underestimate wet PM10 concentrations as revealed by the mean wet PM10 observed during the 10 MD of 22.4, 20.0 and 17.5 μg m−3 for lidar with peri-urban relationship, and POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE models, respectively. This leads to a RMSE (and a MAPE of 6.4 μg m−3 (29.6% and 6.4 μg m−3 (27.6% when considering POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE CTMs, respectively. Wet integrated PM10 computed (between the ground and 1 km above the ground level from lidar, POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE results

  7. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  8. Estimating Turbulence Statistics and Parameters from Ground- and Nacelle-Based Lidar Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Banta, Robert; Pauscher, Lukas

    , these documents are often adopted in part or in total by other standards-making bodies. A Recommended Practices document includes actions and procedures recommended by the experts involved in the research project. A Best Practices document includes suggested actions and procedures based on good industry practices...... collected during the research project. An Experts Group Studies report includes the latest background information on the topic as well as a survey of practices, where possible. Previously issued IEA Wind Recommended Practices, Best Practices, and Expert Group Reports can be found here on the Task 11 web......The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research, Development and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) is a vehicle for member countries to exchange information on the planning and execution of national, large-scale wind system projects...

  9. Comparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with lidar, radiosonde and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The importance of the knowledge of the temperature structure in the atmosphere has been widely recognized. Temperature is a key parameter for dynamical, chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere. The cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming ( [1] and references therein). However, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. Stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another [1]. Therefore it is important that in the future such datasets are generated. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) is a newly developed ground-based microwave radiometer designed, built and operated at the University of Bern. The instrument and the retrieval of temperature profiles has been described in detail in [2]. TEMPERA is measuring a pressure broadened oxygen line at 53.1 GHz in order to determine stratospheric temperature profiles. The retrieved profiles of TEMPERA cover an altitude range of approximately 20 to 45 km with a vertical resolution in the order of 15 km. The lower limit is given by the instrumental baseline and the bandwidth of the measured spectrum. The upper limit is given by the fact that above 50 km the oxygen lines are splitted by the Zeeman effect in the terrestrial magnetic field. In this study we present a comparison of stratospheric

  10. Development of ground-based lidars for measuring H2O and O3 profiles in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Abo, M.; Pham, L. H. P.; Uchino, O.; Nagai, T.; Izumi, T.; Morino, I.; Ohyama, H.; Nagasawa, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas and a highly variable atmospheric constituent. It plays an important role of the energy transfer and the meteorological phenomena such as evaporation, vapor transport, cloud formation, and rainfall in the troposphere. Ozone is an important air pollutant that at high concentrations impacts on human health and ecosystem including crops and also a greenhouse gas that plays an important role in climate change. Aerosol is an important climate parameter and also one of the largest error sources (causes) in retrieval from solar reflected short wavelength infrared radiances observed with greenhouse gases observing satellites such as the GOSAT and OCO-2. Therefore, we have been developing ground-based differential absorption lidars (DIALs) for measuring the tropospheric water vapor, ozone and aerosols.The water vapor DIAL employs two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers operating at 829.054 nm for the online wavelength and 829.124 nm for the offline wavelength with tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA) in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, and utilizes pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique.It has started to measure the vertical distribution of lower tropospheric water vapor in order to improve accuracy and lead time of numerical weather prediction of local heavy rainfalls. Well-organized and regularly spaced convective cells of which vertical thickness were 200 m and the periods were 10 minutes were observed in the top of planetary boundary layer at 2.5 km altitude over Tokyo (35.66°N, 139.37°E) on 22 June 2015.The ozone DIAL employs a Nd:YAG laser and a 2 m long Raman cell filled with CO2 gas which generates four Stokes lines (276.2, 287.2, 299.1, and 312.0 nm) of stimulated Raman scattering, and two receiving telescopes with diameters of 49 and 10 cm.It has started to measure the vertical distributions of the tropospheric ozone as well as aerosols and thin cirrus cloud in

  11. Assessment of cirrus cloud and aerosol radiative effect in South-East Asia by ground-based NASA MPLNET lidar network data and CALIPSO satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Fatkhuroyan, Fatkhuroyan; Gu, Yu; Marquis, Jared W.

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol, together with cirrus clouds, play a fundamental role in the earth-atmosphere system radiation budget, especially at tropical latitudes, where the Earth surface coverage by cirrus cloud can easily reach 70%. In this study we evaluate the combined aerosol and cirrus cloud net radiative effects in a wild and barren region like South East Asia. This part of the world is extremely vulnerable to climate change and it is source of important anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions. The analysis has been carried out by computing cirrus cloud and aerosol net radiative effects through the Fu-Liou-Gu atmospheric radiative transfer model, adequately adapted to input lidar measurements, at surface and top-of-the atmosphere. The aerosol radiative effects were computed respectively using the retrieved lidar extinction from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization in 2011 and 2012 and the lidar on-board of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations for the South East Asia Region (27N-12S, 77E-132E) with 5° x 5° spatial resolution. To assess the cirrus cloud radiative effect, we used the ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar Network measurements at Singapore permanent observational site. Results put in evidence that strong aerosol emission areas are related on average to a net surface cooling. On the contrary, cirrus cloud radiative effect shows a net daytime positive warming of the system earth-atmosphere. This effect is weak over the ocean where the albedo is lower and never counter-balances the net cooling produced by aerosols. The net cooling is stronger in 2011, with an associated reduction in precipitations by the four of the five rain-gauges stations deployed in three regions as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java with respect to 2012. We can speculate that aerosol emissions may be associated with lower rainfall, however some very important phenomena as El Nino Southern Oscillation , Madden-Julian Oscillation, Monsoon and Indian Dipole are not

  12. Study of Diagenetic Features in Rudist Buildups of Cretaceous Edwards Formation Using Ground Based Hyperspectral Scanning and Terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Okyay, U.; Hartzell, P. J.; Biber, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ground based remote sensing is a novel technique for development of digital outcrop models which can be instrumental in performing detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis for the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral data collection is combined with terrestrial LiDAR to study outcrops of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated inter-reef facies, including rudist bioherms and biostromes. It is a significant aquifer and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south central Texas. Hyperspectral data were used to map compositional variation in the outcrop by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. Lithological variation was mapped in detail to investigate the structure and composition of rudist buildups. Hyperspectral imagery was registered to a 3D model produced from the LiDAR point cloud with an accuracy of up to one pixel. Flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying toucasid-rich biostrome facies containing chert nodules, overlying sucrosic dolostones, and uppermost peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area and has validated classification products of remote sensing data. Several types of porosity were observed and have been associated with increased dolomitization. This ongoing research involves integration of remotely sensed datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and seeks to develop a workflow for quick and efficient ground based remote sensing-assisted outcrop studies.

  13. Ground-based eye-safe networkable micro-pulse differential absorption and high spectral resolution lidar for water vapor and aerosol profiling in the lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, K. S.; Spuler, S.; Hayman, M. M.; Bunn, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a greenhouse gas that is known to be a significant driver of weather and climate. Several National Research Council (NRC) reports have highlighted the need for improved water vapor measurements that can capture its spatial and temporal variability as a means to improve weather predictions. Researchers at Montana State University (MSU) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an eye-safe diode laser based micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (MP-DIAL) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere. The MP-DIAL is capable of long term unattended operation and is capable of monitoring water vapor in the lower troposphere in most weather conditions. Two MP-DIAL instruments are currently operational and have been deployed at the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Plains elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment, the Perdigão experiment, and the Land Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE). For each of these field experiments, the MP-DIAL was run unattended and provided near-continuous water vapor profiles, including periods of bright daytime clouds, from 300 m above the ground level to 4 km (or the cloud base) with 150 m vertical resolution and 5 minute temporal resolution. Three additional MP-DIAL instruments are currently under construction and will result in a network of five eye-safe MP-DIAL instruments for ground based weather and climate research experiments. Taking advantage of the broad spectral coverage and modularity or the diode based architecture, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measurement capabilities was added to the second MP-DIAL instrument. The HSRL capabilities will be operational during the deployment at the LAFE field experiment. The instrument architecture will be presented along with examples of data collected during recent field experiments.

  14. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V; Homburg, F; Jaeger, H [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  15. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Jaeger, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  16. Relative drifts and stability of satellite and ground-based stratospheric ozone profiles at NDACC lidar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of stratospheric ozone at different stations in the low and mid-latitudes is investigated. The analysis is performed by comparing the collocated profiles of ozone lidars, at the northern mid-latitudes (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg, Haute-Provence Observatory, Tsukuba and Table Mountain Facility, tropics (Mauna Loa Observatory and southern mid-latitudes (Lauder, with ozonesondes and space-borne sensors (SBUV(/2, SAGE II, HALOE, UARS MLS and Aura MLS, extracted around the stations. Relative differences are calculated to find biases and temporal drifts in the measurements. All measurement techniques show their best agreement with respect to the lidar at 20–40 km, where the differences and drifts are generally within ±5% and ±0.5% yr−1, respectively, at most stations. In addition, the stability of the long-term ozone observations (lidar, SBUV(/2, SAGE II and HALOE is evaluated by the cross-comparison of each data set. In general, all lidars and SBUV(/2 exhibit near-zero drifts and the comparison between SAGE II and HALOE shows larger, but insignificant drifts. The RMS of the drifts of lidar and SBUV(/2 is 0.22 and 0.27% yr−1, respectively at 20–40 km. The average drifts of the long-term data sets, derived from various comparisons, are less than ±0.3% yr−1 in the 20–40 km altitude at all stations. A combined time series of the relative differences between SAGE II, HALOE and Aura MLS with respect to lidar data at six sites is constructed, to obtain long-term data sets lasting up to 27 years. The relative drifts derived from these combined data are very small, within ±0.2% yr−1.

  17. The Escompte - Marseille 2001 International Field Experiment: Ground Based and Lidar Results Obtained At St. Chamas By The Epfl Mobile Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, I.; Jimenez, R.; Simeonov, V.; Ristori, P.; Navarette, M.; van den Bergh, H.; Calpini, B.

    The assessment of the air pollution problems in term of understanding of the non- linear chemical mechanisms, the transport or the meteorological processes, and the choice of the abatement strategies could be based on the air pollution models. Nowa- days, very few of these models were validated due to the lack of 3D measurements. The goal of the ESCOMPTE experiment was to provide such of 3D database in order to constrain the air pollution models. The EPFL-LPA mobile laboratory was part of the ESCOMPTE extensive network and was located on the northern side of the Berre Lake at St.Chamas. In this framework, measurements of the air pollutants (O3, SO2, NOx, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particulate matter of less than 10 microns mean diameter) and meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, pressure and relative humidity) were continuously performed from June 10 to July 13, 2001. They were combined with ground based lidar observations for ozone and aerosol estimation from 100m above ground level up to the free troposphere at ca.7 km agl. This paper will present an overview of the results obtained and will highlight one of the intensive observation period (IOP) during which clean air conditions were initially observed followed by highly polluted air masses during the second half of the IOP.

  18. Validation of POLDER/ADEOS data using a ground-based lidar network: Preliminary results for semi-transparent and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Sauvage, L.; Flamant, P. H.; Pelon, J.; Goloub, P.; Brogniez, G.; spinhirne, J.; Lavorato, M.; Sugimoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    At mid and tropical latitudes, cirrus clouds are present more than 50% of the time in satellites observations. Due to their large spatial and temporal coverage, and associated low temperatures, cirrus clouds have a major influence on the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere energy balance through their effects on the incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation. At present the impact of cirrus clouds on climate is well recognized but remains to be asserted more precisely, for their optical and radiative properties are not very well known. In order to understand the effects of cirrus clouds on climate, their optical and radiative characteristics of these clouds need to be determined accurately at different scales in different locations i.e. latitude. Lidars are well suited to observe cirrus clouds, they can detect very thin and semi-transparent layers, and retrieve the clouds geometrical properties i.e. altitude and multilayers, as well as radiative properties i.e. optical depth, backscattering phase functions of ice crystals. Moreover the linear depolarization ratio can give information on the ice crystal shape. In addition, the data collected with an airborne version of POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) instrument have shown that bidirectional polarized measurements can provide information on cirrus cloud microphysical properties (crystal shapes, preferred orientation in space). The spaceborne version of POLDER-1 has been flown on ADEOS-1 platform during 8 months (October 96 - June 97), and the next POLDER-2 instrument will be launched in 2000 on ADEOS-2. The POLDER-1 cloud inversion algorithms are currently under validation. For cirrus clouds, a validation based on comparisons between cloud properties retrieved from POLDER-1 data and cloud properties inferred from a ground-based lidar network is currently under consideration. We present the first results of the validation.

  19. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hervo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010, the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD. In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m−3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm−3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98, showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m−2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m−2. Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23

  20. FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS FOR GROUND CLASSIFICATION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizaldy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep Learning has been massively used for image classification in recent years. The use of deep learning for ground classification from LIDAR point clouds has also been recently studied. However, point clouds need to be converted into an image in order to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. In state-of-the-art techniques, this conversion is slow because each point is converted into a separate image. This approach leads to highly redundant computation during conversion and classification. The goal of this study is to design a more efficient data conversion and ground classification. This goal is achieved by first converting the whole point cloud into a single image. The classification is then performed by a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN, a modified version of CNN designed for pixel-wise image classification. The proposed method is significantly faster than state-of-the-art techniques. On the ISPRS Filter Test dataset, it is 78 times faster for conversion and 16 times faster for classification. Our experimental analysis on the same dataset shows that the proposed method results in 5.22 % of total error, 4.10 % of type I error, and 15.07 % of type II error. Compared to the previous CNN-based technique and LAStools software, the proposed method reduces the total error and type I error (while type II error is slightly higher. The method was also tested on a very high point density LIDAR point clouds resulting in 4.02 % of total error, 2.15 % of type I error and 6.14 % of type II error.

  1. Fully Convolutional Networks for Ground Classification from LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaldy, A.; Persello, C.; Gevaert, C. M.; Oude Elberink, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    Deep Learning has been massively used for image classification in recent years. The use of deep learning for ground classification from LIDAR point clouds has also been recently studied. However, point clouds need to be converted into an image in order to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In state-of-the-art techniques, this conversion is slow because each point is converted into a separate image. This approach leads to highly redundant computation during conversion and classification. The goal of this study is to design a more efficient data conversion and ground classification. This goal is achieved by first converting the whole point cloud into a single image. The classification is then performed by a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN), a modified version of CNN designed for pixel-wise image classification. The proposed method is significantly faster than state-of-the-art techniques. On the ISPRS Filter Test dataset, it is 78 times faster for conversion and 16 times faster for classification. Our experimental analysis on the same dataset shows that the proposed method results in 5.22 % of total error, 4.10 % of type I error, and 15.07 % of type II error. Compared to the previous CNN-based technique and LAStools software, the proposed method reduces the total error and type I error (while type II error is slightly higher). The method was also tested on a very high point density LIDAR point clouds resulting in 4.02 % of total error, 2.15 % of type I error and 6.14 % of type II error.

  2. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. II - Backscatter structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric aerosol volume backscatter coefficients at 10.6-microns wavelength were obtained with airborne continuous wave and ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains during a 20-day period in summer 1982. A persistent 'background' layer was found between 6- and 10-km altitude, with a generally uniform backscatter mixing ratio of about 10 to the -10th sq m/kg per sr. The upper boundary of this background layer varied with the tropopause height; the lower boundary varied with the strength and diurnal cycle of convective mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). For quiescent meteorological conditions, the transition from the PBL to the background layer was usually very sharp, with backscatter decreases sometimes as large as 3 decades in about 70 m. Sharp gradients were also found at the boundaries of shallow (tens of meters) subvisible cirrus clouds. For less stable conditions, associated with vertical aerosol transport by deep cumuliform clouds, backscatter tended to decrease exponentially with altitude.

  3. 16-year Climatology of Cirrus cloud properties using ground-based Lidar over Gadanki (13.45˚N, 79.18˚E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Amit Kumar; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Gadhavi, Harish

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous high level cold clouds predominantly consisting of ice-crystals. With their highest coverage over the tropics, these are one of the most vital and complex components of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) due to their strong radiative feedback and dehydration in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) regions. The continuous changes in their coverage, position, thickness, and ice-crystal size and shape distributions bring uncertainties in the estimates of cirrus cloud radiative forcing. Long-term changes in the distribution of aerosols and water vapour in the TTL can influence cirrus properties. This necessitates long-term studies of tropical cirrus clouds, which are only few. The present study provides 16-year climatology of physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds observed using a ground-based Lidar located at Gadanki (13.45(°) N, 79.18(°) ˚E and 375 m amsl) in south-India. In general, cirrus clouds occurred for about 44% of the total Lidar observation time. Owing to the increased convective activities, the occurrence of cirrus clouds during the southwest-monsoon season is highest while it is lowest during the winter. Altitude distribution of cirrus clouds reveals that the peak occurrence was about 25% at 14.5 km. The most probable base and top height of cirrus clouds are 14 and 15.5 km, respectively. This is also reflected in the bulk extinction coefficient profile (at 532 nm) of cirrus clouds. These results are compared with the CALIPSO observations. Most of the time cirrus clouds are located within the TTL bounded by convective outflow level and cold-point tropopause. Cirrus clouds are thick during the monsoon season as compared to that during winter. An inverse relation between the thickness of cirrus clouds and TTL thickness is found. The occurrence of cirrus clouds at an altitude close to the tropopause (16 km) showed an increase of 8.4% in the last 16 years. Base and top heights of cirrus clouds also showed

  4. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  5. New Visualization Techniques to Analyze Ultra-High Resolution Four-dimensional Surface Deformation Imagery Collected With Ground-based Tripod LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G. W.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a visualization application to display and interact with very large (tens of millions of points) four-dimensional point position datasets in an immersive environment such that point groups from repeated Tripod LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) surveys can be selected, measured, and analyzed for land surface change using 3D~interactions. Ground-based tripod or terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) can remotely collect ultra-high resolution (centimeter to subcentimeter) and accurate (± 4 mm) digital imagery of the scanned target, and at scanning rates of 2,000 (x, y, z, i) (3D~position~+ intensity) points per second over 7~million points can be collected for a given target in an hour. We developed a multiresolution point set data representation based on octrees to display large T-LiDAR point cloud datasets at the frame rates required for immersive display (between 60 Hz and 120 Hz). Data inside an observer's region of interest is shown in full detail, whereas data outside the field of view or far away from the observer is shown at reduced resolution to provide context. Using 3D input devices at the University of California Davis KeckCAVES, users can navigate large point sets, accurately select related point groups in two or more point sets by sweeping regions of space, and guide the software in deriving positional information from point groups to compute their displacements between surveys. We used this new software application in the KeckCAVES to analyze 4D T-LiDAR imagery from the June~1, 2005 Blue Bird Canyon landslide in Laguna Beach, southern California. Over 50~million (x, y, z, i) data points were collected between 10 and 21~days after the landslide to evaluate T-LiDAR as a natural hazards response tool. The visualization of the T-LiDAR scans within the immediate landslide showed minor readjustments in the weeks following the primarily landslide with no observable continued motion on the primary landslide. Recovery and demolition efforts across the

  6. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  7. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. - Highlights: • Lidar based study for CBL turbulence features • Water vapor and aerosol turbulence profiles • Processes governing boundary layer turbulence profiles using lidars

  8. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sandip, E-mail: sup252@PSU.EDU

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. - Highlights: • Lidar based study for CBL turbulence features • Water vapor and aerosol turbulence profiles • Processes governing boundary layer turbulence profiles using lidars.

  9. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given

  10. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    34 VPH : A New Laser Radar Based Obstacle Avoidance Method for Intelligent Mobile Robots", Proceedings of World Congress on Intelligent Control and...Automation, Hangzhou, China, 5, pp. 4681- 4685. [9] Gong, J., Duan, Y., Man, Y., and Xiong, G., 2007, " VPH +: An Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram Method

  11. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A.B.; Rohde, C.A.; Ho, Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  12. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protat, A.; Delanoë, J.; May, P. T.; Haynes, J.; Jakob, C.; O'Connor, E.; Pope, M.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in different tropical "regimes" recently identified in the literature to aid the development of better process-oriented parameterizations in models. For this purpose, the statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness), and the microphysical and radiative properties (ice water content, visible extinction, effective radius, and total concentration). The variability of these tropical ice cloud properties is then studied as a function of the large-scale cloud regimes derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the amplitude and phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the large-scale atmospheric regime as derived from a long-term record of radiosonde observations over Darwin. The vertical variability of ice cloud occurrence and microphysical properties is largest in all regimes (1.5 order of magnitude for ice water content and extinction, a factor 3 in effective radius, and three orders of magnitude in concentration, typically). 98 % of ice clouds in our dataset are characterized by either a small cloud fraction (smaller than 0.3) or a very large cloud fraction (larger than 0.9). In the ice part of the troposphere three distinct layers characterized by

  14. A Ground-Based Doppler Radar and Micropulse Lidar Forward Simulator for GCM Evaluation of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Moving Forward Towards an Apples-to-apples Comparison of Hydrometeor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect of evaluating Artic cloud representation in a general circulation model (GCM) consists of using observational benchmarks which are as equivalent as possible to model output in order to avoid methodological bias and focus on correctly diagnosing model dynamical and microphysical misrepresentations. However, current cloud observing systems are known to suffer from biases such as limited sensitivity, and stronger response to large or small hydrometeors. Fortunately, while these observational biases cannot be corrected, they are often well understood and can be reproduced in forward simulations. Here a ground-based millimeter wavelength Doppler radar and micropulse lidar forward simulator able to interface with output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE GCM is presented. ModelE stratiform hydrometeor fraction, mixing ratio, mass-weighted fall speed and effective radius are forward simulated to vertically-resolved profiles of radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectrum width as well as lidar backscatter and depolarization ratio. These forward simulated fields are then compared to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ground-based observations to assess cloud vertical structure (CVS). Model evalution of Arctic mixed-phase cloud would also benefit from hydrometeor phase evaluation. While phase retrieval from synergetic observations often generates large uncertainties, the same retrieval algorithm can be applied to observed and forward-simulated radar-lidar fields, thereby producing retrieved hydrometeor properties with potentially the same uncertainties. Comparing hydrometeor properties retrieved in exactly the same way aims to produce the best apples-to-apples comparisons between GCM ouputs and observations. The use of a comprenhensive ground-based forward simulator coupled with a hydrometeor classification retrieval algorithm provides a new perspective for GCM evaluation of Arctic mixed

  15. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  16. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  17. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile based on backscattering, side-scattering and Raman-scattering lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Tao, Zongming; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhou, Pucheng; Yao, Ling; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. It is difficult to get higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of backscattering lidar from the ground to the tropopause especially in near range. Higher SNR problem can be solved by combining side-scattering and backscattering lidar. Using Raman-scattering lidar, aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) can be got. Based on side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar system, aerosol extinction coefficient is retrieved precisely from the earth's surface to the tropopause. Case studies show this method is reasonable and feasible.

  18. The Effect of Wind-Turbine Wakes on Summertime US Midwest Atmospheric Wind Profiles as Observed with Ground-Based Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michael E.; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2013-07-01

    We examine the influence of a modern multi-megawatt wind turbine on wind and turbulence profiles three rotor diameters (D) downwind of the turbine. Light detection and ranging (lidar) wind-profile observations were collected during summer 2011 in an operating wind farm in central Iowa at 20-m vertical intervals from 40 to 220 m above the surface. After a calibration period during which two lidars were operated next to each other, one lidar was located approximately 2D directly south of a wind turbine; the other lidar was moved approximately 3D north of the same wind turbine. Data from the two lidars during southerly flow conditions enabled the simultaneous capture of inflow and wake conditions. The inflow wind and turbulence profiles exhibit strong variability with atmospheric stability: daytime profiles are well-mixed with little shear and strong turbulence, while nighttime profiles exhibit minimal turbulence and considerable shear across the rotor disk region and above. Consistent with the observations available from other studies and with wind-tunnel and large-eddy simulation studies, measurable reductions in wake wind-speeds occur at heights spanning the wind turbine rotor (43-117 m), and turbulent quantities increase in the wake. In generalizing these results as a function of inflow wind speed, we find the wind-speed deficit in the wake is largest at hub height or just above, and the maximum deficit occurs when wind speeds are below the rated speed for the turbine. Similarly, the maximum enhancement of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity occurs at hub height, although observations at the top of the rotor disk do not allow assessment of turbulence in that region. The wind shear below turbine hub height (quantified here with the power-law coefficient) is found to be a useful parameter to identify whether a downwind lidar observes turbine wake or free-flow conditions. These field observations provide data for validating turbine-wake models and wind

  19. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  20. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    2014-06-01

    As wind turbines during the past decade have increased in size so have the challenges met by the atmospheric boundary-layer meteorologists and the wind energy society to measure and characterize the huge-volume wind fields surpassing and driving them. At the DTU Wind Energy test site "Østerild" for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn of the Millennium new fibre-based wind lidar technologies emerged and DTU Wind Energy, at that time embedded within Rise National Laboratory, began in collaboration with researchers from wind lidar companies to measure remote sensed wind profiles and turbulence structures within the atmospheric boundary layer with the emerging, at that time new, all-fibre-based 1.55 μ coherent detection wind lidars. Today, ten years later, DTU Wind Energy routinely deploys ground-based vertical profilers instead of met masts for high-precision measurements of mean wind profiles and turbulence profiles. At the departments test site "Høvsøre" DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today scanned from sets of three simultaneously in space and time synchronized scanning lidars. One set consists of three fast scanning continuous-wave based wind lidars

  1. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy – a Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    " for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn...... "Høvsøre" DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing...... their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today...

  2. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  3. Airborne LIDAR borsight error calibration based on surface coincide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Li, Dong; Qi, Zengying; Qiu, Wen; Tan, Junxiang

    2014-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a system which can directly collect three-dimensional coordinate information of ground point and laser reflection strength information. With the wide application of LIDAR system, users hope to get more accurate results. Boresight error has an important effect on data accuracy and thus, it is thought that eliminating the error is very important. In recent years, many methods have been proposed to eliminate the error. Generally, they can be categorized into tie point method and surface matching method. In this paper, we propose another method called try value method based on surface coincide that is used in actual production by many companies. The method is simple and operable. Further, the efficacy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the data from Zhangye city

  4. Helicopter-based lidar system for monitoring the upper ocean and terrain surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwi Joo; Park, Youngsik; Bunkin, Alexey; Pershin, Serguei; Voliak, Konstantin; Nunes, Raul

    2002-01-01

    A compact helicopter-based lidar system is developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. It is shown that the lidar can measure concentrations of chlorophyll a and dissolved organic matter at the surface of water bodies, detect fluorescence spectra of ground vegetation at a distance of up to 530 m, and determine the vertical profile of light-scattering particle concentration in the upper ocean. The possibilities of the lidar system are demonstrated by detection of polluted areas at the ocean surface, by online monitoring of three-dimensional distribution of light-scattering layers, and by recognition of plant types and physiological states

  5. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  6. Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jubanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest above-ground biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed, and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square metre of about 4 resulted in the best cost / benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site-specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 43%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong greenhouse gas (GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  7. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  8. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  9. Lidar-based biomass assessment for the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B.; Wylie, B. K.; Stoker, J.; Nossov, D.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on high-latitude forests in terms of their ability to sequester carbon as expressed as pools of standing total biomass and soil organic matter. Above ground biomass is an important driver in ecosystem process models used to assess, predict, and understand climate change impacts. Therefore, it is of compelling interest to acquire accurate assessments of current biomass levels for these high-latitude forests, a particular challenge because of their vastness and remoteness. At this time, remote sensing is the only feasible method through which to acquire such assessments. In this study, the use of lidar data for estimating shrub and tree biomass for the Yukon Flats region of Alaska’s Yukon River Basin (YRB) is demonstrated. The lidar data were acquired in the late summer and fall of 2009 as were an initial set of field sampling data collected for training and validation purposes. The 2009 field campaigns were located near Canvasback Lake and Boot Lake in the YRB. Various tallies of biomass were calculated from the field data using allometric equations (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2002, Yarie et al. 2007, Mack et al. 2008). Additional field data were also collected during two 2010 field campaigns at different locations in the Yukon Flats. Linear regressions have been developed based on field-based shrub and tree biomass and various lidar metrics of canopy height calculated for the plots (900 m^2). A multiple linear regression performed at the plot level resulted in a strong relationship (R^2=0.88) between observed and predicted biomass at the plot level. The coefficients for this regression were used to generate a shrub and tree biomass map for the entire Yukon Flats study area covered by lidar. This biomass map will be evaluated using additional field data collected in 2010 as well as other remote sensing data sources. Furthermore, additional lidar metrics (e.g. height of median energy) are being derived from the raw

  10. Progress report of FY 1999 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-01-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. While analyzing data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma, several questions arose about the calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers (MWR). A large portion of this years effort was a thorough analysis of the many factors that are important for the calibration of this instrument through the tip calibration method and the development of algorithms to correct this procedure. An open literature publication describing this analysis has been accepted

  11. Progress report of FY 1997 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1997-01-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this proposal was to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The algorithm will include recently-developed quality control procedures for radiometers. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during an intensive operating period at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma

  12. Ground level and Lidar monitoring of volcanic dust and dust from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. A.; Losno, R.; Salvador, J. O.; Journet, E.; Qu, Z.; Triquet, S.; Monna, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Bulnes, D.; Ristori, P. R.; Quel, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    A combined approach including ground level aerosol sampling, lidar and sunphotometer measurements is used to monitor suspended particles in the atmosphere at several sites in Patagonia. Motivated by the Puyehue volcanic eruption in June 2011 two aerosol monitoring stations with several passive and active instruments were installed in Bariloche and Comodoro Rivadavia. The main goal which is to monitor ground lifted and transported ashes and dust involving danger to civil aviation, is achieved by measuring continuously aerosol concentration at ground level and aerosol vertical distribution using lidar. In addition, starting from December 2011, continuous series of weekly accumulated aerosol concentrations at Rio Gallegos are being measured to study the impact of Patagonian dust over the open ocean on phytoplankton primary productivity and CO2 removal. These measurements are going to be coupled with LIDAR monitoring and a dust optical response models to test if aerosol extrapolation can be done from the ground to the top of the layer. Laboratory chemical analysis of the aerosols will include elemental composition, solubilisation kinetic and mineralogical determination. Expected deliverables for this study is the estimation of the amount of dust exported from Patagonia towards the South Atlantic, its chemical properties, including bioavailability simulation, from model and comparison to experimental measurements.

  13. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy – a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T

    2014-01-01

    As wind turbines during the past decade have increased in size so have the challenges met by the atmospheric boundary-layer meteorologists and the wind energy society to measure and characterize the huge-volume wind fields surpassing and driving them. At the DTU Wind Energy test site ''Østerild'' for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn of the Millennium new fibre-based wind lidar technologies emerged and DTU Wind Energy, at that time embedded within Rise National Laboratory, began in collaboration with researchers from wind lidar companies to measure remote sensed wind profiles and turbulence structures within the atmospheric boundary layer with the emerging, at that time new, all-fibre-based 1.55 μ coherent detection wind lidars. Today, ten years later, DTU Wind Energy routinely deploys ground-based vertical profilers instead of met masts for high-precision measurements of mean wind profiles and turbulence profiles. At the departments test site ''Høvsøre'' DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today scanned from sets of three simultaneously in space and time synchronized scanning lidars. One set consists of three fast

  14. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  15. Potential of ALOS2 and NDVI to Estimate Forest Above-Ground Biomass, and Comparison with Lidar-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vaglio Laurin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing supports carbon estimation, allowing the upscaling of field measurements to large extents. Lidar is considered the premier instrument to estimate above ground biomass, but data are expensive and collected on-demand, with limited spatial and temporal coverage. The previous JERS and ALOS SAR satellites data were extensively employed to model forest biomass, with literature suggesting signal saturation at low-moderate biomass values, and an influence of plot size on estimates accuracy. The ALOS2 continuity mission since May 2014 produces data with improved features with respect to the former ALOS, such as increased spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. We used ALOS2 backscatter data, testing also the integration with additional features (SAR textures and NDVI from Landsat 8 data together with ground truth, to model and map above ground biomass in two mixed forest sites: Tahoe (California and Asiago (Alps. While texture was useful to improve the model performance, the best model was obtained using joined SAR and NDVI (R2 equal to 0.66. In this model, only a slight saturation was observed, at higher levels than what usually reported in literature for SAR; the trend requires further investigation but the model confirmed the complementarity of optical and SAR datatypes. For comparison purposes, we also generated a biomass map for Asiago using lidar data, and considered a previous lidar-based study for Tahoe; in these areas, the observed R2 were 0.92 for Tahoe and 0.75 for Asiago, respectively. The quantitative comparison of the carbon stocks obtained with the two methods allows discussion of sensor suitability. The range of local variation captured by lidar is higher than those by SAR and NDVI, with the latter showing overestimation. However, this overestimation is very limited for one of the study areas, suggesting that when the purpose is the overall quantification of the stored carbon, especially in areas with high carbon

  16. Ground-Truthing of Airborne LiDAR Using RTK-GPS Surveyed Data in Coastal Louisiana's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauve, R. M.; Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are used by engineers and scientists to create bare earth digital elevation models (DEM), which are essential to modeling complex coastal, ecological, and hydrological systems. However, acquiring accurate bare earth elevations in coastal wetlands is difficult due to the density of marsh grasses that prevent the sensors reflection off the true ground surface. Previous work by Medeiros et al. [2015] developed a technique to assess LiDAR error and adjust elevations according to marsh vegetation density and index. The aim of this study is the collection of ground truth points and the investigation on the range of potential errors found in existing LiDAR datasets within coastal Louisiana's wetlands. Survey grids were mapped out in an area dominated by Spartina alterniflora and a survey-grade Trimble Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS device was employed to measure bare earth ground elevations in the marsh system adjacent to Terrebonne Bay, LA. Elevations were obtained for 20 meter-spaced surveyed grid points and were used to generate a DEM. The comparison between LiDAR derived and surveyed data DEMs yield an average difference of 23 cm with a maximum difference of 68 cm. Considering the local tidal range of 45 cm, these differences can introduce substantial error when the DEM is used for ecological modeling [Alizad et al., 2016]. Results from this study will be further analyzed and implemented in order to adjust LiDAR-derived DEMs closer to their true elevation across Louisiana's coastal wetlands. ReferencesAlizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, S. C. Medeiros, M. V. Bilskie, and J. F. Weishampel (2016), Coastal wetland response to sea-level rise in a fluvial estuarine system, Earth's Future, 4(11), 483-497, 10.1002/2016EF000385. Medeiros, S., S. Hagen, J. Weishampel, and J. Angelo (2015), Adjusting Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Models in Coastal Marshes Based on Estimated Aboveground Biomass Density, Remote Sensing, 7

  17. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  18. TENSOR MODELING BASED FOR AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the “raw” data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  19. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive me...

  20. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raogudimetla, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    case of the space-based coherent lidar, assuming flat ground. Here an interest in developing analytical expression for the location of the receiving point for the return with respect to the satellite, receiving angle and Doppler shift in frequency and amount of tip, all as measured in the satellite moving coordinate system and the diffuse scattering angle at the ground which does not require any compensation. All the three cases of retro-reflection, specular reflection and diffuse scattering by the ground should be treated though retro-reflection and diffuse scattering are more important.

  1. Filtering Airborne LIDAR Data by AN Improved Morphological Method Based on Multi-Gradient Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The technology of airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) is capable of acquiring dense and accurate 3D geospatial data. Although many related efforts have been made by a lot of researchers in the last few years, LIDAR data filtering is still a challenging task, especially for area with high relief or hybrid geographic features. In order to address the bare-ground extraction from LIDAR point clouds of complex landscapes, a novel morphological filtering algorithm is proposed based on multi-gradient analysis in terms of the characteristic of LIDAR data distribution in this paper. Firstly, point clouds are organized by an index mesh. Then, the multigradient of each point is calculated using the morphological method. And, objects are removed gradually by choosing some points to carry on an improved opening operation constrained by multi-gradient iteratively. 15 sample data provided by ISPRS Working Group III/3 are employed to test the filtering algorithm proposed. These sample data include those environments that may lead to filtering difficulty. Experimental results show that filtering algorithm proposed by this paper is of high adaptability to various scenes including urban and rural areas. Omission error, commission error and total error can be simultaneously controlled in a relatively small interval. This algorithm can efficiently remove object points while preserves ground points to a great degree.

  2. Delineating Individual Trees from Lidar Data: A Comparison of Vector- and Raster-based Segmentation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (lidar data is increasingly being used for ecosystem monitoring across geographic scales. This work concentrates on delineating individual trees in topographically-complex, mixed conifer forest across the California’s Sierra Nevada. We delineated individual trees using vector data and a 3D lidar point cloud segmentation algorithm, and using raster data with an object-based image analysis (OBIA of a canopy height model (CHM. The two approaches are compared to each other and to ground reference data. We used high density (9 pulses/m2, discreet lidar data and WorldView-2 imagery to delineate individual trees, and to classify them by species or species types. We also identified a new method to correct artifacts in a high-resolution CHM. Our main focus was to determine the difference between the two types of approaches and to identify the one that produces more realistic results. We compared the delineations via tree detection, tree heights, and the shape of the generated polygons. The tree height agreement was high between the two approaches and the ground data (r2: 0.93–0.96. Tree detection rates increased for more dominant trees (8–100 percent. The two approaches delineated tree boundaries that differed in shape: the lidar-approach produced fewer, more complex, and larger polygons that more closely resembled real forest structure.

  3. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  4. Comparison of Two Independent LIDAR-Based Pitch Control Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. Feedforward controller A uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. Feedforward controller B uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  5. GROUND DEFORMATION EXTRACTION USING VISIBLE IMAGES AND LIDAR DATA IN MINING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and extraction of mining ground deformation can help us understand the deformation process and space distribution, and estimate the deformation laws and trends. This study focuses on the application of ground deformation detection and extraction combining with high resolution visible stereo imagery, LiDAR observation point cloud data and historical data. The DEM in large mining area is generated using high-resolution satellite stereo images, and ground deformation is obtained through time series analysis combined with historical DEM data. Ground deformation caused by mining activities are detected and analyzed to explain the link between the regional ground deformation and local deformation. A district of covering 200 km2 around the West Open Pit Mine in Fushun of Liaoning province, a city located in the Northeast China is chosen as the test area for example. Regional and local ground deformation from 2010 to 2015 time series are detected and extracted with DEMs derived from ZY-3 images and LiDAR point DEMs in the case study. Results show that the mean regional deformation is 7.1 m of rising elevation with RMS 9.6 m. Deformation of rising elevation and deformation of declining elevation couple together in local area. The area of higher elevation variation is 16.3 km2 and the mean rising value is 35.8 m with RMS 15.7 m, while the deformation area of lower elevation variation is 6.8 km2 and the mean declining value is 17.6 m with RMS 9.3 m. Moreover, local large deformation and regional slow deformation couple together, the deformation in local mining activities has expanded to the surrounding area, a large ground fracture with declining elevation has been detected and extracted in the south of West Open Pit Mine, the mean declining elevation of which is 23.1 m and covering about 2.3 km2 till 2015. The results in this paper are preliminary currently; we are making efforts to improve more precision results with

  6. The impact of forest structure and spatial scale on the relationship between ground plot above ground biomass and GEDI lidar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Marselis, S.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; Kellner, J. R.; Calders, K.; Disney, M.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) will place a multi-beam waveform lidar instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide measurements of forest vertical structure globally. These measurements of structure will underpin empirical modelling of above ground biomass density (AGBD) at the scale of individual GEDI lidar footprints (25m diameter). The GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy for footprint level models relies on linking AGBD estimates from ground plots with GEDI lidar waveforms simulated from coincident discrete return airborne laser scanning data. Currently available ground plot data have variable and often large uncertainty at the spatial resolution of GEDI footprints due to poor colocation, allometric model error, sample size and plot edge effects. The relative importance of these sources of uncertainty partly depends on the quality of ground measurements and region. It is usually difficult to know the magnitude of these uncertainties a priori so a common approach to mitigate their influence on model training is to aggregate ground plot and waveform lidar data to a coarser spatial scale (0.25-1ha). Here we examine the impacts of these principal sources of uncertainty using a 3D simulation approach. Sets of realistic tree models generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data or parametric modelling matched to tree inventory data were assembled from four contrasting forest plots across tropical rainforest, deciduous temperate forest, and sclerophyll eucalypt woodland sites. These tree models were used to simulate geometrically explicit 3D scenes with variable tree density, size class and spatial distribution. GEDI lidar waveforms are simulated over ground plots within these scenes using monte carlo ray tracing, allowing the impact of varying ground plot and waveform colocation error, forest structure and edge effects on the relationship between ground plot AGBD and GEDI lidar waveforms to be directly assessed. We

  7. Generic calibration procedures for nacelle-based profiling lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    In power performance testing, it has been demonstrated that the effects of wind speed and direction variations over the rotor disk can no longer be neglected for large wind turbines [1]. A new generation of commercial nacelle-based lidars is now available, offering wind profiling capabilities. De...

  8. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  9. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  10. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  11. Section-Based Tree Species Identification Using Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, X.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The application of LiDAR data in forestry initially focused on mapping forest community, particularly and primarily intended for largescale forest management and planning. Then with the smaller footprint and higher sampling density LiDAR data available, detecting individual tree overstory, estimating crowns parameters and identifying tree species are demonstrated practicable. This paper proposes a section-based protocol of tree species identification taking palm tree as an example. Section-based method is to detect objects through certain profile among different direction, basically along X-axis or Y-axis. And this method improve the utilization of spatial information to generate accurate results. Firstly, separate the tree points from manmade-object points by decision-tree-based rules, and create Crown Height Mode (CHM) by subtracting the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the digital surface model (DSM). Then calculate and extract key points to locate individual trees, thus estimate specific tree parameters related to species information, such as crown height, crown radius, and cross point etc. Finally, with parameters we are able to identify certain tree species. Comparing to species information measured on ground, the portion correctly identified trees on all plots could reach up to 90.65 %. The identification result in this research demonstrate the ability to distinguish palm tree using LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, with more prior knowledge, section-based method enable the process to classify trees into different classes.

  12. COHERENT LIDAR SYSTEM BASED ON A SEMICONDUCTOR LASER AND AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost coherent LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote wind-speed determination, determination of particle concentration, and/or temperature based on an all semiconductor light source and related methods. The present...... invention provides a coherent LIDAR system comprising a semiconductor laser for emission of a measurement beam of electromagnetic radiation directed towards a measurement volume for illumination of particles in the measurement volume, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector...... for generation of a detector signal by mixing of the reference beam with light emitted from the particles in the measurement volume illuminated by the measurement beam, and a signal processor for generating a velocity signal corresponding to the velocity of the particles based on the detector signal....

  13. a Voxel-Based Filtering Algorithm for Mobile LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Guan, G.; Yu, Y.; Zhong, L.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a stepwise voxel-based filtering algorithm for mobile LiDAR data. In the first step, to improve computational efficiency, mobile LiDAR points, in xy-plane, are first partitioned into a set of two-dimensional (2-D) blocks with a given block size, in each of which all laser points are further organized into an octree partition structure with a set of three-dimensional (3-D) voxels. Then, a voxel-based upward growing processing is performed to roughly separate terrain from non-terrain points with global and local terrain thresholds. In the second step, the extracted terrain points are refined by computing voxel curvatures. This voxel-based filtering algorithm is comprehensively discussed in the analyses of parameter sensitivity and overall performance. An experimental study performed on multiple point cloud samples, collected by different commercial mobile LiDAR systems, showed that the proposed algorithm provides a promising solution to terrain point extraction from mobile point clouds.

  14. Lidar-based individual tree species classification using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tomohiro; Ishii, Akira; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Takamatsu, Hisashi

    2017-06-01

    Terrestrial lidar is commonly used for detailed documentation in the field of forest inventory investigation. Recent improvements of point cloud processing techniques enabled efficient and precise computation of an individual tree shape parameters, such as breast-height diameter, height, and volume. However, tree species are manually specified by skilled workers to date. Previous works for automatic tree species classification mainly focused on aerial or satellite images, and few works have been reported for classification techniques using ground-based sensor data. Several candidate sensors can be considered for classification, such as RGB or multi/hyper spectral cameras. Above all candidates, we use terrestrial lidar because it can obtain high resolution point cloud in the dark forest. We selected bark texture for the classification criteria, since they clearly represent unique characteristics of each tree and do not change their appearance under seasonable variation and aged deterioration. In this paper, we propose a new method for automatic individual tree species classification based on terrestrial lidar using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The key component is the creation step of a depth image which well describe the characteristics of each species from a point cloud. We focus on Japanese cedar and cypress which cover the large part of domestic forest. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  15. LiDAR and Orthophoto Synergy to optimize Object-Based Landscape Change: Analysis of an Active Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Kamps

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Active landslides have three major effects on landscapes: (1 land cover change, (2 topographical change, and (3 above ground biomass change. Data derived from multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging technology (LiDAR are used in combination with multi-temporal orthophotos to quantify these changes between 2006 and 2012, caused by an active deep-seated landslide near the village of Doren in Austria. Land-cover is classified by applying membership-based classification and contextual improvements based on the synergy of orthophotos and LiDAR-based elevation data. Topographical change is calculated by differencing of LiDAR derived digital terrain models. The above ground biomass is quantified by applying a local-maximum algorithm for tree top detection, in combination with allometric equations. The land cover classification accuracies were improved from 65% (using only LiDAR and 76% (using only orthophotos to 90% (using data synergy for 2006. A similar increase from respectively 64% and 75% to 91% was established for 2012. The increased accuracies demonstrate the effectiveness of using data synergy of LiDAR and orthophotos using object-based image analysis to quantify landscape changes, caused by an active landslide. The method has great potential to be transferred to larger areas for use in landscape change analyses.

  16. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  17. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  18. AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION BASED ON MULTIPLE FEATURES FROM LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1 road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2 local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3 hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for “Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction” project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  19. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  20. Monitoring individual tree-based change with airborne lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Laura; Dubayah, Ralph

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the carbon flux of forests is critical for constraining the global carbon cycle and managing forests to mitigate climate change. Monitoring forest growth and mortality rates is critical to this effort, but has been limited in the past, with estimates relying primarily on field surveys. Advances in remote sensing enable the potential to monitor tree growth and mortality across landscapes. This work presents an approach to measure tree growth and loss using multidate lidar campaigns in a high-biomass forest in California, USA. Individual tree crowns were delineated in 2008 and again in 2013 using a 3D crown segmentation algorithm, with derived heights and crown radii extracted and used to estimate individual tree aboveground biomass. Tree growth, loss, and aboveground biomass were analyzed with respect to tree height and crown radius. Both tree growth and loss rates decrease with increasing tree height, following the expectation that trees slow in growth rate as they age. Additionally, our aboveground biomass analysis suggests that, while the system is a net source of aboveground carbon, these carbon dynamics are governed by size class with the largest sources coming from the loss of a relatively small number of large individuals. This study demonstrates that monitoring individual tree-based growth and loss can be conducted with multidate airborne lidar, but these methods remain relatively immature. Disparities between lidar acquisitions were particularly difficult to overcome and decreased the sample of trees analyzed for growth rate in this study to 21% of the full number of delineated crowns. However, this study illuminates the potential of airborne remote sensing for ecologically meaningful forest monitoring at an individual tree level. As methods continue to improve, airborne multidate lidar will enable a richer understanding of the drivers of tree growth, loss, and aboveground carbon flux.

  1. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    B. Lee; Y. Wei; I. Y. Guo

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on...

  2. A 3D radiative transfer model based on lidar data and its application on hydrological and ecosystem modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Su, Y.; Harmon, T. C.; Guo, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is an optical remote sensing technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and/or other information of a distant object. Due to its ability to generate 3-dimensional data with high spatial resolution and accuracy, lidar technology is being increasingly used in ecology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, remote sensing, and atmospheric physics. In this study we construct a 3-dimentional (3D) radiative transfer model (RTM) using lidar data to simulate the spatial distribution of solar radiation (direct and diffuse) on the surface of water and mountain forests. The model includes three sub-models: a light model simulating the light source, a sensor model simulating the camera, and a scene model simulating the landscape. We use ground-based and airborne lidar data to characterize the 3D structure of the study area, and generate a detailed 3D scene model. The interactions between light and object are simulated using the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method. A large number of rays are generated from the light source. For each individual ray, the full traveling path is traced until it is absorbed or escapes from the scene boundary. By locating the sensor at different positions and directions, we can simulate the spatial distribution of solar energy at the ground, vegetation and water surfaces. These outputs can then be incorporated into meteorological drivers for hydrologic and energy balance models to improve our understanding of hydrologic processes and ecosystem functions.

  3. An Easy-to-Use Airborne LiDAR Data Filtering Method Based on Cloth Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground measurements is an essential step to generate digital terrain models (DTMs from airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data. However, most filtering algorithms need to carefully set up a number of complicated parameters to achieve high accuracy. In this paper, we present a new filtering method which only needs a few easy-to-set integer and Boolean parameters. Within the proposed approach, a LiDAR point cloud is inverted, and then a rigid cloth is used to cover the inverted surface. By analyzing the interactions between the cloth nodes and the corresponding LiDAR points, the locations of the cloth nodes can be determined to generate an approximation of the ground surface. Finally, the ground points can be extracted from the LiDAR point cloud by comparing the original LiDAR points and the generated surface. Benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing working Group III/3 are used to validate the proposed filtering method, and the experimental results yield an average total error of 4.58%, which is comparable with most of the state-of-the-art filtering algorithms. The proposed easy-to-use filtering method may help the users without much experience to use LiDAR data and related technology in their own applications more easily.

  4. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  5. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuru N. W.

    2016-01-01

    As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  6. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  7. Pointing Verification Method for Spaceborne Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Amediek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision acquisition of atmospheric parameters from the air or space by means of lidar requires accurate knowledge of laser pointing. Discrepancies between the assumed and actual pointing can introduce large errors due to the Doppler effect or a wrongly assumed air pressure at ground level. In this paper, a method for precisely quantifying these discrepancies for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems is presented. The method is based on the comparison of ground elevations derived from the lidar ranging data with high-resolution topography data obtained from a digital elevation model and allows for the derivation of the lateral and longitudinal deviation of the laser beam propagation direction. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated by using experimental data from an airborne lidar system, confirming that geo-referencing of the lidar ground spot trace with an uncertainty of less than 10 m with respect to the used digital elevation model (DEM can be obtained.

  8. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Plant Height: Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Ground LiDAR Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Simon; Baret, Fred; de Solan, Benoît; Thomas, Samuel; Dutartre, Dan; Jezequel, Stéphane; Hemmerlé, Matthieu; Colombeau, Gallian; Comar, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of LiDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide plant height estimates as a high-throughput plant phenotyping trait was explored. An experiment over wheat genotypes conducted under well watered and water stress modalities was conducted. Frequent LiDAR measurements were performed along the growth cycle using a phénomobile unmanned ground vehicle. UAV equipped with a high resolution RGB camera was flying the experiment several times to retrieve the digital surface model from structure from motion techniques. Both techniques provide a 3D dense point cloud from which the plant height can be estimated. Plant height first defined as the z -value for which 99.5% of the points of the dense cloud are below. This provides good consistency with manual measurements of plant height (RMSE = 3.5 cm) while minimizing the variability along each microplot. Results show that LiDAR and structure from motion plant height values are always consistent. However, a slight under-estimation is observed for structure from motion techniques, in relation with the coarser spatial resolution of UAV imagery and the limited penetration capacity of structure from motion as compared to LiDAR. Very high heritability values ( H 2 > 0.90) were found for both techniques when lodging was not present. The dynamics of plant height shows that it carries pertinent information regarding the period and magnitude of the plant stress. Further, the date when the maximum plant height is reached was found to be very heritable ( H 2 > 0.88) and a good proxy of the flowering stage. Finally, the capacity of plant height as a proxy for total above ground biomass and yield is discussed.

  9. Efficient LIDAR Point Cloud Data Managing and Processing in a Hadoop-Based Distributed Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Hu, F.; Sha, D.; Han, X.

    2017-10-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is one of the most promising technologies in surveying and mapping city management, forestry, object recognition, computer vision engineer and others. However, it is challenging to efficiently storage, query and analyze the high-resolution 3D LiDAR data due to its volume and complexity. In order to improve the productivity of Lidar data processing, this study proposes a Hadoop-based framework to efficiently manage and process LiDAR data in a distributed and parallel manner, which takes advantage of Hadoop's storage and computing ability. At the same time, the Point Cloud Library (PCL), an open-source project for 2D/3D image and point cloud processing, is integrated with HDFS and MapReduce to conduct the Lidar data analysis algorithms provided by PCL in a parallel fashion. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can efficiently manage and process big LiDAR data.

  10. Towards Linking 3D SAR and Lidar Models with a Spatially Explicit Individual Based Forest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Ranson, J.; Sun, G.; Armstrong, A. H.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present a parameterization of the FORMIND individual-based gap model (IBGM)for old growth Atlantic lowland rainforest in La Selva, Costa Rica for the purpose of informing multisensor remote sensing techniques for above ground biomass techniques. The model was successfully parameterized and calibrated for the study site; results show that the simulated forest reproduces the structural complexity of Costa Rican rainforest based on comparisons with CARBONO inventory plot data. Though the simulated stem numbers (378) slightly underestimated the plot data (418), particularly for canopy dominant intermediate shade tolerant trees and shade tolerant understory trees, overall there was a 9.7% difference. Aboveground biomass (kg/ha) showed a 0.1% difference between the simulated forest and inventory plot dataset. The Costa Rica FORMIND simulation was then used to parameterize a spatially explicit (3D) SAR and lidar backscatter models. The simulated forest stands were used to generate a Look Up Table as a tractable means to estimate aboveground forest biomass for these complex forests. Various combinations of lidar and radar variables were evaluated in the LUT inversion. To test the capability of future data for estimation of forest height and biomass, we considered data of 1) L- (or P-) band polarimetric data (backscattering coefficients of HH, HV and VV); 2) L-band dual-pol repeat-pass InSAR data (HH/HV backscattering coefficients and coherences, height of scattering phase center at HH and HV using DEM or surface height from lidar data as reference); 3) P-band polarimetric InSAR data (canopy height from inversion of PolInSAR data or use the coherences and height of scattering phase center at HH, HV and VV); 4) various height indices from waveform lidar data); and 5) surface and canopy top height from photon-counting lidar data. The methods for parameterizing the remote sensing models with the IBGM and developing Look Up Tables will be discussed. Results

  11. Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of forested areas is a critical task, because the resulting maps are a fundamental input for a broad field of applications and users. Different national and international forest definitions are available for manual or automatic delineation, but unfortunately most definitions lack precise geometrical descriptions for the different criteria. A mandatory criterion in forest definitions is the criterion of crown coverage (CC, which defines the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns. For loosely stocked areas, this criterion is especially critical, because the size and shape of the reference area for calculating CC is not clearly defined in most definitions. Thus current forest delineations differ and tend to be non-comparable because of different settings for checking the criterion of CC in the delineation process. This paper evaluates a new approach for the automatic delineation of forested areas, based on airborne laser scanning (ALS data with a clearly defined method for calculating CC. The new approach, the ‘tree triples’ method, is based on defining CC as a relation between the sum of the crown areas of three neighboring trees and the area of their convex hull. The approach is applied and analyzed for two study areas in Tyrol, Austria. The selected areas show a loosely stocked forest at the upper timberline and a fragmented forest on the hillside. The fully automatic method presented for delineating forested areas from ALS data shows promising results with an overall accuracy of 96%, and provides a beneficial tool for operational applications.

  12. Generic Methodology for Field Calibration of Nacelle-Based Wind Lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    Nacelle-based Doppler wind lidars have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance, detect yaw misalignment or perform feed-forward control. The power curve application requires uncertainty assessment. Traceable measurements and uncertainties of nacelle-based wind lidars can be obtai...

  13. A DIMENSION REDUCTION-BASED METHOD FOR CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL AND LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abbasi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of various natural objects such as grass, trees, and rivers along with artificial manmade features such as buildings and roads, make it difficult to classify ground objects. Consequently using single data or simple classification approach cannot improve classification results in object identification. Also, using of a variety of data from different sensors; increase the accuracy of spatial and spectral information. In this paper, we proposed a classification algorithm on joint use of hyperspectral and Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging data based on dimension reduction. First, some feature extraction techniques are applied to achieve more information from Lidar and hyperspectral data. Also Principal component analysis (PCA and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF have been utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral features. The number of 30 features containing the most information of the hyperspectral images is considered for both PCA and MNF. In addition, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI has been measured to highlight the vegetation. Furthermore, the extracted features from Lidar data calculated based on relation between every pixel of data and surrounding pixels in local neighbourhood windows. The extracted features are based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM matrix. In second step, classification is operated in all features which obtained by MNF, PCA, NDVI and GLCM and trained by class samples. After this step, two classification maps are obtained by SVM classifier with MNF+NDVI+GLCM features and PCA+NDVI+GLCM features, respectively. Finally, the classified images are fused together to create final classification map by decision fusion based majority voting strategy.

  14. Fusion of LiDAR and aerial imagery for the estimation of downed tree volume using Support Vector Machines classification and region based object fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sowmya

    The study classifies 3D small footprint full waveform digitized LiDAR fused with aerial imagery to downed trees using Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. Using small footprint waveform LiDAR, airborne LiDAR systems can provide better canopy penetration and very high spatial resolution. The small footprint waveform scanner system Riegl LMS-Q680 is addition with an UltraCamX aerial camera are used to measure and map downed trees in a forest. The various data preprocessing steps helped in the identification of ground points from the dense LiDAR dataset and segment the LiDAR data to help reduce the complexity of the algorithm. The haze filtering process helped to differentiate the spectral signatures of the various classes within the aerial image. Such processes, helped to better select the features from both sensor data. The six features: LiDAR height, LiDAR intensity, LiDAR echo, and three image intensities are utilized. To do so, LiDAR derived, aerial image derived and fused LiDAR-aerial image derived features are used to organize the data for the SVM hypothesis formulation. Several variations of the SVM algorithm with different kernels and soft margin parameter C are experimented. The algorithm is implemented to classify downed trees over a pine trees zone. The LiDAR derived features provided an overall accuracy of 98% of downed trees but with no classification error of 86%. The image derived features provided an overall accuracy of 65% and fusion derived features resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. The results are observed to be stable and robust. The SVM accuracies were accompanied by high false alarm rates, with the LiDAR classification producing 58.45%, image classification producing 95.74% and finally the fused classification producing 93% false alarm rates The Canny edge correction filter helped control the LiDAR false alarm to 35.99%, image false alarm to 48.56% and fused false alarm to 37.69% The implemented classifiers provided a powerful tool for

  15. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  16. Integrating forest inventory and analysis data into a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofer D. Johnson; Richard Birdsey; Andrew O Finley; Anu Swantaran; Ralph Dubayah; Craig Wayson; Rachel. Riemann

    2014-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data may be a valuable component of a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system, but integration of the two observation systems is not without challenges. To explore integration methods, two wall-to-wall LIDAR-derived biomass maps were compared to FIA data at both the plot and county levels in Anne Arundel and Howard Counties in Maryland...

  17. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a

  18. Fusion of LIDAR Data and Multispectral Imagery for Effective Building Detection Based on Graph and Connected Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S. A. N.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2015-03-01

    Building detection in complex scenes is a non-trivial exercise due to building shape variability, irregular terrain, shadows, and occlusion by highly dense vegetation. In this research, we present a graph based algorithm, which combines multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR information to completely delineate the building boundaries in urban and densely vegetated area. In the first phase, LiDAR data is divided into two groups: ground and non-ground data, using ground height from a bare-earth DEM. A mask, known as the primary building mask, is generated from the non-ground LiDAR points where the black region represents the elevated area (buildings and trees), while the white region describes the ground (earth). The second phase begins with the process of Connected Component Analysis (CCA) where the number of objects present in the test scene are identified followed by initial boundary detection and labelling. Additionally, a graph from the connected components is generated, where each black pixel corresponds to a node. An edge of a unit distance is defined between a black pixel and a neighbouring black pixel, if any. An edge does not exist from a black pixel to a neighbouring white pixel, if any. This phenomenon produces a disconnected components graph, where each component represents a prospective building or a dense vegetation (a contiguous block of black pixels from the primary mask). In the third phase, a clustering process clusters the segmented lines, extracted from multispectral imagery, around the graph components, if possible. In the fourth step, NDVI, image entropy, and LiDAR data are utilised to discriminate between vegetation, buildings, and isolated building's occluded parts. Finally, the initially extracted building boundary is extended pixel-wise using NDVI, entropy, and LiDAR data to completely delineate the building and to maximise the boundary reach towards building edges. The proposed technique is evaluated using two Australian data sets

  19. a Threshold-Free Filtering Algorithm for Airborne LIDAR Point Clouds Based on Expectation-Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Z.; Cheng, P.; Ziggah, Y. Y.; Nie, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Filtering is a key step for most applications of airborne LiDAR point clouds. Although lots of filtering algorithms have been put forward in recent years, most of them suffer from parameters setting or thresholds adjusting, which will be time-consuming and reduce the degree of automation of the algorithm. To overcome this problem, this paper proposed a threshold-free filtering algorithm based on expectation-maximization. The proposed algorithm is developed based on an assumption that point clouds are seen as a mixture of Gaussian models. The separation of ground points and non-ground points from point clouds can be replaced as a separation of a mixed Gaussian model. Expectation-maximization (EM) is applied for realizing the separation. EM is used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of the mixture parameters. Using the estimated parameters, the likelihoods of each point belonging to ground or object can be computed. After several iterations, point clouds can be labelled as the component with a larger likelihood. Furthermore, intensity information was also utilized to optimize the filtering results acquired using the EM method. The proposed algorithm was tested using two different datasets used in practice. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can filter non-ground points effectively. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed method, this paper adopted the dataset provided by the ISPRS for the test. The proposed algorithm can obtain a 4.48 % total error which is much lower than most of the eight classical filtering algorithms reported by the ISPRS.

  20. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind lidar identifying and mitigating barriers to the adoption of wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Clive, Peter; Gottschall, Julia

    2018-01-01

    IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex...... flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models......, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been...

  1. Automatic Parking of Self-Driving CAR Based on LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Wei, Y.; Guo, I. Y.

    2017-09-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle's dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  2. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle’s dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  3. Lidar remote sensing of above-ground biomass in three biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; Warren B. Cohen; David J. Harding; Geoffrey G. Parkers; Steven A. Acker; S. Thomas. Gower

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of carbon stored in forests is a key challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle, one which remote sensing is expected to help address. However, estimation of carbon storage in moderate to high biomass forests is difficult for conventional optical and radar sensors. Lidar (light detection and ranging) instruments measure the vertical...

  4. Small Imaging Depth LIDAR and DCNN-Based Localization for Automated Guided Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Seigo; Hiratsuka, Shigeyoshi; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaru

    2018-01-10

    We present our third prototype sensor and a localization method for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), for which small imaging LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and fusion-based localization are fundamentally important. Our small imaging LIDAR, named the Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) LIDAR, uses a time-of-flight method and SPAD arrays. A SPAD is a highly sensitive photodetector capable of detecting at the single-photon level, and the SPAD LIDAR has two SPAD arrays on the same chip for detection of laser light and environmental light. Therefore, the SPAD LIDAR simultaneously outputs range image data and monocular image data with the same coordinate system and does not require external calibration among outputs. As AGVs travel both indoors and outdoors with vibration, this calibration-less structure is particularly useful for AGV applications. We also introduce a fusion-based localization method, named SPAD DCNN, which uses the SPAD LIDAR and employs a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). SPAD DCNN can fuse the outputs of the SPAD LIDAR: range image data, monocular image data and peak intensity image data. The SPAD DCNN has two outputs: the regression result of the position of the SPAD LIDAR and the classification result of the existence of a target to be approached. Our third prototype sensor and the localization method are evaluated in an indoor environment by assuming various AGV trajectories. The results show that the sensor and localization method improve the localization accuracy.

  5. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 3 : use of scanning LiDAR in structural evaluation of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This volume introduces several applications of remote bridge inspection technologies studied in : this Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization (IRSV) study using ground-based LiDAR : systems. In particular, the application of terrestrial LiDAR fo...

  6. Building Contour Extraction Based on LiDAR Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for solving the problem of utilizing the LiDAR data to extract the building contour line. For detection of the edge points between the building test points by using the least squares fitting to get the edge line of buildings and give the weight determining of the building of edge line slope depend on the length of the edge line. And then get the weighted mean of the positive and negative slope of the building edge line. Based on the structure of the adjacent edge perpendicular hypothesis, regularization processing to extract the edge of the skeleton line perpendicular. The experiments show that the extracted building edges have the good accuracy and have the good applicability in complex urban areas.

  7. A user friendly Lidar system based on LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats; Weibring, P.

    1996-09-01

    Mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the last two decades. The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system which was first described in 1987. This report describes how that system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW in order to get a user friendly system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measurement data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. New electronics to support the new lidar program have also been installed. The report describes how all supporting electronics and the program work. A user manual for the new program is also given. 19 refs, 79 figs, 23 charts

  8. Registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Cao, Liang; Xie, Hong; Zhuo, Xiangyu

    2013-10-01

    Higher quality surface information would be got when data from optical images and LiDAR were integrated, owing to the fact that optical images and LiDAR point cloud have unique characteristics that make them preferable in many applications. While most previous works focus on registration of pinhole perspective cameras to 2D or 3D LiDAR data. In this paper, a method for the registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud is proposed. Using the translation among panoramic image, single CCD image, laser scanner and Position and Orientation System (POS) along with the GPS/IMU data, precise co-registration between the panoramic image and the LiDAR point cloud in the world system is achieved. Results are presented under a real world data set collected by a new developed Mobile Mapping System (MMS) integrated with a high resolution panoramic camera, two laser scanners and a POS.

  9. 3D Maize Plant Reconstruction Based on Georeferenced Overlapping LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D crop reconstruction with a high temporal resolution and by the use of non-destructive measuring technologies can support the automation of plant phenotyping processes. Thereby, the availability of such 3D data can give valuable information about the plant development and the interaction of the plant genotype with the environment. This article presents a new methodology for georeferenced 3D reconstruction of maize plant structure. For this purpose a total station, an IMU, and several 2D LiDARs with different orientations were mounted on an autonomous vehicle. By the multistep methodology presented, based on the application of the ICP algorithm for point cloud fusion, it was possible to perform the georeferenced point clouds overlapping. The overlapping point cloud algorithm showed that the aerial points (corresponding mainly to plant parts were reduced to 1.5%–9% of the total registered data. The remaining were redundant or ground points. Through the inclusion of different LiDAR point of views of the scene, a more realistic representation of the surrounding is obtained by the incorporation of new useful information but also of noise. The use of georeferenced 3D maize plant reconstruction at different growth stages, combined with the total station accuracy could be highly useful when performing precision agriculture at the crop plant level.

  10. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  11. Taking Stock of Circumboreal Forest Carbon With Ground Measurements, Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Nelson, Ross F.; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank A.; Montesano, Paul M.; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viacheslav; Naesset, Erik; Wulder, Michael A.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest accounts for one-third of global forests, but remains largely inaccessible to ground-based measurements and monitoring. It contains large quantities of carbon in its vegetation and soils, and research suggests that it will be subject to increasingly severe climate-driven disturbance. We employ a suite of ground-, airborne- and space-based measurement techniques to derive the first satellite LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground carbon for the entire circumboreal forest biome. Incorporating these inventory techniques with uncertainty analysis, we estimate total aboveground carbon of 38 +/- 3.1 Pg. This boreal forest carbon is mostly concentrated from 50 to 55degN in eastern Canada and from 55 to 60degN in eastern Eurasia. Both of these regions are expected to warm >3 C by 2100, and monitoring the effects of warming on these stocks is important to understanding its future carbon balance. Our maps establish a baseline for future quantification of circumboreal carbon and the described technique should provide a robust method for future monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of the aboveground carbon content.

  12. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  13. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, N. W.; Calhoun, R.

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  14. Estimation of Above Ground Biomass in a Tropical Mountain Forest in Southern Ecuador Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor González-Jaramillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A reliable estimation of Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Tropical Mountain Forest (TMF is still complicated, due to fast-changing climate and topographic conditions, which modifies the forest structure within fine scales. The variations in vertical and horizontal forest structure are hardly detectable by small field plots, especially in natural TMF due to the high tree diversity and the inaccessibility of remote areas. Therefore, the present approach used remotely sensed data from a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor in combination with field measurements to estimate AGB accurately for a catchment in the Andes of south-eastern Ecuador. From the LiDAR data, information about horizontal and vertical structure of the TMF could be derived and the vegetation at tree level classified, differentiated between the prevailing forest types (ravine forest, ridge forest and Elfin Forest. Furthermore, topographical variables (Topographic Position Index, TPI; Morphometric Protection Index, MPI were calculated by means of the high-resolution LiDAR data to analyse the AGB distribution within the catchment. The field measurements included different tree parameters of the species present in the plots, which were used to determine the local mean Wood Density (WD as well as the specific height-diameter relationship to calculate AGB, applying regional scale modelling at tree level. The results confirmed that field plot measurements alone cannot capture completely the forest structure in TMF but in combination with high resolution LiDAR data, applying a classification at tree level, the AGB amount (Mg ha−1 and its distribution in the entire catchment could be estimated adequately (model accuracy at tree level: R2 > 0.91. It was found that the AGB distribution is strongly related to ridges and depressions (TPI and to the protection of the site (MPI, because high AGB was also detected at higher elevations (up to 196.6 Mg ha−1, above 2700 m, if the site is

  15. Extraction of Urban Trees from Integrated Airborne Based Digital Image and LIDAR Point Cloud Datasets - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-10-01

    Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition and structural changes of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting tree features include; ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraint, such as labour intensive field work, a lot of financial requirement, influences by weather condition and topographical covers which can be overcome by means of integrated airborne based LiDAR and very high resolution digital image datasets. This study presented a semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated airborne based LIDAR and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The above scheme includes detection and extraction of shadow free vegetation features based on spectral properties of digital images using shadow index and NDVI techniques and automated extraction of 3D information about vegetation features from the integrated processing of shadow free vegetation image and LiDAR point cloud datasets. The ability of the developed algorithms shows a promising result as an automated and cost effective approach to estimating and delineated 3D information of urban trees. The research also proved that integrated datasets is a suitable technology and a viable source of information for city managers to be used in urban trees management.

  16. A compact led lidar system fitted for a mars rover - design and ground experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Prane Mariel B.; Shiina, Tatsuo; Manago, Naohiro; Kuze, Hiroaki; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Hashimoto, George; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-01

    A compact LED lidar was constructed and fieldtested with the aim to observe the Mars' dust devils. To be able to fit it on the Mars rover, a specialized Cassegrain telescope was designed to be within a 10 cm-cube, with a field of view of 3mrad. The transmitter has 385 nm LED light source with 3 cmϕ opening, 70mrad divergence, 0.75W (7.5nJ/10ns) pulse power, and 500 kHz repetition frequency. The configuration of the optical system is biaxial to easily configure the overlap between their optical axes.

  17. A compact led lidar system fitted for a mars rover – design and ground experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Prane Mariel B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact LED lidar was constructed and fieldtested with the aim to observe the Mars’ dust devils. To be able to fit it on the Mars rover, a specialized Cassegrain telescope was designed to be within a 10 cm-cube, with a field of view of 3mrad. The transmitter has 385 nm LED light source with 3 cmϕ opening, 70mrad divergence, 0.75W (7.5nJ/10ns pulse power, and 500 kHz repetition frequency. The configuration of the optical system is biaxial to easily configure the overlap between their optical axes.

  18. MIN-CUT BASED SEGMENTATION OF AIRBORNE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ural

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an organization to the unstructured point cloud before extracting information from airborne lidar data is common in many applications. Aggregating the points with similar features into segments in 3-D which comply with the nature of actual objects is affected by the neighborhood, scale, features and noise among other aspects. In this study, we present a min-cut based method for segmenting the point cloud. We first assess the neighborhood of each point in 3-D by investigating the local geometric and statistical properties of the candidates. Neighborhood selection is essential since point features are calculated within their local neighborhood. Following neighborhood determination, we calculate point features and determine the clusters in the feature space. We adapt a graph representation from image processing which is especially used in pixel labeling problems and establish it for the unstructured 3-D point clouds. The edges of the graph that are connecting the points with each other and nodes representing feature clusters hold the smoothness costs in the spatial domain and data costs in the feature domain. Smoothness costs ensure spatial coherence, while data costs control the consistency with the representative feature clusters. This graph representation formalizes the segmentation task as an energy minimization problem. It allows the implementation of an approximate solution by min-cuts for a global minimum of this NP hard minimization problem in low order polynomial time. We test our method with airborne lidar point cloud acquired with maximum planned post spacing of 1.4 m and a vertical accuracy 10.5 cm as RMSE. We present the effects of neighborhood and feature determination in the segmentation results and assess the accuracy and efficiency of the implemented min-cut algorithm as well as its sensitivity to the parameters of the smoothness and data cost functions. We find that smoothness cost that only considers simple distance

  19. An Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Database Derived from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network: Applications for Space-based Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhime, James D.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Holben, Brent; Tsay, Si-Chee; Bucholtz, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Backscatter lidar signals are a function of both backscatter and extinction. Hence, these lidar observations alone cannot separate the two quantities. The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, S, is the key parameter required to accurately retrieve extinction and optical depth from backscatter lidar observations of aerosol layers. S is commonly defined as 4*pi divided by the product of the single scatter albedo and the phase function at 180-degree scattering angle. Values of S for different aerosol types are not well known, and are even more difficult to determine when aerosols become mixed. Here we present a new lidar-sunphotometer S database derived from Observations of the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET). MPLNET is a growing worldwide network of eye-safe backscatter lidars co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Values of S for different aerosol species and geographic regions will be presented. A framework for constructing an S look-up table will be shown. Look-up tables of S are needed to calculate aerosol extinction and optical depth from space-based lidar observations in the absence of co-located AOD data. Applications for using the new S look-up table to reprocess aerosol products from NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will be discussed.

  20. Mapping the spatial pattern of temperate forest above ground biomass by integrating airborne lidar with Radarsat-2 imagery via geostatistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai; Wang, Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are two competitive active remote sensing techniques in forest above ground biomass estimation, which is important for forest management and global climate change study. This study aims to further explore their capabilities in temperate forest above ground biomass (AGB) estimation by emphasizing the spatial auto-correlation of variables obtained from these two remote sensing tools, which is a usually overlooked aspect in remote sensing applications to vegetation studies. Remote sensing variables including airborne LiDAR metrics, backscattering coefficient for different SAR polarizations and their ratio variables for Radarsat-2 imagery were calculated. First, simple linear regression models (SLR) was established between the field-estimated above ground biomass and the remote sensing variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2) was used to find which LiDAR metric showed the most significant correlation with the regression residuals and could be selected as co-variable in regression co-kriging (RCoKrig). Second, regression co-kriging was conducted by choosing the regression residuals as dependent variable and the LiDAR metric (Hmean) with highest R2 as co-variable. Third, above ground biomass over the study area was estimated using SLR model and RCoKrig model, respectively. The results for these two models were validated using the same ground points. Results showed that both of these two methods achieved satisfactory prediction accuracy, while regression co-kriging showed the lower estimation error. It is proved that regression co-kriging model is feasible and effective in mapping the spatial pattern of AGB in the temperate forest using Radarsat-2 data calibrated by airborne LiDAR metrics.

  1. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    degrees of slope It is suggested that 4000-5000 points are uniformly sampled in the overlapping regions of the point cloud, and depending on the surface roughness, to measure the discrepancy between swaths. Care must be taken to sample only areas of single return points only. Point-to-Plane distance based data quality measures are determined for each sample point. These measurements are used to determine the above mentioned parameters. This paper details the measurements and analysis of measurements required to determine these metrics, i.e. Discrepancy Angle, Mean and RMSD of errors in flat regions and horizontal errors obtained using measurements extracted from sloping regions (slope greater than 10 degrees. The research is a result of an ad-hoc joint working group of the US Geological Survey and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS Airborne Lidar Committee.

  2. Statistical-uncertainty-based adaptive filtering of lidar signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, P. L.; Friehe, C. A.; Hristov, T. S.; Cooper, D. I.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive filter signal processing technique is developed to overcome the problem of Raman lidar water-vapor mixing ratio (the ratio of the water-vapor density to the dry-air density) with a highly variable statistical uncertainty that increases with decreasing photomultiplier-tube signal strength and masks the true desired water-vapor structure. The technique, applied to horizontal scans, assumes only statistical horizontal homogeneity. The result is a variable spatial resolution water-vapor signal with a constant variance out to a range limit set by a specified signal-to-noise ratio. The technique was applied to Raman water-vapor lidar data obtained at a coastal pier site together with in situ instruments located 320 m from the lidar. The micrometerological humidity data were used to calibrate the ratio of the lidar gains of the H 2 O and the N 2 photomultiplier tubes and set the water-vapor mixing ratio variance for the adaptive filter. For the coastal experiment the effective limit of the lidar range was found to be approximately 200 m for a maximum noise-to-signal variance ratio of 0.1 with the implemented data-reduction procedure. The technique can be adapted to off-horizontal scans with a small reduction in the constraints and is also applicable to other remote-sensing devices that exhibit the same inherent range-dependent signal-to-noise ratio problem. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  3. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  4. LIDAR-based characterization and conservation of the first theropod dinosaur trackways from Arkansas, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Platt

    Full Text Available LIDAR-based analyses of the first theropod dinosaur trackways known from the state of Arkansas, USA are reported. The trackways were found on a limestone bedding plane in the Albian De Queen Formation in an active gypsum quarry. Because limited access precluded thorough field study, fieldwork focused on preserving the entire site digitally with ground-based LIDAR, and detailed measurements were later taken digitally from point cloud data. The site contains eight tridactyl trackways associated with sauropod trackways and numerous isolated tracks. Although there appear to be two different tridactyl morphotypes, we show that the tracks are all likely from a single species of trackmaker. We apply a simple method of estimating substrate consistency by comparing the differences between true track dimensions and apparent track dimensions. The tridactyl tracks at the southern end of the site are preserved with significantly greater differences in true vs. apparent dimensions and are shallower than the rest of the tridactyl tracks at the site, which we interpret as the result of outward expansion of the soft tissues of the foot upon contact with a firm substrate. We interpret the firm substrate as having high bulk density and high shear strength, which also explain associated manus-only sauropod tracks. We show that the tridactyl tracks are likely from theropod trackmakers and that footprint lengths, trackway paces, stride lengths, and pace angulations of the De Queen trackways are statistically indistinguishable from equivalent measurements of theropod trackways in the Glen Rose Formation. The Glen Rose tracks are attributed to the large-bodied theropod, Acrocanthosaurus and we likewise attribute the De Queen tracks to Acrocanthosaurus, which is known from skeletal remains in temporally equivalent units and from the mine itself.

  5. LIDAR-based characterization and conservation of the first theropod dinosaur trackways from Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Brian F; Suarez, Celina A; Boss, Stephen K; Williamson, Malcolm; Cothren, Jackson; Kvamme, Jo Ann C

    2018-01-01

    LIDAR-based analyses of the first theropod dinosaur trackways known from the state of Arkansas, USA are reported. The trackways were found on a limestone bedding plane in the Albian De Queen Formation in an active gypsum quarry. Because limited access precluded thorough field study, fieldwork focused on preserving the entire site digitally with ground-based LIDAR, and detailed measurements were later taken digitally from point cloud data. The site contains eight tridactyl trackways associated with sauropod trackways and numerous isolated tracks. Although there appear to be two different tridactyl morphotypes, we show that the tracks are all likely from a single species of trackmaker. We apply a simple method of estimating substrate consistency by comparing the differences between true track dimensions and apparent track dimensions. The tridactyl tracks at the southern end of the site are preserved with significantly greater differences in true vs. apparent dimensions and are shallower than the rest of the tridactyl tracks at the site, which we interpret as the result of outward expansion of the soft tissues of the foot upon contact with a firm substrate. We interpret the firm substrate as having high bulk density and high shear strength, which also explain associated manus-only sauropod tracks. We show that the tridactyl tracks are likely from theropod trackmakers and that footprint lengths, trackway paces, stride lengths, and pace angulations of the De Queen trackways are statistically indistinguishable from equivalent measurements of theropod trackways in the Glen Rose Formation. The Glen Rose tracks are attributed to the large-bodied theropod, Acrocanthosaurus and we likewise attribute the De Queen tracks to Acrocanthosaurus, which is known from skeletal remains in temporally equivalent units and from the mine itself.

  6. Tropospheric Ozone Source Attribution in Southern California during Summer 2014 Based on Lidar Measurements and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Munoz, Maria Jose; Johnson, Matthew S.; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, significant efforts have been made to increase tropospheric ozone long-term monitoring. A large number of ground-based, airborne and space-borne instruments are currently providing valuable data to contribute to better understand tropospheric ozone budget and variability. Nonetheless, most of these instruments provide in-situ surface and column-integrated data, whereas vertically resolved measurements are still scarce. Besides ozonesondes and aircraft, lidar measurements have proven to be valuable tropospheric ozone profilers. Using the measurements from the tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California, and the GEOS-Chem and GEOS-5 model outputs, the impact of the North American monsoon on tropospheric ozone during summer 2014 is investigated. The influence of the Monsoon lightning-induced NOx will be evaluated against other sources (e.g. local anthropogenic emissions and the stratosphere) using also complementary data such as backward-trajectories analysis, coincident water vapor lidar measurements, and surface ozone in-situ measurements.

  7. Lidar-Based Rock-Fall Hazard Characterization of Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Greg M.Stock,

    2017-01-01

    Rock falls from cliffs and other steep slopes present numerous challenges for detailed geological characterization. In steep terrain, rock-fall source areas are both dangerous and difficult to access, severely limiting the ability to make detailed structural and volumetric measurements necessary for hazard assessment. Airborne and terrestrial lidar survey methods can provide high-resolution data needed for volumetric, structural, and deformation analyses of rock falls, potentially making these analyses straightforward and routine. However, specific methods to collect, process, and analyze lidar data of steep cliffs are needed to maximize analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents observations showing how lidar data sets should be collected, filtered, registered, and georeferenced to tailor their use in rock fall characterization. Additional observations concerning surface model construction, volumetric calculations, and deformation analysis are also provided.

  8. Hardware in the Loop Performance Assessment of LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Pose Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-09-24

    In this paper an original, easy to reproduce, semi-analytic calibration approach is developed for hardware-in-the-loop performance assessment of pose determination algorithms processing point cloud data, collected by imaging a non-cooperative target with LIDARs. The laboratory setup includes a scanning LIDAR, a monocular camera, a scaled-replica of a satellite-like target, and a set of calibration tools. The point clouds are processed by uncooperative model-based algorithms to estimate the target relative position and attitude with respect to the LIDAR. Target images, acquired by a monocular camera operated simultaneously with the LIDAR, are processed applying standard solutions to the Perspective- n -Points problem to get high-accuracy pose estimates which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy attained by the LIDAR-based techniques. To this aim, a precise knowledge of the extrinsic relative calibration between the camera and the LIDAR is essential, and it is obtained by implementing an original calibration approach which does not need ad-hoc homologous targets (e.g., retro-reflectors) easily recognizable by the two sensors. The pose determination techniques investigated by this work are of interest to space applications involving close-proximity maneuvers between non-cooperative platforms, e.g., on-orbit servicing and active debris removal.

  9. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kolka, Randall K.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both residual spatial dependence and non-stationarity of model covariates through the introduction of spatial random effects. We explored this objective using four forest inventory datasets that are part of the North American Carbon Program, each comprising point-referenced measures of above-ground forest biomass and discrete LiDAR. For each dataset, we considered at least five regression model specifications of varying complexity. Models were assessed based on goodness of fit criteria and predictive performance using a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. Results showed that the addition of spatial random effects to the regression model intercept improved fit and predictive performance in the presence of substantial residual spatial dependence. Additionally, in some cases, allowing either some or all regression slope parameters to vary spatially, via the addition of spatial random effects, further improved model fit and predictive performance. In other instances, models showed improved fit but decreased predictive performance—indicating over-fitting and underscoring the need for cross-validation to assess predictive ability. The proposed Bayesian modeling framework provided access to pixel-level posterior predictive distributions that were useful for uncertainty mapping, diagnosing spatial extrapolation issues, revealing missing model covariates, and discovering locally significant parameters.

  10. EFFICIENT LIDAR POINT CLOUD DATA MANAGING AND PROCESSING IN A HADOOP-BASED DISTRIBUTED FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR is one of the most promising technologies in surveying and mapping,city management, forestry, object recognition, computer vision engineer and others. However, it is challenging to efficiently storage, query and analyze the high-resolution 3D LiDAR data due to its volume and complexity. In order to improve the productivity of Lidar data processing, this study proposes a Hadoop-based framework to efficiently manage and process LiDAR data in a distributed and parallel manner, which takes advantage of Hadoop’s storage and computing ability. At the same time, the Point Cloud Library (PCL, an open-source project for 2D/3D image and point cloud processing, is integrated with HDFS and MapReduce to conduct the Lidar data analysis algorithms provided by PCL in a parallel fashion. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can efficiently manage and process big LiDAR data.

  11. (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    resolution SIFT grids in metric-topological SLAM ,” in Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009. [4] M. Bosse and R...single camera SLAM ,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1052–1067, 2007. [7] D. Nister, O. Naroditsky, and J. Bergen...segmentation with ground-based and airborne LIDAR range data,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on 3D Data Processing

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Components Using Multi-Wavelength Mie-Raman Lidar and Comparison with Ground Aerosol Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Hara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We verified an algorithm using multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar (MMRL observations to retrieve four aerosol components (black carbon (BC, sea salt (SS, air pollution (AP, and mineral dust (DS with in-situ aerosol measurements, and determined the seasonal variation of aerosol components in Fukuoka, in the western region of Japan. PM2.5, PM10, and mass concentrations of BC and SS components are derived from in-situ measurements. MMRL provides the aerosol extinction coefficient (α, particle linear depolarization ratio (δ, backscatter coefficient (β, and lidar ratio (S at 355 and 532 nm, and the attenuated backscatter coefficient (βatt at 1064 nm. We retrieved vertical distributions of extinction coefficients at 532 nm for four aerosol components (BC, SS, AP, and DS using 1α532 + 1β532 + 1βatt,1064 + 1δ532 data of MMRL. The retrieved extinction coefficients of the four aerosol components at 532 nm were converted to mass concentrations using the theoretical computed conversion factor assuming the prescribed size distribution, particle shape, and refractive index for each aerosol component. MMRL and in-situ measurements confirmed that seasonal variation of aerosol optical properties was affected by internal/external mixing of various aerosol components, in addition to hygroscopic growth of water-soluble aerosols. MMRL overestimates BC mass concentration compared to in-situ observation using the pure BC model. This overestimation was reduced drastically by introducing the internal mixture model of BC and water-soluble substances (Core-Gray Shell (CGS model. This result suggests that considering the internal mixture of BC and water-soluble substances is essential for evaluating BC mass concentration in this area. Systematic overestimation of BC mass concentration was found during summer, even when we applied the CGS model. The observational facts based on in-situ and MMRL measurements suggested that misclassification of AP as CGS particles was

  13. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    terrains. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), in particular, has been effective for imaging ground ice. ERT measures the ability of materials to...13 2.2.1 Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT...Engineer Research and Development Center ERT Electrical Resistivity Tomography GPS Global Positioning System LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging SIPRE

  14. Development of a Regional Lidar-Derived Above-Ground Biomass Model with Bayesian Model Averaging for Use in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests in Arizona and New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karis Tenneson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical forest management practices in the southwestern US have left forests prone to high-severity, stand-replacement fires. Reducing the cost of forest-fire management and reintroducing fire to the landscape without negative impact depends on detailed knowledge of stand composition, in particular, above-ground biomass (AGB. Lidar-based modeling techniques provide opportunities to increase ability of managers to monitor AGB and other forest metrics at reduced cost. We developed a regional lidar-based statistical model to estimate AGB for Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest systems of the southwestern USA, using previously collected field data. Model selection was performed using Bayesian model averaging (BMA to reduce researcher bias, fully explore the model space, and avoid overfitting. The selected model includes measures of canopy height, canopy density, and height distribution. The model selected with BMA explains 71% of the variability in field-estimates of AGB, and the RMSE of the two independent validation data sets are 23.25 and 32.82 Mg/ha. The regional model is structured in accordance with previously described local models, and performs equivalently to these smaller scale models. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of lidar for developing cost-effective, robust regional AGB models for monitoring and planning adaptively at the landscape scale.

  15. Investigating the influence of LiDAR ground surface errors on the utility of derived forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade T. Tinkham; Alistair M. S. Smith; Chad Hoffman; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Falkowski; Mark E. Swanson; Paul E. Gessler

    2012-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or LiDAR, effectively produces products spatially characterizing both terrain and vegetation structure; however, development and use of those products has outpaced our understanding of the errors within them. LiDAR's ability to capture three-dimensional structure has led to interest in conducting or augmenting forest inventories with...

  16. Synchronous Adversarial Feature Learning for LiDAR based Loop Closure Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Peng; He, Yuqing; Xu, Lingyun; Peng, Yan; Han, Jianda; Xu, Weiliang

    2018-01-01

    Loop Closure Detection (LCD) is the essential module in the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) task. In the current appearance-based SLAM methods, the visual inputs are usually affected by illumination, appearance and viewpoints changes. Comparing to the visual inputs, with the active property, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) based point-cloud inputs are invariant to the illumination and appearance changes. In this paper, we extract 3D voxel maps and 2D top view maps from LiDAR ...

  17. Localized Segment Based Processing for Automatic Building Extraction from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, G.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  18. LOCALIZED SEGMENT BASED PROCESSING FOR AUTOMATIC BUILDING EXTRACTION FROM LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  19. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  20. A novel EMD selecting thresholding method based on multiple iteration for denoising LIDAR signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Jiang, Li-hui; Xiong, Xing-long

    2015-06-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach has been believed to be potentially useful for processing the nonlinear and non-stationary LIDAR signals. To shed further light on its performance, we proposed the EMD selecting thresholding method based on multiple iteration, which essentially acts as a development of EMD interval thresholding (EMD-IT), and randomly alters the samples of noisy parts of all the corrupted intrinsic mode functions to generate a better effect of iteration. Simulations on both synthetic signals and LIDAR signals from real world support this method.

  1. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuru N. W.; Calhoun R.

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of...

  2. Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Hawley, Robert L.; Lutz, Eric R.; Studinger, Michael; Sonntag, John G.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Neumann, Thomas A.

    2017-03-01

    A series of NASA airborne lidars have been used in support of satellite laser altimetry missions. These airborne laser altimeters have been deployed for satellite instrument development, for spaceborne data validation, and to bridge the data gap between satellite missions. We used data from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of an 11 km long track near Summit Station, Greenland, to assess the surface-elevation bias and measurement precision of three airborne laser altimeters including the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS), and the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). Ground-based GPS data from the monthly ground-based traverses, which commenced in 2006, allowed for the assessment of nine airborne lidar surveys associated with ATM and LVIS between 2007 and 2016. Surface-elevation biases for these altimeters - over the flat, ice-sheet interior - are less than 0.12 m, while assessments of measurement precision are 0.09 m or better. Ground-based GPS positions determined both with and without differential post-processing techniques provided internally consistent solutions. Results from the analyses of ground-based and airborne data provide validation strategy guidance for the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) elevation and elevation-change data products.

  3. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  4. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    the evaluation of LIDAR-based wind measurement systems to validate the accuracy of remotely measured wind data in marine applications. Specifically, the test-bed will be utilized to systematically evaluate the capability of emerging scanning LIDAR and buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR by: (1) Evaluating a fixed scanning LIDAR against land-based 50 and 60 meter high meteorological masts fitted with research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers; (2) Evaluating a buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR fixed on land and floating in a sheltered bay against a co-located 60 meter high meteorological mast fitted with a research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers and the fixed scanning LIDAR; and (3) Offshore field evaluation of both LIDAR platforms through a comparison of the fixed scanning LIDAR data and data obtained by the buoy mounted LIDAR located 10 miles offshore. The proposed research will systematically validate Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) based wind measurement systems and assess the temporal and spatial variability of the offshore wind resource in the Mid-Atlantic east of New Jersey. The goal of the proposed project is to address the technical and commercial challenges of the offshore wind energy industry by validating and assessing cost-effective, over ocean wind resource characterization technologies. The objective is to systematically evaluate the capability of both scanning and vertically profiling LIDARs to accurately measure 3D wind fields through comparison with fixed met masts and intercomparison among LIDAR platforms. Once validated, data collected by both buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDARs and shore-based, pulsed horizontally scanning LIDARs can be used to accurately assess offshore wind resources and to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the offshore wind fields. One of the fundamental research questions to be addressed in phase 1 is the assessment of various measurement and data processing schemes to

  5. Geomorphological change detection using object-based feature extraction from multi-temporal LIDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Anders, N.S.; Bouten, W.; Feitosa, R.Q.; da Costa, G.A.O.P.; de Almeida, C.M.; Fonseca, L.M.G.; Kux, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-temporal LiDAR DTMs are used for the development and testing of a method for geomorphological change analysis in western Austria. Our test area is located on a mountain slope in the Gargellen Valley in western Austria. Six geomorphological features were mapped by using stratified Object-Based

  6. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  7. Real-time surveillance system for marine environment based on HLIF LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, Sergey; Sobolev, Innokenti; Aleksejev, Valeri; Sõro, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The operational monitoring of the risk areas of marine environment requires cost-effective solutions. One of the options is the use of sensor networks based on fixed installations and moving platforms (coastal boats, supply-, cargo-, and passenger vessels). Such network allows to gather environmental data in time and space with direct links to operational activities in the controlled area for further environmental risk assessment. Among many remote sensing techniques the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based on Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is the tool of direct assessment of water quality variations caused by chemical pollution, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton composition. The Hyperspectral LIF (HLIF) LiDAR acquires comprehensive LIF spectra and analyses them by spectral pattern recognition technique to detect and classify the substances in water remotely. Combined use of HLIF LiDARs with Real-Time Data Management System (RTDMS) provides the economically effective solution for the regular monitoring in the controlled area. OCEAN VISUALS in cooperation with LDI INNOVATION has developed Oil in Water Locator (OWL™) with RTDMS (OWL MAP™) based on HLIF LiDAR technique. This is a novel technical solution for monitoring of marine environment providing continuous unattended operations. OWL™ has been extensively tested on board of various vessels in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and Caribbean Sea. This paper describes the technology features, the results of its operational use in 2014-2017, and outlook for the technology development.

  8. Line-Based Registration of Panoramic Images and LiDAR Point Clouds for Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as the mobile mapping system (MMS, data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and a LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for the panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and the LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, with the latter being more reliable.

  9. Combining Lidar and Synthetic Aperture Radar Data to Estimate Forest Biomass: Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kaasalainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research activities combining lidar and radar remote sensing have increased in recent years. The main focus in combining lidar-radar forest remote sensing has been on the retrieval of the aboveground biomass (AGB, which is a primary variable related to carbon cycle in land ecosystems, and has therefore been identified as an essential climate variable. In this review, we summarize the studies combining lidar and radar in estimating forest AGB. We discuss the complementary use of lidar and radar according to the relevance of the added value. The most promising prospects for combining lidar and radar data are in the use of lidar-derived ground elevations for improving large-area biomass estimates from radar, and in upscaling of lidar-based AGB data across large areas covered by spaceborne radar missions.

  10. KML-Based Access and Visualization of High Resolution LiDAR Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Blair, J. L.; Nandigam, V.; Memon, A.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been dramatic growth in the acquisition of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) high-resolution topographic data for earth science studies. Capable of providing digital elevation models (DEMs) more than an order of magnitude higher resolution than those currently available, LiDAR data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate representation of landforms and geologic hazards. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To make these data available to a larger user community, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to provide access to LiDAR data products and visualizations. LiDAR digital elevation models are typically delivered in a tiled format that lends itself well to a KML-based distribution system. For LiDAR datasets hosted in the GEON OpenTopography Portal (www.opentopography.org) we have developed KML files that show the extent of available LiDAR DEMs and provide direct access to the data products. Users interact with these KML files to explore the extent of the available data and are able to select DEMs that correspond to their area of interest. Selection of a tile loads a download that the user can then save locally for analysis in their software of choice. The GEON topography system also has tools available that allow users to generate custom DEMs from LiDAR point cloud data. This system is powerful because it enables users to access massive volumes of raw LiDAR data and to produce DEM products that are optimized to their science applications. We have developed a web service that converts the custom DEM models produced by the system to a hillshade that is delivered to

  11. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind Lidar Identifying and Mitigating Barriers to the Adoption of Wind Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clifton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been taken to confirm or mitigate the barriers. Task 32 will continue to be a meeting point for the international wind lidar community until at least 2020 and welcomes old and new participants.

  12. A LIDAR-Based Tree Canopy Characterization under Simulated Uneven Road Condition: Advance in Tree Orchard Canopy Profile Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real outdoor canopy profile detection, the accuracy of a LIDAR scanner to measure canopy structure is affected by a potentially uneven road condition. The level of error associated with attitude angles from undulations in the ground surface can be reduced by developing appropriate correction algorithm. This paper proposes an offline attitude angle offset correction algorithm based on a 3D affine coordinate transformation. The validity of the correction algorithm is verified by conducting an indoor experiment. The experiment was conducted on an especially designed canopy profile measurement platform. During the experiment, an artificial tree and a tree-shaped carved board were continuously scanned at constant laser scanner travel speed and detection distances under simulated bumpy road conditions. Acquired LIDAR laser scanner raw data was processed offline by exceptionally developed MATLAB program. The obtained results before and after correction method show that the single attitude angle offset correction method is able to correct the distorted data points in tree-shaped carved board profile measurement, with a relative error of 5%, while the compound attitude angle offset correction method is effective to reduce the error associated with compound attitude angle deviation from the ideal scanner pose, with relative error of 7%.

  13. Automatic Matching of Large Scale Images and Terrestrial LIDAR Based on App Synergy of Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, G.; Hu, C.

    2018-04-01

    The digitalization of Cultural Heritage based on ground laser scanning technology has been widely applied. High-precision scanning and high-resolution photography of cultural relics are the main methods of data acquisition. The reconstruction with the complete point cloud and high-resolution image requires the matching of image and point cloud, the acquisition of the homonym feature points, the data registration, etc. However, the one-to-one correspondence between image and corresponding point cloud depends on inefficient manual search. The effective classify and management of a large number of image and the matching of large image and corresponding point cloud will be the focus of the research. In this paper, we propose automatic matching of large scale images and terrestrial LiDAR based on APP synergy of mobile phone. Firstly, we develop an APP based on Android, take pictures and record related information of classification. Secondly, all the images are automatically grouped with the recorded information. Thirdly, the matching algorithm is used to match the global and local image. According to the one-to-one correspondence between the global image and the point cloud reflection intensity image, the automatic matching of the image and its corresponding laser radar point cloud is realized. Finally, the mapping relationship between global image, local image and intensity image is established according to homonym feature point. So we can establish the data structure of the global image, the local image in the global image, the local image corresponding point cloud, and carry on the visualization management and query of image.

  14. Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Yajun; Zhang, Labao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhijun; Wu, Ganhua; Yan, Xiachao; Zhai, Jiquan; Wu, Yang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Chi; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-11-08

    The monitor of sea fogs become more important with the rapid development of marine activities. Remote sensing through laser is an effective tool for monitoring sea fogs, but still challengeable for large distance. We demonstrated a Long-distance Lidar for sea fog with superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), which extended the ranging area to a 180-km diameter area. The system, which was verified by using a benchmark distance measurement of a known island, is applied to the Mie scattering weather prediction Lidar system. The fog echo signal distribution in the range of 42.3∼63.5 km and 53.2∼74.2 km was obtained by the Lidar system. Then the fog concentration and the velocity of the fog were deduced from the distribution, which is consistent with the weather prediction. The height of the sea fog is about two hundred meter while the visibility at this height is about 90 km due to the Earth's radius of curvature. Therefore, the capability of this SNSPD-based Lidar was close to the theoretical limit for sea fog measurements for extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of SNSPD.

  15. Lidar and airborne investigation of smoke plume characteristics: Kootenai Creek Fire case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Urbanski; V. Kovalev; W. M. Hao; C. Wold; A. Petkov

    2010-01-01

    A ground-based scanning lidar was utilized with a set of airborne instruments to acquire measurements of smoke plume dynamics, smoke aerosol distribution and chemical composition in the vicinity of active wildfires in the western U.S. A new retrieval technique was used for processing lidar multiangle measurements. The technique determines the location of...

  16. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  17. A new air quality modelling approach at the regional scale using lidar data assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Assimilation of lidar observations for air quality modelling is investigated via the development of a new model, which assimilates ground-based lidar network measurements using optimal interpolation (OI) in a chemistry transport model. First, a tool for assimilating PM 10 (particulate matter with a diameter lower than 10 μm) concentration measurements on the vertical is developed in the air quality modelling platform POLYPHEMUS. It is applied to western Europe for one month from 15 July to 15 August 2001 to investigate the potential impact of future ground-based lidar networks on analysis and short-term forecasts (the description of the future) of PM 10 . The efficiency of assimilating lidar network measurements is compared to the efficiency of assimilating concentration measurements from the AirBase ground network, which includes about 500 stations in western Europe. A sensitivity study on the number and location of required lidars is also performed to help define an optimal lidar network for PM 10 forecasts. Secondly, a new model for simulating normalised lidar signals (PR 2 ) is developed and integrated in POLYPHEMUS. Simulated lidar signals are compared to hourly ground-based mobile and in-situ lidar observations performed during the MEGAPOLI (Mega-cities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment in July 2009. It is found that the model correctly reproduces the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties and their temporal variability. Additionally, two new algorithms for assimilating lidar signals are presented and evaluated during MEGAPOLI. The aerosol simulations without and with lidar data assimilation are evaluated using the AIRPARIF (a regional operational network in charge of air quality survey around the Paris area) database to demonstrate the feasibility and the usefulness of assimilating lidar profiles for aerosol forecasts. Finally

  18. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasahat Ullah Siddiqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state

  19. New Generation Lidar Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar has been a tool for atmospheric research for several decades. Until recently routine operational use of lidar was not known. Problems have involved a lack of appropriate technology rather than a lack of applications. Within the last few years, lidar based on a new generation of solid state lasers and detectors have changed the situation. Operational applications for cloud and aerosol research applications are now well established. In these research applications, the direct height profiling capability of lidar is typically an adjunct to other types of sensing, both passive and active. Compact eye safe lidar with the sensitivity for ground based monitoring of all significant cloud and aerosol structure and the reliability to operate full time for several years is now in routine use. The approach is known as micro pulse lidar (MPL). For MPL the laser pulse repetition rate is in the kilohertz range and the pulse energies are in the micro-Joule range. The low pulse energy permits the systems to be eye safe and reliable with solid state lasers. A number of MPL systems have been deployed since 1992 at atmospheric research sites at a variety of global locations. Accurate monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distribution is a critical measurement for atmospheric radiation. An airborne application of lidar cloud and aerosol profiling is retrievals of parameters from combined lidar and passive sensing involving visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. A lidar based on a large pulse, solid state diode pumped ND:YAG laser has been deployed on the NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft along with multi-spectral visible/IR and microwave imaging radiometers since 1993. The system has shown high reliability in an extensive series of experimental projects for cloud remote sensing. The retrieval of cirrus radiation parameters is an effective application for combined lidar and passive sensing. An approved NASA mission will soon begin long term lidar observation of

  20. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C; Cook, Bruce D; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2015-12-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (~20 returns m -2 ) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 ± 0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8 m -2 , 4 m -2 , 2 m -2 and 1 m -2 ) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4 m -2 , the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg ha -1 in predicted aboveground biomass. Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  1. 3D LOCAL SCALE SOLAR RADIATION MODEL BASED ON URBAN LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Redweik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to obtain the direct, diffuse and reflected solar energy that reaches a generic point of an urban landscape regardless of its location on a roof, on the ground or on a façade. The vertical façades embody a discontinuity in a digital elevation surface function and most models fail in the determination of solar radiation for points on façades. The presented algorithm solves the problem in an integrated way: starting with a georreferenced LIDAR data cloud covering a 400 × 400 m2 urban area resampled in a 1m × 1m mesh, applies a new shadow algorithm over roofs, terrain and façades for each time frame, applies the Kumar solar radiation model for the calculation of direct, diffuse and reflected irradiation for each 1x1m raster cell on non vertical surfaces of roof and terrain, and calculates total and mean irradiation of each 1 meter wide column of vertical façade based on the illuminated area at each time frame. The results for each time frame are integrated for the wished time period from one hour to one year, being the time steps also selectable, allowing several kinds of solar radiation and shadowing studies. GIS were used to evaluate monthly averages of solar radiation for a particular location as well as to map the photovoltaic potential of the building façades and their roofs according to determined classes of potential.

  2. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  3. Comparing Individual Tree Segmentation Based on High Resolution Multispectral Image and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, P.; Kelly, M.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This study compares the use of high-resolution multispectral WorldView images and high density Lidar data for individual tree segmentation. The application focuses on coniferous and deciduous forests in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The tree objects are obtained in two ways: a hybrid region-merging segmentation method with multispectral images, and a top-down and bottom-up region-growing method with Lidar data. The hybrid region-merging method is used to segment individual tree from multispectral images. It integrates the advantages of global-oriented and local-oriented region-merging strategies into a unified framework. The globally most-similar pair of regions is used to determine the starting point of a growing region. The merging iterations are constrained within the local vicinity, thus the segmentation is accelerated and can reflect the local context. The top-down region-growing method is adopted in coniferous forest to delineate individual tree from Lidar data. It exploits the spacing between the tops of trees to identify and group points into a single tree based on simple rules of proximity and likely tree shape. The bottom-up region-growing method based on the intensity and 3D structure of Lidar data is applied in deciduous forest. It segments tree trunks based on the intensity and topological relationships of the points, and then allocate other points to exact tree crowns according to distance. The accuracies for each method are evaluated with field survey data in several test sites, covering dense and sparse canopy. Three types of segmentation results are produced: true positive represents a correctly segmented individual tree, false negative represents a tree that is not detected and assigned to a nearby tree, and false positive represents that a point or pixel cluster is segmented as a tree that does not in fact exist. They respectively represent correct-, under-, and over-segmentation. Three types of index are compared for segmenting individual tree

  4. Separation of Ground and Low Vegetation Signatures in LiDAR Measurements of Salt-Marsh Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Menenti, M.; Stoll, M.P.; Feola, A.; Belluco, E.; Marani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been shown to have a great potential in the accurate characterization of forest systems; however, its application to salt-marsh environments is challenging because the characteristic short vegetation does not give rise to detectable differences between first

  5. Reconciling Ground-Based and Space-Based Estimates of the Frequency of Occurrence and Radiative Effect of Clouds around Darwin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protat, Alain; Young, Stuart; McFarlane, Sally A.; L' Ecuyer, Tristan; Mace, Gerald G.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Long, Charles N.; Berry, Elizabeth; Delanoe, Julien

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate whether estimates of the cloud frequency of occurrence and associated cloud radiative forcing as derived from ground-based and satellite active remote sensing and radiative transfer calculations can be reconciled over a well instrumented active remote sensing site located in Darwin, Australia, despite the very different viewing geometry and instrument characteristics. It is found that the ground-based radar-lidar combination at Darwin does not detect most of the cirrus clouds above 10 km (due to limited lidar detection capability and signal obscuration by low-level clouds) and that the CloudSat radar - Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) combination underreports the hydrometeor frequency of occurrence below 2 km height, due to instrument limitations at these heights. The radiative impact associated with these differences in cloud frequency of occurrence is large on the surface downwelling shortwave fluxes (ground and satellite) and the top-of atmosphere upwelling shortwave and longwave fluxes (ground). Good agreement is found for other radiative fluxes. Large differences in radiative heating rate as derived from ground and satellite radar-lidar instruments and RT calculations are also found above 10 km (up to 0.35 Kday-1 for the shortwave and 0.8 Kday-1 for the longwave). Given that the ground-based and satellite estimates of cloud frequency of occurrence and radiative impact cannot be fully reconciled over Darwin, caution should be exercised when evaluating the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation interactions in large-scale models and limitations of each set of instrumentation should be considered when interpreting model-observations differences.

  6. Helicopter-borne observations of the continental background aerosol in combination with remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsing, Sebastian; Wehner, Birgit; Seifert, Patric; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Ditas, Florian; Henning, Silvia; Ma, Nan; Poulain, Laurent; Siebert, Holger; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Macke, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and conducts a closure study between airborne in situ and ground-based lidar measurements up to an altitude of 2300 m. The related measurements were carried out in a field campaign within the framework of the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in September 2013 in a rural background area of central Europe.The helicopter-borne probe ACTOS (Airborne Cloud and Turbulence Observation System) provided measurements of the aerosol particle number size distribution (PNSD), the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC), the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-NC), and meteorological atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and relative humidity). These measurements were supported by the ground-based 3+2 wavelength polarization lidar system PollyXT, which provided profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient (σbsc) for three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm). Particle extinction coefficient (σext) profiles were obtained by using a fixed backscatter-to-extinction ratio (also lidar ratio, LR). A new approach was used to determine profiles of CCN-NC for continental aerosol. The results of this new approach were consistent with the airborne in situ measurements within the uncertainties.In terms of representativeness, the PNSD measurements on the ground showed a good agreement with the measurements provided with ACTOS for lower altitudes. The ground-based measurements of PNC and CCN-NC are representative of the PBL when the PBL is well mixed. Locally isolated new particle formation events on the ground or at the top of the PBL led to vertical variability in the cases presented here and ground-based measurements are not entirely representative of the PBL. Based on Mie theory (Mie, 1908), optical aerosol properties under ambient conditions for

  7. Helicopter-borne observations of the continental background aerosol in combination with remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Düsing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements for the planetary boundary layer (PBL and conducts a closure study between airborne in situ and ground-based lidar measurements up to an altitude of 2300 m. The related measurements were carried out in a field campaign within the framework of the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE in September 2013 in a rural background area of central Europe.The helicopter-borne probe ACTOS (Airborne Cloud and Turbulence Observation System provided measurements of the aerosol particle number size distribution (PNSD, the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC, the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-NC, and meteorological atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and relative humidity. These measurements were supported by the ground-based 3+2 wavelength polarization lidar system PollyXT, which provided profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient (σbsc for three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm. Particle extinction coefficient (σext profiles were obtained by using a fixed backscatter-to-extinction ratio (also lidar ratio, LR. A new approach was used to determine profiles of CCN-NC for continental aerosol. The results of this new approach were consistent with the airborne in situ measurements within the uncertainties.In terms of representativeness, the PNSD measurements on the ground showed a good agreement with the measurements provided with ACTOS for lower altitudes. The ground-based measurements of PNC and CCN-NC are representative of the PBL when the PBL is well mixed. Locally isolated new particle formation events on the ground or at the top of the PBL led to vertical variability in the cases presented here and ground-based measurements are not entirely representative of the PBL. Based on Mie theory (Mie, 1908, optical aerosol properties under ambient

  8. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of smartphone via Bluetooth while flying on a drone, and could project vector content, text, and perform laser based tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of battery. The MEMS mirror based LiDAR system allows for ondemand ranging of points or areas within the FoR without altering the UAV's position. Increasing the LRF ranging frequency and stabilizing the pointing of the laser beam by utilizing the onboard inertial sensors and the camera are additional goals of the next design.

  9. Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using a Ground-based Lunar Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Tim; Omar, Ali; Haggard, Charles; Pippin, Margaret; Tasaddaq, Aasam; Stone, Tom; Rodriguez, Jon; Slutsker, Ilya; Eck, Tom; Holben, Brent; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was proposed to combine AERONET network photometer capabilities with a high precision lunar model used for satellite calibration to retrieve columnar nighttime AODs. The USGS lunar model can continuously provide pre-atmosphere high precision lunar irradiance determinations for multiple wavelengths at ground sensor locations. When combined with measured irradiances from a ground-based AERONET photometer, atmospheric column transmissions can determined yielding nighttime column aerosol AOD and Angstrom coefficients. Additional demonstrations have utilized this approach to further develop calibration methods and to obtain data in polar regions where extended periods of darkness occur. This new capability enables more complete studies of the diurnal behavior of aerosols, and feedback for models and satellite retrievals for the nighttime behavior of aerosols. It is anticipated that the nighttime capability of these sensors will be useful for comparisons with satellite lidars such as CALIOP and CATS in additional to ground-based lidars in MPLNET at night, when the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than daytime and more precise AOD comparisons can be made.

  10. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  11. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  12. A Thin Plate Spline-Based Feature-Preserving Method for Reducing Elevation Points Derived from LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfa Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (LiDAR technique is currently one of the most important tools for collecting elevation points with a high density in the context of digital elevation model (DEM construction. However, the high density data always leads to serious time and memory consumption problems in data processing. In this paper, we have developed a thin plate spline (TPS-based feature-preserving (TPS-F method for LiDAR-derived ground data reduction by selecting a certain amount of significant terrain points and by extracting geomorphological features from the raw dataset to maintain the accuracy of constructed DEMs as high as possible, while maximally keeping terrain features. We employed four study sites with different topographies (i.e., flat, undulating, hilly and mountainous terrains to analyze the performance of TPS-F for LiDAR data reduction in the context of DEM construction. These results were compared with those of the TPS-based algorithm without features (TPS-W and two classical data selection methods including maximum z-tolerance (Max-Z and the random method. Results show that irrespective of terrain characteristic, the two versions of TPS-based approaches (i.e., TPS-F and TPS-W are always more accurate than the classical methods in terms of error range and root means square error. Moreover, in terms of streamline matching rate (SMR, TPS-F has a better ability of preserving geomorphological features, especially for the mountainous terrain. For example, the average SMR of TPS-F is 89.2% in the mountainous area, while those of TPS-W, max-Z and the random method are 56.6%, 34.7% and 35.3%, respectively.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements based on mobile LiDAR point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuejian; Mao, Wenbo; Bi, Jiantao; Ji, Wei; He, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    Ground-based LiDAR is one of the most effective city modeling tools at present, which has been widely used for three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor objects. However, as for indoor objects, there are some technical bottlenecks due to lack of GPS signal. In this paper, based on the high-precision indoor point cloud data which was obtained by LiDAR, an international advanced indoor mobile measuring equipment, high -precision model was fulfilled for all indoor ancillary facilities. The point cloud data we employed also contain color feature, which is extracted by fusion with CCD images. Thus, it has both space geometric feature and spectral information which can be used for constructing objects' surface and restoring color and texture of the geometric model. Based on Autodesk CAD platform and with help of PointSence plug, three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements was realized. Specifically, Pointools Edit Pro was adopted to edit the point cloud, then different types of indoor point cloud data was processed, including data format conversion, outline extracting and texture mapping of the point cloud model. Finally, three-dimensional visualization of the real-world indoor was completed. Experiment results showed that high-precision 3D point cloud data obtained by indoor mobile measuring equipment can be used for indoor whole elements' 3-d reconstruction and that methods proposed in this paper can efficiently realize the 3 -d construction of indoor whole elements. Moreover, the modeling precision could be controlled within 5 cm, which was proved to be a satisfactory result.

  14. Advanced signal processing based on support vector regression for lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Malizia, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Peluso, E.; Parracino, S.; Talebzadeh, S.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2015-10-01

    The LIDAR technique has recently found many applications in atmospheric physics and remote sensing. One of the main issues, in the deployment of systems based on LIDAR, is the filtering of the backscattered signal to alleviate the problems generated by noise. Improvement in the signal to noise ratio is typically achieved by averaging a quite large number (of the order of hundreds) of successive laser pulses. This approach can be effective but presents significant limitations. First of all, it implies a great stress on the laser source, particularly in the case of systems for automatic monitoring of large areas for long periods. Secondly, this solution can become difficult to implement in applications characterised by rapid variations of the atmosphere, for example in the case of pollutant emissions, or by abrupt changes in the noise. In this contribution, a new method for the software filtering and denoising of LIDAR signals is presented. The technique is based on support vector regression. The proposed new method is insensitive to the statistics of the noise and is therefore fully general and quite robust. The developed numerical tool has been systematically compared with the most powerful techniques available, using both synthetic and experimental data. Its performances have been tested for various statistical distributions of the noise and also for other disturbances of the acquired signal such as outliers. The competitive advantages of the proposed method are fully documented. The potential of the proposed approach to widen the capability of the LIDAR technique, particularly in the detection of widespread smoke, is discussed in detail.

  15. Extinction effects of atmospheric compositions on return signals of space-based lidar from numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lilin; Wang, Fu; Min, Min; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Jianping; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Binglong; Zhao, Yiming; Wang, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    The atmospheric composition induced extinction effect on return signals of space-based lidar remains incomprehensively understood, especially around 355 nm and 2051 nm channels. Here we simulated the extinction effects of atmospheric gases (e.g., H2O, CO2, and O3) and six types of aerosols (clean continental, clean marine, dust, polluted continental, polluted dust, and smoke) on return signals of space-based lidar system at 355 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 2051 nm channels, based on a robust lidar return signal simulator in combination with radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). Results show significant Rayleigh (molecular) scattering effects in the return signals at 355 nm and 532 nm channels, which markedly decays with increases in wavelength. The spectral transmittance of CO2 is nearly 0, yet the transmittance of H2O is approximately 100% at 2051 nm, which verifies this 2051 nm channel is suitable for CO2 retrieval. The spectral transmittance also reveals another possible window for CO2 and H2O detection at 2051.6 nm, since their transmittance both near 0.5. Moreover the corresponding Doppler return signals at 2051.6 nm channel can be used to retrieve wind field. Thus we suggest 2051 nm channel may better be centered at 2051.6 nm. Using the threshold for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of return signals, the detection ranges for three representative distribution scenarios for the six types of aerosols at four typical lidar channels are determined. The results clearly show that high SNR values can be seen ubiquitously in the atmosphere ranging from the height of aerosol layer top to 25 km at 355 nm, and can been found at 2051.6 nm in the lower troposphere that highly depends on aerosol distribution scenario in the vertical. This indicates that the Doppler space-based lidar system with a double-channel joint detection mode is able to retrieve atmospheric wind field or profile from 0 to 25 km.

  16. Quantitative study of tectonic geomorphology along Haiyuan fault based on airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Zhang, Pei Zhen; Liu, Jing; Li, Chuan You; Ren, Zhi Kun; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    High-precision and high-resolution topography are the fundamental data for active fault research. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) presents a new approach to build detailed digital elevation models effectively. We take the Haiyuan fault in Gansu Province as an example of how LiDAR data may be used to improve the study of active faults and the risk assessment of related hazards. In the eastern segment of the Haiyuan fault, the Shaomayin site has been comprehensively investigated in previous research because of its exemplary tectonic topographic features. Based on unprecedented LiDAR data, the horizontal and vertical coseismic offsets at the Shaomayin site are described. The measured horizontal value is about 8.6 m, and the vertical value is about 0.8 m. Using prior dating ages sampled from the same location, we estimate the horizontal slip rate as 4.0 ± 1.0 mm/a with high confidence and define that the lower bound of the vertical slip rate is 0.4 ± 0.1 mm/a since the Holocene. LiDAR data can repeat the measurements of field work on quantifying offsets of tectonic landform features quite well. The offset landforms are visualized on an office computer workstation easily, and specialized software may be used to obtain displacement quantitatively. By combining precious chronological results, the fundamental link between fault activity and large earthquakes is better recognized, as well as the potential risk for future earthquake hazards.

  17. Registration of Urban Aerial Image and LiDAR Based on Line Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional registration of a single aerial image with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data using linear features that regard line direction as a control or linear features as constraints in the solution, lacking the constraint of linear position leads to the error propagation of the adjustment model. To solve this problem, this paper presents a line vector-based registration mode (LVR in which image rays and LiDAR lines are expressed by a line vector that integrates the line direction and the line position. A registration equation of line vector is set up by coplanar imaging rays and corresponding control lines. Three types of datasets consisting of synthetic, theInternational Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS test project, and real aerial data are used. A group of progressive experiments is undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the LVR. Experimental results demonstrate that the integrated line direction and the line position contributes a great deal to the theoretical and real accuracies of the unknowns, as well as the stability of the adjustment model. This paper provides a new suggestion that, for a single image and LiDAR data, registration in urban areas can be accomplished by accommodating rich line features.

  18. DECISION LEVEL FUSION OF LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL COLOR IMAGERY BASED ON BAYESIAN THEORY FOR URBAN AREA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rastiveis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of “Buildings”, “Trees”, “Asphalt Roads”, “Concrete roads”, “Grass” and “Cars” using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1 using merely LiDAR data, (2 using merely image data, and (3 using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  19. Space-Based CO2 Active Optical Remote Sensing using 2-μm Triple-Pulse IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-04-01

    , current efforts are focused on developing an aircraft-based 2-μm triple-pulse IPDA lidar for independent and simultaneous monitoring of CO2 and water vapor (H2O). Triple-pulse IPDA design, development and integration is based on the knowledge gathered from the successful demonstration of the airborne CO2 2-μm double-pulse IPDA lidar. IPDA transmitter enhancements include generating high-energy (80 mJ) and high repetition rate (50Hz) three successive pulses using a single pump pulse. IPDA receiver enhancement include an advanced, low noise (1 fW/Hz1/2) MCT e-APD detection system for improved measurement sensitivity. In place of H2O sensing, the triple-pulse IPDA can be tuned to measure CO2 with two different weighting functions using two on-lines and a common off-line. Modeling of a space-based high-energy 2-µm triple-pulse IPDA lidar was conducted to demonstrate CO2 measurement capability and to evaluate random and systematic errors. Projected performance shows reference surface using US Standard atmospheric model. In addition, measurements can be optimized by tuning on-lines based upon ground target scenarios, environment and science objectives. With 10 MHz detection bandwidth, surface ranging with an uncertainty of <3 m can be achieved as demonstrated from earlier airborne flights.

  20. A review of the mobile LIDAR system developed at the CSIR and a proposed improvement of the system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shikwambana, L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available or cloud of pollutants) and (3) To study the plume (say smoke, biomass burning and etc), Haze and Aerosol/pollutant dispersion. Fig. 5. A schematic view of the modified LIDAR system with Scanner. Fig. 4. (a) Ground-based zenith-pointing lidars...

  1. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  2. Object-Based Crop Species Classification Based on the Combination of Airborne Hyperspectral Images and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of crop species is an important issue in agricultural management. In recent years, many studies have explored this topic using multi-spectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this study, we perform dedicated research to propose a framework for mapping crop species by combining hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA paradigm. The aims of this work were the following: (i to understand the performances of different spectral dimension-reduced features from hyperspectral data and their combination with LiDAR derived height information in image segmentation; (ii to understand what classification accuracies of crop species can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and LiDAR data in an OBIA paradigm, especially in regions that have fragmented agricultural landscape and complicated crop planting structure; and (iii to understand the contributions of the crop height that is derived from LiDAR data, as well as the geometric and textural features of image objects, to the crop species’ separabilities. The study region was an irrigated agricultural area in the central Heihe river basin, which is characterized by many crop species, complicated crop planting structures, and fragmented landscape. The airborne hyperspectral data acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI with a 1 m spatial resolution and the Canopy Height Model (CHM data derived from the LiDAR data acquired by the airborne Leica ALS70 LiDAR system were used for this study. The image segmentation accuracies of different feature combination schemes (very high-resolution imagery (VHR, VHR/CHM, and minimum noise fractional transformed data (MNF/CHM were evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that VHR/CHM outperformed the other two combination schemes with a segmentation accuracy of 84.8%. The object-based crop species classification results of different feature integrations indicated that

  3. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  4. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  5. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  6. Self-Tuning Method for Increased Obstacle Detection Reliability Based on Internet of Things LiDAR Sensor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Fernando; Beruvides, Gerardo; Villalonga, Alberto; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2018-05-10

    On-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance are a rapidly expanding area of research and development. The assessment of reliable obstacle detection using data collected by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue that the scientific community is actively exploring. The design of a self-tuning methodology and its implementation are presented in this paper, to maximize the reliability of LiDAR sensors network for obstacle detection in the 'Internet of Things' (IoT) mobility scenarios. The Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool for emulating sensor interaction in complex driving environments is selected in order to achieve that objective. Furthermore, a model-based framework is defined that employs a point-cloud clustering technique, and an error-based prediction model library that is composed of a multilayer perceptron neural network, and k-nearest neighbors and linear regression models. Finally, a reinforcement learning technique, specifically a Q-learning method, is implemented to determine the number of LiDAR sensors that are required to increase sensor reliability for obstacle localization tasks. In addition, a IoT driving assistance user scenario, connecting a five LiDAR sensor network is designed and implemented to validate the accuracy of the computational intelligence-based framework. The results demonstrated that the self-tuning method is an appropriate strategy to increase the reliability of the sensor network while minimizing detection thresholds.

  7. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  8. LESTO: an Open Source GIS-based toolbox for LiDAR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Antonello, Andrea; Tonon, Giustino

    2015-04-01

    During the last five years different research institutes and private companies stared to implement new algorithms to analyze and extract features from LiDAR data but only a few of them also created a public available software. In the field of forestry there are different examples of software that can be used to extract the vegetation parameters from LiDAR data, unfortunately most of them are closed source (even if free), which means that the source code is not shared with the public for anyone to look at or make changes to. In 2014 we started the development of the library LESTO (LiDAR Empowered Sciences Toolbox Opensource): a set of modules for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud with an Open Source approach with the aim of improving the performance of the extraction of the volume of biomass and other vegetation parameters on large areas for mixed forest structures. LESTO contains a set of modules for data handling and analysis implemented within the JGrassTools spatial processing library. The main subsections are dedicated to 1) preprocessing of LiDAR raw data mainly in LAS format (utilities and filtering); 2) creation of raster derived products; 3) flight-lines identification and normalization of the intensity values; 4) tools for extraction of vegetation and buildings. The core of the LESTO library is the extraction of the vegetation parameters. We decided to follow the single tree based approach starting with the implementation of some of the most used algorithms in literature. These have been tweaked and applied on LiDAR derived raster datasets (DTM, DSM) as well as point clouds of raw data. The methods range between the simple extraction of tops and crowns from local maxima, the region growing method, the watershed method and individual tree segmentation on point clouds. The validation procedure consists in finding the matching between field and LiDAR-derived measurements at individual tree and plot level. An automatic validation procedure has been developed

  9. Cyclops: single-pixel imaging lidar system based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, F.; Correia, M. V.; Farahi, F.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Araújo, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Mars and the Moon are envisaged as major destinations of future space exploration missions in the upcoming decades. Imaging LIDARs are seen as a key enabling technology in the support of autonomous guidance, navigation and control operations, as they can provide very accurate, wide range, high-resolution distance measurements as required for the exploration missions. Imaging LIDARs can be used at critical stages of these exploration missions, such as descent and selection of safe landing sites, rendezvous and docking manoeuvres, or robotic surface navigation and exploration. Despite these devices have been commercially available and used for long in diverse metrology and ranging applications, their size, mass and power consumption are still far from being suitable and attractive for space exploratory missions. Here, we describe a compact Single-Pixel Imaging LIDAR System that is based on a compressive sensing technique. The application of the compressive codes to a DMD array enables compression of the spatial information, while the collection of timing histograms correlated to the pulsed laser source ensures image reconstruction at the ranged distances. Single-pixel cameras have been compared with raster scanning and array based counterparts in terms of noise performance, and proved to be superior. Since a single photodetector is used, a better SNR and higher reliability is expected in contrast with systems using large format photodetector arrays. Furthermore, the event of failure of one or more micromirror elements in the DMD does not prevent full reconstruction of the images. This brings additional robustness to the proposed 3D imaging LIDAR. The prototype that was implemented has three modes of operation. Range Finder: outputs the average distance between the system and the area of the target under illumination; Attitude Meter: provides the slope of the target surface based on distance measurements in three areas of the target; 3D Imager: produces 3D ranged

  10. Development of wavelength locking circuit for 1.53 micron water vapor monitoring coherent differential absorption LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaki, Masaharu; Kojima, Ryota; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2018-04-01

    We have studied a ground based coherent differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for vertical profiling of water vapor density using a 1.5μm laser wavelength. A coherent LIDAR has an advantage in daytime measurement compared with incoherent LIDAR because the influence of background light is greatly suppressed. In addition, the LIDAR can simultaneously measure wind speed and water vapor density. We had developed a wavelength locking circuit using the phase modulation technique and offset locking technique, and wavelength stabilities of 0.123 pm which corresponds to 16 MHz are realized. In this paper, we report the wavelength locking circuits for the 1.5 um wavelength.

  11. Assessing LiDAR elevation data for KDOT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR-based elevation surveys are a cost-effective means for mapping topography over large areas. LiDAR : surveys use an airplane-mounted or ground-based laser radar unit to scan terrain. Post-processing techniques are : applied to remove vegetation ...

  12. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  13. Interrelationship of Cn2 & Eddy Dissipation rate based on Scintillometer and Doppler Lidar observations in complex terrain during the Perdigao Campaign 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creegan, E. D.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Hocut, C. M.; Pattantyus, A.; Leo, L. S.; Wang, Y.; Fernando, H. J.; Bariteau, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigao campaign is a joint EU/US science project designed to provide information on flow field(s) over complex terrain and through wind turbines at unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal is to improve wind energy physics and overcome the current deficiencies of wind resource models. Topographically the Perdigao location is an expansion of the "double hill in crossflow", consisting of two parallel ridges along the NW-SE direction. The site was heavily instrumented with an array of towers (with multiple transects along the valley and across two ridges) and a large suite of ground based and aerial remote sensing platforms. On the outflow side of the NW ridge a scintillometer was emplaced with the line-of-sight (LOS) running adjacent to the towers comprising the NE transect from the ridgetop down to the base. Scanning lidars were placed at both ends of this LOS. Other instruments included a tethered lifting system (TLS), sodar, microwave radiometer, an energy budget flux tower and radiosonde releases. Scintillomoter data provides a quantitative measure of the intensity of optical turbulence, through the refractive index structure parameter, Cn2, where averaged Cn2 is often determined as a function of local differences in temperature, moisture, and wind velocity at discrete points. The refractive index structure parameter is also a function of the inner (dissipation) and outer (energy producing) turbulent scales. The scintillometer directly gives path averaged Cn2 and Eddy Dissipation rate along the LOS. Coplanar scans along the same path were synchronized using two scanning coherent Doppler lidars. Algorithms have been developed to estimate both eddy dissipation rate and Cn2 from Doppler lidar data effectively creating a new lidar data product. Additionally, from TLS measurements, Cn2 and dissipation rate are calculated using the high frequency spectra of the hot-wire sensor. In this work, measurements of Cn2 and Eddy Dissipation rate

  14. COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF TWO IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS FROM AERIAL PHOTOS WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR LARGE-SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widyaningrum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM and by Structure from Motion (SfM. In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  15. Automatic building extraction from LiDAR data fusion of point and grid-based features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shouji; Zhang, Yunsheng; Zou, Zhengrong; Xu, Shenghua; He, Xue; Chen, Siyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting buildings from LiDAR point cloud data by combining point-based and grid-based features. To accurately discriminate buildings from vegetation, a point feature based on the variance of normal vectors is proposed. For a robust building extraction, a graph cuts algorithm is employed to combine the used features and consider the neighbor contexture information. As grid feature computing and a graph cuts algorithm are performed on a grid structure, a feature-retained DSM interpolation method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is validated by the benchmark ISPRS Test Project on Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction and compared to the state-art-of-the methods. The evaluation shows that the proposed method can obtain a promising result both at area-level and at object-level. The method is further applied to the entire ISPRS dataset and to a real dataset of the Wuhan City. The results show a completeness of 94.9% and a correctness of 92.2% at the per-area level for the former dataset and a completeness of 94.4% and a correctness of 95.8% for the latter one. The proposed method has a good potential for large-size LiDAR data.

  16. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping hydraulic hazard is a ticklish procedure as it involves technical and socio-economic aspects. On the one hand no dangerous areas should be excluded, on the other hand it is important not to exceed, beyond the necessary, with the surface assigned to some use limitations. The availability of a high resolution topographic survey allows nowadays to face this task with innovative procedures, both in the planning (mapping) and in the map validation phases. The latter is the object of the present work. It should be stressed that the described procedure is proposed purely as a preliminary analysis based on topography only, and therefore does not intend in any way to replace more sophisticated analysis methods requiring based on hydraulic modelling. The reference elevation model is a combination of the digital terrain model and the digital building model (DTM+DBM). The option of using the standard surface model (DSM) is not viable, as the DSM represents the vegetation canopy as a solid volume. This has the consequence of unrealistically considering the vegetation as a geometric obstacle to water flow. In some cases the topographic model construction requires the identification and digitization of the principal breaklines, such as river banks, ditches and similar natural or artificial structures. The geometrical and topological procedure for the validation of the hydraulic hazard maps is made of two steps. In the first step the whole area is subdivided into fluvial segments, with length chosen as a reasonable trade-off between the need to keep the hydrographical unit as complete as possible, and the need to separate sections of the river bed with significantly different morphology. Each of these segments is made of a single elongated polygon, whose shape can be quite complex, especially for meandering river sections, where the flow direction (i.e. the potential energy gradient associated to the talweg) is often inverted. In the second step the segments are analysed

  17. A METHOD OF EXTRACTING SHORELINE BASED ON SEMANTIC INFORMATION USING DUAL-LENGTH LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline is a spatial varying separation between water and land. By utilizing dual-wavelength LiDAR point data together with semantic information that shoreline often appears beyond water surface profile and is observable on the beach, the paper generates the shoreline and the details are as follows: (1 Gain the water surface profile: first we obtain water surface by roughly selecting water points based on several features of water body, then apply least square fitting method to get the whole water trend surface. Then we get the ground surface connecting the under -water surface by both TIN progressive filtering method and surface interpolation method. After that, we have two fitting surfaces intersected to get water surface profile of the island. (2 Gain the sandy beach: we grid all points and select the water surface profile grids points as seeds, then extract sandy beach points based on eight-neighborhood method and features, then we get all sandy beaches. (3 Get the island shoreline: first we get the sandy beach shoreline based on intensity information, then we get a threshold value to distinguish wet area and dry area, therefore we get the shoreline of several sandy beaches. In some extent, the shoreline has the same height values within a small area, by using all the sandy shoreline points to fit a plane P, and the intersection line of the ground surface and the shoreline plane P can be regarded as the island shoreline. By comparing with the surveying shoreline, the results show that the proposed method can successfully extract shoreline.

  18. Demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for quantitative profiling of clouds and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott

    2017-11-27

    We present a demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar. It is capable of performing calibrated retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties at a 150 m range resolution with less than 1 minute integration time over an approximate range of 12 km during day and night. This instrument operates at 780 nm, a wavelength that is well established for reliable semiconductor lasers and detectors, and was chosen because it corresponds to the D2 rubidium absorption line. A heated vapor reference cell of isotopic rubidium 87 is used as an effective and reliable aerosol signal blocking filter in the instrument. In principle, the diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar can be made cost competitive with elastic backscatter lidar systems, yet delivers a significant improvement in data quality through direct retrieval of quantitative optical properties of clouds and aerosols.

  19. Registration of Aerial Image with Airborne LiDAR Data Based on Plücker Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Registration of aerial image with airborne LiDAR data is a key to feature extraction. A registration model based on Plücker line is proposed. The relative position and attitude relationship between the conjugate lines in LiDAR and image is determined based on Plücker linear equation, which describes line transformation in space, then coplanarity condition equation is established. Finally, coordinate transformation between image point and corresponding LiDAR point is achieved by the spiral movement of Plücker lines in the image. The registration model of Plücker linear coplanarity condition equation is simple, and jointly describes the rotation and translation to avoid coupling error between them, so the accuracy is approved. This research provides technical support for high-quality earth spatial information acquisition.

  20. A Concealed Car Extraction Method Based on Full-Waveform LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanrong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concealed cars extraction from point clouds data acquired by airborne laser scanning has gained its popularity in recent years. However, due to the occlusion effect, the number of laser points for concealed cars under trees is not enough. Thus, the concealed cars extraction is difficult and unreliable. In this paper, 3D point cloud segmentation and classification approach based on full-waveform LiDAR was presented. This approach first employed the autocorrelation G coefficient and the echo ratio to determine concealed cars areas. Then the points in the concealed cars areas were segmented with regard to elevation distribution of concealed cars. Based on the previous steps, a strategy integrating backscattered waveform features and the view histogram descriptor was developed to train sample data of concealed cars and generate the feature pattern. Finally concealed cars were classified by pattern matching. The approach was validated by full-waveform LiDAR data and experimental results demonstrated that the presented approach can extract concealed cars with accuracy more than 78.6% in the experiment areas.

  1. A Novel Method of Autonomous Inspection for Transmission Line based on Cable Inspection Robot LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the national economy, there is increasing demand for electricity, which forces transmission line corridors to become structurally complicated and extend to complex environments (e.g., mountains, forests. It is a great challenge to inspect transmission line in these regions. To address these difficulties, a novel method of autonomous inspection for transmission line is proposed based on cable inspection robot (CIR LiDAR data, which mainly includes two steps: preliminary inspection and autonomous inspection. In preliminary inspection, the position and orientation system (POS data is used for original point cloud dividing, ground point filtering, and structured partition. A hierarchical classification strategy is established to identify the classes and positions of the abnormal points. In autonomous inspection, CIR can autonomously reach the specified points through inspection planning. These inspection targets are imaged with PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom cameras by coordinate transformation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by test site experiments and actual line experiments, respectively. The proposed method greatly reduces manpower and improves inspection accuracy, providing a theoretical basis for intelligent inspection of transmission lines in the future.

  2. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  3. Design and implementation of 3D LIDAR based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2017-02-01

    We designed a prototype for testing feasibility of a proposed light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which was designed to encode pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct-sequence optical code division multiple access method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. The prototype was built using commercial o -the-shelf optical components and development kits. It comprised of an optical modulator, an amplified photodetector, an MEMS mirror development kit, an analog-to-digital converter evaluation module, a digital signal processor with ARM evaluation kit and a Windows personal computer. The prototype LIDAR system has capable of acquiring 120 x 32-pixel images at 5 frames/s. We measured a watering pot to demonstrate the imaging performance of the prototype LIDAR system.

  4. a Super Voxel-Based Riemannian Graph for Multi Scale Segmentation of LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minglei

    2018-04-01

    Automatically segmenting LiDAR points into respective independent partitions has become a topic of great importance in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we cast the problem of point cloud segmentation as a graph optimization problem by constructing a Riemannian graph. The scale space of the observed scene is explored by an octree-based over-segmentation with different depths. The over-segmentation produces many super voxels which restrict the structure of the scene and will be used as nodes of the graph. The Kruskal coordinates are used to compute edge weights that are proportional to the geodesic distance between nodes. Then we compute the edge-weight matrix in which the elements reflect the sectional curvatures associated with the geodesic paths between super voxel nodes on the scene surface. The final segmentation results are generated by clustering similar super voxels and cutting off the weak edges in the graph. The performance of this method was evaluated on LiDAR point clouds for both indoor and outdoor scenes. Additionally, extensive comparisons to state of the art techniques show that our algorithm outperforms on many metrics.

  5. Ground-based remote sensing observation of the complex behaviour of the Marseille boundary layer during ESCOMPTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarre, H.; Augustin, P.; Saïd, F.; Campistron, B.; Bénech, B.; Lohou, F.; Puygrenier, V.; Moppert, C.; Cousin, F.; Fréville, P.; Fréjafon, E.

    2005-03-01

    Ground-based remote sensing systems have been used during the ESCOMPTE campaign, to continuously characterize the boundary-layer behaviour through many atmospheric parameters (wind, extinction and ozone concentration distribution, reflectivity, turbulence). This analysis is focused on the comparison of the atmospheric stratification retrieved from a UV angular ozone lidar, an Ultra High Frequency wind profiler and a sodar, above the area of Marseille, on June 26th 2001 (Intensive Observation Period 2b). The atmospheric stratification is shown to be very complex including two superimposed sea breezes, with an important contribution of advection. The temporal and spatial evolution of the stratification observed by the UV lidar and by the UHF radar are in good agreement although the origin of the echoes of these systems is quite different. The complexity of the dynamic situation has only partially been retrieved by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model used with a 3 km resolution.

  6. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Dumas, Arnaud; Rothman, Johan; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Pellegrino, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O) in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  7. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibert Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  8. Lidar 2009 - IMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — ESRI Grids 1 meter resolution are created from the ground classified lidar points. The tiles are delivered in 5,000m by 5,000m tiles. The ESRI grids are exported to...

  9. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-01-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to 7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  10. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  11. An historically consistent and broadly applicable MRV system based on LiDAR sampling and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cohen; H. Andersen; S. Healey; G. Moisen; T. Schroeder; C. Woodall; G. Domke; Z. Yang; S. Stehman; R. Kennedy; C. Woodcock; Z. Zhu; J. Vogelmann; D. Steinwand; C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    The authors are developing a REDD+ MRV system that tests different biomass estimation frameworks and components. Design-based inference from a costly fi eld plot network was compared to sampling with LiDAR strips and a smaller set of plots in combination with Landsat for disturbance monitoring. Biomass estimation uncertainties associated with these different data sets...

  12. Virtual Surveyor based Object Extraction from Airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Ahsan

    Topographic feature detection of land cover from LiDAR data is important in various fields - city planning, disaster response and prevention, soil conservation, infrastructure or forestry. In recent years, feature classification, compliant with Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) methodology has been gaining traction in remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). In OBIA, the LiDAR image is first divided into meaningful segments called object candidates. This results, in addition to spectral values, in a plethora of new information such as aggregated spectral pixel values, morphology, texture, context as well as topology. Traditional nonparametric segmentation methods rely on segmentations at different scales to produce a hierarchy of semantically significant objects. Properly tuned scale parameters are, therefore, imperative in these methods for successful subsequent classification. Recently, some progress has been made in the development of methods for tuning the parameters for automatic segmentation. However, researchers found that it is very difficult to automatically refine the tuning with respect to each object class present in the scene. Moreover, due to the relative complexity of real-world objects, the intra-class heterogeneity is very high, which leads to over-segmentation. Therefore, the method fails to deliver correctly many of the new segment features. In this dissertation, a new hierarchical 3D object segmentation algorithm called Automatic Virtual Surveyor based Object Extracted (AVSOE) is presented. AVSOE segments objects based on their distinct geometric concavity/convexity. This is achieved by strategically mapping the sloping surface, which connects the object to its background. Further analysis produces hierarchical decomposition of objects to its sub-objects at a single scale level. Extensive qualitative and qualitative results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of this hierarchical segmentation approach.

  13. Flood Modeling Using a Synthesis of Multi-Platform LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Csontos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the utility of a high resolution ground-based (mobile and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR dataset (0.2 m point-spacing supplemented with a coarser resolution airborne LiDAR dataset (5 m point-spacing for use in a flood inundation analysis. The techniques for combining multi-platform LiDAR data into a composite dataset in the form of a triangulated irregular network (TIN are described, and quantitative comparisons were made to a TIN generated solely from the airborne LiDAR dataset. For example, a maximum land surface elevation difference of 1.677 m and a mean difference of 0.178 m were calculated between the datasets based on sample points. Utilizing the composite and airborne LiDAR-derived TINs, a flood inundation comparison was completed using a one-dimensional steady flow hydraulic modeling analysis. Quantitative comparisons of the water surface profiles and depth grids indicated an underestimation of flooding extent, volume, and maximum flood height using the airborne LiDAR data alone. A 35% increase in maximum flood height was observed using the composite LiDAR dataset. In addition, the extents of the water surface profiles generated from the two datasets were found to be statistically significantly different. The urban and mountainous characteristics of the study area as well as the density (file size of the high resolution ground based LiDAR data presented both opportunities and challenges for flood modeling analyses.

  14. Airborne LIDAR Power Line Classification Based on Spatial Topological Structure Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Li, K.; Zheng, D.; Fang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic extraction of power lines has become a topic of great importance in airborne LiDAR data processing for transmission line management. In this paper, we present a new, fully automated and versatile framework that consists of four steps: (i) power line candidate point filtering, (ii) neighbourhood selection, (iii) feature extraction based on spatial topology, and (iv) SVM classification. In a detailed evaluation involving seven neighbourhood definitions, 26 geometric features and two datasets, we demonstrated that the use of multi-scale neighbourhoods for individual 3D points significantly improved the power line classification. Additionally, we showed that the spatial topological features may even further improve the results while reducing data processing time.

  15. Geomorphic Map of Worcester County, Maryland, Interpreted from a LIDAR-Based, Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Clark, Inga

    2008-01-01

    A recently compiled mosaic of a LIDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) is presented with geomorphic analysis of new macro-topographic details. The geologic framework of the surficial and near surface late Cenozoic deposits of the central uplands, Pocomoke River valley, and the Atlantic Coast includes Cenozoic to recent sediments from fluvial, estuarine, and littoral depositional environments. Extensive Pleistocene (cold climate) sandy dune fields are deposited over much of the terraced landscape. The macro details from the LIDAR image reveal 2 meter-scale resolution of details of the shapes of individual dunes, and fields of translocated sand sheets. Most terrace surfaces are overprinted with circular to elliptical rimmed basins that represent complex histories of ephemeral ponds that were formed, drained, and overprinted by younger basins. The terrains of composite ephemeral ponds and the dune fields are inter-shingled at their margins indicating contemporaneous erosion, deposition, and re-arrangement and possible internal deformation of the surficial deposits. The aggregate of these landform details and their deposits are interpreted as the products of arid, cold climate processes that were common to the mid-Atlantic region during the Last Glacial Maximum. In the Pocomoke valley and its larger tributaries, erosional remnants of sandy flood plains with anastomosing channels indicate the dynamics of former hydrology and sediment load of the watershed that prevailed at the end of the Pleistocene. As the climate warmed and precipitation increased during the transition from late Pleistocene to Holocene, dune fields were stabilized by vegetation, and the stream discharge increased. The increased discharge and greater local relief of streams graded to lower sea levels stimulated down cutting and created the deeply incised valleys out onto the continental shelf. These incised valleys have been filling with fluvial to intertidal deposits that record the rising sea

  16. Monitoring CO2 Intrusion in shallow aquifer using complex electrical methods and a novel CO2 sensitive Lidar-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, E.; Dafflon, B.; Thorpe, M.; Kreitinger, A.; Laura, D.; Haivala, J.; Peterson, J.; Spangler, L.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    While subsurface storage of CO2 in geological formations offers significant potential to mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gasses, approaches are needed to monitor the efficacy of the strategy as well as possible negative consequences, such as leakage of CO2 or brine into groundwater or release of fugitive gaseous CO2. Groundwater leakages can cause subsequent reactions that may also be deleterious. For example, a release of dissolved CO2 into shallow groundwatersystems can decrease groundwater pH which can potentiallymobilize naturally occurring trace metals and ions. In this perspective, detecting and assessing potential leak requires development of novel monitoring techniques.We present the results of using surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and a novel CO2 sensitive Lidar-based sensor to monitor a controlled CO2 release at the ZeroEmission Research and Technology Center (Bozeman, Montana). Soil temperature and moisture sensors, wellbore water quality measurements as well as chamber-based CO2 flux measurements were used in addition to the ERT and a novel Lidar-based sensor to detect and assess potential leakage into groundwater, vadose zone and atmosphere. The three-week release wascarried out in the vadose and the saturated zones. Well sampling of pH and conductivity and surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations measurements were acquired during the release and are compared with complex electricalresistivity time-lapse measurements. The novel Lidar-based image of the CO2 plume were compared to chamber-based CO2 flux and concentration measurements. While a continuous increase in subsurface ERT and above ground CO2 was documented, joint analysis of the above and below ground data revealed distinct transport behavior in the vadose and saturated zones. Two type of transport were observed, one in the vadoze zone, monitored by CO2 flux chamber and ERT, and the other one in the saturated zone, were ERT and wellsampling were carried. The experiment suggests how

  17. Scanning Raman lidar for tropospheric water vapor profiling and GPS path delay correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniewicz, Jerome; Bock, Olivier; Pelon, Jacques R.; Thom, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The design of a ground based and transportable combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for the remote sensing of lower tropospheric water vapor and nitrogen concentration is described. This lidar is intended to be used for an external calibration of the wet path delay of GPS signals. A description of the method used to derive water vapor and nitrogen profiles in the lower troposphere is given. The instrument has been tested during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June 2001 and first measurements are presented.

  18. Observation and Detection of Underground Cellars in the Duero Basin By GNSS, Lidar and Ground Penetrating Radar Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Conejo Martin, Miguel Angel; Herrero Tejedor, Tomás Ramón; Pérez Martín, Enrique; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Otero García, Jaime; Prieto Morin, Juan Francisco; Velasco Gomez, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The underground cellars that appear in different parts of Spain are part of an agricultural landscape dispersed, sometimes damaged, others at risk of disappearing. This paper studies the measurement and display of a group of wineries located in Atauta (Soria), in the Duero River corridor. It is a unique architectural complex, facing rising, built on a smooth hillock as shown in Fig. 1. These constructions are excavated in the ground. The access to the cave or underground cellar has a shape of...

  19. Diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, S.; Weckwerth, T.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carbone, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating the performance of an eye-safe, low-cost, diode-laser-based, water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler. This class of instrument may be capable of providing continuous water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles at high vertical resolution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for periods of months to years. The technology potentially fills a national long term observing facility gap and could greatly benefit micro- and meso-meteorology, water cycle, carbon cycle and, more generally, biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interaction research at both weather and climate variability time scales. For the evaluation, the Montana State University 3rd generation water vapor DIAL was modified to enable unattended operation for a period of several weeks. The performance of this V3.5 version DIAL was tested at MSU and NCAR in June and July of 2012. Further tests are currently in progress with Howard University at Beltsville, Maryland; and with the National Weather Service and Oklahoma University at Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The presentation will include a comparison of DIAL profiles against meteorological "truth" at the aforementioned locations including: radiosondes, Raman lidars, microwave and IR radiometers, AERONET and SUOMINET systems. Instrument reliability, uncertainty, systematic biases, detection height statistics, and environmental complications will be evaluated. Performance will be judged in the context of diverse scientific applications that range from operational weather prediction and seasonal climate variability, to more demanding climate system process studies at the land-canopy-ABL interface. Estimating the extent to which such research and operational applications can be satisfied with a low cost autonomous network of similar instruments is our principal objective.

  20. Crop 3D-a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua; Wu, Fangfang; Pang, Shuxin; Zhao, Xiaoqian; Chen, Linhai; Liu, Jin; Xue, Baolin; Xu, Guangcai; Li, Le; Jing, Haichun; Chu, Chengcai

    2018-03-01

    With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

  1. Improving correlations between MODIS aerosol optical thickness and ground-based PM 2.5 observations through 3D spatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Faruqui, Shazia J.; Smith, Solar

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) continues to focus on developing methods to improve correlations between satellite-based aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and ground-based, air pollution observations made at continuous ambient monitoring sites (CAMS) operated by the Texas commission on environmental quality (TCEQ). Strong correlations and improved understanding of the relationships between satellite and ground observations are needed to formulate reliable real-time predictions of air quality using data accessed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) at the CSR direct-broadcast ground station. In this paper, improvements in these correlations are demonstrated first as a result of the evolution in the MODIS retrieval algorithms. Further improvement is then shown using procedures that compensate for differences in horizontal spatial scales between the nominal 10-km MODIS AOT products and CAMS point measurements. Finally, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, collected during the Texas Air Quality Study of 2000, are used to examine aerosol profile concentrations, which may vary greatly between aerosol classes as a result of the sources, chemical composition, and meteorological conditions that govern transport processes. Further improvement in correlations is demonstrated with this limited dataset using insights into aerosol profile information inferred from the vertical motion vectors in a trajectory-based forecast model. Analyses are ongoing to verify these procedures on a variety of aerosol classes using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (Calipso) lidar.

  2. 2007 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Anderson County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in 5 sessions, from March 7 to March 9, 2007. The airborne GPS (ABGPS) base stations supporting the LiDAR acquisition...

  3. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  4. VT Lidar-based Aspect, Symbolized, Not Cached, VT State Plane Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ASPECT service (compass direction that a slope faces) derived from various VT Lidar datasets. A pre-defined SYMbology has been applied to the service. VT State Plane...

  5. Atmospheric aerosol load morphological classification and retrieved visibility based on lidar backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tropospheric aerosol load morphological classification and its impact on temporal variation of visibility are investigated using a continuous 23-hour single channel CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurement. The trajectory...

  6. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Plaza-Leiva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM, Gaussian processes (GP, and Gaussian mixture models (GMM. A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl. Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  7. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2017-03-15

    Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN) method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM), Gaussian processes (GP), and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl). Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  8. Lidar data used in the COFIN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Nielsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the Lidar data used in the COFIN project. The Lidar data have been obtained from several ground level dispersion experiments over flat and complex terrain. The method for treating the data and the conditons under which the data wereobtained are described in detail. Finally we...... describe the Tools to extract and visualize the Lidar data. Data, report, and visualisation tools are available on the Risø FTP server....

  9. A comparison of the accuracy of pixel based and object based classifications of integrated optical and LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Agnieszka; Wójtowicz-Nowakowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of pixel based and object based classifications of integrated optical and LiDAR data Land cover maps are generally produced on the basis of high resolution imagery. Recently, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have been brought into use in diverse applications including land cover mapping. In this study we attempted to assess the accuracy of land cover classification using both high resolution aerial imagery and LiDAR data (airborne laser scanning, ALS), testing two classification approaches: a pixel-based classification and object-oriented image analysis (OBIA). The study was conducted on three test areas (3 km2 each) in the administrative area of Kraków, Poland, along the course of the Vistula River. They represent three different dominating land cover types of the Vistula River valley. Test site 1 had a semi-natural vegetation, with riparian forests and shrubs, test site 2 represented a densely built-up area, and test site 3 was an industrial site. Point clouds from ALS and ortophotomaps were both captured in November 2007. Point cloud density was on average 16 pt/m2 and it contained additional information about intensity and encoded RGB values. Ortophotomaps had a spatial resolution of 10 cm. From point clouds two raster maps were generated: intensity (1) and (2) normalised Digital Surface Model (nDSM), both with the spatial resolution of 50 cm. To classify the aerial data, a supervised classification approach was selected. Pixel based classification was carried out in ERDAS Imagine software. Ortophotomaps and intensity and nDSM rasters were used in classification. 15 homogenous training areas representing each cover class were chosen. Classified pixels were clumped to avoid salt and pepper effect. Object oriented image object classification was carried out in eCognition software, which implements both the optical and ALS data. Elevation layers (intensity, firs/last reflection, etc.) were used at segmentation stage due to

  10. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF CLOTH SIMULATION FILTERING ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifying the original point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a key step in LiDAR (light detection and ranging data post-processing. Cloth simulation filtering (CSF algorithm, which based on a physical process, has been validated to be an accurate, automatic and easy-to-use algorithm for airborne LiDAR point cloud. As a new technique of three-dimensional data collection, the mobile laser scanning (MLS has been gradually applied in various fields, such as reconstruction of digital terrain models (DTM, 3D building modeling and forest inventory and management. Compared with airborne LiDAR point cloud, there are some different features (such as point density feature, distribution feature and complexity feature for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Some filtering algorithms for airborne LiDAR data were directly used in mobile LiDAR point cloud, but it did not give satisfactory results. In this paper, we explore the ability of the CSF algorithm for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Three samples with different shape of the terrain are selected to test the performance of this algorithm, which respectively yields total errors of 0.44 %, 0.77 % and1.20 %. Additionally, large area dataset is also tested to further validate the effectiveness of this algorithm, and results show that it can quickly and accurately separate point clouds into ground and non-ground points. In summary, this algorithm is efficient and reliable for mobile LiDAR point cloud.

  11. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 μm measurements [Winker et al., 2009

  12. Measurements of CO2 Column Abundance in the Low Atmosphere Using Ground Based 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are believed to produce the largest radiative forcing for the current climate system. Accurate predictions of atmospheric CO2 concentration rely on the knowledge of its sinks and sources, transports, and its variability with time. Although this knowledge is currently unsatisfactory, numerical models use it as a way in simulating CO2 fluxes. Validating and improving the global atmospheric transport model, therefore, requires precise measurement of the CO2 concentration profile. There are two further variations on Lidar: the differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) and the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) Lidar. DIAL/IPDA are basically for profile/total column measurement, respectively. IPDA is a special case of DIAL and can measure the total column-averaged mixing ratio of trace gases using return signals from the Earth's surface or from thick clouds based on an airborne or a satellite. We have developed a ground based 1.6 μm DIAL to measure vertical CO2 mixing ratio profiles from 0.4 to 2.5 km altitude. The goals of the CO2 DIAL are to produce atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements with much smaller seasonal and diurnal biases from the ground surface. But, in the ground based lidar, return signals from around ground surface are usually suppressed in order to handle the large dynamic range. To receive the return signals as near as possible from ground surface, namely, the field of view (FOV) of the telescope must be wide enough to reduce the blind range of the lidar. While the return signals from the far distance are very weak, to enhance the sensitivity and heighten the detecting distance, the FOV must be narrow enough to suppress the sky background light, especially during the daytime measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a total column measurement method from the ground surface to 0.4 km altitude. Instead of strong signals from thick clouds such as the IPDA, the proposed method uses

  13. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  14. Target 3-D reconstruction of streak tube imaging lidar based on Gaussian fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingyu; Niu, Lihong; Hu, Cuichun; Wu, Lei; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Streak images obtained by the streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) contain the distance-azimuth-intensity information of a scanned target, and a 3-D reconstruction of the target can be carried out through extracting the characteristic data of multiple streak images. Significant errors will be caused in the reconstruction result by the peak detection method due to noise and other factors. So as to get a more precise 3-D reconstruction, a peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting of trust region is proposed in this work. Gaussian modeling is performed on the returned wave of single time channel of each frame, then the modeling result which can effectively reduce the noise interference and possesses a unique peak could be taken as the new returned waveform, lastly extracting its feature data through peak detection. The experimental data of aerial target is for verifying this method. This work shows that the peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting reduces the extraction error of the feature data to less than 10%; utilizing this method to extract the feature data and reconstruct the target make it possible to realize the spatial resolution with a minimum 30 cm in the depth direction, and improve the 3-D imaging accuracy of the STIL concurrently.

  15. Detectability of CO2 Flux Signals by a Space-Based Lidar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for improving our quantitative understanding of the carbon cycle. Prospective observations include those from space-based lidar such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Here we explore the ability of such a mission to detect regional changes in CO2 fluxes. We investigate these using three prototypical case studies, namely the thawing of permafrost in the Northern High Latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China, and changes in the source-sink characteristics of the Southern Ocean. These three scenarios were used to design signal detection studies to investigate the ability to detect the unfolding of these scenarios compared to a baseline scenario. Results indicate that the ASCENDS mission could detect the types of signals investigated in this study, with the caveat that the study is based on some simplifying assumptions. The permafrost thawing flux perturbation is readily detectable at a high level of significance. The fossil fuel emission detectability is directly related to the strength of the signal and the level of measurement noise. For a nominal (lower) fossil fuel emission signal, only the idealized noise-free instrument test case produces a clearly detectable signal, while experiments with more realistic noise levels capture the signal only in the higher (exaggerated) signal case. For the Southern Ocean scenario, differences due to the natural variability in the ENSO climatic mode are primarily detectable as a zonal increase.

  16. Landslides Mapped from LIDAR Imagery, Kitsap County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Jonathan P.; Lidke, David J.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides are a recurring problem on hillslopes throughout the Puget Lowland, Washington, but can be difficult to identify in the densely forested terrain. However, digital terrain models of the bare-earth surface derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data express topographic details sufficiently well to identify landslides. Landslides and escarpments were mapped using LIDAR imagery and field checked (when permissible and accessible) throughout Kitsap County. We relied almost entirely on derivatives of LIDAR data for our mapping, including topographic-contour, slope, and hill-shaded relief maps. Each mapped landslide was assigned a level of 'high' or 'moderate' confidence based on the LIDAR characteristics and on field observations. A total of 231 landslides were identified representing 0.8 percent of the land area of Kitsap County. Shallow debris topples along the coastal bluffs and large (>10,000 m2) landslide complexes are the most common types of landslides. The smallest deposit mapped covers an area of 252 m2, while the largest covers 0.5 km2. Previous mapping efforts that relied solely on field and photogrammetric methods identified only 57 percent of the landslides mapped by LIDAR (61 percent high confidence and 39 percent moderate confidence), although nine landslides previously identified were not mapped during this study. The remaining 43 percent identified using LIDAR have 13 percent high confidence and 87 percent moderate confidence. Coastal areas are especially susceptible to landsliding; 67 percent of the landslide area that we mapped lies within 500 meters of the present coastline. The remaining 33 percent are located along drainages farther inland. The LIDAR data we used for mapping have some limitations including (1) rounding of the interface area between low slope surfaces and vertical faces (that is, along the edges of steep escarpments) which results in scarps being mapped too far headward (one or two meters), (2) incorrect laser

  17. A Graph-Based Approach for 3D Building Model Reconstruction from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D building model reconstruction is of great importance for environmental and urban applications. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR is a very useful data source for acquiring detailed geometric and topological information of building objects. In this study, we employed a graph-based method based on hierarchical structure analysis of building contours derived from LiDAR data to reconstruct urban building models. The proposed approach first uses a graph theory-based localized contour tree method to represent the topological structure of buildings, then separates the buildings into different parts by analyzing their topological relationships, and finally reconstructs the building model by integrating all the individual models established through the bipartite graph matching process. Our approach provides a more complete topological and geometrical description of building contours than existing approaches. We evaluated the proposed method by applying it to the Lujiazui region in Shanghai, China, a complex and large urban scene with various types of buildings. The results revealed that complex buildings could be reconstructed successfully with a mean modeling error of 0.32 m. Our proposed method offers a promising solution for 3D building model reconstruction from airborne LiDAR point clouds.

  18. UAV Inspection of Electrical Transmission Infrastructure with Path Conformance Autonomy and Lidar-Based Geofences NASA Report on UTM Reference Mission Flights at Southern Company Flights November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Rymer, Nicholas; Balachandran, Swee; Consiglio, Maria; Munoz, Cesar; Smith, Joshua; Lewis, Dexter; Schneider, Paul

    2017-01-01

    sensing capability of a novel airborne UV detector was verified with a standard ground-based instrument. Flights with this sensor showed that UAV measurement operations and recording methods are viable. With improved sensor range, UAVs equipped with compact UV sensors could serve as the detection elements in a self-diagnosing power grid. (3) Simplification of rich lidar maps to polyhedral obstacle maps reduces data volume by orders of magnitude, so that computation with the resultant maps in real time is possible. This enables real-time obstacle avoidance autonomy. Stable navigation may be feasible in the GPS-deprived environment near transmission lines by a UAV that senses ground structures and compares them to these simplified maps. (4) A new, formally verified path conformance software system that runs onboard a UAV was demonstrated in flight for the first time. It successfully maneuvered the aircraft after a sudden lateral perturbation that models a gust of wind, and processed lidar-derived polyhedral obstacle maps in real time. (5) Tracking of the UAV in the national airspace using the NASA UTM technology was a key safety component of this reference mission, since the flights were conducted beneath the landing approach to a heavily used runway. Comparison to autopilot tracking showed that UTM tracking accurately records the UAV position throughout the flight path.

  19. UV Lidar Receiver Analysis for Tropospheric Sensing of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of a ground based Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) receiver system was performed under realistic daytime conditions to understand how range and lidar performance can be improved for a given UV pulse laser energy. Calculations were also performed for an aerosol channel transmitting at 3 W. The lidar receiver simulation studies were optimized for the purpose of tropospheric ozone measurements. The transmitted lidar UV measurements were from 285 to 295 nm and the aerosol channel was 527-nm. The calculations are based on atmospheric transmission given by the HITRAN database and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological data. The aerosol attenuation is estimated using both the BACKSCAT 4.0 code as well as data collected during the CALIPSO mission. The lidar performance is estimated for both diffuseirradiance free cases corresponding to nighttime operation as well as the daytime diffuse scattered radiation component based on previously reported experimental data. This analysis presets calculations of the UV-DIAL receiver ozone and aerosol measurement range as a function of sky irradiance, filter bandwidth and laser transmitted UV and 527-nm energy

  20. Progress on Development of an Airborne Two-Micron IPDA Lidar for Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Welters, Angela M.; Remus, Ruben G.; Wong, Teh-Hwa; hide

    2014-01-01

    An airborne 2 micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This lidar targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements, simultaneously. Advancements in the development of this IPDA lidar are presented in this paper. Updates on advanced two-micron triple-pulse high-energy laser transmitter will be given including packaging and lidar integration status. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented. This includes a state-of-the-art detection system integrated at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This detection system is based on a newly developed HgCdTe (MCT) electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) array. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be discussed.

  1. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.

  2. Detection scheme for a partially occluded pedestrian based on occluded depth in lidar-radar sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seong Kyung; Hyun, Eugin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jonghun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2017-11-01

    Object detections are critical technologies for the safety of pedestrians and drivers in autonomous vehicles. Above all, occluded pedestrian detection is still a challenging topic. We propose a new detection scheme for occluded pedestrian detection by means of lidar-radar sensor fusion. In the proposed method, the lidar and radar regions of interest (RoIs) have been selected based on the respective sensor measurement. Occluded depth is a new means to determine whether an occluded target exists or not. The occluded depth is a region projected out by expanding the longitudinal distance with maintaining the angle formed by the outermost two end points of the lidar RoI. The occlusion RoI is the overlapped region made by superimposing the radar RoI and the occluded depth. The object within the occlusion RoI is detected by the radar measurement information and the occluded object is estimated as a pedestrian based on human Doppler distribution. Additionally, various experiments are performed in detecting a partially occluded pedestrian in outdoor as well as indoor environments. According to experimental results, the proposed sensor fusion scheme has much better detection performance compared to the case without our proposed method.

  3. Unsupervised classification of lidar-based vegetation structure metrics at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Christine J.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Woodman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Traditional vegetation maps capture the horizontal distribution of various vegetation properties, for example, type, species and age/senescence, across a landscape. Ecologists have long known, however, that many important forest properties, for example, interior microclimate, carbon capacity, biomass and habitat suitability, are also dependent on the vertical arrangement of branches and leaves within tree canopies. The objective of this study was to use a digital elevation model (DEM) along with tree canopy-structure metrics derived from a lidar survey conducted using the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) to capture a three-dimensional view of vegetation communities in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana. The EAARL instrument is a raster-scanning, full waveform-resolving, small-footprint, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar system designed to map coastal bathymetry, topography and vegetation structure simultaneously. An unsupervised clustering procedure was then applied to the 3-dimensional-based metrics and DEM to produce a vegetation map based on the vertical structure of the park's vegetation, which includes a flotant marsh, scrub-shrub wetland, bottomland hardwood forest, and baldcypress-tupelo swamp forest. This study was completed in collaboration with the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program's Gulf Coast Network. The methods presented herein are intended to be used as part of a cost-effective monitoring tool to capture change in park resources.

  4. Incremental and Enhanced Scanline-Based Segmentation Method for Surface Reconstruction of Sparse LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation of point clouds is an important aspect of automated processing tasks such as semantic extraction. However, the sparsity and non-uniformity of the point clouds gathered by the popular 3D mobile LiDAR devices pose many challenges for existing segmentation methods. To improve the segmentation results of point clouds from mobile LiDAR devices, we propose an optimized segmentation method based on Scanline Continuity Constraint (SLCC in this work. Unlike conventional scanline-based segmentation methods, SLCC clusters scanlines using the continuity constraints in terms of the distance as well as the direction of two consecutive points. In addition, scanline clusters are agglomerated not only into primitive geometrical shapes but also irregular shapes. Another downside to existing segmentation methods is that they are not capable of incremental processing. This causes unnecessary memory and time consumption for applications that require frame-wise segmentation or when new point clouds are added. In order to address this, we propose an incremental scheme—the Incremental Recursive Segmentation (IRIS, that can be easily applied to any segmentation method. IRIS is achieved by combining the segments of newly added point clouds and the previously segmented results. Furthermore, as an example application, we construct a processing pipeline consisting of plane fitting and surface reconstruction using the segmentation results. Finally, we evaluate the proposed methods on three datasets acquired from a handheld Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR device. The experimental results verify the efficiency of IRIS for any segmentation method and the advantages of SLCC for processing mobile LiDAR data.

  5. Forest Canopy LAI and Vertical FAVD Profile Inversion from Airborne Full-Waveform LiDAR Data Based on a Radiative Transfer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy leaf area index (LAI is a critical variable for the modeling of climates and ecosystems over both regional and global scales. This paper proposes a physically based method to retrieve LAI and foliage area volume density (FAVD profile directly from full-waveform Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data using a radiative transfer (RT model. First, a physical interaction model between LiDAR and a forest scene was built on the basis of radiative transfer theories. Next, FAVD profile of each laser shot of full-waveform LiDAR was inverted using the physical model. In addition, the missing LiDAR data, caused by high-density forest and LiDAR system limitations, were filled in based on the inverted FAVD and the ancillary CHM data. Finally, LAI of the study area was retrieved from the inverted FAVD at a 10-m resolution. CHM derived LAI based on the Beer-Lambert law was compared with the LAI derived from full-waveform data. Also, we compared the results with the field measured LAI. The values of correlation coefficient r and RMSE of the estimated LAI were 0.73 and 0.67, respectively. The results indicate that full-waveform LiDAR data is a reliable data source and represent a useful tool for retrieving forest LAI.

  6. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  7. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  8. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  9. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  10. Knowledge Based 3d Building Model Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks from LIDAR and Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of the high resolution data acquisition technologies, many different approaches and algorithms have been presented to extract the accurate and timely updated 3D models of buildings as a key element of city structures for numerous applications in urban mapping. In this paper, a novel and model-based approach is proposed for automatic recognition of buildings' roof models such as flat, gable, hip, and pyramid hip roof models based on deep structures for hierarchical learning of features that are extracted from both LiDAR and aerial ortho-photos. The main steps of this approach include building segmentation, feature extraction and learning, and finally building roof labeling in a supervised pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) framework to have an automatic recognition system for various types of buildings over an urban area. In this framework, the height information provides invariant geometric features for convolutional neural network to localize the boundary of each individual roofs. CNN is a kind of feed-forward neural network with the multilayer perceptron concept which consists of a number of convolutional and subsampling layers in an adaptable structure and it is widely used in pattern recognition and object detection application. Since the training dataset is a small library of labeled models for different shapes of roofs, the computation time of learning can be decreased significantly using the pre-trained models. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the deep learning approach to detect and extract the pattern of buildings' roofs automatically considering the complementary nature of height and RGB information.

  11. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  12. Ground-based measurements of ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Daniel; Chum, Jaroslav

    2018-05-01

    Different methods are used to research and monitor the ionospheric dynamics using ground measurements: Digisonde Drift Measurements (DDM) and Continuous Doppler Sounding (CDS). For the first time, we present comparison between both methods on specific examples. Both methods provide information about the vertical drift velocity component. The DDM provides more information about the drift velocity vector and detected reflection points. However, the method is limited by the relatively low time resolution. In contrast, the strength of CDS is its high time resolution. The discussed methods can be used for real-time monitoring of medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances. We conclude that it is advantageous to use both methods simultaneously if possible. The CDS is then applied for the disturbance detection and analysis, and the DDM is applied for the reflection height control.

  13. RESEARCH ON VISUALIZATION OF GROUND LASER RADAR DATA BASED ON OSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  14. Research on Visualization of Ground Laser Radar Data Based on Osg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Hu, C.; Zhang, F.; Xue, H.

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG) is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  15. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  16. Observation of Asian dust properties by using multi-wavelength LIDAR system at anmyeon island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Chul; Ko, Do Kyeoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Joon; Noh, Young Min

    2004-01-01

    The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio

  17. Wind turbine improvements by wind-lidar-based preview and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines equipped with laser prevision hold potential for up to 6+ years lifetime extension. Forward looking wind lidars integrated within operational wind turbines providing feed-forward control can reduce the daily operation loads. The turbine lifetime may in this way be extended by up to 30...

  18. Pointing Knowledge for SPARCLE and Space-Based Doppler Wind Lidars in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Miller, T.; Spiers, G.

    1999-01-01

    The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) will fly on a space shuttle to demonstrate the use of a coherent Doppler wind lidar to accurately measure global tropospheric winds. To achieve the LOS (Line of Sight) accuracy goal of approx. m/s, the lidar system must be able to account for the orbiter's velocity (approx. 7750 m/s) and the rotational component of the earth's surface motion (approx. 450 m/s). For SPARCLE this requires knowledge of the attitude (roll, pitch and yaw) of the laser beam axis within an accuracy of 80 microradians. (approx. 15 arcsec). Since SPARCLE can not use a dedicated star tracker from its earth-viewing orbiter bay location, a dedicated GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System) will be attached to the lidar instrument rack. Since even the GPS/INS has unacceptable drifts in attitude information, the SPARCLE team has developed a way to periodically scan the instrument itself to obtain less than 10 microradian (2 arcsec) attitude knowledge accuracy that can then be used to correct the GPS/INS output on a 30 minute basis.

  19. Space based lidar shot pattern targeting strategies for small targets such as streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of four different types of lidar shot distribution is conducted to determine which is best for concentrating shots in a given location. A simple preemptive targeting strategy is found to work as adequately as a more involved dynamic strategy for most target sizes considered.

  20. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Babcock; Andrew O. Finley; John B. Bradford; Randy Kolka; Richard Birdsey; Michael G. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both...

  1. Mapping snags and understory shrubs for LiDAR based assessment of wildlife habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; Lee A. Vierling; William A. Gould; Michael J. Falkowski; Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak; Kerri T. Vierling

    2009-01-01

    The lack of maps depicting forest three-dimensional structure, particularly as pertaining to snags and understory shrub species distribution, is a major limitation for managing wildlife habitat in forests. Developing new techniques to remotely map snags and understory shrubs is therefore an important need. To address this, we first evaluated the use of LiDAR data for...

  2. The e-Beam Sustained Laser Technology for Space-based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. J.; Holman, W.; Robinson, R. J.; Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Wallace, S.; Harris, M. R.; Willetts, D. V.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of GEC Avionics activities relating to the Spaceborne Doppler Wind Lidar. In particular, the results of design studies into the use of an e-beam sustained CO2 laser for spaceborne applications, and experimental work on a test bed system are discussed.

  3. A generalized adaptive mathematical morphological filter for LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zheng

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology has become the primary method to derive high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), which are essential for studying Earth's surface processes, such as flooding and landslides. The critical step in generating a DTM is to separate ground and non-ground measurements in a voluminous point LIDAR dataset, using a filter, because the DTM is created by interpolating ground points. As one of widely used filtering methods, the progressive morphological (PM) filter has the advantages of classifying the LIDAR data at the point level, a linear computational complexity, and preserving the geometric shapes of terrain features. The filter works well in an urban setting with a gentle slope and a mixture of vegetation and buildings. However, the PM filter often removes ground measurements incorrectly at the topographic high area, along with large sizes of non-ground objects, because it uses a constant threshold slope, resulting in "cut-off" errors. A novel cluster analysis method was developed in this study and incorporated into the PM filter to prevent the removal of the ground measurements at topographic highs. Furthermore, to obtain the optimal filtering results for an area with undulating terrain, a trend analysis method was developed to adaptively estimate the slope-related thresholds of the PM filter based on changes of topographic slopes and the characteristics of non-terrain objects. The comparison of the PM and generalized adaptive PM (GAPM) filters for selected study areas indicates that the GAPM filter preserves the most "cut-off" points removed incorrectly by the PM filter. The application of the GAPM filter to seven ISPRS benchmark datasets shows that the GAPM filter reduces the filtering error by 20% on average, compared with the method used by the popular commercial software TerraScan. The combination of the cluster method, adaptive trend analysis, and the PM filter allows users without much experience in

  4. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  5. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

    2011-10-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  6. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the results from phase 2 of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase two of the project included two measurement campaigns conducted at given sites. The purpose was to find out if the lidar-to-lidar calibration procedure can be conducted with similar results...

  7. Object-Based Canopy Gap Segmentation and Classification: Quantifying the Pros and Cons of Integrating Optical and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delineating canopy gaps and quantifying gap characteristics (e.g., size, shape, and dynamics are essential for understanding regeneration dynamics and understory species diversity in structurally complex forests. Both high spatial resolution optical and light detection and ranging (LiDAR remote sensing data have been used to identify canopy gaps through object-based image analysis, but few studies have quantified the pros and cons of integrating optical and LiDAR for image segmentation and classification. In this study, we investigate whether the synergistic use of optical and LiDAR data improves segmentation quality and classification accuracy. The segmentation results indicate that the LiDAR-based segmentation best delineates canopy gaps, compared to segmentation with optical data alone, and even the integration of optical and LiDAR data. In contrast, the synergistic use of two datasets provides higher classification accuracy than the independent use of optical or LiDAR (overall accuracy of 80.28% ± 6.16% vs. 68.54% ± 9.03% and 64.51% ± 11.32%, separately. High correlations between segmentation quality and object-based classification accuracy indicate that classification accuracy is largely dependent on segmentation quality in the selected experimental area. The outcome of this study provides valuable insights of the usefulness of data integration into segmentation and classification not only for canopy gap identification but also for many other object-based applications.

  8. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents a feasibility study of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase one of the project was conducted at Høvsøre, Denmark. Two windcubes were placed next to the 116m met mast and different methods were applied to obtain the sensing height error of the lidars. The purpose...... is to find the most consistent method and use it in a potential lidar to lidar calibration procedure....

  9. Efficient all solid-state UV source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2003-07-01

    A satellite-based UV-DIAL measurement system would allow continuous global monitoring of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. However such systems remain difficult to implement because aerosol-scattering return signals for satellite-based lidars are very weak. A suitable system must produce high-energy UV pulses at multiple wavelengths with very high efficiency. For example, a nanosecond system operating at 10 Hz must generate approximately 1 J per pulse at 308-320 nm. An efficient space-qualified wavelength-agile system based on a single UV source that can meet this requirement is probably not available using current laser technology. As an alternative, we're pursuing a multi-source approach employing all-solid-state modules that individually generate 300-320 nm light with pulse energies in the range of 50-200 mJ, with transform-limited bandwidths and good beam quality. Pulses from the individual sources can be incoherently summed to obtain the required single-pulse energy. These sources use sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm second harmonic of an Nd:YAG pump laser with 731-803 nm light derived from a recently-developed, state-of-the-art, nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. Two source configurations are under development, one using extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing, and the other intra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. In either configuration, we hope to obtain sum-frequency mixing efficiency approaching 60% by carefully matching the spatial and temporal properties of the laser and OPO pulses. This ideal balance of green and near-IR photons requires an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pump-laser with very high beam quality, and an OPO exhibiting unusually high conversion efficiency and exceptional signal beam quality. The OPO employs a singly-resonant high-Fresnel-number image-rotating self-injection-seeded nonplanar-ring cavity that achieves pump depletion > 65% and produces signal beams with M{sup 2} {approx} 3 at pulse energies exceeding 50 mJ. Pump beam

  10. Registration of airborne LiDAR data and aerial images based on straight lines and POS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quanye; Xu, Biao; Cao, Hui

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a registration method which based on straight lines primitive. Firstly, 2D straight lines are extracted from aerial images using Canny operator and straight line fitting. In the similar way, 3D straight lines are extracted from LiDAR range images which derive from laser scanning point cloud. Secondly, 3D straight lines are projected to aerial images using collinearity equations and Position and Orientation System (POS) data. Then the corresponding lines are determined by straight line error. At last, each image's new exterior orientation elements are calculated by generalized point (straight line) photogrammetry.

  11. Identification of Critical Design Points for the EAP of a Space-based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of making tropospheric wind measurements with a space-based Doppler lidar was studied by a number of agencies over the past 10-15 years. Currently NASA has a plan to launch such an instrument, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), within the next decade. The design of the LAWS continues to undergo a series of iterations common to most instruments targeted for a space platform. In general, the constraints of available platform power, weight allowance, and project funds continue to change. With these changes the performance and design specifications also must change.

  12. Study of ocean red tide multi-parameter monitoring technology based on double-wavelength airborne lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Xinming; Liang, Kun

    2010-10-01

    For monitoring and forecasting of the ocean red tide in real time, a marine environment monitoring technology based on the double-wavelength airborne lidar system is proposed. An airborne lidar is father more efficient than the traditional measure technology by the boat. At the same time, this technology can detect multi-parameter about the ocean red tide by using the double-wavelength lidar.It not only can use the infrared laser to detect the scattering signal under the water and gain the information about the red tise's density and size, but also can use the blue-green laser to detect the Brillouin scattering signal and deduce the temperature and salinity of the seawater.The red tide's density detecting model is firstly established by introducing the concept about the red tide scattering coefficient based on the Mie scattering theory. From the Brillouin scattering theory, the relationship about the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value with the seawater temperature and salinity is found. Then, the detecting mode1 of the saewater temperature and salinity can be established. The value of the red tide infrared scattering signal is evaluated by the simulation, and therefore the red tide particles' density can be known. At the same time, the blue-green laser's Brillouin scattering frequency shift value and power value are evaluated by simulating, and the temperature and salinity of the seawater can be known. Baed on the multi-parameters, the ocean red tide's growth can be monitored and forecasted.

  13. A multiscale curvature algorithm for classifying discrete return LiDAR in forested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak

    2007-01-01

    One prerequisite to the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) across disciplines is differentiating ground from nonground returns. The objective was to automatically and objectively classify points within unclassified LiDAR point clouds, with few model parameters and minimal postprocessing. Presented is an automated method for classifying LiDAR returns as ground...

  14. Comparative study of the performance of semiconductor laser based coherent Doppler lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Coherent Doppler Lidars (CDLs), operating at an eye-safe 1.5-micron wavelength, have found promising applications in the optimization of wind-power production. To meet the wind-energy sector's impending demand for more cost-efficient industrial sensors, we have focused on the development of conti......Coherent Doppler Lidars (CDLs), operating at an eye-safe 1.5-micron wavelength, have found promising applications in the optimization of wind-power production. To meet the wind-energy sector's impending demand for more cost-efficient industrial sensors, we have focused on the development...... of continuous-wave CDL systems using compact, inexpensive semiconductor laser (SL) sources. In this work, we compare the performance of two candidate emitters for an allsemiconductor CDL system: (1) a monolithic master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) SL and (2) an external-cavity tapered diode laser (ECTDL)....

  15. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  16. Lidar-based reconstruction of wind fields and application for wind turbine control

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis horizontal, upwind scanning lidar systems of the focused continuous-wave type are regarded for wind turbines. The theory of wind field reconstruction is extended to a five parameter model describing the inflow in non-uniform conditions more accurately. Sensor requirements are derived. A new approach to spherically scan the inflow area is studied experimentally. Expected inaccuracies of the averaged wind direction signal in a wind farm environment are quantified and spatial inho...

  17. Development of Fluorescence Imaging Lidar for Boat-Based Coral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescence imaging lidar system installed in a boat-towable buoy has been developed for the observation of reef-building corals. Long-range fluorescent images of the sea bed can be recorded in the daytime with this system. The viability of corals is clear in these fluorescent images because of the innate fluorescent proteins. In this study, the specifications and performance of the system are shown.

  18. SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

  19. Towards lidar-based mapping of tree age at the Arctic forest tundra ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J.; Maguire, A.; Oelkers, R.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Boelman, N.; D'Arrigo, R.; Griffin, K. L.; Jennewein, J. S.; Hiers, E.; Meddens, A. J.; Russell, M.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change may cause spatial shifts in the forest-tundra ecotone (FTE). To improve our ability to study these spatial shifts, information on tree demography along the FTE is needed. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of lidar derived tree heights as a surrogate for tree age. We calculated individual tree age from 48 tree cores collected at basal height from white spruce (Picea glauca) within the FTE in northern Alaska. Tree height was obtained from terrestrial lidar scans (= 3 m), yielding strong predictive relationships between height and age (R2 = 0.86, RMSE 12.21 years, and R2 = 0.93, RMSE = 25.16 years, respectively). The slope coefficient for small and large tree models (16.83 and 12.98 years/m, respectively) indicate that small trees grow 1.3 times faster than large trees at these FTE study sites. Although a strong, predictive relationship between age and height is uncommon in light-limited forest environments, our findings suggest that the sparseness of trees within the FTE may explain the strong tree height-age relationships found herein. Further analysis of 36 additional tree cores recently collected within the FTE near Inuvik, Canada will be performed. Our preliminary analysis suggests that lidar derived tree height could be a reliable proxy for tree age at the FTE, thereby establishing a new technique for scaling tree structure and demographics across larger portions of this sensitive ecotone.

  20. Lidar-measurement of the atmospheric aerosols' extinction based on the field study SAMUM-1; Lidar-Messung der Extinktion des atmosphaerischen Aerosols am Beispiel der Feldstudie SAMUM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esselborn, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of this thesis a high-resolution spectral LIDAR (HSRL) was used for the field study SAMUM during May/June 2006 and January/February 2008 on board of the research aircraft Falcon. The intensity of the LIDAR signals are mainly influences by backscattering and extinction of atmospheric particles (aerosols). Using a narrow-band optical filter the HSRL allows the measurement of the molecular backscattering besides the total atmospheric backscattering. During SAMUM-1 the optical properties of the Sahara dust aerosols were measured for the first time, esp. its extinction, the ratio extinction/backscattering and the depolarization close to the source region. The results of the optical density of the aerosols were compared with satellite-based data. South of the Atlas-mountains optical aerosol densities in the range of 0.50 to 0.60 were measured.

  1. Lidar-measurement of the atmospheric aerosols' extinction based on the field study SAMUM-1; Lidar-Messung der Extinktion des atmosphaerischen Aerosols am Beispiel der Feldstudie SAMUM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esselborn, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of this thesis a high-resolution spectral LIDAR (HSRL) was used for the field study SAMUM during May/June 2006 and January/February 2008 on board of the research aircraft Falcon. The intensity of the LIDAR signals are mainly influences by backscattering and extinction of atmospheric particles (aerosols). Using a narrow-band optical filter the HSRL allows the measurement of the molecular backscattering besides the total atmospheric backscattering. During SAMUM-1 the optical properties of the Sahara dust aerosols were measured for the first time, esp. its extinction, the ratio extinction/backscattering and the depolarization close to the source region. The results of the optical density of the aerosols were compared with satellite-based data. South of the Atlas-mountains optical aerosol densities in the range of 0.50 to 0.60 were measured.

  2. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  3. Noise reduction in Lidar signal using correlation-based EMD combined with soft thresholding and roughness penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhua; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Hongxu; Xu, Fan; Liu, Binggang; Yang, Zhenbo

    2018-01-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is widely used to analyze the non-linear and non-stationary signals for noise reduction. In this study, a novel EMD-based denoising method, referred to as EMD with soft thresholding and roughness penalty (EMD-STRP), is proposed for the Lidar signal denoising. With the proposed method, the relevant and irrelevant intrinsic mode functions are first distinguished via a correlation coefficient. Then, the soft thresholding technique is applied to the irrelevant modes, and the roughness penalty technique is applied to the relevant modes to extract as much information as possible. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated using three typical signals contaminated by white Gaussian noise. The denoising performance was then compared to the denoising capabilities of other techniques, such as correlation-based EMD partial reconstruction, correlation-based EMD hard thresholding, and wavelet transform. The use of EMD-STRP on the measured Lidar signal resulted in the noise being efficiently suppressed, with an improved signal to noise ratio of 22.25 dB and an extended detection range of 11 km.

  4. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  5. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) From Space - Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or lidar, is like radar but atoptical wavelengths. The principle of operation and theirapplications in remote sensing are similar. Lidars havemany advantages over radars in instrument designs andapplications because of the much shorter laser wavelengthsand narrower beams. The lidar transmitters and receiveroptics are much smaller than radar antenna dishes. Thespatial resolution of lidar measurement is much finer thanthat of radar because of the much smaller footprint size onground. Lidar measurements usually give a better temporalresolution because the laser pulses can be much narrowerthan radio frequency (RF) signals. The major limitation oflidar is the ability to penetrate clouds and ground surfaces.

  6. The COROT ground-based archive and access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; González-Riestra, R.; Catala, C.; Baglin, A.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the COROT ground-based archive and access system is presented here. The system has been developed at LAEFF and it is based on the experience gained at Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental (LAEFF) with the INES (IUE Newly Extracted System) Archive.

  7. INTERACT-II campaign:comparison of commercial lidars and ceilometers with advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Vande Hey, Joshua; Zheng, Yunhui; Vaisala Team

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of aerosol spatio-temporal distribution in troposphere is essential for the study of climate and air quality. For this purpose, global scale high resolution continuous measurements of tropospheric aerosols are needed. Global coverage high resolution networks of ground-based low-cost and low-maintenance remote sensing instruments, such as commercial automatic lidars and ceilometers, can strongly contribute to this scientific mission. Therefore, it is very interesting for scientific community to understand to which extent these instruments are able to provide reliable aerosol measurements and fill in the geographical gaps of existing networks of the advanced lidars, like EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork). The INTERACT-II (INTERcomparison of Aerosol and Cloud Tracking) campaign, carried out at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory) in Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy (760m a.s.l., 40.60°N, 15.72°E), aims to evaluate the performances of commercial automatic lidars and ceilometers for tropospheric aerosol profiling. The campaign has been performed in the period from July 2016 to January 2017 in the framework of ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol Clouds Trace gases Research InfraStructure) H2020 research infrastructure project. Besides the commercial ceilometers operational at CIAO (VAISALA CT25K and Luftt CHM15k), the performance of a CL51 VAISALA ceilometer, a Campbell CS135 ceilometer and a mini-Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) have been assessed using the EARLINET multi-wavelengths Raman lidars operative at CIAO as reference. Following a similar approach used in the first INTERACT campaign (Madonna et al., AMT 2015), attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles and signals obtained from all the instruments have been compared, over a vertical resolution of 60 meters and a temporal integration ranging between 1 and 2 hours, depending on the observed atmospheric scenario. CIAO lidars signals have been processed using the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) also with the

  8. Challenges and opportunities : One stop processing of automatic large-scale base map production using airborne lidar data within gis environment case study: Makassar City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR data acquisition is recognized as one of the fastest solutions to provide basis data for large-scale topographical base maps worldwide. Automatic LiDAR processing is believed one possible scheme to accelerate the large-scale topographic base map provision by the Geospatial Information

  9. Lidar Cloud Detection with Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, E.; Flynn, D.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical distribution of clouds from active remote sensing instrumentation is a widely used data product from global atmospheric measuring sites. The presence of clouds can be expressed as a binary cloud mask and is a primary input for climate modeling efforts and cloud formation studies. Current cloud detection algorithms producing these masks do not accurately identify the cloud boundaries and tend to oversample or over-represent the cloud. This translates as uncertainty for assessing the radiative impact of clouds and tracking changes in cloud climatologies. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has over 20 years of micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) instrument data and companion automated cloud mask product at the mid-latitude Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the polar North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory. Using this data, we train a fully convolutional network (FCN) with semi-supervised learning to segment lidar imagery into geometric time-height cloud locations for the SGP site and MPL instrument. We then use transfer learning to train a FCN for (1) the MPL instrument at the NSA site and (2) for the HSRL. In our semi-supervised approach, we pre-train the classification layers of the FCN with weakly labeled lidar data. Then, we facilitate end-to-end unsupervised pre-training and transition to fully supervised learning with ground truth labeled data. Our goal is to improve the cloud mask accuracy and precision for the MPL instrument to 95% and 80%, respectively, compared to the current cloud mask algorithms of 89% and 50%. For the transfer learning based FCN for the HSRL instrument, our goal is to achieve a cloud mask accuracy of 90% and a precision of 80%.

  10. Impact of varying lidar measurement and data processing techniques in evaluating cirrus cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-03-01

    In the past 2 decades, ground-based lidar networks have drastically increased in scope and relevance, thanks primarily to the advent of lidar observations from space and their need for validation. Lidar observations of aerosol and cloud geometrical, optical and microphysical atmospheric properties are subsequently used to evaluate their direct radiative effects on climate. However, the retrievals are strongly dependent on the lidar instrument measurement technique and subsequent data processing methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the discrepancies between the use of Raman and elastic lidar measurement techniques and corresponding data processing methods for two aerosol layers in the free troposphere and for two cirrus clouds with different optical depths. Results show that the different lidar techniques are responsible for discrepancies in the model-derived direct radiative effects for biomass burning (0.05 W m-2 at surface and 0.007 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and dust aerosol layers (0.7 W m-2 at surface and 0.85 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere). Data processing is further responsible for discrepancies in both thin (0.55 W m-2 at surface and 2.7 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and opaque (7.7 W m-2 at surface and 11.8 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) cirrus clouds. Direct radiative effect discrepancies can be attributed to the larger variability of the lidar ratio for aerosols (20-150 sr) than for clouds (20-35 sr). For this reason, the influence of the applied lidar technique plays a more fundamental role in aerosol monitoring because the lidar ratio must be retrieved with relatively high accuracy. In contrast, for cirrus clouds, with the lidar ratio being much less variable, the data processing is critical because smoothing it modifies the aerosol and cloud vertically resolved extinction profile that is used as input to compute direct radiative effect calculations.

  11. CURB-BASED STREET FLOOR EXTRACTION FROM MOBILE TERRESTRIAL LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile terrestrial laser scanners (MTLS produce huge 3D point clouds describing the terrestrial surface, from which objects like different street furniture can be generated. Extraction and modelling of the street curb and the street floor from MTLS point clouds is important for many applications such as right-of-way asset inventory, road maintenance and city planning. The proposed pipeline for the curb and street floor extraction consists of a sequence of five steps: organizing the 3D point cloud and nearest neighbour search; 3D density-based segmentation to segment the ground; morphological analysis to refine out the ground segment; derivative of Gaussian filtering to detect the curb; solving the travelling salesman problem to form a closed polygon of the curb and point-inpolygon test to extract the street floor. Two mobile laser scanning datasets of different scenes are tested with the proposed pipeline. The results of the extracted curb and street floor are evaluated based on a truth data. The obtained detection rates for the extracted street floor for the datasets are 95% and 96.53%. This study presents a novel approach to the detection and extraction of the road curb and the street floor from unorganized 3D point clouds captured by MTLS. It utilizes only the 3D coordinates of the point cloud.

  12. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes: What can we gain from ground-based remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützun, V.; Quaas, J.; Morcrette, C. J.; Ament, F.

    2013-09-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based remote sensing such as lidar, microwave, and radar to evaluate prognostic distribution moments using the "perfect model approach." This means that we employ a high-resolution weather model as virtual reality and retrieve full three-dimensional atmospheric quantities and virtual ground-based observations. We then use statistics from the virtual observation to validate the modeled 3-D statistics. Since the data are entirely consistent, any discrepancy occurring is due to the method. Focusing on total water mixing ratio, we find that the mean ratio can be evaluated decently but that it strongly depends on the meteorological conditions as to whether the variance and skewness are reliable. Using some simple schematic description of different synoptic conditions, we show how statistics obtained from point or line measurements can be poor at representing the full three-dimensional distribution of water in the atmosphere. We argue that a careful analysis of measurement data and detailed knowledge of the meteorological situation is necessary to judge whether we can use the data for an evaluation of higher moments of the humidity distribution used by a statistical cloud scheme.

  13. Improving salt marsh digital elevation model accuracy with full-waveform lidar and nonparametric predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Ward, Larry G.; Burdick, David M.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marsh vegetation tends to increase vertical uncertainty in light detection and ranging (lidar) derived elevation data, often causing the data to become ineffective for analysis of topographic features governing tidal inundation or vegetation zonation. Previous attempts at improving lidar data collected in salt marsh environments range from simply computing and subtracting the global elevation bias to more complex methods such as computing vegetation-specific, constant correction factors. The vegetation specific corrections can be used along with an existing habitat map to apply separate corrections to different areas within a study site. It is hypothesized here that correcting salt marsh lidar data by applying location-specific, point-by-point corrections, which are computed from lidar waveform-derived features, tidal-datum based elevation, distance from shoreline and other lidar digital elevation model based variables, using nonparametric regression will produce better results. The methods were developed and tested using full-waveform lidar and ground truth for three marshes in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Five different model algorithms for nonparametric regression were evaluated, with TreeNet's stochastic gradient boosting algorithm consistently producing better regression and classification results. Additionally, models were constructed to predict the vegetative zone (high marsh and low marsh). The predictive modeling methods used in this study estimated ground elevation with a mean bias of 0.00 m and a standard deviation of 0.07 m (0.07 m root mean square error). These methods appear very promising for correction of salt marsh lidar data and, importantly, do not require an existing habitat map, biomass measurements, or image based remote sensing data such as multi/hyperspectral imagery.

  14. Validation and deployment of the first Lidar based weather observation network in New York State: The NYS MesoNet Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobois L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper will describe the New York State Mesonet that is being deployed in the state of New York, USA. It is composed of 126 stations including 17 profiler sites. These sites will acquire continuous upper air observations through the combination of WINDCUBE Lidars and microwave radiometers. These stations will provide temperature, relative humidity & “3D” wind profile measurements through and above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and will retrieve derived atmospheric quantities such as the PBL height, cloud base, momentum fluxes, and aerosol & cloud optical properties. The different modes and configurations that will be used for the Lidars are discussed. The performances in terms of data availability and wind accuracy and precision are evaluated. Several profiles with specific wind and aerosol features are presented to illustrate the benefits of the use of Coherent Doppler Lidars to monitor accurately the PBL.

  15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Virtual Plant Branching Structure Based on Terrestrial LIDAR Technologies and L-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  16. Speckle noise reduction technique for Lidar echo signal based on self-adaptive pulse-matching independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhu, Daiyin; Tu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Speckle noise has always been a particularly tricky problem in improving the ranging capability and accuracy of Lidar system especially in harsh environment. Currently, effective speckle de-noising techniques are extremely scarce and should be further developed. In this study, a speckle noise reduction technique has been proposed based on independent component analysis (ICA). Since normally few changes happen in the shape of laser pulse itself, the authors employed the laser source as a reference pulse and executed the ICA decomposition to find the optimal matching position. In order to achieve the self-adaptability of algorithm, local Mean Square Error (MSE) has been defined as an appropriate criterion for investigating the iteration results. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the self-adaptive pulse-matching ICA (PM-ICA) method could effectively decrease the speckle noise and recover the useful Lidar echo signal component with high quality. Especially, the proposed method achieves 4 dB more improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than a traditional homomorphic wavelet method.

  17. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VIRTUAL PLANT BRANCHING STRUCTURE BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LIDAR TECHNOLOGIES AND L-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  18. The ten-year pattern (1978-1987) of stratospheric aerosol loading using ground-based radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Pearson, E.W.; LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the procedures used to obtain a stratospheric measurement with ground-based sun radiometry are reviewed briefly. The five-wavelength optical depths are then used to study the evolution of aerosol size during the decade. The time history of loading from the instruments described are compared. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Garmisch-Partenkirchen data because their latitude is very nearly that of the PNL site. The most useful data for this study are those observational records that measure total stratospheric aerosol burden and include the early period and continue throughout the eruption and decay of El Chichon. The lidar data from Langley Research Center and Fraunhofer-Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the SAM II satellite data, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) sun radiometry are the published contiguous measurements of the stratosphere aerosol burden during this period. 16 refs., 6 figs

  19. An adaptive segment method for smoothing lidar signal based on noise estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhao; Luo, Pingping

    2014-10-01

    An adaptive segmentation smoothing method (ASSM) is introduced in the paper to smooth the signal and suppress the noise. In the ASSM, the noise is defined as the 3σ of the background signal. An integer number N is defined for finding the changing positions in the signal curve. If the difference of adjacent two points is greater than 3Nσ, the position is recorded as an end point of the smoothing segment. All the end points detected as above are recorded and the curves between them will be smoothed separately. In the traditional method, the end points of the smoothing windows in the signals are fixed. The ASSM creates changing end points in different signals and the smoothing windows could be set adaptively. The windows are always set as the half of the segmentations and then the average smoothing method will be applied in the segmentations. The Iterative process is required for reducing the end-point aberration effect in the average smoothing method and two or three times are enough. In ASSM, the signals are smoothed in the spacial area nor frequent area, that means the frequent disturbance will be avoided. A lidar echo was simulated in the experimental work. The echo was supposed to be created by a space-born lidar (e.g. CALIOP). And white Gaussian noise was added to the echo to act as the random noise resulted from environment and the detector. The novel method, ASSM, was applied to the noisy echo to filter the noise. In the test, N was set to 3 and the Iteration time is two. The results show that, the signal could be smoothed adaptively by the ASSM, but the N and the Iteration time might be optimized when the ASSM is applied in a different lidar.

  20. Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

    2014-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the

  1. Identification of Forested Landslides Using LiDar Data, Object-based Image Analysis, and Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianju Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For identification of forested landslides, most studies focus on knowledge-based and pixel-based analysis (PBA of LiDar data, while few studies have examined (semi- automated methods and object-based image analysis (OBIA. Moreover, most of them are focused on soil-covered areas with gentle hillslopes. In bedrock-covered mountains with steep and rugged terrain, it is so difficult to identify landslides that there is currently no research on whether combining semi-automated methods and OBIA with only LiDar derivatives could be more effective. In this study, a semi-automatic object-based landslide identification approach was developed and implemented in a forested area, the Three Gorges of China. Comparisons of OBIA and PBA, two different machine learning algorithms and their respective sensitivity to feature selection (FS, were first investigated. Based on the classification result, the landslide inventory was finally obtained according to (1 inclusion of holes encircled by the landslide body; (2 removal of isolated segments, and (3 delineation of closed envelope curves for landslide objects by manual digitizing operation. The proposed method achieved the following: (1 the filter features of surface roughness were first applied for calculating object features, and proved useful; (2 FS improved classification accuracy and reduced features; (3 the random forest algorithm achieved higher accuracy and was less sensitive to FS than a support vector machine; (4 compared to PBA, OBIA was more sensitive to FS, remarkably reduced computing time, and depicted more contiguous terrain segments; (5 based on the classification result with an overall accuracy of 89.11% ± 0.03%, the obtained inventory map was consistent with the referenced landslide inventory map, with a position mismatch value of 9%. The outlined approach would be helpful for forested landslide identification in steep and rugged terrain.

  2. A Compact Mobile Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  3. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional-scale lidar-derived measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A.; Marshall, H.-P.; Winstral, A.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S.; Cline, D.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 lidar-derived data set of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the conterminous United States. Independent validation data are scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation data set with substantial geographic coverage. Within 12 distinctive 500 × 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 lidar acquisitions. This supplied a data set for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled lidar estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled lidar snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the lidar flights. The remotely sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison data set and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between lidar observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, providing insight into the causal influences of natural processes on model uncertainty.

  4. First Simultaneous and Common-Volume Lidar Observations of Na and Fe Metals, Temperatures, and Vertical Winds in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    A new STAR Na Doppler lidar will be installed to Arrival Heights near McMurdo Station, Antarctica in October 2017. This new lidar will be operated next to an existing Fe Boltzmann lidar to make simultaneous and common-volume measurements of metal Na and Fe layers, neutral temperatures, and vertical winds in the mesosphere and thermosphere, up to nearly 200 km. These measurements will be used to study a variety of science topics, e.g., the meteoric metal layers, wave dynamics, polar mesospheric clouds, constituent and heat fluxes, and cosmic dust. The discoveries of thermospheric neutral Fe layers and persistent gravity waves by the Fe Boltzmann lidar observations has opened a new door to explore the space-atmosphere interactions with ground-based instruments, especially in the least understood but crucially important altitude range of 100-200 km. These neutral metal layers provide excellent tracers for modern resonance lidars to measure the neutral wind and temperature directly. Even more exciting, the neutral metal layers in the thermosphere provide a natural laboratory to test our fundamental understandings of the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and processes. This paper will report the first summer results from the simultaneous Na and Fe lidar observations from Antarctica, and highlight important discoveries made by the Fe lidar during its first seven years of campaign at McMurdo. A thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model will be introduced to explain the TIFe layers in Antarctica.

  5. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p information on tropical forest structure.

  6. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  7. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  8. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  9. Aerosol observation using multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars of the Ad-Net and aerosol component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Kudo, Rei

    2018-04-01

    We deployed multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars (MMRL) at three sites of the AD-Net and have conducted continuous measurements using them since 2013. To analyze the MMRL data and better understand the externally mixing state of main aerosol components (e.g., dust, sea-salt, and black carbon) in the atmosphere, we developed an integrated package of aerosol component retrieval algorithms, which have already been developed or are being developed, to estimate vertical profiles of the aerosol components. This package applies to the other ground-based lidar network data (e.g., EARLINET) and satellite-borne lidar data (e.g., CALIOP/CALIPSO and ATLID/EarthCARE) as well as the other lidar data of the AD-Net.

  10. Aerosol observation using multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars of the Ad-Net and aerosol component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa Tomoaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We deployed multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars (MMRL at three sites of the AD-Net and have conducted continuous measurements using them since 2013. To analyze the MMRL data and better understand the externally mixing state of main aerosol components (e.g., dust, sea-salt, and black carbon in the atmosphere, we developed an integrated package of aerosol component retrieval algorithms, which have already been developed or are being developed, to estimate vertical profiles of the aerosol components. This package applies to the other ground-based lidar network data (e.g., EARLINET and satellite-borne lidar data (e.g., CALIOP/CALIPSO and ATLID/EarthCARE as well as the other lidar data of the AD-Net.

  11. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  12. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  13. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  14. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  15. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  16. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  17. Simple method for direct crown base height estimation of individual conifer trees using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Laiping; Zhai, Qiuping; Su, Yanjun; Ma, Qin; Kelly, Maggi; Guo, Qinghua

    2018-05-14

    Crown base height (CBH) is an essential tree biophysical parameter for many applications in forest management, forest fuel treatment, wildfire modeling, ecosystem modeling and global climate change studies. Accurate and automatic estimation of CBH for individual trees is still a challenging task. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provides reliable and promising data for estimating CBH. Various methods have been developed to calculate CBH indirectly using regression-based means from airborne LiDAR data and field measurements. However, little attention has been paid to directly calculate CBH at the individual tree scale in mixed-species forests without field measurements. In this study, we propose a new method for directly estimating individual-tree CBH from airborne LiDAR data. Our method involves two main strategies: 1) removing noise and understory vegetation for each tree; and 2) estimating CBH by generating percentile ranking profile for each tree and using a spline curve to identify its inflection points. These two strategies lend our method the advantages of no requirement of field measurements and being efficient and effective in mixed-species forests. The proposed method was applied to a mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, California and was validated by field measurements. The results showed that our method can directly estimate CBH at individual tree level with a root-mean-squared error of 1.62 m, a coefficient of determination of 0.88 and a relative bias of 3.36%. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed the accuracies among different height groups and tree species by comparing with field measurements. Our results implied that taller trees had relatively higher uncertainties than shorter trees. Our findings also show that the accuracy for CBH estimation was the highest for black oak trees, with an RMSE of 0.52 m. The conifer species results were also good with uniformly high R 2 ranging from 0.82 to 0.93. In general, our method has

  18. Hierarchical Object-Based Mapping of Riverscape Units and in-Stream Mesohabitats Using LiDAR and VHR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new, semi-automated methodology for mapping hydromorphological indicators of rivers at a regional scale using multisource remote sensing (RS data. This novel approach is based on the integration of spectral and topographic information within a multilevel, geographic, object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. Different segmentation levels were generated based on the two sources of Remote Sensing (RS data, namely very-high spatial resolution, near-infrared imagery (VHR and high-resolution LiDAR topography. At each level, different input object features were tested with Machine Learning classifiers for mapping riverscape units and in-stream mesohabitats. The GEOBIA approach proved to be a powerful tool for analyzing the river system at different levels of detail and for coupling spectral and topographic datasets, allowing for the delineation of the natural fluvial corridor with its primary riverscape units (e.g., water channel, unvegetated sediment bars, riparian densely-vegetated units, etc. and in-stream mesohabitats with a high level of accuracy, respectively of K = 0.91 and K = 0.83. This method is flexible and can be adapted to different sources of data, with the potential to be implemented at regional scales in the future. The analyzed dataset, composed of VHR imagery and LiDAR data, is nowadays increasingly available at larger scales, notably through European Member States. At the same time, this methodology provides a tool for monitoring and characterizing the hydromorphological status of river systems continuously along the entire channel network and coherently through time, opening novel and significant perspectives to river science and management, notably for planning and targeting actions.

  19. Assessment of changes in formations of non-forest woody vegetation in southern Denmark based on airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Ioannis; Levin, Gregor; Díaz-Varela, Ramón Alberto; Malinowski, Radek

    2017-09-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology that uses light in the form of pulses to measure the range between a sensor and the Earth's surface. Recent increase in availability of airborne LiDAR scanning (ALS) data providing national coverage with high point densities has opened a wide range of possibilities for monitoring landscape elements and their changes at broad geographical extent. We assessed the dynamics of the spatial extent of non-forest woody vegetation (NFW) in a study area of approx. 2500 km 2 in southern Jutland, Denmark, based on two acquisitions of ALS data for 2006 and 2014 in combination with other spatial data. Our results show a net-increase (4.8%) in the total area of NFW. Furthermore, this net change comprises of both areas with a decrease and areas with an increase of NFW. An accuracy assessment based on visual interpretation of aerial photos indicates high accuracy (>95%) in the delineation of NFW without changes during the study period. For NFW that changed between 2006 and 2014, accuracies were lower (90 and 82% in removed and new features, respectively), which is probably due to lower point densities of the 2006 ALS data (0.5 pts./m 2 ) compared to the 2014 data (4-5 pts./m 2 ). We conclude that ALS data, if combined with other spatial data, in principle are highly suitable for detailed assessment of changes in landscape features, such as formations of NFW at broad geographical extent. However, in change assessment based on multi-temporal ALS data with different point densities errors occur, particularly when examining small or narrow NFW objects.

  20. Evaluating solar irradiance over facades in high building cities, based on LiDAR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rubio, A.; Sanz-Adan, F.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Martínez, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for evaluating solar irradiance over façades in building cities with mutual shading. • It calculates irradiance curves in all building façades, using LiDAR and irradiance information. • Solar irradiation maps of the city buildings are really important for urban planning. • It allows to selection BIPV elements depending of the irradiation in each façade point. • The model can be extrapolated to all the building envelope. - Abstract: Arranging a solar irradiation map of the buildings of a city is a valuable tool for sustainable urban planning in regard to non-carbonized criteria in important applications. Such applications may include: selection of materials for the building envelope and insulation according to the irradiation received at each point; monitoring the installation of photovoltaic systems to ensure that they are located in the optimal irradiance zones; or building restoration to improve the energy efficiency and electric generation. The proposed method enables to estimate the incidence of the solar irradiance as well as to visualize the effect it produces in every region of the buildings that compose the urban area of a city. The process includes the use of Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) information along with 5-min horizontal irradiance data. This developed algorithm has been verified through being applied to different building envelopes distributed in different geographical areas. The results demonstrate a satisfied performance which makes that the methodology can be extrapolated to any city where the LiDAR Data and irradiance information are available, permitting an accurate analysis of the solar irradiance over the building envelopes. The algorithm succeeds in obtaining a map of solar radiation captured by the envelope of any urban building that estimates the photovoltaic power generation depending on the geographic location and on the influence of shading caused by adjacent buildings. The provided

  1. Validation of double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption lidar measurement of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Liu, Jiqiao; Bi, Decang; Ma, Xiuhua; Hou, Xia; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2018-04-01

    A ground-based double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar was developed for carbon dioxide (CO2) column concentrations measurement. The lidar measured the CO2 concentrations continuously by receiving the scattered echo signal from a building about 1300 m away. The other two instruments of TDLAS and in-situ CO2 analyzer measured the CO2 concentrations on the same time. A CO2 concentration measurement of 430 ppm with 1.637 ppm standard error was achieved.

  2. Simultaneous and synergistic profiling of cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Stephanie P.; Donovan, David P.; Russchenberg, Herman W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of radar reflectivity (Z) measurements in the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties, it remains nontrivial to interpret Z due to the possible presence of drizzle droplets within the clouds. So far, there has been no published work that utilizes Z to identify the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically consistent manner. In this work, we develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to carry out this task and to subsequently profile the microphysical properties of the cloud and drizzle in a unified framework. This is accomplished by using ground-based measurements of Z, lidar attenuated backscatter below as well as above the cloud base, and microwave brightness temperatures. Fast physical forward models coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parameterization are used in an optimal-estimation-type framework in order to retrieve the best estimate for the cloud and drizzle property profiles. The cloud retrieval is first evaluated using synthetic signals generated from large-eddy simulation (LES) output to verify the forward models used in the retrieval procedure and the vertical parameterization of the liquid water content (LWC). From this exercise it is found that, on average, the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5 % of the mean truth. The full cloud-drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) campaign dataset collected in Cabauw, the Netherlands. An assessment of the retrieval products is performed using three independent methods from the literature; each was specifically developed to retrieve only the cloud properties, the drizzle properties below the cloud base, or the drizzle fraction within the cloud. One-to-one comparisons, taking into account the uncertainties or limitations of each retrieval, show that our results are consistent with what is derived

  3. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronika Leitold; Michael Keller; Douglas C Morton; Bruce D Cook; Yosio E Shimabukuro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas...

  4. Computer-based synthetic data to assess the tree delineation algorithm from airborne LiDAR survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Wang; Andrew G. Birt; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; Sorin C. Popescu; James M. Guldin

    2013-01-01

    Small Footprint LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has been proposed as an effective tool for measuring detailed biophysical characteristics of forests over broad spatial scales. However, by itself LiDAR yields only a sample of the true 3D structure of a forest. In order to extract useful forestry relevant information, this data must be interpreted using mathematical...

  5. Modal-pushover-based ground-motion scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake engineering is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate the performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. This paper presents a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure to scale ground motions for use in a nonlinear RHA of buildings. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match to a specified tolerance, a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-mode inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by the first-mode pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-mode dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-mode SDF systems in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for three actual buildings-4, 6, and 13-story-the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  6. Combining satellite photographs and raster lidar data for channel connectivity in tidal marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Hodges, Ben

    2017-04-01

    High resolution airborne lidar is capable of providing topographic detail down to the 1 x 1 m scale or finer over large tidal marshes of a river delta. Such data sets can be challenging to develop and ground-truth due to the inherent complexities of the environment, the relatively small changes in elevation throughout a marsh, and practical difficulties in accessing the variety of flooded, dry, and muddy regions. Standard lidar point-cloud processing techniques (as typically applied in large lidar data collection program) have a tendency to mis-identify narrow channels and water connectivity in a marsh, which makes it difficult to directly use such data for modeling marsh flows. Unfortunately, it is not always practical, or even possible, to access the point cloud and re-analyze the raw lidar data when discrepancies have been found in a raster work product. Faced with this problem in preparing a model of the Trinity River delta (Texas, USA), we developed an approach to integrating analysis of a lidar-based raster with satellite images. Our primary goal was to identify the clear land/water boundaries needed to identify channelization in the available rasterized lidar data. The channel extraction method uses pixelized satellite photographs that are stretched/distorted with image-processing techniques to match identifiable control features in both lidar and photographic data sets. A kmeans clustering algorithm was applied cluster pixels based on their colors, which is effective in separating land and water in a satellite photograph. The clustered image was matched to the lidar data such that the combination shows the channel network. In effect, we are able to use the fact that the satellite photograph is higher resolution than the lidar data, and thus provides connectivity in the clustering at a finer scale. The principal limitation of the method is the where the satellite image and lidar suffer from similar problems For example, vegetation overhanging a narrow

  7. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  8. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  9. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  10. Observations of beach cusp evolution using a stationary, shore-based lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Whitesides, E. T.; Brodie, K.; Spore, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although beach cusps are common features on beaches around the world, questions still remain regarding the range of conditions in which they form, the initial forcing conditions under which they form, and the erosive or accretionary nature of cusp events. While many prior studies have focused on the formation and morphology of beach cusps, many of these are limited in the spatial extent of observations, in their spatial or temporal resolution, or in the availability of accompanying hydrodynamic data. In this study, beach cusp formation and evolution is investigated using an automated lidar system that provides hourly three-dimensional scans of subaerial beach topography with high spatial resolution ([O(1 cm)]). The stationary lidar scanner is mounted on a 4-m tower located on the crest of a shore-backing dune on an Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. The device measures a 237°-framescan of the nearshore region over a 15 minute period each hour. Individual scans are coregistered to a baseline scan using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and then filtered to remove noise, dune vegetation, and water. To assess the accuracy of the coregistration algorithm, the 3-dimensional location of five permanent reflectors near the device are found for each scan and compared to their measured GPS location. Precisely coregistered scans allow for an assessment of elevation change across cuspate features in addition to traditional measurements of cusp wavelength. Beach cusp events are assessed over a three month period from September through November 2015. Wave and current data from a cross-shore array of sensors deployed continuously throughout the three month period as well as from two alongshore arrays of ADV sensors deployed from October 13 through November 1 are used to determine the forcing conditions under which the cusps formed and evolved. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  11. Field Testing of Feedforward Collective Pitch Control on the CART2 Using a Nacelle-Based Lidar Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Hofsäß, Martin; Cheng, Po Wen; Fleming, Paul; Scholbrock, Andrew; Wright, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results from a field test of LIDAR assisted collective pitch control using a scanning LIDAR device installed on the nacelle of a mid-scale research turbine. A nonlinear feedforward controller is extended by an adaptive filter to remove all uncorrelated frequencies of the wind speed measurement to avoid unnecessary control action. Positive effects on the rotor speed regulation as well as on tower, blade and shaft loads have been observed in the case that the previous measured correlation and timing between the wind preview and the turbine reaction are accomplish. The feedforward controller had negative impact, when the LIDAR measurement was disturbed by obstacles in front of the turbine. This work proves, that LIDAR is valuable tool for wind turbine control not only in simulations but also under real conditions. Furthermore, the paper shows that further understanding of the relationship between the wind measurement and the turbine reaction is crucial to improve LIDAR assisted control of wind turbines

  12. Field Testing of Feedforward Collective Pitch Control on the CART2 Using a Nacelle-Based Lidar Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipf, David; Fleming, Paul; Haizmann, Florian; Scholbrock, Andrew; Hofsäß, Martin; Wright, Alan; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-12-01

    This work presents the results from a field test of LIDAR assisted collective pitch control using a scanning LIDAR device installed on the nacelle of a mid-scale research turbine. A nonlinear feedforward controller is extended by an adaptive filter to remove all uncorrelated frequencies of the wind speed measurement to avoid unnecessary control action. Positive effects on the rotor speed regulation as well as on tower, blade and shaft loads have been observed in the case that the previous measured correlation and timing between the wind preview and the turbine reaction are accomplish. The feedforward controller had negative impact, when the LIDAR measurement was disturbed by obstacles in front of the turbine. This work proves, that LIDAR is valuable tool for wind turbine control not only in simulations but also under real conditions. Furthermore, the paper shows that further understanding of the relationship between the wind measurement and the turbine reaction is crucial to improve LIDAR assisted control of wind turbines.

  13. Characterization of the Temporal-Spatial Variability of Trans-Atlantic Dust Transport Based on CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Atlantic dust transport has important implications for human and ecosystem health, the terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycle, weather systems, and climate. A reliable assessment of these influences requires the characterization of dust distributions in three dimensions and over long time periods. We provide an observation-based multiyear estimate of trans-Atlantic dust transport by using a 7-year (2007 - 2013) lidar record from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. We estimate that on a basis of the 7-year average and integration over 10S - 30N, 182 Tg a-1 dust leaves the coast of North Africa at 15W, of which 132 Tg a-1 and 43 Tg a-1 reaches 35W and 75W, respectively. These flux estimates have an overall known uncertainty of (45 - 70). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 - 48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8 - 50) kg ha-1 a-1. This imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006 - 0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 - 39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which is comparable to the loss of phosphorus to rainfall. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the magnitude of total dust transport and its meridional and vertical distributions. The observed large interannual variability of annual dust transport is highly anti-correlated with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index. Comparisons of CALIPSO measurements with surface-based observations and model simulations will also be discussed.

  14. Depolarization Ratio Profiles Calibration and Observations of Aerosol and Cloud in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Polarization Raman Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyao Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL system is provided. To calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio, the concept of “ Δ 90 ° -calibration” is applied in this study. This effective and accurate calibration method is adjusted according to the design of WACAL. Error calculations and analysis of the gain ratio, calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio and particle linear depolarization ratio are provided as well. In this method, the influences of the gain ratio, the rotation angle of the plane of polarization and the polarizing beam splitter are discussed in depth. Two groups of measurements with half wave plate (HWP at angles of (0 ° , 45 ° and (22.5 ° , −22.5 ° are operated to calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio. Then, the particle linear depolarization ratios measured by WACAL and CALIOP (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization during the simultaneous observations were compared. Good agreements are found. The calibration method was applied in the third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Sciences (TIPEX III in 2013 and 2014 in China. Vertical profiles of the particle depolarization ratio of clouds and aerosol in the Tibetan Plateau were measured with WACAL in Litang (30.03° N, 100.28° E, 3949 m above sea level (a.s.l. in 2013 and Naqu (31.48° N, 92.06° E, 4508 m a.s.l. in 2014. Then an analysis on the polarizing properties of the aerosol, clouds and cirrus over the Tibetan Plateau is provided. The particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds varies from 0.36 to 0.52, with a mean value of 0.44 ± 0.04. Cirrus clouds occurred between 5.2 and 12 km above ground level (a.g.l.. The cloud thickness ranges from 0.12 to 2.55 km with a mean thickness of 1.22 ± 0.70 km. It is found that the particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds become larger as the height increases. However, the increase rate of the particle depolarization ratio becomes smaller as

  15. a Point Cloud Classification Approach Based on Vertical Structures of Ground Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, Q.; Hu, W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for point cloud classification using vertical structural characteristics of ground objects. Since urbanization develops rapidly nowadays, urban ground objects also change frequently. Conventional photogrammetric methods cannot satisfy the requirements of updating the ground objects' information efficiently, so LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is employed to accomplish this task. LiDAR data, namely point cloud data, can obtain detailed three-dimensional coordinates of ground objects, but this kind of data is discrete and unorganized. To accomplish ground objects classification with point cloud, we first construct horizontal grids and vertical layers to organize point cloud data, and then calculate vertical characteristics, including density and measures of dispersion, and form characteristic curves for each grids. With the help of PCA processing and K-means algorithm, we analyze the similarities and differences of characteristic curves. Curves that have similar features will be classified into the same class and point cloud correspond to these curves will be classified as well. The whole process is simple but effective, and this approach does not need assistance of other data sources. In this study, point cloud data are classified into three classes, which are vegetation, buildings, and roads. When horizontal grid spacing and vertical layer spacing are 3 m and 1 m respectively, vertical characteristic is set as density, and the number of dimensions after PCA processing is 11, the overall precision of classification result is about 86.31 %. The result can help us quickly understand the distribution of various ground objects.

  16. High energy astrophysics with ground-based gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F; Buckley, J; Kifune, T; Sinnis, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ground-based gamma ray astronomy have led to the discovery of more than 70 sources of very high energy (E γ ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays, falling into a number of source populations including pulsar wind nebulae, shell type supernova remnants, Wolf-Rayet stars, giant molecular clouds, binary systems, the Galactic Center, active galactic nuclei and 'dark' (yet unidentified) galactic objects. We summarize the history of TeV gamma ray astronomy up to the current status of the field including a description of experimental techniques and highlight recent astrophysical results. We also discuss the potential of ground-based gamma ray astronomy for future discoveries and describe possible directions for future instrumental developments

  17. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  18. LiDAR and IFSAR-Based Flood Inundation Model Estimates for Flood-Prone Areas of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. C.; Goldade, M. M.; Kastens, J.; Dobbs, K. E.; Macpherson, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme flood events are not unusual in semi-arid to hyper-arid regions of the world, and Afghanistan is no exception. Recent flashfloods and flashflood-induced landslides took nearly 100 lives and destroyed or damaged nearly 2000 homes in 12 villages within Guzargah-e-Nur district of Baghlan province in northeastern Afghanistan. With available satellite imagery, flood-water inundation estimation can be accomplished remotely, thereby providing a means to reduce the impact of such flood events by improving shared situational awareness during major flood events. Satellite orbital considerations, weather, cost, data licensing restrictions, and other issues can often complicate the acquisition of appropriately timed imagery. Given the need for tools to supplement imagery where not available, complement imagery when it is available, and bridge the gap between imagery based flood mapping and traditional hydrodynamic modeling approaches, we have developed a topographic floodplain model (FLDPLN), which has been used to identify and map river valley floodplains with elevation data ranging from 90-m SRTM to 1-m LiDAR. Floodplain "depth to flood" (DTF) databases generated by FLDPLN are completely seamless and modular. FLDPLN has been applied in Afghanistan to flood-prone areas along the northern and southern flanks of the Hindu Kush mountain range to generate a continuum of 1-m increment flood-event models up to 10 m in depth. Elevation data used in this application of FLDPLN included high-resolution, drone-acquired LiDAR (~1 m) and IFSAR (5 m; INTERMAP). Validation of the model has been accomplished using the best available satellite-derived flood inundation maps, such as those issued by Unitar's Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). Results provide a quantitative approach to evaluating the potential risk to urban/village infrastructure as well as to irrigation systems, agricultural fields and archaeological sites.

  19. Characterization of the horizontal structure of the tropical forest canopy using object-based LiDAR and multispectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Stéphane; Lainé, Gérard; Tassin, Jacques; Sarrailh, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    This article's goal is to explore the benefits of using Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) derived from LiDAR acquisitions for characterizing the horizontal structure of different facies in forested areas (primary forests vs. secondary forests) within the framework of an object-oriented classification. The area under study is the island of Mayotte in the western Indian Ocean. The LiDAR data were the data originally acquired by an airborne small-footprint discrete-return LiDAR for the "Litto3D" coastline mapping project. They were used to create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a spatial resolution of 1 m and a Digital Canopy Model (DCM) using median filtering. The use of two successive segmentations at different scales allowed us to adjust the segmentation parameters to the local structure of the landscape and of the cover. Working in object-oriented mode with LiDAR allowed us to discriminate six vegetation classes based on canopy height and horizontal heterogeneity. This heterogeneity was assessed using a texture index calculated from the height-transition co-occurrence matrix. Overall accuracy exceeds 90%. The resulting product is the first vegetation map of Mayotte which emphasizes the structure over the composition.

  20. Automatic Barometric Updates from Ground-Based Navigational Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-12

    ro fAutomatic Barometric Updates US Department from of Transportation Ground-Based Federal Aviation Administration Navigational Aids Office of Safety...tighter vertical spacing controls , particularly for operations near Terminal Control Areas (TCAs), Airport Radar Service Areas (ARSAs), military climb and...E.F., Ruth, J.C., and Williges, B.H. (1987). Speech Controls and Displays. In Salvendy, G., E. Handbook of Human Factors/Ergonomics, New York, John

  1. Three-dimension imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    This invention is directed to a 3-dimensional imaging lidar, which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction to provide contiguous high spatial resolution mapping of surface features including ground, water, man-made objects, vegetation and submerged surfaces from an aircraft or a spacecraft.

  2. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  3. Automatic landslide detection from LiDAR DTM derivatives by geographic-object-based image analysis based on open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevels, Raphael; Leopold, Philip; Petschko, Helene

    2017-04-01

    With high-resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data more commonly available, many studies have been performed to facilitate the detailed information on the earth surface and to analyse its limitation. Specifically in the field of natural hazards, digital terrain models (DTM) have been used to map hazardous processes such as landslides mainly by visual interpretation of LiDAR DTM derivatives. However, new approaches are striving towards automatic detection of landslides to speed up the process of generating landslide inventories. These studies usually use a combination of optical imagery and terrain data, and are designed in commercial software packages such as ESRI ArcGIS, Definiens eCognition, or MathWorks MATLAB. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of open-source software for automatic landslide detection based only on high-resolution LiDAR DTM derivatives in a study area within the federal state of Burgenland, Austria. The study area is very prone to landslides which have been mapped with different methodologies in recent years. The free development environment R was used to integrate open-source geographic information system (GIS) software, such as SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses), GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), or TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models). The implemented geographic-object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) consisted of (1) derivation of land surface parameters, such as slope, surface roughness, curvature, or flow direction, (2) finding optimal scale parameter by the use of an objective function, (3) multi-scale segmentation, (4) classification of landslide parts (main scarp, body, flanks) by k-mean thresholding, (5) assessment of the classification performance using a pre-existing landslide inventory, and (6) post-processing analysis for the further use in landslide inventories. The results of the developed open-source approach demonstrated good

  4. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  5. CALIPSO satellite validation using an elastic backscattering Lidar system and the AERONET sun photometer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio Juliano da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol and clouds play an important role in the Earth's climate process through their direct and indirect contributions to the radiation budget. The largest difficulty in predicting the climate change processes is associated with uncertainties in the distribution and properties of aerosols and clouds, as well as their interactions on a global scale. The CALIPSO mission was developed as part of the NASA program, in collaboration with the French space agency CNES, with the main goal to develop studies that will help to quantify the uncertainties about aerosols and clouds. The CALIPSO satellite carried a Lidar system on board, named CALIOP, as a primary instrument, able to provide the aerosol and cloud vertical profiles and distribution, as well as their interactions. Once the optical properties measured by CALIOP are retrieved, using a complex set of algorithms, it is necessary to study and develop methodologies in order to assess the accuracy of the CALIOP products. In this context, a validation methodology was developed in order to verify the assumed values of the Lidar Ratio selected by the CALIOP algorithms, using two ground-based remote sensing instruments, an elastic backscatter Lidar system (MSP) installed at IPEN in Sao Paulo and the AERONET sun photometers operating at five different locations in Brazil, Rio Branco - Acre (RB), Alta Floresta - Mato Grosso (AF), Cuiaba - Mato Grosso (CB), Campo Grande - Mato Grosso do Sul (CG) e Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo (SP). Those days when the CALIOP system and ground-based instruments spatially coincided, were selected and analyzed under cloud-free conditions, as well as days when the trajectories of air masses indicated the transport of air parcels from the CALIOP track towards the ground-based sensors. The Lidar Ratio values from the Aeronet/Caliop proposed model was determined and showed good consistency with those initially assumed by the CALIOP Algorithm. Based on the quantitative comparison, a mean difference of -2

  6. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Arlen F.; Fisher, Christopher T.; Leisz, Stephen J.; Weishampel, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understanding of the past. With LiDAR, ancient societies can be contextualized within a fully defined landscape. Interpretations about the scale and organization of densely forested sites no longer are constrained by sample size, as they were when mapping required laborious on-ground survey. The ability to articulate ancient landscapes fully permits a better understanding of the complexity of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism and also aids in modern conservation efforts. The importance of this geospatial innovation is demonstrated with newly acquired LiDAR data from the archaeological sites of Caracol, Cayo, Belize and Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. These data illustrate the potential of technology to act as a catalytic enabler of rapid transformational change in archaeological research and interpretation and also underscore the value of on-the-ground archaeological investigation in validating and contextualizing results. PMID:22802623

  7. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Arlen F; Chase, Diane Z; Fisher, Christopher T; Leisz, Stephen J; Weishampel, John F

    2012-08-07

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understanding of the past. With LiDAR, ancient societies can be contextualized within a fully defined landscape. Interpretations about the scale and organization of densely forested sites no longer are constrained by sample size, as they were when mapping required laborious on-ground survey. The ability to articulate ancient landscapes fully permits a better understanding of the complexity of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism and also aids in modern conservation efforts. The importance of this geospatial innovation is demonstrated with newly acquired LiDAR data from the archaeological sites of Caracol, Cayo, Belize and Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. These data illustrate the potential of technology to act as a catalytic enabler of rapid transformational change in archaeological research and interpretation and also underscore the value of on-the-ground archaeological investigation in validating and contextualizing results.

  8. Simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and airglow measurements of middle atmospheric waves over low latitudes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, A.; Kamalakar, V.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We utilize simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and mesospheric OH and O2 airglow measurements to identify the dominant and propagating waves within 40-95 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Gadanki (13.8° N, 79.2 °E). It is found that waves with 0.4-0.6 h periodicity are common throughout the altitude range of 40-95 km with significant amplitudes. The ground based temperature measurements with lidar and airglow monitoring are found to compare well with SABER data. With simultaneous Rayleigh lidar (temperature) and mesospheric airglow (emission intensity and temperature) measurements, we estimate the amplitude growth and Krassovsky parameters to characterize the propagation and dissipation of these upward propagating waves.

  9. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  10. Research on the underwater target imaging based on the streak tube laser lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zihao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Zhang, Yanchao; Bi, Zongjie; Yang, Gang; Gu, Erdan

    2018-03-01

    A high frame rate streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) for real-time 3D imaging of underwater targets is presented in this paper. The system uses 532nm pulse laser as the light source, the maximum repetition rate is 120Hz, and the pulse width is 8ns. LabVIEW platform is used in the system, the system control, synchronous image acquisition, 3D data processing and display are realized through PC. 3D imaging experiment of underwater target is carried out in a flume with attenuation coefficient of 0.2, and the images of different depth and different material targets are obtained, the imaging frame rate is 100Hz, and the maximum detection depth is 31m. For an underwater target with a distance of 22m, the high resolution 3D image real-time acquisition is realized with range resolution of 1cm and space resolution of 0.3cm, the spatial relationship of the targets can be clearly identified by the image. The experimental results show that STIL has a good application prospect in underwater terrain detection, underwater search and rescue, and other fields.

  11. LIDAR-based urban metabolism approach to neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Coops, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kellet, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    2010-07-01

    A remote sensing technology was used to model neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions in a case study set in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The study was used to compile and aggregate atmospheric carbon flux, urban form, and energy and emissions data in a replicable neighbourhood-scale approach. The study illustrated methods of integrating diverse emission and uptake processes on a range of scales and resolutions, and benchmarked comparisons of modelled estimates with measured energy consumption data obtained over a 2-year period from a research tower located in the study area. The study evaluated carbon imports, carbon exports and sequestration, and relevant emissions processes. Fossil fuel emissions produced in the neighbourhood were also estimated. The study demonstrated that remote sensing technologies such as LIDAR and multispectral satellite imagery can be an effective means of generating and extracting urban form and land cover data at fine scales. Data from the study were used to develop several emissions reduction and energy conservation scenarios. 6 refs.

  12. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenmeier, A; Kuehn, M; Waechter, M; Rahm, S; Mellinghoff, H; Siegmeier, B; Reeder, L

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer

  13. Strategies for lidar characterization of particulates from point and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Moore, Kori D.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Use of ground based remote sensing technologies such as scanning lidar systems (light detection and ranging) has gained traction in characterizing ambient aerosols due to some key advantages such as wide area of regard (10 km2), fast response time, high spatial resolution (University, in conjunction with the USDA-ARS, has developed a three-wavelength scanning lidar system called Aglite that has been successfully deployed to characterize particle motion, concentration, and size distribution at both point and diffuse area sources in agricultural and industrial settings. A suite of massbased and size distribution point sensors are used to locally calibrate the lidar. Generating meaningful particle size distribution, mass concentration, and emission rate results based on lidar data is dependent on strategic onsite deployment of these point sensors with successful local meteorological measurements. Deployment strategies learned from field use of this entire measurement system over five years include the characterization of local meteorology and its predictability prior to deployment, the placement of point sensors to prevent contamination and overloading, the positioning of the lidar and beam plane to avoid hard target interferences, and the usefulness of photographic and written observational data.

  14. Specular and diffuse object extraction from a LiDAR derived Digital Surface Model (DSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, N M; Hamid, J R A; Kamaruddin, M H

    2014-01-01

    This paper intents to investigate the indifferent behaviour quantitatively of target objects of interest due to specular and diffuse reflectivity based on generated LiDAR DSM of the study site in Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. The LiDAR data to be used was initially checked for its reliability and accuracy. The point cloud LiDAR data was converted to raster to allow grid analysis of the next process of generating the DSM and DTM. Filtering and masking were made removing the features of interest (i.e. building and tree) and other unwanted above surface features. A normalised DSM and object segmentation approach were conducted on the trees and buildings separately. Error assessment and findings attained were highlighted and documented. The result of LiDAR verification certified that the data is reliable and useable. The RMSE obtained is within the tolerance value of horizontal and vertical accuracy (x, y, z) i.e. 0.159 m, 0.211 m 0.091 m respectively. Building extraction inclusive of roof top based on slope and contour analysis undertaken indicate the capability of the approach while single tree extraction through aspect analysis appears to preserve the accuracy of the extraction accordingly. The paper has evaluated the suitable methods of extracting non-ground features and the effective segmentation of the LiDAR data

  15. The Extraction of Vegetation Points from LiDAR Using 3D Fractal Dimension Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, a high-precision technique used for acquiring three-dimensional (3D surface information, is widely used to study surface vegetation information. Moreover, the extraction of a vegetation point set from the LiDAR point cloud is a basic starting-point for vegetation information analysis, and an important part of its further processing. To extract the vegetation point set completely and to describe the different spatial morphological characteristics of various features in a LiDAR point cloud, we have used 3D fractal dimensions. We discovered that every feature has its own distinctive 3D fractal dimension interval. Based on the 3D fractal dimensions of tall trees, we propose a new method for the extraction of vegetation using airborne LiDAR. According to this method, target features can be distinguished based on their morphological characteristics. The non-ground points acquired by filtering are processed by region growing segmentation and the morphological characteristics are evaluated by 3D fractal dimensions to determine the features required for the determination of the point set for tall trees. Avon, New York, USA was selected as the study area to test the method and the result proves the method’s efficiency. Thus, this approach is feasible. Additionally, the method uses the 3D coordinate properties of the LiDAR point cloud and does not require additional information, such as return intensity, giving it a larger scope of application.

  16. Macrophysical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus clouds over a semi-arid area observed by micro-pulse lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianping; Cao, Xianjie; Liu, Ruijin; Zhou, Bi; Wang, Hongbin; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Beidou; Wang, Tengjiao

    2013-01-01

    Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were investigated at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL; 35.95°N, 104.14°E) of Lanzhou University in northwest China during April to December 2007 using micro-pulse lidar data and profiling radiometer measurements. Analysis of the measurements allowed the determination of macrophysical properties such as cirrus cloud height, ambient temperature, and geometrical depth, and optical characteristics were determined in terms of optical depth, extinction coefficient, and lidar ratio. Cirrus clouds were generally observed at heights ranging from 5.8 to 12.7 km, with a mean of 9.0±1.0 km. The mean cloud geometrical depth and optical depth were found to be 2.0±0.6 km and 0.350±0.311, respectively. Optical depth increased linearly with increasing geometrical depth. The results derived from lidar signals showed that cirrus over SACOL consisted of thin cirrus and opaque cirrus which occurred frequently in the height of 8–10 km. The lidar ratio varied from 5 to 70 sr, with a mean value of 26±16 sr, after taking into account multiple scattering effects. The mean lidar ratio of thin cirrus was greater than that of opaque cirrus. The maximum lidar ratio appeared between 0.058 and 0.3 when plotted against optical depth. The lidar ratio increased exponentially as the optical depth increased. The maximum lidar ratio fell between 11 and 12 km when plotted against cloud mid-height. The lidar ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing mid-height. -- Highlights: ► Cirrus clouds over semi-arid area were firstly observed by ground-based lidar. ► Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were discussed. ► Thin cirrus and opaque cirrus occurred most frequently over SACOL. ► Thin cirrus often occurred above 10 km

  17. Confronting remote sensing product with ground base measurements across time and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem models are essential tools in forecasting ecosystem responses to global climate change. One of the most challenging issues in ecosystem modeling is scaling while preserving landscape characteristics and minimizing loss of information, when moving from point observation to regional scale. There is a keen interest in providing accurate inputs for ecosystem models which represent ecosystem initial state conditions. Remote sensing land cover products, such as Landsat NLCD and MODIS MCD12Q1, provide extensive spatio-temporal coverage but do not capture forest composition and structure. Lidar and hyperspectral have the potential to meet this need but lack sufficient spatial and historical coverage. Forest inventory measurements provide detailed information on the landscape but in a very small footprint. Combining inventory and land cover could improve estimates of ecosystem state and characteristic across time and space. This study focuses on the challenges associated with fusing and scaling the US Forest Service FIA database and NLCD across regional scales to quantify ecosystem characteristics and reduce associated uncertainties. Across Southeast of U.S. 400 stratified random samples of 10x10 km2 landscapes were selected. Data on plant density, species, age, and DBH of trees in FIA plots within each site were extracted. Using allometry equations, the canopy cover of different plant functional types (PFTs) was estimated using a PPA-style canopy model and used to assign each inventory plot to a land cover class. Inventory and land cover were fused in a Bayesian model that adjusts the fractional coverage of inventory plots while accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. Results were compared to estimates derived from inventory alone, land cover alone, and model spin-up alone. Our findings create a framework of data assimilation to better interpret remote sensing data using ground-based measurements.

  18. Characterizing GEO Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentations Using Ground-based and Telescopic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.; Reyes, J. A.

    In a continued effort to better characterize the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) environment, NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while the Transtage fragmented a third time in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in low Earth orbit. To better assess and characterize these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that it was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to continue material analysis and historical documentation. The Transtage has undergone two separate spectral measurement campaigns to characterize the reflectance spectroscopy of historical aerospace materials. These data have been incorporated into the NASA Spectral Database, with the goal of using telescopic data comparisons for potential material identification. A Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system scan also has been completed and a scale model has been created for use in the Optical Measurement Center (OMC) for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An historical overview of the Titan IIIC Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment will be discussed in the subsequent presentation.

  19. A hybrid 3D LIDAR imager based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new hybrid 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which measures a scene with 1280 x 600 pixels at a refresh rate of 60fps. The emitted pulses of each pixel are modulated by direct sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) techniques. The modulated pulses include a unique device identification number, the pixel position in the line, and a checksum. The LIDAR emits the modulated pulses periodically without waiting to receive returning light at the detector. When all the pixels are completely through the process, the travel time, amplitude, width, and speed are used by the pixel-by-pixel scanning LIDAR imager to generate point cloud data as the measured results. We programmed the entire hybrid 3D LIDAR operation in a simulator to observe the functionality accomplished by our proposed model.

  20. The 1996 Leonid shower as studied with a potassium lidar: Observations and inferred meteoroid sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffner, Josef; von Zahn, Ulf; McNeil, William J.; Murad, Edmond

    1999-02-01

    We report on the observation and analysis of meteor trails that are detected by ground-based lidar tuned to the D1 fine structure line of K. The lidar is located at Kühlungsborn, Germany. The echo profiles are analyzed with a temporal resolution of about 1 s and altitude resolution of 200 m. Identification of meteor trails in the large archive of raw data is performed with help of an automated computer search code. During the peak of the Lenoid meteor shower on the morning of November 17, 1996, we observed seven meteor trails between 0245 and 0445 UT. Their mean altitude was 89.0 km. The duration of observation of individual trails ranges from 3 s to ~30 min. We model the probability of observing a meteor trail by ground-based lidar as a function of both altitude distribution and duration of the trails. These distributions depend on the mass distribution, entry velocity, and entry angle of the meteoroids, on the altitude-dependent chemical and dynamical lifetimes of the released K atom, and on the absolute detection sensitivity of our lidar experiment. From the modeling, we derive the statistical likelihood of detection of trails from meteoroids of a particular size. These bracket quite well the observed trails. The model also gives estimates of the probable size of the meteoroids based on characteristics of individual trails.

  1. Local hyperspectral data multisharpening based on linear/linear-quadratic nonnegative matrix factorization by integrating lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhalouche, Fatima Zohra; Karoui, Moussa Sofiane; Deville, Yannick; Ouamri, Abdelaziz

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new Spectral-Unmixing-based approach, using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF), is proposed to locally multi-sharpen hyperspectral data by integrating a Digital Surface Model (DSM) obtained from LIDAR data. In this new approach, the nature of the local mixing model is detected by using the local variance of the object elevations. The hyper/multispectral images are explored using small zones. In each zone, the variance of the object elevations is calculated from the DSM data in this zone. This variance is compared to a threshold value and the adequate linear/linearquadratic spectral unmixing technique is used in the considered zone to independently unmix hyperspectral and multispectral data, using an adequate linear/linear-quadratic NMF-based approach. The obtained spectral and spatial information thus respectively extracted from the hyper/multispectral images are then recombined in the considered zone, according to the selected mixing model. Experiments based on synthetic hyper/multispectral data are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed multi-sharpening approach and literature linear/linear-quadratic approaches used on the whole hyper/multispectral data. In these experiments, real DSM data are used to generate synthetic data containing linear and linear-quadratic mixed pixel zones. The DSM data are also used for locally detecting the nature of the mixing model in the proposed approach. Globally, the proposed approach yields good spatial and spectral fidelities for the multi-sharpened data and significantly outperforms the used literature methods.

  2. Application of spectral decomposition of LIDAR-based headwind profiles in windshear detection at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Chun Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In aviation, rapidly fluctuating headwind/tailwind may lead to high horizontal windshear, posing potential safety hazards to aircraft. So far, windshear alerts are issued by considering directly the headwind differences measured along the aircraft flight path (e.g. based on Doppler velocities from remote-sensing. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new methodology for windshear alerting with the technique of spectral decomposition. Through Fourier transformation of the LIDAR-based headwind profiles in 2012 and 2014 at arrival corridors 07LA and 25RA of the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA, we study the occurrence of windshear in the spectral domain. Using a threshold-based approach, we investigate performance of single and multiple channel detection algorithms and validate the results against pilot reports. With the receiver operating characteristic (ROC diagram, we successfully demonstrate feasibility of this approach to alert windshear by showing a comparable performance of the triple channel detection algorithm and a consistent hit rate gain (07LA in particular of 4.5 to 8 % in quadruple channel detection against GLYGA, which is the currently operational algorithm in HKIA. We also observe that some length scales are particularly sensitive to windshear events which may be closely related to the local geography of HKIA. This study serves to open a new door for the methodology of windshear detection in the spectral domain for the aviation community.

  3. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  4. 2015 OLC Lidar: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  5. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  6. Assessment of altimetry data in Amazonian forest based in INSAR, LIDAR; and GPS technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina da Costa Freitas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great amount of altimetry data collected by several experiments taken in the Tapajós National Forest located in the Brazilian Amazon State of Pará. Some of these data were produced by current state of the art technology whose effectiveness is still being proven by scientific investigations. In 1999 LIDAR profiles associated to videography data were taken in the region. In 2000 it was collected P and X band interferometric multifrequency data over areas of different vegetation types. The backscatter response collected by P band radar antenna potentially produces a real digital terrain model (DTM due to its penetration capability across forest canopy toward the soil. When collected in X band radiation is reflected in the top forest canopy which produces a digital surface model (DSM. The availability of digital terrain model and digital surface model covering the same forested area is of great interest for many purposes, especially cartographic applications and carbon stock estimation. Also in 2000, the SRTM mission provided global interferometric cover in C and X bands that permitted the use of these data in the present work. In 2001, 2002, 2003 e 2005 several field control positions were surveyed using GPS dual frequency receivers and by topography surveying methods using total stations. The purpose of this work is to make an evaluation of the errors affecting the original multiple sensor data collected in the study area and apply an effective correction in order to eliminate those errors to permit using the models in other applications. An effective correction type was developed that reduced the original errors. The correction methodology consisted in altimetry offset determination and its application to the original data. Evaluations confirmed that the correction methodology produced good results and the corrected models presented global and local errors lesser than those in the original models.

  7. Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone trends over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vigouroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the European project UFTIR (Time series of Upper Free Troposphere observations from an European ground-based FTIR network, six ground-based stations in Western Europe, from 79° N to 28° N, all equipped with Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR instruments and part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, have joined their efforts to evaluate the trends of several direct and indirect greenhouse gases over the period 1995–2004. The retrievals of CO, CH4, C2H6, N2O, CHClF2, and O3 have been optimized. Using the optimal estimation method, some vertical information can be obtained in addition to total column amounts. A bootstrap resampling method has been implemented to determine annual partial and total column trends for the target gases. The present work focuses on the ozone results. The retrieved time series of partial and total ozone columns are validated with ground-based correlative data (Brewer, Dobson, UV-Vis, ozonesondes, and Lidar. The observed total column ozone trends are in agreement with previous studies: 1 no total column ozone trend is seen at the lowest latitude station Izaña (28° N; 2 slightly positive total column trends are seen at the two mid-latitude stations Zugspitze and Jungfraujoch (47° N, only one of them being significant; 3 the highest latitude stations Harestua (60° N, Kiruna (68° N and Ny-Ålesund (79° N show significant positive total column trends. Following the vertical information contained in the ozone FTIR retrievals, we provide partial columns trends for the layers: ground-10 km, 10–18 km, 18–27 km, and 27–42 km, which helps to distinguish the contributions from dynamical and chemical changes on the total column ozone trends. We obtain no statistically significant trends in the ground-10 km layer for five out of the six ground-based stations. We find significant positive trends for the lowermost

  8. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  9. A Comparison of sector-scan and dual Doppler wind measurements at Høvsøre Test Station – one lidar or two?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael

    from the coast). Ground based remote sensing has numerous advantages over traditional in-situ (offshore met mast) and buoy based installations, mainly in terms or cost, complexity, and failure/delay risk. Since each lidar can only measure a portion of the wind vector, it is necessary to either deploy...

  10. Strong Sporadic E Occurrence Detected by Ground-Based GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Ning, Baiqi; Yue, Xinan; Li, Guozhu; Hu, Lianhuan; Chang, Shoumin; Lan, Jiaping; Zhu, Zhengping; Zhao, Biqiang; Lin, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layer has significant impact on radio wave propagation. The traditional techniques employed for Es layer observation, for example, ionosondes, are not dense enough to resolve the morphology and dynamics of Es layer in spatial distribution. The ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technique is expected to shed light on the understanding of regional strong Es occurrence, owing to the facts that the critical frequency (foEs) of strong Es structure is usually high enough to cause pulse-like disturbances in GNSS total electron content (TEC), and a large number of GNSS receivers have been deployed all over the world. Based on the Chinese ground-based GNSS networks, including the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Beidou Ionospheric Observation Network, a large-scale strong Es event was observed in the middle latitude of China. The strong Es shown as a band-like structure in the southwest-northeast direction extended more than 1,000 km. By making a comparative analysis of Es occurrences identified from the simultaneous observations by ionosondes and GNSS TEC receivers over China middle latitude statistically, we found that GNSS TEC can be well employed to observe strong Es occurrence with a threshold value of foEs, 14 MHz.

  11. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  12. GIS-Based Detection of Gullies in Terrestrial LiDAR Data of the Cerro Llamoca Peatland (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Forbriger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushion peatlands are typical features of the high altitude Andes in South America. Due to the adaptation to difficult environmental conditions, they are very fragile ecosystems and therefore vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Peatland erosion has severe effects on their ecological functions, such as water storage capacity. Thus, erosion monitoring is highly advisable. Erosion quantification and monitoring can be supported by high-resolution terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. In this study, a novel Geographic Information System (GIS-based method for the automatic delineation and geomorphometric description of gullies in cushion peatlands is presented. The approach is a multi-step workflow based on a gully edge extraction and a sink filling algorithm applied to a conditioned digital terrain model. Our method enables the creation of GIS-ready polygons of the gullies and the derivation of geomorphometric parameters along the entire channel course. Automatically derived boundaries and gully area values correspond to a high degree (93% with manually digitized reference polygons. The set of methods developed in this study offers a suitable tool for the monitoring and scientific analysis of fluvial morphology in cushion peatlands.

  13. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  14. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Brazoria County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  15. 2012 USACE Topobathy Lidar: Post Sandy (NJ & NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1) and valid topographic data classified as ground (2),...

  16. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, 43 flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  17. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Galveston County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  18. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Jackson County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  19. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  20. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  1. Combined use of headwind ramps and gradients based on LIDAR data in the alerting of low-level windshear/turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P.W.; Hon, K.K. [Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong (China); Shin, D.K. [Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A sophisticated algorithm based on the detection of significant headwind changes, the so-called ''windshear ramps'', has been developed by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) in the alerting of low-level windshear using LIDAR data. The method, named as LIWAS (LIDAR Windshear Alerting System), is particularly efficient in detecting airflow disturbances in the vicinity of the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) due to terrain disruption of the background wind. It puts emphasis on sustained headwind change from one level to another level. However, for terrain-disrupted airflow, there may also be abrupt wind changes of smaller spatial scales (e.g. over a distance of a few hundred metres) embedded in the windshear ramp which typically spans a larger spatial scale (e.g. over a couple of kilometres). As such, for the alerting of low-level windshear it may be advantageous to consider both the larger scale windshear ramps and the smaller scale wind changes, i.e. headwind gradients. This paper examines the usefulness of such an approach by applying the method to the windshear cases in spring time over four years. It turns out that the inclusion of headwind gradients helps capture 5-10 % more of the significant windshear reported by the pilots. For a particular runway corridor, the combined use of the two windshear detection methods even outperforms the existing windshear alerting service at HKIA. The paper will discuss the rationale behind the headwind gradient method, a prototype of its implementation, and its combined use with the existing LIWAS alerts. It will also discuss preliminary results on the climatology of headwind changes at HKIA based on LIDAR data, as well as the use of aircraft simulator in improving the calculation of LIDAR-based F-factor. (orig.)

  2. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Boettger, D. [Department of Astronomy, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Cukierman, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Delabrouille, J. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Ducout, A.; Feeney, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feng, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  3. Influence of micro-topography and crown characteristics on tree height estimations in tropical forests based on LiDAR canopy height models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cici; Korstjens, Amanda H.; Hill, Ross A.

    2018-03-01

    Tree or canopy height is an important attribute for carbon stock estimation, forest management and habitat quality assessment. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has advantages over other remote sensing techniques for describing the structure of forests. However, sloped terrain can be challenging for accurate estimation of tree locations and heights based on a Canopy Height Model (CHM) generated from ALS data; a CHM is a height-normalised Digital Surface Model (DSM) obtained by subtracting a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from a DSM. On sloped terrain, points at the same elevation on a tree crown appear to increase in height in the downhill direction, based on the ground elevations at these points. A point will be incorrectly identified as the treetop by individual tree crown (ITC) recognition algorithms if its height is greater than that of the actual treetop in the CHM, which will be recorded as the tree height. In this study, the influence of terrain slope and crown characteristics on the detection of treetops and estimation of tree heights is assessed using ALS data in a tropical forest with complex terrain (i.e. micro-topography) and tree crown characteristics. Locations and heights of 11,442 trees based on a DSM are compared with those based on a CHM. The horizontal (DH) and vertical displacements (DV) increase with terrain slope (r = 0.47 and r = 0.54 respectively, p tree height are up to 16.6 m on slopes greater than 50° in our study area in Sumatra. The errors in locations (DH) and tree heights (DV) are modelled for trees with conical and spherical tree crowns. For a spherical tree crown, DH can be modelled as R sin θ, and DV as R (sec θ - 1). In this study, a model is developed for an idealised conical tree crown, DV = R (tan θ - tan ψ), where R is the crown radius, and θ and ψ are terrain and crown angles respectively. It is shown that errors occur only when terrain angle exceeds the crown angle, with the

  4. Laser remote sensing of water vapor: Raman lidar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S.E.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the development of a critical design for a Raman lidar system optimized to match ARM Program needs for profiling atmospheric water vapor at CART sites. This work has emphasized the development of enhanced daytime capabilities using Raman lidar techniques. This abstract touches briefly on the main components of the research program, summarizing results of the efforts. A detailed Raman lidar instrument model has been developed to predict the daytime and nighttime performance capabilities of Raman lidar systems. The model simulates key characteristics of the lidar system, using realistic atmospheric profiles, modeled background sky radiance, and lidar system parameters based on current instrument capabilities. The model is used to guide development of lidar systems based on both the solar-blind concept and the narrowband, narrow field-of-view concept for daytime optimization

  5. Monitoring Hydraulic Fracturing Using Ground-Based Controlled Source Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.; Trevino, S., III; Everett, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing allows hydrocarbon production in low permeability formations. Imaging the distribution of fluid used to create a hydraulic fracture can aid in the characterization of fracture properties such as extent of plume penetration as well as fracture azimuth and symmetry. This could contribute to improving the efficiency of an operation, for example, in helping to determine ideal well spacing or the need to refracture a zone. A ground-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) technique is ideal for imaging the fluid due to the change in field caused by the difference in the conductive properties of the fluid when compared to the background. With advances in high signal to noise recording equipment, coupled with a high-power, broadband transmitter we can show hydraulic fracture extent and azimuth with minimal processing. A 3D finite element code is used to model the complete well casing along with the layered subsurface. This forward model is used to optimize the survey design and isolate the band of frequencies with the best response. In the field, the results of the modeling are also used to create a custom pseudorandom numeric (PRN) code to control the frequencies transmitted through a grounded dipole source. The receivers record the surface voltage across two grounded dipoles, one parallel and one perpendicular to the transmitter. The data are presented as the displays of amplitude ratios across several frequencies with the associated spatial information. In this presentation, we show multiple field results in multiple basins in the United States along with the CSEM theory used to create the survey designs.

  6. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  7. Mapping of High Value Crops Through AN Object-Based Svm Model Using LIDAR Data and Orthophoto in Agusan del Norte Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candare, Rudolph Joshua; Japitana, Michelle; Cubillas, James Earl; Ramirez, Cherry Bryan

    2016-06-01

    This research describes the methods involved in the mapping of different high value crops in Agusan del Norte Philippines using LiDAR. This project is part of the Phil-LiDAR 2 Program which aims to conduct a nationwide resource assessment using LiDAR. Because of the high resolution data involved, the methodology described here utilizes object-based image analysis and the use of optimal features from LiDAR data and Orthophoto. Object-based classification was primarily done by developing rule-sets in eCognition. Several features from the LiDAR data and Orthophotos were used in the development of rule-sets for classification. Generally, classes of objects can't be separated by simple thresholds from different features making it difficult to develop a rule-set. To resolve this problem, the image-objects were subjected to Support Vector Machine learning. SVMs have gained popularity because of their ability to generalize well given a limited number of training samples. However, SVMs also suffer from parameter assignment issues that can significantly affect the classification results. More specifically, the regularization parameter C in linear SVM has to be optimized through cross validation to increase the overall accuracy. After performing the segmentation in eCognition, the optimization procedure as well as the extraction of the equations of the hyper-planes was done in Matlab. The learned hyper-planes separating one class from another in the multi-dimensional feature-space can be thought of as super-features which were then used in developing the classifier rule set in eCognition. In this study, we report an overall classification accuracy of greater than 90% in different areas.

  8. Global Registration of 3D LiDAR Point Clouds Based on Scene Features: Application to Structured Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sanchez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring 3D data with LiDAR systems involves scanning multiple scenes from different points of view. In actual systems, the ICP algorithm (Iterative Closest Point is commonly used to register the acquired point clouds together to form a unique one. However, this method faces local minima issues and often needs a coarse initial alignment to converge to the optimum. This paper develops a new method for registration adapted to indoor environments and based on structure priors of such scenes. Our method works without odometric data or physical targets. The rotation and translation of the rigid transformation are computed separately, using, respectively, the Gaussian image of the point clouds and a correlation of histograms. To evaluate our algorithm on challenging registration cases, two datasets were acquired and are available for comparison with other methods online. The evaluation of our algorithm on four datasets against six existing methods shows that the proposed method is more robust against sampling and scene complexity. Moreover, the time performances enable a real-time implementation.

  9. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  10. A graph signal filtering-based approach for detection of different edge types on airborne lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Eda; Vural, Elif; Alatan, Aydin

    2017-10-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning is a well-known remote sensing technology, which provides a dense and highly accurate, yet unorganized point cloud of earth surface. During the last decade, extracting information from the data generated by airborne LiDAR systems has been addressed by many studies in geo-spatial analysis and urban monitoring applications. However, the processing of LiDAR point clouds is challenging due to their irregular structure and 3D geometry. In this study, we propose a novel framework for the detection of the boundaries of an object or scene captured by LiDAR. Our approach is motivated by edge detection techniques in vision research and it is established on graph signal filtering which is an exciting and promising field of signal processing for irregular data types. Due to the convenient applicability of graph signal processing tools on unstructured point clouds, we achieve the detection of the edge points directly on 3D data by using a graph representation that is constructed exclusively to answer the requirements of the application. Moreover, considering the elevation data as the (graph) signal, we leverage aerial characteristic of the airborne LiDAR data. The proposed method can be employed both for discovering the jump edges on a segmentation problem and for exploring the crease edges on a LiDAR object on a reconstruction/modeling problem, by only adjusting the filter characteristics.

  11. Automated Extraction of 3D Trees from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated algorithm for extracting 3D trees directly from 3D mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR data. To reduce both computational and spatial complexities, ground points are first filtered out from a raw 3D point cloud via blockbased elevation filtering. Off-ground points are then grouped into clusters representing individual objects through Euclidean distance clustering and voxel-based normalized cut segmentation. Finally, a model-driven method is proposed to achieve the extraction of 3D trees based on a pairwise 3D shape descriptor. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of mobile LiDAR point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  13. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  14. Ground-based observations coordinated with Viking satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Kirkwood, S.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumentation and the orbit of the Viking satellite made this first Swedish satellite mission ideally suited for coordinated observations with the dense network of ground-based stations in northern Scandinavia. Several arrays of complementing instruments such as magnetometers, all-sky cameras, riometers and doppler radars monitored on a routine basis the ionosphere under the magnetospheric region passed by Viking. For a large number of orbits the Viking passages close to Scandinavia were covered by the operation of specially designed programmes at the European incoherent-scatter facility (EISCAT). First results of coordinated observations on the ground and aboard Viking have shed new light on the most spectacular feature of substorm expansion, the westward-travelling surge. The end of a substorm and the associated decay of a westward-travelling surge have been analysed. EISCAT measurements of high spatial and temporal resolution indicate that the conductivities and electric fields associated with westward-travelling surges are not represented correctly by the existing models. (author)

  15. New Results from the NOAA CREST Lidar Network (CLN Observations in the US Eastcoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshary Fred

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents coordinated ground-based observations by the NOAA-CREST Lidar Network (CLN for profiling of aerosols, cloud, water vapor, and wind along the US east coast including Caribbean region at Puerto Rico. The instrumentation, methodology and observation capability are reviewed. The applications to continental and intercontinental-scale transport of smoke and dust plumes, and their large scale regional impact are discussed.

  16. Reconstruction of Sky Illumination Domes from Ground-Based Panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, F.; Lelégard, L.; Brédif, M.; Paparoditis, N.; Briottet, X.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  17. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  18. RECONSTRUCTION OF SKY ILLUMINATION DOMES FROM GROUND-BASED PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coubard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  19. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  20. Comparison of monthly nighttime cloud fraction products from MODIS and AIRS and ground-based camera over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud detection nowadays is primarily achieved by the utilization of various sensors aboard satellites. These include MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra, and AIRS with products that include nighttime cloud fraction. Ground-based instruments are, however, only secondary to these satellites when it comes to cloud detection. Nonetheless, these ground-based instruments (e.g., LIDARs, ceilometers, and sky-cameras) offer significant datasets about a particular region's cloud cover values. For nighttime operations of cloud detection instruments, satellite-based instruments are more reliably and prominently used than ground-based ones. Therefore if a ground-based instrument for nighttime operations is operated, it ought to produce reliable scientific datasets. The objective of this study is to do a comparison between the results of a nighttime ground-based instrument (sky-camera) and that of MODIS Aqua and MODIS Terra. A Canon Powershot A2300 is placed ontop of Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E) and is configured to take images of the night sky at 5min intervals. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted to grayscale format. Thresholding technique is used to screen pixels with cloud and pixels without clouds. If the pixel value is greater than 17, it is considered as a cloud; otherwise, a noncloud (Gacal et al., 2016). This algorithm is applied to the data gathered from Oct 2015 to Oct 2016. A scatter plot between satellite cloud fraction in the area covering the area 14.2877N, 120.9869E, 14.7711N and 121.4539E and ground cloud cover is graphed to find the monthly correlation. During wet season (June - November), the satellite nighttime cloud fraction vs ground measured cloud cover produce an acceptable R2 (Aqua= 0.74, Terra= 0.71, AIRS= 0.76). However, during dry season, poor R2 values are obtained (AIRS= 0.39, Aqua & Terra = 0.01). The high correlation during wet season can be attributed to a high probability that the camera and satellite see the same clouds

  1. Wavelet-based ground vehicle recognition using acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Howard C.; Karlsen, Robert E.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Meitzler, Thomas J.

    1996-03-01

    We present, in this paper, a wavelet-based acoustic signal analysis to remotely recognize military vehicles using their sound intercepted by acoustic sensors. Since expedited signal recognition is imperative in many military and industrial situations, we developed an algorithm that provides an automated, fast signal recognition once implemented in a real-time hardware system. This algorithm consists of wavelet preprocessing, feature extraction and compact signal representation, and a simple but effective statistical pattern matching. The current status of the algorithm does not require any training. The training is replaced by human selection of reference signals (e.g., squeak or engine exhaust sound) distinctive to each individual vehicle based on human perception. This allows a fast archiving of any new vehicle type in the database once the signal is collected. The wavelet preprocessing provides time-frequency multiresolution analysis using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Within each resolution level, feature vectors are generated from statistical parameters and energy content of the wavelet coefficients. After applying our algorithm on the intercepted acoustic signals, the resultant feature vectors are compared with the reference vehicle feature vectors in the database using statistical pattern matching to determine the type of vehicle from where the signal originated. Certainly, statistical pattern matching can be replaced by an artificial neural network (ANN); however, the ANN would require training data sets and time to train the net. Unfortunately, this is not always possible for many real world situations, especially collecting data sets from unfriendly ground vehicles to train the ANN. Our methodology using wavelet preprocessing and statistical pattern matching provides robust acoustic signal recognition. We also present an example of vehicle recognition using acoustic signals collected from two different military ground vehicles. In this paper, we will

  2. Satellite and Ground Based Monitoring of Aerosol Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Martin; Dorling, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Plumes of atmospheric aerosol have been studied using a range of satellite and ground-based techniques. The Sea-viewing WideField-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has been used to observe plumes of sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust around the coast of the United Kingdom. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) was retrieved from SeaWiFS for two events; a plume of Saharan dust transported over the United Kingdom from Western Africa and a period of elevated sulphate experienced over the Easternregion of the UK. Patterns of AOT are discussed and related to the synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions. Further observation of the sulphate aerosol event was undertaken using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument(AVHRR). Atmospheric back trajectories and weather conditions were studied in order to identify the meteorological conditions which led to this event. Co-located ground-based measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were obtained for 4sites within the UK and PM 2.5/10 ratios were calculated in order to identify any unusually high or low ratios(indicating the dominant size fraction within the plume)during either of these events. Calculated percentiles ofPM 2.5/10 ratios during the 2 events examined show that these events were notable within the record, but were in noway unique or unusual in the context of a 3 yr monitoring record. Visibility measurements for both episodes have been examined and show that visibility degradation occurred during both the sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust episodes

  3. Field test of an all-semiconductor laser-based coherent continuous-wave Doppler lidar for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Dellwik, Ebba; Hu, Qi

    -produced all-semiconductor laser. The instrument is a coherent continuous-wave lidar with two fixed-focus telescopes for launching laser beams in two different directions. The alternation between the telescopes is achieved by a novel switching technique without any moving parts. Here, we report results from...... signal strength from external atmospheric parameters such as relative humidity and concentrations of atmospheric particles is discussed. This novel lidar instrument design seems to offer a promising low-cost alternative for prevision remote sensing of wind turbine inflow....

  4. Determinare le aree inondabili del fiume Ofanto per mezzo di un modello idraulico 1D/2D su base Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Romano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of Ofanto river flood risk areas through a 1D/2D Lidar hydraulic model The national emergency management services should lean on flood risk areas thematic maps in order to manage an eventual catastrophic event. The article, focused on the Ofanto river hydrographic basins, is a clear example of how an accurate knowledge of the terrain, obtained through the latest technological instruments as Lidar, could be important in these situations.

  5. Software design of control system of CCD side-scatter lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Deng, Qian; Zhang, Zhanye; Wang, Zhenzhu; Yu, Siqi; Tao, Zongming; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Because of the existence of blind zone and transition zone, the application of backscattering lidar in near-ground is limited. The side-scatter lidar equipped with the Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) can separate the transmitting and receiving devices to avoid the impact of the geometric factors which is exited in the backscattering lidar and, detect the more precise near-ground aerosol signals continuously. Theories of CCD side-scatter lidar and the design of control system are introduced. The visible control of laser and CCD and automatic data processing method of the side-scatter lidar are developed by using the software of Visual C #. The results which are compared with the calibration of the atmospheric aerosol lidar data show that signals from the CCD side- scatter lidar are convincible.

  6. FULLY AUTOMATED GIS-BASED INDIVIDUAL TREE CROWN DELINEATION BASED ON CURVATURE VALUES FROM A LIDAR DERIVED CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL IN A CONIFEROUS PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. Argamosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of high resolution canopy height model (CHM from LiDAR makes it possible to delineate individual tree crown by means of a fully-automated method using the CHM’s curvature through its slope. The local maxima are obtained by taking the maximum raster value in a 3 m x 3 m cell. These values are assumed as tree tops and therefore considered as individual trees. Based on the assumptions, thiessen polygons were generated to serve as buffers for the canopy extent. The negative profile curvature is then measured from the slope of the CHM. The results show that the aggregated points from a negative profile curvature raster provide the most realistic crown shape. The absence of field data regarding tree crown dimensions require accurate visual assessment after the appended delineated tree crown polygon was superimposed to the hill shaded CHM.

  7. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Midway Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  8. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Laysan Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  9. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Kure Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  10. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Lisianki Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  11. Blowing snow detection in Antarctica, from space borne and ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart, A.; Souverijns, N.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J.; Gorodetskaya, I.; Schween, J. H.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) strongly controls spatial and temporal variations in the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) mass balance and its contribution to sea level rise. Currently, the scarcity of observational data and the challenges of climate modelling over the ice sheet limit our understanding of the processes controlling AIS SMB. Particularly, the impact of blowing snow on local SMB is not yet constrained and is subject to large uncertainties. To assess the impact of blowing snow on local SMB, we investigate the attenuated backscatter profiles from ceilometers at two East Antarctic locations in Dronning Maud Land. Ceilometers are robust ground-based remote sensing instruments that yield information on cloud base height and vertical structure, but also provide information on the particles present in the boundary layer. We developed a new algorithm to detect blowing snow (snow particles lifted by the wind from the surface to substantial height) from the ceilometer attenuated backscatter. The algorithm successfully allows to detect strong blowing snow signal from layers thicker than 15 m at the Princess Elisabeth (PE, (72°S, 23°E)) and Neumayer (70°S, 8° W) stations. Applying the algorithm to PE, we retrieve the frequency and annual cycle of blowing snow as well as discriminate between clear sky and overcast conditions during blowing snow. We further apply the blowing snow algorithm at PE to evaluate the blowing snow events detection by satellite imagery (Palm et al., 2011): the near-surface blowing snow layers are apparent in lidar backscatter profiles and enable snowdrift events detection (spatial and temporal frequency, height and optical depth). These data are processed from CALIPSO, at a high resolution (1x1 km digital elevation model). However, the remote sensing detection of blowing snow events by satellite is limited to layers of a minimal thickness of 20-30 m. In addition, thick clouds, mostly occurring during winter storms, can impede drifting snow

  12. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  13. Using Lidar and color infrared imagery to successfully measure stand characteristics on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stephens; Luben Dimov; Callie Schweitzer; Wubishet Tadesse

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy was assessed by...

  14. Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Erwan; Mammez, Dominique; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gorju, Guillaume; Pelon, Jacques; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine; Raybaut, Myriam

    2017-10-15

    We report on the capability of a direct detection differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved and integrated path (IPDIAL) remote sensing of CO 2 in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The laser source is an amplified nested cavity optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) emitting approximately 8 mJ at the two measurement wavelengths selected near 2050 nm. Direct detection atmospheric measurements are taken from the ground using a 30 Hz frequency switching between emitted wavelengths. Results show that comparable precision measurements are achieved in DIAL and IPDIAL modes (not better than a few ppm) on high SNR targets such as near range ABL aerosol and clouds, respectively. Instrumental limitations are analyzed and degradation due to cloud scattering variability is discussed to explain observed DIAL and IPDIAL limitations.

  15. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  16. 2015 OLC Lidar: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  17. Derivation of Strike and Dip in Sedimentary Terrain Using 3D Image Interpretation Based on Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional geological mapping may be hindered by rough terrain and dense vegetation resulting in obscured geological details. The advent of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provides a very precise three-dimensional (3D digital terrain model (DTM. However, its full potential in complementing traditional geological mapping remains to be explored using 3D rendering techniques. This study uses two types of 3D images which differ in imaging principles to further explore the finer details of sedimentary terrain. Our purposes are to demonstrate detailed geological mapping with 3D rendering techniques, to generate LiDAR-derived 3D strata boundaries that are advantageous in generating 2D geological maps and cross sections, and to develop a new practice in deriving the strike and dip of bedding with LiDAR data using an example from the north bank of the Keelung River in northern Taiwan. We propose a geological mapping practice that improves efficiency and meets a high-precision mapping standard with up to 2 m resolution using airborne LiDAR data. Through field verification and assessment, LiDAR data manipulation with relevant 3D visualization is shown to be an effective approach in improving the details of existing geological maps, specifically in sedimentary terrain.

  18. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    Natural hazards related to ground movement that directly affect the safety of motorists and highway infrastructure include, but are not limited to, rockfalls, rockslides, debris flows, and landslides. This thesis specifically deals with the evaluation of rockfall hazards through the evaluation of LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is an imaging technology that can be used to delineate and evaluate geomechanically-controlled hazards. LiDAR has been adopted to conduct hazard evaluations pertaining to rockfall, rock-avalanches, debris flows, and landslides. Characteristics of LiDAR surveying, such as rapid data acquisition rates, mobile data collection, and high data densities, pose problems to traditional CAD or GIS-based mapping methods. New analyses methods, including tools specifically oriented to geomechanical analyses, are needed. The research completed in this thesis supports development of new methods, including improved survey techniques, innovative software workflows, and processing algorithms to aid in the detection and evaluation of geomechanically controlled rockfall hazards. The scientific research conducted between the years of 2006-2010, as presented in this thesis, are divided into five chapters, each of which has been published by or is under review by an international journal. The five research foci are: (i) geomechanical feature extraction and analysis using LiDAR data in active mining environments; (ii) engineered monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR; (iii) optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses; (iv) location orientation bias when using static LiDAR data for geomechanical analysis; and (v) evaluating roadside rockmasses for rockfall hazards from LiDAR data: optimizing data collection and processing protocols. The research conducted pertaining to this thesis has direct and significant implications with

  19. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  20. Characterization of tropospheric ozone based on lidar measurement in Hangzhou, East China during the G20 Leaders' Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenjing; Liu, Cheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Hu, Qihou; Huang, Xin; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the G20 (Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) Leaders' Summit (Sep.5th-6th, 2016), a series of strict air quality control measures were implemented in Hangzhou and its surrounding regions from Aug.26th to Sep.6th. A differential absorption lidar was employed to monitor tropospheric ozone in urban Hangzhou during a campaign from Aug. 24th to Sep. 10th, and the satellite-based NO2 VCDs and HCHO VCDs in the troposphere were also retrieved using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). During our campaign, six O3 pollution events, which were determined according to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of China (GB-3095-2012), and two stages with rapid reduction of O3 concentration on Aug. 26th and Sep.4-6th were observed. The temporal variation tendency of O3 concentrations was well reproduced by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Typical cases with the abrupt rise and decline of O3 concentrations were analyzed using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory, satellite NO2 and HCHO product and the prediction by WRF-Chem model. The transport from northern cities have an important impact on pollutants observed in Hangzhou, and the chemical sensitivity of O3 production, which were approximately evaluated using the ratio of HCHO VCDs to NO2 VCDs in the troposphere, was turned from a mixed VOC-NOx-limited regime into a NOX-limited regime in Hangzhou due to the strict emission control measures.

  1. Vision-based Ground Test for Active Debris Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous space development by mankind, the number of space objects including space debris in orbits around the Earth has increased, and accordingly, difficulties of space development and activities are expected in the near future. In this study, among the stages for space debris removal, the implementation of a vision-based approach technique for approaching space debris from a far-range rendezvous state to a proximity state, and the ground test performance results were described. For the vision-based object tracking, the CAM-shift algorithm with high speed and strong performance, and the Kalman filter were combined and utilized. For measuring the distance to a tracking object, a stereo camera was used. For the construction of a low-cost space environment simulation test bed, a sun simulator was used, and in the case of the platform for approaching, a two-dimensional mobile robot was used. The tracking status was examined while changing the position of the sun simulator, and the results indicated that the CAM-shift showed a tracking rate of about 87% and the relative distance could be measured down to 0.9 m. In addition, considerations for future space environment simulation tests were proposed.

  2. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  3. High-resolution digital elevation model of lower Cowlitz and Toutle Rivers, adjacent to Mount St. Helens, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of October 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the Toutle River basin, which drains the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and lower Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, continues to monitor and mitigate excess sediment in North and South Fork Toutle River basins to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From October 22–27, 2007, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 273 square kilometers (105 square miles) of lower Cowlitz and Toutle River tributaries from the Columbia River at Kelso, Washington, to upper North Fork Toutle River (below the volcano's edifice), including lower South Fork Toutle River. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at

  4. Long term landslide monitoring with Ground Based SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Luzi, Guido; Gili, Josep; Moya, Jose; Corominas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Ground-Based (GBSAR) has proven to be a reliable microwave Remote Sensing technique in several application fields, especially for unstable slopes monitoring. GBSAR can provide displacement measurements over few squared kilometres areas and with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. This work is focused on the use of GBSAR technique for long term landslide monitoring based on a particular data acquisition configuration, which is called discontinuous GBSAR (D-GBSAR). In the most commonly used GBSAR configuration, the radar is left installed in situ, acquiring data periodically, e.g. every few minutes. Deformations are estimated by processing sets of GBSAR images acquired during several weeks or months, without moving the system. By contrast, in the D-GBSAR the radar is installed and dismounted at each measurement campaign, revisiting a given site periodically. This configuration is useful to monitor slow deformation phenomena. In this work, two alternative ways for exploiting the D-GBSAR technique will be presented: the DInSAR technique and the Amplitude based Technique. The former is based on the exploitation of the phase component of the acquired SAR images and it allows providing millimetric precision on the deformation estimates. However, this technique presents several limitations like the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component that can make it non applicable in some cases, specially when working in natural environments. The second approach, that is based on the use of the amplitude component of GB-SAR images combined with a image matching technique, will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets avoiding two of the limitations commented above: the phase unwrapping and atmosphere contribution but reducing the deformation measurement precision. Two successful examples of D

  5. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  6. Model of the Correlation between Lidar Systems and Wind Turbines for Lidar-Assisted Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen; Mann, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    - or spinner-based lidar system. If on the one hand, the assumed correlation is overestimated, then the uncorrelated frequencies of the preview will cause unnecessary control action, inducing undesired loads. On the other hand, the benefits of the lidar-assisted controller will not be fully exhausted......, if correlated frequencies are filtered out. To avoid these miscalculations, this work presents a method to model the correlation between lidar systems and wind turbines using Kaimal wind spectra. The derived model accounts for different measurement configurations and spatial averaging of the lidar system......Investigations of lidar-assisted control to optimize the energy yield and to reduce loads of wind turbines have increased significantly in recent years. For this kind of control, it is crucial to know the correlation between the rotor effective wind speed and the wind preview provided by a nacelle...

  7. Quantifying Vegetation Structure with Lightweight, Rapid-Scanning Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Genest, D.; Saenz, E. J.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Peri, F.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is proving a competent technology for observing vegetation structure. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are ground-based instruments which utilize hundreds of thousands to millions of lidar observations to provide detailed structural and reflective information of their surroundings. TLS has enjoyed initial success as a validation tool for satellite and airborne estimates of vegetation structure, and are producing independent estimates with increasing accuracy. Reconstruction techniques for TLS observations of vegetation have also improved rapidly, especially for trees. However, uncertainties and challenges still remain in TLS modelling of vegetation structure, especially in geometrically complex ecosystems such as tropical forests (where observation extent and density is hampered by occlusion) and highly temporally dynamic coastal ecosystems (such as saltmarshes and mangroves), where observations may be restricted to narrow microstates. Some of these uncertainties can be mitigated, and challenges met, through the use of lidar instruments optimized for favorable deployment logistics through low weight, rapid scanning, and improved durability. We have conducted studies of vegetation structure in temperate and tropical forests, saltmarshes and mangroves, utilizing a highly portable TLS with considerable deployment flexibility, the Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL). We show results from studies in the temperate Long Term Ecological Research site of Harvard Forest (MA, USA); the tropical forested long-term Carbono sites of La Selva Biological Station (Sarapiqui, Costa Rica); and the saltmarsh LTER of Plum Island (MA, USA). These results demonstrate the improvements to observations in these ecosystems which are facilitated by the specifications of the CBL (and similar TLS) which are optimized for favorable deployment logistics and flexibility. We show the benefits of increased numbers of scanning positions, and specialized deployment

  8. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  9. Characterization of large instabilities displacements using Ground-Based InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyet, L.; Kristensen, L.; Derron, M.-H.; Michoud, C.; Blikra, L. H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    A master thesis in progress at the Lausanne University (IGAR) in cooperation with the Åknes/Tafjord Early Warning Centre in Norway aims to characterize various instabilities displacements using Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GB-InSAR). The main goal is to evaluate the potential of GB-InSAR to determine displacement velocities and mechanical behaviours of several large rock instabilities in Norway. GB-InSAR data are processed and interpreted for three case studies. The first test site is the unstable complex area of Mannen located in the Romsdalen valley (Møre og Romsdal county), threatening infrastructures and potentially able to cause a debacle event downstream. Its total volume is estimated to 15-25 mill m3. Mannen instability is monitored permanently with GB-InSAR since February 2010 and shows displacements towards the radar up to -8 mm per month during the most sensitive period. Børa area located on the southwest side of Mannen instability shows also some signs of activity. It monitored temporarily between August and October 2011 and could help to understand the behaviour of Mannen site. The second, Indre Nordnes rockslide in Lyngenfjord (Troms county), is directly located above an important fjord in North Norway causing a significant risk of tsunami. The volume is estimated to be around 10-15 mill m3. The site was monitored temporarily between June and August 2011. The data show displacements towards the radar up to -12 mm in 2 weeks. The third case concerns rock falls along the road between Oppdølsstranda and Sunndalsøra (Møre og Romsdal county). Even if the volume of rock is less important than the first two cases, rock falls are an important problem for the road 70 underneath. Several campaigns are done between beginning of 2010 and end of 2011. In June 2011 an important rock fall occurs in an area where significant movements were previously detected by GB-InSAR. In order to understand the behaviour of these

  10. Lidar observation of Eyjafjallajoekull ash layer evolution above the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Parlange, Mark; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; Wienhold, F.; Engel, I.; Brabec, M.; Crisian, A.; Peter, T.; Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, R.

    2010-05-01

    The Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull started to emit significant amounts of volcanic ash and SO2 on 15th April 2010, following the initial eruption on 20th March 2010. In the next days, the ash was dispersed over large parts of Europe resulting in the closure of the major part of the European airspace. Information about spatial and temporal evolution of the cloud was needed urgently to define the conditions for opening the airspace. Satellite, airborne and ground observations together with meteorological models were used to evaluate the cloud propagation and evolution. While the horizontal extents of the volcanic cloud were accurately captured by satellite images, it remained difficult to obtain accurate information about the cloud base and top height, density and dynamics. During this event lidars demonstrated that they were the only ground based instruments allowing monitoring of the vertical distribution of the volcanic ash. Here we present observational results showing the evolution of the volcanic layer over the Swiss plateau. The measurements were carried out by one Raman lidar located in Payerne, two elastic lidars located in Neuchatel and Zurich, and a backscatter sonde launched from Zurich. The observations by the lidars have shown very similar time evolution, coherent with the backscatter sonde profiles and characterized by the appearance of the ash layer on the evening of 16th, followed by descend to 2-3 km during the next day and final mixing with the ABL on 19th. Simultaneous water vapor data from the Payerne lidar show low water content of the ash layer. The CSEM and EPFL gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the European Commission under grant RICA-025991.

  11. Comparing multiple model-derived aerosol optical properties to spatially collocated ground-based and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocko, Ilissa B.; Ginoux, Paul A.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are a key factor governing Earth's climate and play a central role in human-caused climate change. However, because of aerosols' complex physical, optical, and dynamical properties, aerosols are one of the most uncertain aspects of climate modeling. Fortunately, aerosol measurement networks over the past few decades have led to the establishment of long-term observations for numerous locations worldwide. Further, the availability of datasets from several different measurement techniques (such as ground-based and satellite instruments) can help scientists increasingly improve modeling efforts. This study explores the value of evaluating several model-simulated aerosol properties with data from spatially collocated instruments. We compare aerosol optical depth (AOD; total, scattering, and absorption), single-scattering albedo (SSA), Ångström exponent (α), and extinction vertical profiles in two prominent global climate models (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, GFDL, CM2.1 and CM3) to seasonal observations from collocated instruments (AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization, CALIOP) at seven polluted and biomass burning regions worldwide. We find that a multi-parameter evaluation provides key insights on model biases, data from collocated instruments can reveal underlying aerosol-governing physics, column properties wash out important vertical distinctions, and improved models does not mean all aspects are improved. We conclude that it is important to make use of all available data (parameters and instruments) when evaluating aerosol properties derived by models.

  12. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  13. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  14. WAVELENGTH SELECTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL LIDAR BASED ON FEATURE WEIGHTING FOR ESTIMATION OF LEAF NITROGEN CONTENT IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm – 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVMs based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC

  15. Digital acquisition and wavelength control of seed laser for space-based Lidar applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposes to establish the feasibility of using a space qualifiable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital controller to autonomously...

  16. Portable and Airborne Small Footprint LiDAR: Forest Canopy Structure Estimation of Fire Managed Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M.C.S. Listopad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used an affordable ground-based portable LiDAR system to provide an understanding of the structural differences between old-growth and secondary-growth Southeastern pine. It provided insight into the strengths and weaknesses in the structural determination of portable systems in contrast to airborne LiDAR systems. Portable LiDAR height profiles and derived metrics and indices (e.g., canopy cover, canopy height were compared among plots with different fire frequency and fire season treatments within secondary forest and old growth plots. The treatments consisted of transitional season fire with four different return intervals: 1-yr, 2-yr, 3-yr fire return intervals, and fire suppressed plots. The remaining secondary plots were treated using a 2-yr late dormant season fire cycle. The old growth plots were treated using a 2-yr growing season fire cycle. Airborne and portable LiDAR derived canopy cover were consistent throughout the plots, with significantly higher canopy cover values found in 3-yr and fire suppressed plots. Portable LiDAR height profile and metrics presented a higher sensitivity in capturing subcanopy elements than the airborne system, particularly in dense canopy plots. The 3-dimensional structures of the secondary plots with varying fire return intervals were dramatically different to old-growth plots, where a symmetrical distribution with clear recruitment was visible. Portable LiDAR, even though limited to finer spatial scales and specific biases, is a low-cost investment with clear value for the management of forest canopy structure.

  17. Small-scale Scheimpflug lidar for aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qin, Laian; Hou, Zaihong; Jing, Xu; He, Feng; Tan, Fengfu; Zhang, Silong

    2018-03-19

    In this paper, a new prototypical Scheimpflug lidar capable of detecting the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance at 1 km above the ground is described. The lidar system operates at 532 nm and can be used to detect aerosol extinction coefficients throughout an entire day. Then, the vertical atmospheric transmittance can be determined from the extinction coefficients with the equation of numerical integration in this area. CCD flat fielding of the image data is used to mitigate the effects of pixel sensitivity variation. An efficient method of two-dimensional wavelet transform according to a local threshold value has been proposed to reduce the Gaussian white noise in the lidar signal. Furthermore, a new iteration method of backscattering ratio based on genetic algorithm is presented to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance. Some simulations are performed to reduce the different levels of noise in the simulated signal in order to test the precision of the de-noising method and inversion algorithm. The simulation result shows that the root-mean-square errors of extinction coefficients are all less than 0.02 km -1 , and that the relative errors of the atmospheric transmittance between the model and inversion data are below 0.56% for all cases. The feasibility of the instrument and the inversion algorithm have also been verified by an optical experiment. The average relative errors of aerosol extinction coefficients between the Scheimpflug lidar and the conventional backscattering elastic lidar are 3.54% and 2.79% in the full overlap heights of two time points, respectively. This work opens up new possibilities of using a small-scale Scheimpflug lidar system for the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols.

  18. AUTOMATED RECONSTRUCTION OF WALLS FROM AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA FOR COMPLETE 3D BUILDING MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated 3D building model generation continues to attract research interests in photogrammetry and computer vision. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR data with increasing point density and accuracy has been recognized as a valuable source for automated 3D building reconstruction. While considerable achievements have been made in roof extraction, limited research has been carried out in modelling and reconstruction of walls, which constitute important components of a full building model. Low point density and irregular point distribution of LIDAR observations on vertical walls render this task complex. This paper develops a novel approach for wall reconstruction from airborne LIDAR data. The developed method commences with point cloud segmentation using a region growing approach. Seed points for planar segments are selected through principle component analysis, and points in the neighbourhood are collected and examined to form planar segments. Afterwards, segment-based classification is performed to identify roofs, walls and planar ground surfaces. For walls with sparse LIDAR observations, a search is conducted in the neighbourhood of each individual roof segment to collect wall points, and the walls are then reconstructed using geometrical and topological constraints. Finally, walls which were not illuminated by the LIDAR sensor are determined via both reconstructed roof data and neighbouring walls. This leads to the generation of topologically consistent and geometrically accurate and complete 3D building models. Experiments have been conducted in two test sites in the Netherlands and Australia to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that planar segments can be reliably extracted in the two reported test sites, which have different point density, and the building walls can be correctly reconstructed if the walls are illuminated by the LIDAR sensor.

  19. Towards Stable Adversarial Feature Learning for LiDAR based Loop Closure Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lingyun; Yin, Peng; Luo, Haibo; Liu, Yunhui; Han, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Stable feature extraction is the key for the Loop closure detection (LCD) task in the simultaneously localization and mapping (SLAM) framework. In our paper, the feature extraction is operated by using a generative adversarial networks (GANs) based unsupervised learning. GANs are powerful generative models, however, GANs based adversarial learning suffers from training instability. We find that the data-code joint distribution in the adversarial learning is a more complex manifold than in the...

  20. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  1. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  2. A design for a ground-based data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  3. Ground-Based Correction of Remote-Sensing Spectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder-Golden, Steven M.; Rochford, Peter; Matthew, Michael; Berk, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Software has been developed for an improved method of correcting for the atmospheric optical effects (primarily, effects of aerosols and water vapor) in spectral images of the surface of the Earth acquired by airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing instruments. In this method, the variables needed for the corrections are extracted from the readings of a radiometer located on the ground in the vicinity of the scene of interest. The software includes algorithms that analyze measurement data acquired from a shadow-band radiometer. These algorithms are based on a prior radiation transport software model, called MODTRAN, that has been developed through several versions up to what are now known as MODTRAN4 and MODTRAN5 . These components have been integrated with a user-friendly Interactive Data Language (IDL) front end and an advanced version of MODTRAN4. Software tools for handling general data formats, performing a Langley-type calibration, and generating an output file of retrieved atmospheric parameters for use in another atmospheric-correction computer program known as FLAASH have also been incorporated into the present soft-ware. Concomitantly with the soft-ware described thus far, there has been developed a version of FLAASH that utilizes the retrieved atmospheric parameters to process spectral image data.

  4. Use of ground-based wind profiles in mesoscale forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent uses of ground-based wind profile data in mesoscale forecasting. Some of the applications are in real time, and some are after the fact. Not all of the work mentioned here has been published yet, but references are given wherever possible. As Gage and Balsley (1978) point out, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to examine tropospheric wind profiles since the 1970's. It was not until the early 1980's, however, that the potential contribution of these instruments to operational forecasting and numerical weather prediction became apparent. Profiler winds and radiosonde winds compare favorably, usually within a few m/s in speed and 10 degrees in direction (see Hogg et al., 1983), but the obvious advantage of the profiler is its frequent (hourly or more often) sampling of the same volume. The rawinsonde balloon is launched only twice a day and drifts with the wind. In this paper, I will: (1) mention two operational uses of data from a wind profiling system developed jointly by the Wave Propagation and Aeronomy Laboratories of NOAA; (2) describe a number of displays of these same data on a workstation for mesoscale forecasting developed by the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS); and (3) explain some interesting diagnostic calculations performed by meteorologists of the Wave Propagation Laboratory.

  5. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space