WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground applied ulv

  1. Ground ULV and thermal fog applications against Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in a hot arid environment in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania continue to threaten US military operations in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Middle East. Ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog pesticide dispersal are potentially effective against sand flies, but operational guidance is thinly based on mosquito con...

  2. UJI COBA PENYEMPROTAN ULV (ULV SPRAYING INSEKTISIDA BENDIOCARB 20 % (FICAM ULV TERHADAP VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted using ULV spraying of Bendiocarb 20% (Ficam ULV in Salatiga municipality at a dosage of 45 ml/ha and 75 ml/ha. The trial was conducted in the morning. Two cycles were implemented at an interval of 7 days, using a vehicle-mounted ULV generator. Results revealed no significant changes in mosquito population densitities, in any of the parameters observed.

  3. UJI COBA PENYEMPROTAN ULV (ULV SPRAYING INSEKTISIDA BENDIOCARB 20 % (FICAM ULV TERHADAP VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted using ULV spraying of Bendiocarb 20% (Ficam ULV in Salatiga municipality at a dosage of 45 ml/ha and 75 ml/ha. The trial was conducted in the morning. Two cycles were implemented at an interval of 7 days, using a vehicle-mounted ULV generator. Results revealed no significant changes in mosquito population densitities, in any of the parameters observed.

  4. EFEKTIVITAS BERBAGAI JARAK JANGKAUAN APLIKASI ULV-MALATHION TERHADAP AEDES AEGYPTI DI KECAMATAN SEWON, BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyana Widyana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is still used in the National Program of Dengue Vector Control in Indonesia. Which is applied either in the form of cold aerosols (ULV or thermal fog. This study aimed at determining the efficacy of ULV application of malathion in different distances against Aedes aegypti in Sewon district, Bantul. Methods of the study include the use of Ae. aegypti adult of laboratory strain. Which were set in the distances of 35 & 70 meters from the nozzel of ULV-rnechine. The experimental unit was 20 mosquitoes per-cage located with three replicates respectively in two sub village (dusun, these are Dagan (D and Mriyan (M. Number (% of mortalities of the test mosquitoes were analyzed statistically with survival analysis method at the intervals of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours post treatment. The results indicated that ULV application of malathion was effective against the test mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti, at the distance of 35-70 meter at sub village "D"

  5. Evaluation of ULV and Thermal Fog Mosquito Control Applications in Temperate and Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    current control strategies (Linthicum et al. 2007, Cope et al. 2008, Dalton 2008). A survey of the literature between 1940 and 2009 reveals an...applications to control Culex and Aedes adults in temperate and desert environments. Multiple factors including envi- ronmental conditions have a...Chanthon K. 1976. The control of field populations of Aedes aegypti by malathion, fenitrothion, bioresmethrin and pyre- thrum ULV ground aerosols, and by

  6. Comparison of an ultra-low volume (ULV sprayer against a conventional sprayer, for foliar fertiliser and fungicide applications in turfgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jason Connor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field studies (I and II at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln: John Seaton Anderson Turfgrass Research Facility near Mead, NE, USA, were conducted to determine if a new ultra-low volume (ULV sprayer can apply foliar nutrient, growth regulator, and fungicide treatments, in a manner similar to that of a conventional sprayer. Treatments were applied over creeping bentgrass ‘L-93’ (Agrostis stolonifera L. managed as a fairway at 561 l · ha−1 and 47 l · ha−1 with the conventional and ULV sprayer, respectfully. Data were collected for chlorophyll content with a chlorophyll meter, and for the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI with a turf colour meter. Each plot was harvested for biomass at 21 days after treatment. Study II compared the ULV sprayer and a conventional sprayer, for the control of brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn in creeping bentgrass. The treatments were propiconazole and azoxystrobin. Spray volume was 561 l · ha−1 for the conventional sprayer, and 19 l · ha−1 for the ULV sprayer. Statistical differences in turf quality or dry weight reductions between the conventional and ULV sprayer were not detected. Brown patch control was also similar between the two sprayers, but azoxystrobin provided better control than propiconazole. Even with a 30-fold decrease in application volume, the results indicated that the Kamterter ULV sprayer may be a useful and effective management option for foliar fertiliser and fungicide applications in turfgrass.

  7. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  8. Rank-deficient prewhitening with quotient SVD and ULV decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with certain theoretical and numerical aspects of prewhitening, which is a technique frequently used in signal processing when dealing with signals degraded by colored noise. In particular, we demonstrate how to prewhiten a signal contaminated by an interfering noisy signal whose...... covariance matrix is rank deficient. The formulation of our technique is based on the quotient (or generalized) singular value decomposition, and we also show that a quotient-version of the ULV decomposition can be used to provide an efficient updatable implementation...

  9. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  10. 21 CFR 111.15 - What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What sanitation requirements apply to your... Plant and Grounds § 111.15 What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds? (a...) Sanitation supervisors. You must assign one or more employees to supervise overall sanitation. Each of...

  11. Impact of Ground-Applied Termiticides on the Above-Ground Foraging Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gregg; Gautam, Bal K; Wang, Cai

    2016-08-26

    We conducted a laboratory study to determine the impact of ground-applied termiticides on the above-ground foraging behavior of Coptotermes formosanus. Two concentrations (1 and 10 ppm) each of three termiticides, viz. fipronil, imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole, were tested. After one month post-treatment (fipronil 10 ppm was run for 12 days only and all other treatments were run for one month), fipronil had the lowest percentage of survival (3%-4%) at both concentrations. Termite survival ranged from 31% to 40% in the case of imidacloprid treatments and 10 ppm chlorantraniliprole. However, 1 ppm chlorantraniliprole did not cause significant mortality compared to the controls. Foraging on the bottom substrate was evident in all replicates for all chemicals initially. However, a portion of the foraging population avoided the ground treatment toxicants after several days of bottom foraging. Only the slower-acting non-repellents created this repellent barrier, causing avoidance behavior that was most likely due to dead termites and fungus buildup on the treated bottom substrate. Fipronil appeared more toxic and faster acting at the concentrations tested, thus limiting this repellent effect. Suggestions by the pest control industry in Louisiana that some non-repellents can create a repellent barrier stranding live termites above ground are supported by this laboratory study.

  12. Impact of Ground-Applied Termiticides on the Above-Ground Foraging Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Henderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a laboratory study to determine the impact of ground-applied termiticides on the above-ground foraging behavior of Coptotermes formosanus. Two concentrations (1 and 10 ppm each of three termiticides, viz. fipronil, imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole, were tested. After one month post-treatment (fipronil 10 ppm was run for 12 days only and all other treatments were run for one month, fipronil had the lowest percentage of survival (3%–4% at both concentrations. Termite survival ranged from 31% to 40% in the case of imidacloprid treatments and 10 ppm chlorantraniliprole. However, 1 ppm chlorantraniliprole did not cause significant mortality compared to the controls. Foraging on the bottom substrate was evident in all replicates for all chemicals initially. However, a portion of the foraging population avoided the ground treatment toxicants after several days of bottom foraging. Only the slower-acting non-repellents created this repellent barrier, causing avoidance behavior that was most likely due to dead termites and fungus buildup on the treated bottom substrate. Fipronil appeared more toxic and faster acting at the concentrations tested, thus limiting this repellent effect. Suggestions by the pest control industry in Louisiana that some non-repellents can create a repellent barrier stranding live termites above ground are supported by this laboratory study.

  13. Generating and Analysing Data for Applied Research on Emerging Technologies: A Grounded Action Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Yoong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties of conducting applied qualitative research on the applications of emerging technologies is finding available sources of relevant data for analysis. Because the adoption of emerging technologies is, by definition, new in many organizations, there is often a lack of experienced practitioners who have relevant background and are willing to provide useful information for the study. Therefore, it is necessary to design research approaches that can generate accessible and relevant data. This paper describes two case studies in which the researchers used a grounded action learning approach to study the nature of e-facilitation for face-to-face and for distributed electronic meetings. The grounded action learning approach combines two research methodologies, grounded theory and action learning, to produce a rigorous and flexible method for studying e-facilitation. The implications of this grounded action learning approach for practice and research will be discussed.

  14. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  15. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  16. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  17. L'identità percepita: applicare la Grounded Theory in biblioteca Perceived Identity: applying Grounded Theory in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Faggiolani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L'applicazione della Grounded Theory alle indagini finalizzate ad approfondire l'identità della biblioteca percepita dagli utenti è illustrata attraverso uno studio su quattro biblioteche del sistema bibliotecario comunale di Perugia. Inaugurata alla fine degli anni Sessanta, è una metodologia di ricerca sociale e un insieme di procedure capaci di generare sistematicamente una teoria fondata sui dati. È uno dei metodi interpretativi che mirano a descrivere i significati attribuiti ai fenomeni in esame, risultando particolarmente adatta all’esplorazione dei processi sociali e psicologici sottostanti. I dati passano attraverso le tre fasi di codifica - aperta, assiale, selettiva - e sono spesso elaborati con CAQDAS (Computer Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software. In biblioteca, la metodologia GT è fondamentale per la piena comprensione dello "scarto" rappresentato da ciò che viene realmente fatto dal bibliotecario e ciò che viene percepito dall'utente. La ricerca nelle biblioteche perugine, condotta attraverso focus group e interviste semi-strutturate, ha portato in primo luogo alla consapevolezza che il concetto che l'utente ha della biblioteca è legato più al "luogo" e allo "spazio" piuttosto che al "servizio". Inoltre, le esigenze riscontrate durante la ricerca riguardano primariamente i campi che si occupano del coinvolgimento dell'utente, del rapporto della biblioteca con la scuola, dell'innovazione, della promozione di collezioni a scaffale aperto, della vivacità culturale, e degli aspetti logistico-architettonici.
    This article presents a reflection on the application of Grounded Theory methodology in a study which aims at understanding how the identity of libraries is perceived by users. The Grounded Theory, elaborated in the sixties by the sociologists, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss, and widely applied today in empirical research in varied disciplines, is a methodology of social research and a combination of

  18. Diagrammatic perturbation theory applied to the ground state of the water molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, D. M.; Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    The diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory is applied to the ground state of the water molecule within the algebraic approximation. Using four different basis sets, the total energy, the equilibrium OH bond length, and the equilibrium HOH bond angle are examined. The latter is found to be a particularly sensitive test of the convergence of perturbation expansions. Certain third-order results, which incorporate all two-, three-, and four-body effects, show evidence of good convergence properties.

  19. Acquisition de données en vidéo sous-marine sur les ulves offshore de la baie de Douarnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Lunven, Michel; Le Gall, Erwan; Gaffet, Jean-dominique

    2006-01-01

    En baie de Douarnenez, des estimations du stock d'ulves offshore ont été effectuées en 2004 et 2005 à l'aide de techniques de vidéo sous-marine. Au total, 4 campagnes ont été menées au cours de cette période, permettant une estimation de la biomasse d'ulves posées sur le fond, au-delà de l'estran par des fonds de 2 à 20 mètres.

  20. Applying Grounded Theory to Investigating Change Management in the Nonprofit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosenbaum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is well supported as a qualitative research method that historically responded to the epistemological challenges of defining knowledge and determining how it has been acquired. While its historical and unique methodological underpinnings remain consistent, its ongoing application and methods of execution continue to expand its use. The consideration of using grounded theory by researchers embodies the need to explore the methodology and thereafter seek to develop the method that reflects the researcher’s skills, the research setting, and the research aims. This article sets out a particular method of applying it to the study of change management using a rich single case study in the nonprofit sector. Key findings are that nonprofit specific change management models may need to incorporate a focus on formal reflection for change agents and change recipients, development of trust and confidence in the organization prior to the actual change, focusing on the individual experience of change, and recognizing the sequencing of events from a planning perspective.

  1. Kinetic energy partition method applied to ground state helium-like atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chao, Sheng D

    2017-03-28

    We have used the recently developed kinetic energy partition (KEP) method to solve the quantum eigenvalue problems for helium-like atoms and obtain precise ground state energies and wave-functions. The key to treating properly the electron-electron (repulsive) Coulomb potential energies for the KEP method to be applied is to introduce a "negative mass" term into the partitioned kinetic energy. A Hartree-like product wave-function from the subsystem wave-functions is used to form the initial trial function, and the variational search for the optimized adiabatic parameters leads to a precise ground state energy. This new approach sheds new light on the all-important problem of solving many-electron Schrödinger equations and hopefully opens a new way to predictive quantum chemistry. The results presented here give very promising evidence that an effective one-electron model can be used to represent a many-electron system, in the spirit of density functional theory.

  2. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999–2010 obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometry at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site. Different ozone retrieval strategies are examined, analysing the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The theoretical assessment reveals that the FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a precision of better than 6% in the troposphere and of better than 3% in the lower, middle and upper stratosphere. This total error includes the smoothing error, which dominates the random error budget. Furthermore, we estimate that the measurement noise as well as uncertainties in the applied atmospheric temperature profiles and instrumental line shape are leading error sources. We show that a simultaneous temperature retrieval can significantly reduce the total random errors and that a regular determination of the instrumental line shape is important for producing a consistent long-term dataset. These theoretical precision estimates are empirically confirmed by daily intercomparisons with Electro Chemical Cell (ECC sonde profiles. In order to empirically document the long-term stability of the FTIR ozone profile data we compare the linear trends and seasonal cycles as obtained from the FTIR and ECC time series. Concerning seasonality, in winter both techniques observe stratospheric ozone profiles that are typical middle latitude profiles (low tropopause, low ozone maximum concentrations and in summer/autumn profiles that are typical tropical profiles (high tropopause, high maximum concentrations. The linear trends estimated from the FTIR and the ECC datasets agree within their error bars. For the FTIR time series, we observe a significant negative trend in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere of about −0.2% yr−1 and a significant positive trend in the middle and

  3. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O. E.; Schneider, M.; Redondas, A.; González, Y.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999-2010) obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectrometry at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site. Different ozone retrieval strategies are examined, analysing the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The theoretical assessment reveals that the FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a precision of better than 6% in the troposphere and of better than 3% in the lower, middle and upper stratosphere. This total error includes the smoothing error, which dominates the random error budget. Furthermore, we estimate that the measurement noise as well as uncertainties in the applied atmospheric temperature profiles and instrumental line shape are leading error sources. We show that a simultaneous temperature retrieval can significantly reduce the total random errors and that a regular determination of the instrumental line shape is important for producing a consistent long-term dataset. These theoretical precision estimates are empirically confirmed by daily intercomparisons with Electro Chemical Cell (ECC) sonde profiles. In order to empirically document the long-term stability of the FTIR ozone profile data we compare the linear trends and seasonal cycles as obtained from the FTIR and ECC time series. Concerning seasonality, in winter both techniques observe stratospheric ozone profiles that are typical middle latitude profiles (low tropopause, low ozone maximum concentrations) and in summer/autumn profiles that are typical tropical profiles (high tropopause, high maximum concentrations). The linear trends estimated from the FTIR and the ECC datasets agree within their error bars. For the FTIR time series, we observe a significant negative trend in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere of about -0.2% yr-1 and a significant positive trend in the middle and upper stratosphere of about +0

  4. Development of Ground Coils with Low Eddy Current Loss by Applying the Compression Molding Method after the Coil Winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Aiba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ota, Satoru; Okada, Shigenori

    In a magnetically levitated transportation (MAGLEV) system, a huge number of ground coils will be required because they must be laid for the whole line. Therefore, stable performance and reduced cost are essential requirements for the ground coil development. On the other hand, because the magnetic field changes when the superconducting magnet passes by, an eddy current will be generated in the conductor of the ground coil and will result in energy loss. The loss not only increases the magnetic resistance for the train running but also brings an increase in the ground coil temperature. Therefore, the reduction of the eddy current loss is extremely important. This study examined ground coils in which both the eddy current loss and temperature increase were small. Furthermore, quantitative comparison for the eddy current loss of various magnet wire samples was performed by bench test. On the basis of the comparison, a round twisted wire having low eddy current loss was selected as an effective ground coil material. In addition, the ground coils were manufactured on trial. A favorable outlook to improve the size accuracy of the winding coil and uneven thickness of molded resin was obtained without reducing the insulation strength between the coil layers by applying a compression molding after winding.

  5. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  6. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  7. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  8. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.E.; Schneider, M; A. Redondas; Y. González; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999–2010) obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectrometry at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site. Different ozone retrieval strategies are examined, analysing the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The theoretical assessment reveals that the FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a precision of better than 6...

  9. High-resolution electrical resistivity tomography applied to patterned ground, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, south-west Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kasprzak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT applied to three types of patterned ground in Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard, carried out in late July 2012. The structures investigated include sorted circles, non-sorted polygons and a net with sorted coarser material. ERT was used to recognize the internal ground structure, the shape of permafrost table below the active layer and the geometric relationships between permafrost, ground layering and surface patterns. Results of inversion modelling indicate that the permafrost table occurs at a depth of 0.5–1 m in a mountain valley and 1–2.5 m on raised marine terraces. The permafrost table was nearly planar beneath non-sorted deposits and wavy beneath sorted materials. The mutual relationships between the permafrost table and the shape of a stone circle are different from those typically presented in literature. Ground structure beneath the net with sorted coarser materials is complex as implied in convective models. In non-sorted polygons, the imaging failed to reveal vertical structures between them.

  10. Applying the Hough transform for detecting ground movers in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the impact of ground target motion in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and video SAR mode imagery. The observations provide an approach for optimizing algorithms that detect moving targets by using only the magnitude of a SAR image. A slowly moving target at a constant velocity in the along-track direction or accelerating in the cross-track direction often generates a ridge of intensity that is distinguishable from the background clutter. The direction and location of a detected ridge provide information about the motion of the associated target. The ridge can be approximated as a linear feature and detected using the Hough transform. This approach acts as a complement to detecting the radar shadow of a moving target, improving detection probability. The method is robust enough to discriminate between a ridge associated with a moving target and false alarms due to vegetation, boulders, or stationary manmade objects. Simulated and flight test data collected by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) validate the method.

  11. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.

    2016-01-01

    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  12. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  13. A Direct Approach to Determine the External Disturbing Gravity Field by Applying Green Integral with the Ground Boundary Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Jialei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.

  14. Epitaxial Fe{sub 3-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} films from magnetite to ulvöspinel by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droubay, T.C.; Pearce, C.I.; Ilton, E.S.; Engelhard, M.H.; Engelhard, M.H.; Heald, S.M.; Arenholz, E.; Rosso, K.M.

    2011-07-21

    Epitaxial films along the Fe{sub 3-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} (titanomagnetite) compositional series from pure end-members magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) to ulvöspinel (Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}) were successfully grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO(100) substrates. Spectroscopic characterization including high resolution x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism consistently shows that Ti(IV) substitutes for Fe(III) in the inverse spinel lattice with a proportional increase in lattice Fe(II) concentration. No evidence of Ti interstitials, spinodal decomposition, or secondary phases was found in the bulk of the grown films. At the uppermost few nanometers of the Ti-bearing film surfaces, evidence suggests that Fe(II) is susceptible to facile oxidation, and that an associated lower Fe/Ti ratio in this region is consistent with surface compositional incompleteness or alteration to a titanomaghemite-like composition and structure. The surface of these films nonetheless appear to remain highly ordered and commensurate with the underlying structure despite facile oxidation, a surface condition that is found to be reversible to some extent by heating in low oxygen environments.

  15. Cancellation of OpAmp virtual ground imperfections by a negative conductance applied to improve RF receiver linearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahrof, Dlovan H.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Ru, Zhiyu; Oude Alink, Mark S.; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    High linearity CMOS radio receivers often exploit linear V-I conversion at RF, followed by passive down-mixing and an OpAmp-based Transimpedance Amplifier at baseband. Due to nonlinearity and finite gain in the OpAmp, virtual ground is imperfect, inducing distortion currents. This paper proposes a n

  16. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry [Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.E.; Schneider, M; A. Redondas; Y. González; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999–2010) obtained from different ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) retrieval setups. We examine the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The study is performed at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site (Tenerife Island, Spain). The FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a theoretical precision of better than 7.5% in the troposphere, ...

  17. An autonomous receiver/digital signal processor applied to ground-based and rocket-borne wave experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; LaBelle, J.; McGaw, D. G.; Broughton, M. C.

    2016-07-01

    The programmable combined receiver/digital signal processor platform presented in this article is designed for digital downsampling and processing of general waveform inputs with a 66 MHz initial sampling rate and multi-input synchronized sampling. Systems based on this platform are capable of fully autonomous low-power operation, can be programmed to preprocess and filter the data for preselection and reduction, and may output to a diverse array of transmission or telemetry media. We describe three versions of this system, one for deployment on sounding rockets and two for ground-based applications. The rocket system was flown on the Correlation of High-Frequency and Auroral Roar Measurements (CHARM)-II mission launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, in 2010. It measured auroral "roar" signals at 2.60 MHz. The ground-based systems have been deployed at Sondrestrom, Greenland, and South Pole Station, Antarctica. The Greenland system synchronously samples signals from three spaced antennas providing direction finding of 0-5 MHz waves. It has successfully measured auroral signals and man-made broadcast signals. The South Pole system synchronously samples signals from two crossed antennas, providing polarization information. It has successfully measured the polarization of auroral kilometric radiation-like signals as well as auroral hiss. Further systems are in development for future rocket missions and for installation in Antarctic Automatic Geophysical Observatories.

  18. A comparative study of a stochastic and deterministic simulation of strong ground motion applied to the Kozani-Grevena (NW Greece 1995 sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papaioannou

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a comparative study of two intrinsically different methodologies, a stochastic one and a deterministic one, performed to simulate strong ground motion in the Kozani area (NW Greece. Source parameters were calculated from empirical relations in order to check their reliability, in combination with the applied methodologies, to simulate future events. Strong ground motion from the Kozani mainshock (13 May, 1995, M w = 6.5 was synthesized by using both the stochastic method for finite-fault cases and the empirical Green’s function method. The latter method was also applied to simulate a Mw = 5.1 aftershock (19 May, 1995. The results of the two simulations computed for the mainshock are quite satisfactory for both methodologies at the frequencies of engineering interest (> ~ 2 Hz. This strengthens the idea of incorporating proper empirical relations for the estimation of source parameters in a priori simulations of strong ground motion from future earthquakes. Nevertheless, the results of the simulation of the smaller earthquake point out the need for further investigation of regional or local, if possible, relations for estimating source parameters at smaller magnitude ranges

  19. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.

    2014-01-01

    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  20. Ground Motion In Areas Of Abandoned Mining: A Case Study Of PSI Applied To The Northumberland Region Of The UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, L.; Lawrence, D.; Cigna, F.; McCormack, H.; Burren, R.

    2013-12-01

    An Abandoned Mines Advanced Terrain Motion Service was commissioned in the framework of the ESA GMES project Terrafirma to demonstrate the capabilities of Radar Interferometry areas of abondened mining. The Coal Measures form the bedrock for much of the study area in the north east of England. The coalfield has a working history dating back to Roman times with over twenty coal seams mined underground in more recent times. The working of deeper and deeper coal seams led to the need to pump mine water. All underground mining has now ceased, the majority of mines were closed by the 1980's. Over the past decade there has been a program to turn off the mine water pumps and allow groundwater levels to recover Two PSI datasets were created; one from 1995 to 2000 the other from 2002 to 2008. PSI results from the 1990s show nine 'hotspots' of subsidence to the south and a larger area of uplift in the north. The subsidence areas show a strong spatial relationship with areas of past mining. However there is a discrepancy in the timing of PSI motions and that of expected subsidence given the type of workings. It is suspected that the motion relates to material extraction, water extraction and the accommodation of resulting motions along faults. Uplift, as seen in the data from the 2000s, this has been attributed to the recovery of groundwater levels as mine water pumping has ceased. The difference between the 1990s results and thoise form the 2000s is marked; areas which were undergoing subsidence between '95 and '00 are uplifting between '02 and '08. This drastic change is supported by minewater level data which shows that water levels have recovered within this time period, with the resulting increase in hydrostatic pressure accounting for the regional pattern of ground heave.

  1. The use of Ground Penetrating Radar in coastal research, archeaological investigations, lake studies, peat layer measurments and applied research in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilumaa, Kadri; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is mainly used for scientific research in coastal geology in the Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University. We currently use SIR-3000 radar with 100, 270 , 300 and 500 MHz antennae. Our main targets have been detecting the thickness of soil and sand layers and finding out the layers in coastal sediments which reflect extreme storm events. Our GPR studies in various settings have suggested that the internal structures of the ridge-dune complexes are dominated by numerous layers dipping in various directions. Such information helps us to reconstruct and understand prevailing processes during their formation (e.g. seaward dipping lamination in coastal ridge-dune complexes indicating cross-shore and wave-induced transport of the sediments). Currently, we are trying to elaborate methodology for distinguishing the differences between aeolian and wave transported sediments by using GPR. However, paludified landscapes (often covered by water), very rough surface (numerous bushes and soft surface), moderate micro topography has slowed this process significantly. Moreover, we have been able to use GPR during the winter period (applied on ice or snow) and compare the quality of our results with the measurements taken during the summer period. We have found that smooth surface (in winter) helps detecting very strong signal differences (border between different sediment types - sand, peat, silt, etc.) but reduces the quality of the signal to the level where the detection of sedimentation patterns within one material (e.g. tilted layers in sand) is difficult. We have carried out several other science-related studies using GPR. These studies include determining the thickness of peat layer in bogs (to calculate the volume of accumulated peat or to find most suitable locations for coring), measuring the thickness of mud and gyttja layer in lakes (to find most suitable locations for coring, reconstructing initial water level of the lake or calculating

  2. 探地雷达在治理城市塌陷区中的应用%GROUND PENETRATING RADAR APPLIED IN TREATMENT OF SUBSIDENCE IN A CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施延昭; 张国鸿

    2016-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a means to detect internal structure and distribution law of underground medium by broadband high-frequency electromagnetic wave, and has been widely applied in many fields such as hazard geology exploration, geotechnical survey and engineering quality inspection. This paper brought an example of the technique used in engineering quality inspection of treatment of city subsidence, by comparison of the detection result of the radar with two high-frequency antennas with 2D model forward modeling result, gave a definite conclusion on the treatment quality and whether a hidden subsidence exists or not.%探地雷达是利用宽带高频电磁波以脉冲形式来探测地表之下介质内部结构分布规律的一种地球物理方法。它广泛用于灾害地质勘查、岩土工程调查和工程质量检测等众多领域。本文给出了一个在治理城市塌陷区的工程质量检测中的应用实例,通过两种高频天线的探地雷达检测和二维模型正演结果对比,对塌陷区治理质量以及是否存在隐伏塌陷隐患给出了明确的结语。

  3. Numerical analysis of applying special pavements to solve the frost heave diseases of high-speed railway roadbeds in seasonally frozen ground regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Yuan; FuJun Niu; QiHao Yu; XinBin Wang; Lei Guo; YanHui You

    2015-01-01

    The Haerbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line is the first high-speed railway constructed in the seasonally frozen ground regions of northeastern China. Frost heave diseases occurred in the first winter of its operation (between October 2012 and January 2013), and frost heave was observed mainly in the roadbed fills that were considered not susceptible to frost heave. This paper proposes applying two special pavements — black pavement and insulation-black pavement — to improve the thermal regime of the roadbed. Three numerical models of the roadbed temperature field were built based on the field con-ditions of the Changchun section (D3K692+840 to D3K692+860). The results show that: (1) Compared with cement pave-ment, black pavement and insulation-black pavement could reduce the freezing index at the roadbed surface by 37% and 64%, respectively, which could influence the maximum frozen depth; (2) the maximum frozen depths under the black pavement and insulation-black pavement were respectively 1.3–1.4 m and 1 m. Compared with cement pavement, they could reduce the maximum frozen depth by 0.4 m and 0.7–0.8 m, respectively, which would reduce the permitted amount of frost heave by 4 mm and 7–8 mm, which would meet the deformation limit established by theCode for Design on Special Subgrade of Railway; (3) the freezing periods of the black pavement and the insulation-black pavement were, respectively, approximately four months and two months. Compared with cement pavement, they could reduce the freezing period by approximately 19 days and 40 days, respectively, and delay the initial freezing time by 9 days and 18 days; and (4) compared with cement pavement, black pavement and black-insulation pavement could reduce the frozen areas of roadbeds in the cold season, which suggests that these two special pavements could provide better thermal stability for roadbeds.

  4. The dust environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: results from Monte Carlo dust tail modelling applied to a large ground-based observation data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Fernando; Muñoz, Olga; Gutiérrez, Pedro J.; Lara, Luisa M.; Snodgrass, Colin; Lin, Zhong Y.; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Rotundi, Alessandra; Yagi, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    We present an extensive data set of ground-based observations and models of the dust environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko covering a large portion of the orbital arc from about 4.5 au pre-perihelion through 3.0 au post-perihelion, acquired during the current orbit. In addition, we have also applied the model to a dust trail image acquired during this orbit, as well as to dust trail observations obtained during previous orbits, in both the visible and the infrared. The results of the Monte Carlo modelling of the dust tail and trail data are generally consistent with the in situ results reported so far by the Rosetta instruments Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) and Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator (GIADA). We found the comet nucleus already active at 4.5 au pre-perihelion, with a dust production rate increasing up to ˜3000 kg s-1 some 20 d after perihelion passage. The dust size distribution at sizes smaller than r = 1 mm is linked to the nucleus seasons, being described by a power law of index -3.0 during the comet nucleus southern hemisphere winter but becoming considerably steeper, with values between -3.6 and -4.3, during the nucleus southern hemisphere summer, which includes perihelion passage (from about 1.7 au inbound to 2.4 au outbound). This agrees with the increase of the steepness of the dust size distribution found from GIADA measurements at perihelion showing a power index of -3.7. The size distribution at sizes larger than 1 mm for the current orbit is set to a power law of index -3.6, which is near the average value of insitu measurements by OSIRIS on large particles. However, in order to fit the trail data acquired during past orbits previous to the 2009 perihelion passage, a steeper power-law index of -4.1 has been set at those dates, in agreement with previous trail modelling. The particle sizes are set at a minimum of r = 10 μm, and a maximum size, which increases with decreasing heliocentric

  5. The Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump Applied in Mianyang City%地源热泵在绵阳地区的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 蒋斌; 韩如冰; 邹国荣

    2013-01-01

      介绍了地源热泵的工作原理,并结合绵阳地区的地质情况及地源热泵系统形式,分析了地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的应用方式,并针对地表水、地下水和地下耦合地源热泵系统的可行性进行了分析和说明,为地源热泵技术在绵阳地区的工程应用提供参考。%This paper introduced the operational principle of ground source heat pump. Based on the geologic environment of Mianyang city and the ground source heat pump forms, the application of different ground source heat pump were compared. And analyses the feasibility of surface water,ground water and underground coupling source heat pump in Mianyang city. This paper can provide the reference for the ground source heat pump engineering application in Mianyang city.

  6. Application research for ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project%地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强

    2009-01-01

    结合工程设计实例,对地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用进行了探讨.对地源热泵和普通中央空调系统的运行费用进行估算和比较.%Combining with practical design example, this paper discusses the application of ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project, and carries out an estimation and comparison of the operating costs between the ground-source heat pump system and common HVAC system.

  7. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues Franceschini, Marston Héracles; Bartholomeus, Harm; van Apeldoorn, Dirk; Suomalainen, Juha; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-06-18

    Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling. Also organic production systems can benefit from continuous monitoring focusing on crop management and stress detection, but few studies have evaluated applications with this objective. In this study, ground-based and UAV spectrometers were compared in the context of organic potato cultivation. Relatively accurate estimates were obtained for leaf chlorophyll (RMSE = 6.07 µg·cm(-2)), leaf area index (RMSE = 0.67 m²·m(-2)), canopy chlorophyll (RMSE = 0.24 g·m(-2)) and ground cover (RMSE = 5.5%) using five UAV-based data acquisitions, from 43 to 99 days after planting. These retrievals are slightly better than those derived from ground-based measurements (RMSE = 7.25 µg·cm(-2), 0.85 m²·m(-2), 0.28 g·m(-2) and 6.8%, respectively), for the same period. Excluding observations corresponding to the first acquisition increased retrieval accuracy and made outputs more comparable between sensors, due to relatively low vegetation cover on this date. Intercomparison of vegetation indices indicated that indices based on the contrast between spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared, like OSAVI, MCARI2 and CIg provided, at certain extent, robust outputs that could be transferred between sensors. Information sampling at plot level by both sensing solutions resulted in comparable discriminative potential concerning advanced stages of late blight incidence. These results indicate that optical sensors

  8. Applied research of a ground water thermoelectric heat pump system%地下水源热电热泵的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国远

    2001-01-01

    Develops a mathematical model of the system and simulates it with computer based on the state-of-the-art performance of the thermoelectric material, compares the results with those of a conventional ground water heat pump system under the identical inlet water temperature and water flow rate and finds that the thermoelectric system is more competitive especially when the ground water temperature is under 18 ℃ but much poorer in heating performance leading it to be suitable for applications with primary heating demand.%建立了以地下水为热源的热电热泵系统的数学模型,并根据热电材料的技术性能对该系统作了计算机模拟分析,比较计算结果与进水温度和流量相同的传统地下水源热泵系统发现,热电热泵在制冷工况特别是地下水温低于18 ℃时具有很强的竞争力,但制热性能较差,因此适用于全年以制冷负荷为主的场合。

  9. Time-dependent renormalized natural orbital theory applied to the two-electron spin-singlet case: ground state, linear response, and autoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Brics, M

    2013-01-01

    Favorably scaling numerical time-dependent many-electron techniques such as time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with adiabatic exchange-correlation potentials typically fail in capturing highly correlated electron dynamics. We propose a method based on natural orbitals, i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix, that is almost as inexpensive numerically as adiabatic TDDFT, but which is capable of describing correlated phenomena such as doubly excited states, autoionization, Fano profiles in the photoelectron spectra, and strong-field ionization in general. Equations of motion (EOM) for natural orbitals and their occupation numbers have been derived earlier. We show that by using renormalized natural orbitals (RNO) both can be combined into one equation governed by a hermitian effective Hamiltonian. We specialize on the two-electron spin-singlet system, known as being a "worst case" testing ground for TDDFT, and employ the widely used, numerically exactly solvable, one-dimens...

  10. Information operator approach applied to the retrieval of the vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents from ground-based high-resolution FTIR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high spectral resolution Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra is an important issue in remote sensing. If this is done carefully, one can obtain information, not only about the total column abundances, but also about the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work introduces the application of the information operator approach for extracting vertical profile information from ground-based FTIR measurements. The algorithm is implemented and tested within the well-known retrieval code SFIT2, adapting the optimal estimation method such as to take into account only the significant contributions to the solution. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method in an application to ground-based FTIR spectra taken in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC at Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E. A thorough comparison is made between the original optimal estimation method, Tikhonov regularization and this alternative retrieval algorithm, regarding information content, retrieval robustness and corresponding full error budget evaluation for the target species ozone (O3, nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO. It is shown that the information operator approach performs well and in most cases yields both a better accuracy and stability than the optimal estimation method. Additionally, the information operator approach has the advantage of being less sensitive to the choice of a priori information than the optimal estimation method and Tikhonov regularization. On the other hand, in general the Tikhonov regularization results seem to be slightly better than the optimal estimation method and information operator approach results when it comes to error budgets and column stability.

  11. Psychological and pedagogical grounds for applying communicative method of teaching foreign languages in higher school with the purpose of realization of students professional orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavoruk, O.; Gridneva, S.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of “professional orientation”, its components and levels. The principles of communicative method of teaching foreign languages are analyzed from psychological and pedagogical point of view. Expediency of applying the given method with the purpose of realization of students’ professional orientation is substantiated.

  12. Applying the General Regression Neural Network to Ground Motion Prediction Equations of Induced Events in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniowski, Jan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the nonlinear estimation of the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) using neural networks. The general regression neural network (GRNN) was chosen for its high learning rate. A separate GRNN was tested as well as a GRNN in cascade connection with linear regression (LR). Measurements of induced seismicity in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District were used in this study. Various sets of input variables were tested. The basic variables used in every case were seismic energy and epicentral distance, while the additional variables were the location of the epicenter, the location of the seismic station, and the direction towards the epicenter. The GRNN improves the GMPE. The best results were obtained when the epicenter location was used as an additional input. The GRNN model was analysed for how it can improve the GMPE with respect to LR. The bootstrap re-sampling method was used for this purpose. It proved the statistical significance of the improvement of the GMPE. Additionally, this method allows the determination of smoothness parameters for the GRNN. Parameters derived through this method have better generalisation capabilities than the smoothness parameters estimated using the holdout method.

  13. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  14. Apply the irrigation and ground water access schemes into LIS Noah LSM to improve the ET fluxes in the riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Toll, D.; Arsenault, K.; Ozdogan, M.; Mitchell, K.

    2008-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) has been identified by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, EPA and other agencies as a critical factor for determining water availability affecting various applications. The ET fluxes are the integrated responses to the weather, land surface properties, and soil water availability. Riparian regions are characterized with less precipitation and high temperature, but the ET fluxes are extremely high due to the groundwater access along the river and crop irrigation. Crop irrigation and depletions by riparian vegetation are the largest surface water uses in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, accounting for up to 90 percent of surface water withdrawals. It is impossible to retrieve the observed ET flux for land surface models at current forcing and model configurations. Therefore, the extra water sources are required in the modeling. We propose the following implementations to NASA Land Information System (LIS) Noah land surface model. For the irrigated crops we applied an irrigation scheme by artificially adding the irrigation rate to the precipitation. The irrigation rate is calculated from the water demand by crops. We accounted for the riparian deep water access by controlling the soil moisture in the bottom layer at the field capacity for the regions close to the river. Two LIS Noah simulations have been performed in parallel. One uses the NCEP default configuration, and the other uses the updated LIS configuration including the tiling consideration derived from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat based 30m land cover map, MODIS greenness, crop irrigation scheme and groundwater access scheme. Both LIS Noah runs at 1km resolution start from January 1, 2005 with the initial conditions from the five- year spin-up runs. LIS Noah model has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the observed ET fluxes in the riparian regions without changing the model dynamics and physics.

  15. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  16. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  17. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  18. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  19. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  20. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  1. Feasibility Analysis of Applying Ground-source Heat Pump System in Huaian Urban Planning Area%淮安城市规划区地源热泵系统应用可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪名鹏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了淮安城市规划区水文地质条件、岩土体结构、地温场特征以及岩土层的热物理参数,结合地下水地源热泵系统和垂直地埋管地源热泵系统的应用特点,对两种类型的地源热泵系统在淮安规划区应用的可行性进行了分析.结果表明城市规划区面积约97.5%的区域不适宜应用地下水地源热泵系统,仅在规划区西北角小范围内较适宜应用;而垂直地埋管地源热泵系统可适宜在规划区内大面积推广应用,地埋管深度一般100m左右;最后对规划区两种类型的地源热泵系统应用过程中需要注意的几个问题进行了阐述,为淮安城市规划区地源热泵系统规划与试点工作提供了科学依据.%This paper introduces the hydrogeological conditions, rock mass structure, characteristics of ground temperature field and thermophysical parameters of rock mass in urban planning area of Huaian. Combining with the features of groundwater source heat pump system and vertical ground pipe heat pump system, the feasibility application of two kinds of heat pump systems in Huaian planning area is analyzed. The results show that the groundwater source heat pump system is unsuitable for urban planning area about 97.5% ,only the northwest corner of the planning area is less suitable for groundwater source heat pump system;the urban planning area is suitable for vertical ground pipel heat pump system with a large area of the promotion, the depth of underground pipe is about 100m. Finally, some issues to which much attention should be described in the course of application two types of ground-source heat pump systems in urban planning area of Huaian, and it provides scientific references for planning and pilot of application two types of ground-source heat pump systems in urban planning area of Huaian.

  2. 不同介质条件下地下双层空洞雷达探测试验研究%The Applied Research of Ground Penetrating Radar Technology on Underground Double-cavity Detection in Different Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵得杰; 张永涛; 闫文科

    2015-01-01

    探地雷达在地下双层空洞检测中应用广泛,但是检测时,往往受到各种介质的影响,例如钢筋、混凝土等,致使双层空洞难以分辨。为此对不同介质情形下的双层空洞进行室内试验与图像分析,试验结果表明,探地雷达可以清晰地对双层空洞进行辨别。%The Ground Penetrating Radar technology is widely used in underground double-cavity detection. However, it is pretty hard to recognize the double-inanity due to the influence of different medium such as steel or concrete. The tests on the double-holes are carried out under various circumstances in laboratory and image analysis. The tests show that the ground penetrating radar can clearly identify the double-holes in the fill.

  3. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  4. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...... experimental results from crushing tests of aluminium hull girder components with realistic full-scale scantlings. A comparison with existing simplified calculation procedures for ductile metallic structures show that these procedures cannot be used to predict the crushing behaviour of the fore body of high......The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...

  5. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  6. Research on Applying Ground Penetration Radar for Asphalt Pavement Thickness Detection%应用地质雷达检测沥青路面厚度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东博

    2015-01-01

    Pavement layer thickness detection is an important work on road quality control, non-destructive testing technology is gradually replacing the traditional destructive testing methods. This paper studies the geological radar theory and its use in asphalt pavement thickness testing of physical engineering, pavement thickness of this non-destructive testing technology, and the accuracy, reliability, and error causes are analyzed. The results show that ground penetrating radar detection of the asphalt pavement has a unique advantage in quality.%路面结构层厚度检测是道路质量控制的重要工作,无损检测技术正在逐步取代传统破坏性试验手段。本文通过研究地质雷达的理论和其在沥青路面厚度检测的实体工程中的应用,对这种无损检测路面厚度技术的准确性、可靠性及误差产生原因进行了分析。结果表明地质雷达在沥青路面质量检测中具有独特的优势。

  7. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment. Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  8. Applying Grounded Theory in the Determinants Study of Compulsory Citizenship Behavior%基于扎根理论的强制性公民行为影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红丹; 彭正龙

    2012-01-01

    Mining determinants of compulsory citizenship behavior(CCB) and their mutual relations is quite helpful for us to expand related theories and guide business practices.Using the grounded theory approach,this paper conducts an exploratory study,and eventually develops a conceptual model of the CCB determinants.More specifically,according to the conceptual model,the determinants of CCB can be induced into three categories: individual factors,objective factors,and environmental factors.The results also show that,individual factors may play an intermediary or a regulatory role on the effects of objective factors or environmental factors on CCB,while interactive effect between objective factors and environmental factors on CCB may also exist.%探索强制性公民行为的影响因素,对于拓展相关理论和指导管理实践都十分有益。以扎根理论为主导工具进行研究,对强制性公民行为影响因素的概念模型进行了探索性研究,并得出了强制性公民行为影响因素的三大类属:个体因素、客体因素以及环境因素。研究结果还表明,个体因素在客体因素或环境因素对强制性公民行为的影响路径中起中介或调节作用;客体因素和环境因素对强制性公民行为的交互效应存在。

  9. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  10. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  11. Measurement of the partial branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B meson decays to light hadrons B {yields} X{sub u}lv and an improved determination of the quark-mixing matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Alexei

    2009-07-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of inclusive semileptonic B{yields} X{sub u}e anti {nu}{sub e} decays using approximately 454 million {upsilon}(4S){yields}B anti B decays collected during the years 1999 to 2008 with the BABAR detector. The electron energy, E{sub e}, and the invariant mass squared of the electron-neutrino pair, q{sup 2}, are reconstructed, where the neutrino kinematics is deduced from the decay products of both B mesons. The final hadronic state, X{sub u}, consists of a sum of many hadronic channels, each of which contains at least one u quark. The variables q{sup 2} and E{sub e} are then combined to compute the maximum kinematically allowed invariant mass squared of the hadronic system, s{sub h}{sup max}. Using these kinematic quantities, the partial branching fraction, {delta}B(B {yields} X{sub u}lv), unfolded for detector effects, is measured to be {delta}B(E{sub e}>2.0 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.52 GeV{sup 2}) (3.33{+-}0.18{+-}0.21) x 10{sup -4} in the {upsilon}(4S) and {delta}B(E{sub e}>1.9 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.5 GeV{sup 2})= (4.57{+-}0.24{+-}0.32) x 10{sup -4} in the B meson rest frames. The quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke is determined from the measured {delta}B using theoretical calculation based on Heavy Quark Expansion. The result is vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke =(4.19{+-}0.18{sub -0.20-0.25}{sup +0.26+0.26}) x 10{sup -3}, where the errors represent experimental uncertainties, uncertainties from HQE parameters and theoretical uncertainties, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  13. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  14. Kasvatusteaduslike tööde konkursi tulemused / Ulve Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kala, Ulve

    2002-01-01

    Eesti keeles publitseeritud teadustöö preemia anti Aleksander Elangole, Inger Kraavile ja Kristi Kõivule, diplom Ühiskondlikule Pedagoogika Uurimise Instituudile, Viivi Ekstale, Inger Kraavile, Inge Undile, Viivi Maansole. Võõrkeeles publitseeritud teadustöö preemia monograafiale "Integration als Problem in der Erziehungswissenschaft" (koostaja Airi Liimets, autorid Airi Liimets, Saila Anttonen, Gunnar Bergendal, Gerd-Bodo Reinert von Carlsburg, Helmut Wehr, Tiiu Kuurme, Pauli Siljander, Jüri Kruusvall, Sirje Priimägi, Ene-Silvia Sarv, Kristi Kõiv, Meri-Liis Laherand, Jaan Mikk, Hannele Niemi, Marika Veisson, Irina Würscher, Susanne Jena, Tiina Aunin, Reet Liimets, Heli Mattisen, Aivo Saar, Maie Vikat), diplom Aino Saarele ja Katrin Niglasele. Didaktilis-rakenduslike tööde preemia Eda Heinlale, Estelle Laanele ja Kalle Laanele, Tiiu Kadajasele. Populaarteadusliku töö preemia Maie Tuulikule, diplom Kristi Kõivule. H. Liimetsa nim magistritööde preemia Rain Mikserile, Margus Pedastele, Ülle Rannutile, Inger Kraavile, Tago Sarapuule, Martin Ehalale

  15. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  16. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE ARTS: THE SLIPPERY GROUND OF APPLIED ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Adela

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which today's psychoanalysts approach art closely follow the avenues opened by Freud a hundred years ago. Drawing mainly on Freud's studies on Jensen's Gradiva (1907) and on Leonardo da Vinci (1910a), the author examines the main paradigms he used in discussing artistic activity, including his doubts and hesitations. Present-day approaches to art are then examined via a discussion of the advantages and pitfalls of psychobiography, of the case study, and of textual approaches. The author makes a case for the type of interdisciplinary dialogue in which the goal is to establish a cross-fertilization between psychoanalysis and other fields of knowledge while striving to avoid hypersaturation of a work of art in order to foster expansion of the mind. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  18. A New Method of Grounding Grid Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to equalize the electric potential distribution of the grounding grid surface, and improve the safety level of the grounding grid, method for optimal arrangement of conducts in the grounding grid is proposed in this paper. The calculation results about maximum touch voltages and mesh potentials show that the method can reduce touch voltage and equilibrium surface potential. It is shown that the design of the grounding grid is related to not only the soil environment, but also the rectangular shape. Comparing with other methods, the method proposed in the paper can reduce maximum touch voltage about 12%. This method also can be applied in a uniform and non-uniform soil, rectangular and square grounding grids. The optimize effect meets the related standards of the power industry.

  19. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  20. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  1. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  2. Applying the National Training Center Experience-Incidence of Ground to Ground Fratricide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    killed, but not the identity of the shooter or the weapon type. The instrumentation system will keep a record of the paired near misses , hits, and...call up a fratricide log on a video display, which contains all instances of kill, hit, or near - miss fratricide experienced in that battle. Because the...and battle code, and the type of battle are listed, N-d along with fratricidal engagements ( near miss --nm, hit, kill). Most battles include no such

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  6. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  7. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  8. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  9. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  10. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  11. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  12. The strong ground motion observation for the Wenchuan aftershock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi Wen; Zhenghua Zhou; Xiaojun Li; Cheng Yang; Yuhuan Wang; Quan Liu; Xiaotao Yin; Mindu Zhou; Jianwen Cui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the mobile strong ground motion observation for the destructive earthquake is introduced. Considering the characteristics and its spatial distributions of aftershock, 59 strong ground motion instruments were installed along the Longmenshan fault area, and more than 2 000 records have been accumulated. It shows that it is necessary to perform the mobile strong ground motion observation after the destructive earthquake, and the precious collected data could be applied for further research.

  13. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  14. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The distance protection scheme without communication is often applied to the backup protection of EHV cable lines. For a reliable operation of a ground distance relay, the ground loop impedance of EHV cable lines needs to have a linear relationship to the distance from the relay location to the f...

  15. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  16. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  17. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  18. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  19. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  20. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  1. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  2. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  3. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  4. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  5. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  6. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  7. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  8. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  9. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  10. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  11. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  12. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  13. Elements of Risk Analysis for Collision and Grounding of a RoRo Passenger Ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Samuelidis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Newly developed software was applied to study the effects of damages due to collision and grounding. The annual risk of collision and grounding was computed for an example RoRo passenger ferry. Collision frequency was evaluated for a specified route taking into account traffic data. Grounding...

  14. Using Seismic Tomography and Holography Ground Imaging to Investigate Ground Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ed Kase; Tim Ross

    2004-01-01

    Unforeseen, variable subsurface ground conditions present the greatest challenge to the heavy construction and civil engineering industry in the design, construction, and maintenance of large projects. A detailed, accurate site investigation will reduce project risk, improve construction performance and safety, prolong the life of the tunnel or structure,and prevent waste in over - design. Presently, site characterization and geotechnical engineering are limited by the inability to adequately describe these subsurface ground conditions.NSA Geotechnical Services has successfully applied seismic tomography and holography ground imaging technologies on tunneling and heavy civil excavations worldwide. Seismic signal waveforms traveling through a complex medium consist of various arrivals from refractions, reflections, scattering, and dispersion. Tomography and holography are proven inversion technologies for estimating location and extent of material property variations causing changes in signal waveforms.ent attenuation rates and velocities. Seismic waves will travel faster through competent material and be generally less attenuated than through broken/fractured ground or voids.encounters an interface between ground zones possessing different seismic properties. Most geologic structures, anomalies,and changes in lithology provide detectable seismic reflections if they are within a reasonable distance of the seismic source.This paper will present various applications of these technologies, illustrating how seismic imaging can provide accurate information regarding ground conditions associated with tunneling projects. With this information, engineers can complete projects safely, within time and budget constraints.

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  16. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  17. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  18. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  19. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  20. History and theory in "applied ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    2007-03-01

    Robert Baker and Laurence McCullough argue that the "applied ethics model" is deficient and in need of a replacement model. However, they supply no clear meaning to "applied ethics" and miss most of what is important in the literature on methodology that treats this question. The Baker-McCullough account of medical and applied ethics is a straw man that has had no influence in these fields or in philosophical ethics. The authors are also on shaky historical grounds in dealing with two problems: (1) the historical source of the notion of "practical ethics" and (2) the historical source of and the assimilation of the term "autonomy" into applied philosophy and professional ethics. They mistakenly hold (1) that the expression "practical ethics" was first used in a publication by Thomas Percival and (2) that Kant is the primary historical source of the notion of autonomy as that notion is used in contemporary applied ethics.

  1. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  2. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  3. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  4. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  5. Designing as middle ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors...... in a network of humans and non-humans, highlighting that design objects and the designer as an authority are constructed throughout this endeavour. The illustrative case example is drawn from product development in a rubber valve factory in Jutland in Denmark. The key contribution to a general core of design...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  6. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  7. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  8. Ground state correlations and mean field in 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    1999-03-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion [exp(S) method] to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the NN interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body G matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to 16O in a configuration space of 50ħω. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of 16O.

  9. Ground state correlations and mean-field in $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, J H; Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan.

    1999-01-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion ($\\exp(S)$ method) to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the $NN$ interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body ${\\mathbf G}$ matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to $^{16}$O in a configuration space of 35 $\\hbar\\omega$. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of~$^{16}$O.

  10. Fundamentals of applied probability and random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited revision of Fundamentals of Applied Probability and Random Processes expands on the central components that made the first edition a classic. The title is based on the premise that engineers use probability as a modeling tool, and that probability can be applied to the solution of engineering problems. Engineers and students studying probability and random processes also need to analyze data, and thus need some knowledge of statistics. This book is designed to provide students with a thorough grounding in probability and stochastic processes, demonstrate their applicability t

  11. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  12. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  13. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  14. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  15. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glozman, Janna M

    2016-01-01

    ...) to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed...

  16. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  17. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  18. Making sense of grounded theory in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.

  19. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  20. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  1. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  2. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  3. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  4. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  5. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  6. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  8. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  9. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  10. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  11. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  12. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Mesothelioma Awareness Day: Find out ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2017 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  13. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  14. Computer and Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    越智, 貢

    2014-01-01

    With this essay I treat some problems raised by the new developments in science and technology, that is, those about Computer Ethics to show how and how far Applied Ethics differs from traditional ethics. I take up backgrounds on which Computer Ethics rests, particularly historical conditions of morality. Differences of conditions in time and space explain how Computer Ethics and Applied Ethics are not any traditional ethics in concrete cases. But I also investigate the normative rea...

  15. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  16. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  17. Effect of electrode shape on grounding resistances - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Dahlin, Torleif

    2016-01-01

    . The focus-one protocol is a new method for estimating single electrode grounding resistances by measuring the resistance between a single electrode in an ERT array and all the remaining electrodes connected in parallel. For large arrays, the measured resistance is dominated by the grounding resistance...... of the electrode under test, the focus electrode. We have developed an equivalent circuit model formulation for the resistance measured when applying the focus-one protocol. Our model depends on the individual grounding resistances of the electrodes of the array, the mutual resistances between electrodes......, and the instrument input impedance. Using analytical formulations for the potentials around prolate and oblate spheroidal electrode models (as approximations for rod and plate electrodes), we have investigated the performance and accuracy of the focus-one protocol in estimating single-electrode grounding resistances...

  18. Figure-Ground Segmentation Using Factor Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr

    2009-06-04

    Foreground-background segmentation has recently been applied [26,12] to the detection and segmentation of specific objects or structures of interest from the background as an efficient alternative to techniques such as deformable templates [27]. We introduce a graphical model (i.e. Markov random field)-based formulation of structure-specific figure-ground segmentation based on simple geometric features extracted from an image, such as local configurations of linear features, that are characteristic of the desired figure structure. Our formulation is novel in that it is based on factor graphs, which are graphical models that encode interactions among arbitrary numbers of random variables. The ability of factor graphs to express interactions higher than pairwise order (the highest order encountered in most graphical models used in computer vision) is useful for modeling a variety of pattern recognition problems. In particular, we show how this property makes factor graphs a natural framework for performing grouping and segmentation, and demonstrate that the factor graph framework emerges naturally from a simple maximum entropy model of figure-ground segmentation.We cast our approach in a learning framework, in which the contributions of multiple grouping cues are learned from training data, and apply our framework to the problem of finding printed text in natural scenes. Experimental results are described, including a performance analysis that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  19. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed.

  20. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  1. Support vector data description for detecting the air-ground interface in ground penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua; Wilson, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In using GPR images for landmine detection it is often useful to identify the air-ground interface in the GRP signal for alignment purposes. A common simple technique for doing this is to assume that the highest return in an A-scan is from the reflection due to the ground and to use that as the location of the interface. However there are many situations, such as the presence of nose clutter or shallow sub-surface objects, that can cause the global maximum estimate to be incorrect. A Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is a one-class classifier related to the SVM which encloses the class in a hyper-sphere as opposed to using a hyper-plane as a decision boundary. We apply SVDD to the problem of detection of the air-ground interface by treating each sample in an A-scan, with some number of leading and trailing samples, as a feature vector. Training is done using a set of feature vectors based on known interfaces and detection is done by creating feature vectors from each of the samples in an A-scan, applying the trained SVDD to them and selecting the one with the least distance from the center of the hyper-sphere. We compare this approach with the global maximum approach, examining both the performance on human truthed data and how each method affects false alarm and true positive rates when used as the alignment method in mine detection algorithms.

  2. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  3. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  4. Retransmission Steganography Applied

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the implementation of network steganography method called RSTEG (Retransmission Steganography). The main idea of RSTEG is to not acknowledge a successfully received packet to intentionally invoke retransmission. The retransmitted packet carries a steganogram instead of user data in the payload field. RSTEG can be applied to many network protocols that utilize retransmissions. We present experimental results for RSTEG applied to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) as TCP is the most popular network protocol which ensures reliable data transfer. The main aim of the performed experiments was to estimate RSTEG steganographic bandwidth and detectability by observing its influence on the network retransmission level.

  5. Applied Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.

  6. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  7. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding.

  8. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  9. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  10. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  11. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  12. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  13. Development of Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    The status of the development of a multi-monostatic stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at The Department of Applied Electronics (IAE), The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is presented. The feasibility of the used approach is demonstrated by the successful detection of small...

  14. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  15. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  16. Development of Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    The status of the development of a multi-monostatic stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at The Department of Applied Electronics (IAE), The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is presented. The feasibility of the used approach is demonstrated by the successful detection of small...

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of Supervision of Preservice Consultation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a university-based supervision process for consultants-in-training (CITs) engaged in a preservice level consultation course with applied practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview using a grounded theory methodology. Data consisted of supervision session transcripts,…

  18. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  19. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  20. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  1. Advances in applied mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Theodore Y; Wu, Theodore Y

    2000-01-01

    This highly acclaimed series provides survey articles on the present state and future direction of research in important branches of applied solid and fluid mechanics. Mechanics is defined as a branch of physics that focuses on motion and on the reaction of physical systems to internal and external forces.

  2. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  3. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  4. Applying Literature to ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟悦

    2007-01-01

    Literature is no longer a frightening word to English language learner. Interactive teaching methods and attractive activities can help motivating Chinese university English learners. This essay will first elaborate the reasons to use literature in ELT ( English Language Teaching) class and how to apply literature to ELT class.

  5. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  6. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  7. What grounds creativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2005-01-01

    "Developmental or ordinary creativity" is distinguished from "genius creativity." The former offers pleasure or distraction. The latter sometimes offers this, but tarrying before the product of genius also brings a new understanding of one's culture, one's self, and even an experience of transcendence. The concepts of Heidegger and of Gadamer are applied to this distinction. All serious artists are seen as manifesting one or more of three aspects: (1) driven by creative genius from the biological furnace of the individual, (2) temporary regressions and exhaustion of ego function, and (3) an anxiety-driven process resting on a constitutional ability to shift levels of ego activities and compromise formations. Falling in love is discussed as another example of creative imagination based on the need to solve psychological discomfort either due to developmental or pathological problems. Creativity in psychoanalytic work is an important factor that needs to be explored in addition to the fact that every country seems to create the approach to psychoanalysis that it needs. Emotional illness is demonstrated as hindering and constricting creativity, not enhancing it as is the popular idea. Some seriously psychopathological artists are able to wall off the pathology and sublimate their conflicts into the production of art, but creativity requires a relatively intact ego; when the ego deteriorates, so does the creative product. An important spring to genius creativity is the nonrecognition of the extremely talented child, which leads to solitary activity and an immersion in ideas and fantasies that, if the person has the requisite talent, is manifested in the expression of truth and beauty through art.

  8. Cloud-Ground Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 30 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image of the North Polar water-ice clouds shows how surface topography can affect the linear form. Notice that the crater at the bottom of the image is causing a deflection in the linear form. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 100.7 East (259.3 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and

  9. Fault diagnosis in neutral point indirectly grounded system based on information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞; 鞠丽叶; 刘喜梅; 崔平远; 钟秋海

    2003-01-01

    In neutral point indirectly grounded systems, phase-to-ground fault is putting new demands on fault diagnosis technology. Information fusion is applied to detect the phase-to-ground fault, which integrates several sources of information, including line current, line voltage, zero sequence current and voltage, and quintic harmonic wave component. This method is testified through the simulation of Matlab. Simulation results show that the precision and reliability of the detection has been greatly increased.

  10. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  11. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  12. Applied evaluative informetrics

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on applied evaluative informetric artifacts or topics. It explains the base notions and assumptions of evaluative informetrics by discussing a series of important applications. The structure of the book is therefore not organized by methodological characteristics, but is centered around popular, often discussed or used informetric artifacts - indicators, methodologies, products, databases - or so called hot topics in which informetric indicators play an important role. Most of the artifacts and topics emerged during the past decade. The principal aim of the book is to present a state of the art in applied evaluative informetrics, and to inform the readers about the pros and cons, potentialities and limitations of the use of informetric/bibliometric indicators in research assessment. The book is a continuation of the book Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation (Springer, 2005). It is of interest to non-specialists, especially research students at advanced master level and higher, all thos...

  13. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  14. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  15. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  16. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Applied biotechnology in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B

    1993-12-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  18. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  19. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  20. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  1. [The ground reflectance spectrum retrieval from ETM images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Wu, Yu-Hang; Liu, Zhi-Ming; He, Hai-Jian

    2007-04-01

    Retrieval of ground reflectance spectrum from satellite sensor digital count requires knowledge of the atmospheric conditions. Images of spectral radiance from ground-atmosphere system recorded by the multi-spectral imager ETM which boarded Landsat-7 sensor can retrieve the ground reflectivity spectrum. The uncertainty of reflectance spectrum retrieval is no more than 17% at the band 1 of ETM, and less than 10% at the band 2 and 3 of ETM. It is superior to those arithmetics widely used at present. Retrieval of ground radiance spectrum from ground-atmosphere system can be used to synthesize the sRGB true color image, but the definition is not excellent. And it was proved that the color of the images can not reflect the actual nature of earth objects before being adjusted. And the accuracy of interpretation based on true color synthesized images is superior to those based on the source images. So the precision of such reflectance spectrum retrieval is not as good as expected if applied to the true color photography on the ground.

  2. The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.

  3. Revised Iterative Solution of Ground State of Double-Well Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-Qin

    2005-01-01

    The revised new iterative method for solving the ground state of Schrodinger equation is deduced. Based on Green functions defined by quadratures along a single trajectory this iterative method is applied to solve the ground state of the double-well potential. The result is compared to the one based on the original iterative method. The limitation of the asymptotic expansion is also discussed.

  4. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  5. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  6. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  7. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  8. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  9. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  10. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  11. Applied Chaos Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Mark

    1997-04-01

    The publication by Ott, Grebogi and Yorke(E. Ott, C. Grebogi and J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1990).) of their theory of chaos control in 1990 led to an explosion of experimental work applying their theory to mechanical systems and electronic circuits, lasers and chemical reactors, and heart and brain tissue, to name only a few. In this talk the basics of chaos control as implemented in a simple mechanical system will be described, as well as extensions of the method to biological applications. Finally, current advances in the field, including the maintenance of chaos and the control of high dimensional chaos, will be discussed.

  12. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  13. Applying Popper's Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century, best known for his doctrine of falsifiability. His axiomatic formulation of probability, however, is unknown to current scientists, though it is championed by several current philosophers of science as superior to the familiar version. Applying his system to problems identified by himself and his supporters, it is shown that it does not have some features he intended and does not solve the problems they have identified.

  14. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  15. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2005-01-01

    Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987

  16. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  17. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral..., circuit breaker, or fuse in the neutral conductor of the bus-tie feeder connecting the emergency... that aluminum grounding conductors must not be used....

  18. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  19. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  20. Applied Impact Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Applied impact physics research is based on the capability to examine impact processes for a wide range of impact conditions with respect to velocity as well as mass and shape of the projectile. For this reason, Fraunhofer EMI operates a large variety of launchers that address velocities up to ordnance velocities as single stage powder gun but which can also be operated as two-stage light gas guns achieving the regime of low earth orbital velocity. Thereby for projectile masses of up to 100 g hypervelocity impact phenomena up to 7.8 km/s can be addressed. Advanced optical diagnostic techniques like microsecond video are used as commercial systems but - since impact phenomena are mostly related with debris or dust - specialized diagnostics are developed in-house like x-ray cinematography and x-ray tomography. Selected topics of the field of applied impact physics will be presented like the interesting behavior of long rods penetrating low-density materials or experimental findings at hypervelocity for this class of materials as well as new x-ray diagnositic techniques.

  1. Evaluation of Carburized and Ground Face Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Heath, Gregory F.; Sheth, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    Experimental durability tests were performed on carburized and ground AIS19310 steel face gears. The tests were in support of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) to enhance face-gear technology. The tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn spiral-bevel-gear/face-gear test facility. Tests were run at 2300 rpm face gear speed and at loads of 64, 76, 88, 100, and 112-percent of the design torque of 377 N-m (3340 in-lb). The carburized and ground face gears demonstrated the required durability when run for ten-million cycles at each of the applied loads. Proper installation was critical for the successful operation of the spur pinions and face gears. A large amount of backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the inner-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Low backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the outer-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Measured backlashes in the range of 0.178 to 0.254 mm (0.007 to 0.010 in) produced acceptable tooth contact patterns.

  2. Pollutant Ground Concentrations of Nonneutrally Buoyant Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Alon; Stern, Eli; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima

    2017-03-23

    A methodology is suggested for the estimation of the mass density and the cumulative ground deposition of a nonvolatile, nonneutrally buoyant, air pollutant (liquid or solid) released from a polluted column (following an explosion caused during routine operation in, e.g., the chemical industry or due to any kind of hostile act) and deposited on the ground via gravitational settling. In many cases, the deposited mass due to gravitational settling constitutes a significant fraction of the original inventory released from the source. Implementation of the methodology in preliminary risk assessments can serve as an efficient tool for emergency planning for both immediate and long-term measures such as evacuation and decontamination. The methodology considers, inter alia, an estimation of the critical particle diameter, particle size, and mass distributions along the polluted column. This methodology was developed to apply in rural regions since proper application of relevant meteorological input data can be accomplished mainly for such areas. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  4. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  5. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  6. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  7. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  8. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...

  9. Design analysis for grounding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, P.P.M.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Pinkster, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 a series of six grounding experiments has been carried out with a 600 Tonne inland water way tanker. At the how of the vessel test sections could be fitted, which were run into an artificial rock. The design of the support structures for the test sections and for the rock required the predic

  10. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  11. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...

  12. The Envisat-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  13. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  14. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  15. Grounded action: achieving optimal and sustainable change

    OpenAIRE

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.; Toni A. Gregory, Ed. D.

    2005-01-01

    Grounded Action ist eine Anwendung und Erweiterung der Grounded Theory mit dem Ziel, Interventionen, Programme, Handlungsmodelle etc. zu entwerfen und zu implementieren. Der Grounded Action-Ansatz wurde konzipiert, um der Komplexität und Multidimensionalität von organisatorischen und sozialen Problemstellungen angemessen begegnen zu können. Die Grounded Theory als Strategie der datengegründeten Theorieentwicklung wird insoweit ausgeweitet, als es im Rahmen von Grounded Action um das Entwickel...

  16. Analysis of ground state in random bipartite matching

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Gui-Yuan; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In human society, a lot of social phenomena can be concluded into a mathematical problem called the bipartite matching, one of the most well known model is the marriage problem proposed by Gale and Shapley. In this article, we try to find out some intrinsic properties of the ground state of this model and thus gain more insights and ideas about the matching problem. We apply Kuhn-Munkres Algorithm to find out the numerical ground state solution of the system. The simulation result proves the previous theoretical analysis using replica method. In the result, we also find out the amount of blocking pairs which can be regarded as a representative of the system stability. Furthermore, we discover that the connectivity in the bipartite matching problem has a great impact on the stability of the ground state, and the system will become more unstable if there were more connections between men and women.

  17. GOES-R Ground Segment Technical Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, R. G.; Burnett, M.; Khanna, R.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite -R Series (GOES-R) Ground Segment Project (GSP) has developed a Technical Reference Model (TRM) to support the documentation of technologies that could form the basis for a set of requirements that could support the evolution towards a NESDIS enterprise ground system. Architecture and technologies in this TRM can be applied or extended to other ground systems for planning and development. The TRM maps GOES-R technologies to the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Consolidated Reference Model (CRM) V 2.3 Technical Services Standard (TSS). The FEA TRM categories are the framework for the GOES-R TRM. This poster will present the GOES-R TRM.

  18. Grounded theory in nursing research: Part 1--Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of grounded theory make it valuable in the study of nursing, which is premised on an interpersonal process between nurses and clients. Further, it is a useful style of research when there is little prior information about a topic. In this article (Part 1), Terence McCann and Eileen Clark outline the key features of this methodology. In the follow-up article (Part 2, McCann and Clark 2003a), a critique is provided of grounded theory and the two main approaches to this methodology. In the final article in the series (Part 3, McCann and Clark 2003b), the authors illustrate how grounded theory can be applied to nursing research with examples from McCann's Australian study (McCann and Baker 2001) of how community mental health nurses promote wellness with clients who are experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness.

  19. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  20. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  1. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  2. On Utilizing Grounded Theory in Business Doctoral Research: Guidance on the Research Design, Procedures, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Boadu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a powerful and rigorous theory building methodology that has attracted considerable interest in business research; however, it is a challenging endeavour especially for novice researchers and in particular at the doctoral level. Although several researchers have attempted to clarify the cannons of various grounded theory approaches, still there is a shortage in guidance for doctoral students who wish to apply grounded theory for their studies. Using an example from a grounded theory business doctoral thesis, this paper provides a guide on the research design and utilisation of the Straussian grounded theory at doctoral level. In doing so, the paper discusses the rationale, features, and benefits of grounded theory. Using an example from corporate governance research, the paper illustrates how the procedures of data analysis (coding, theoretical memoing, and theoretical sampling are applied to systematically generate a grounded theory. Finally, the paper discusses major challenges to utilising grounded theory and how these can be addressed by doctoral researchers. This paper provides a clear and pragmatic exposition that can be useful to guide doctoral researchers who are interested in utilizing the Straussian approach of grounded theory in their studies.

  3. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  5. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  6. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in equatorial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for human leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to US military operations and civilian populations in endemic regions. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of ...

  7. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly species in equatorial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to U.S. military operations. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of malaria indicate that residuals like DDT can be ...

  8. Applied large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain

    2009-07-28

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity.

  9. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  10. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  11. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  12. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  13. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  14. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  15. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  16. Ground state of 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Steven C.; Wiringa, R. B.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    A variational method is used to study the ground state of 16O. Expectation values are computed with a cluster expansion for the noncentral correlations in the wave function; the central correlations and exchanges are treated to all orders by Monte Carlo integration. The expansion has good convergence. Results are reported for the Argonne v14 two-nucleon and Urbana VII three-nucleon potentials.

  17. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  18. Middle Ground on Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    effective and practical solution that the community embraced. E. THE MIDDLE GROUND Because of the current political environment , more outside the...was made to expire once the NICS was up and running.52 James Brady passed away in 2014 due to complications from the brain damage he suffered as a...readily available means. For example, poisoning is the most common method of suicide in China because pesticides and herbicides that can be deadly are

  19. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  20. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  1. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  2. Near ground gamma radiation associated with lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, K.; Greenfield, M. B.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    Increases in the atmospheric gamma radiation of 22 to 82above normal background have been observed after the onset of lightning fifteen times since March 2001[1]. Gamma rays have been observed with up to four 12.9 cm3 NaI detectors and recently with a high resolution Ge detector positioned 6-21 m and 15 m above ground, respectively. The tail of the observed background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR were fitted with exponential decay curves yielding typical correlation coefficients of 0.95 to 0.99 and half-lives of 52.7 +/-4.81 min and 52.8+/-10.95 min, without and with precipitation, respectively. The GRR above 300 KeV from radon progeny due to precipitation were subtracted [2]. The 3x3 Ge detector with 2 KeV resolution positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors observed increases in GRR minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay which was concurrently observed in the NaI detector. [1] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-1844. [2] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 9 (2003) pp 5733-5741.

  3. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  4. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  5. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  6. Concentration distributions of thoron and radon near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Akira [Tohwa Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-01

    One dimensional diffusion model with a constant diffusion coefficient is applied to the thoron concentration distributions in air above the ground. The experimental distributions are well described by the exponential function obtained from the model. Diffusion coefficients and thoron exhalation rates are estimated from the measured distributions, which are the average values for three months. The present values of thoron exhalation are however several times as small as those measured by other researchers. (author)

  7. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  8. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) under conditions where the ground coupling of the antenna is potentially compromised is investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of increasing the distance between the antennae...

  9. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mills

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. They also discuss Charmaz's landmark work on constructivist grounded theory relative to her positioning of the researcher in relation to the participants, analysis of the data, and rendering of participants' experiences into grounded theory. Grounded theory can be seen as a methodological spiral that begins with Glaser and Strauss' original text and continues today. The variety of epistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are located at various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlying ontologies.

  10. Applying Grounded Coordination Challenges to Concrete Learning Materials: A Study of Number Line Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jonathan M.; Black, John B.; Swart, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Do concrete learning materials promote strong learning outcomes, or do they simply make learning tasks more initially accessible? Although concrete materials may offer an intuitive foothold on a topic, research on desirable difficulties suggests that more challenging tasks facilitate greater retention and transfer. In the approach introduced here,…

  11. Integrated tools and techniques applied to the TES ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this paper will dicuss the selection of CASE tools, a decision making process, requirements tracking and a review mechanism that leads to a highly integrated approach to software development that must deal with the constant pressure to change software requirements and design that is associated with research and development.

  12. Growth and development of microseismics applied to ground control and mine safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, F.

    1983-08-01

    The microseismic technique has advanced a great deal in recent years and has been used with moderate success in a number of different applications in the mining industry. More potential users are becoming aware of its capabilities and are making efforts to use the technology. As mining continues to greater depths and stability problems become more intense, use can only be expected to expand. Current Bureau research is aimed at better use, with particular regard to the reliability of data analysis procedures. Experience to date has shown that, while the techniques are beneficial and can contribute substantially to both mine safety and mine production, reliability problems exist, specifically in the areas of false warnings and of structural failures where warning is not provided. It seem, however, that these reliability problems can be resolved with continued research and development.

  13. Applying measured reflection from the ground to simulations of thermal perfromance of solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation on tilted and vertical surfaces in the Arctic is, in large parts of the year, strongly influenced by reflection from snow. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems in the Arctic, it is important to have an accurate represe...

  14. Theory Emergence in IS Research: The Grounded Theory Method Applied : 10. JAIS Theory Development Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Mueller, Benjamin; Niederman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Where IS research aims at theory building and testing, the vast bulk of theory is borrowed from reference disciplines. While this provides some momentum for research output, it also tends to shift the focus of research away from direct observation of central, core IS issues. The purpose of this pape

  15. Classification of artificial (man-made) ground

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, M.S.; McMillan, A.A.; Powell, J H; Cooper, A.H.; Culshaw, M.G.; Northmore, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The legacy inherited from anthropogenic processes needs to be addressed in order to provide reliable and up-to-date ground information relevant to development and regeneration in the urban environment. The legacy includes voids as well as anthropogenic deposits (artificial ground). Their characteristics derive from former quarrying and mining activities, industrial processes creating derelict ground, variably consolidated made ground, and contaminated groundwater and soils. All need to be sys...

  16. Grounded for life: creative symbol-grounding for lexical invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Tony; Al-Najjar, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    One of the challenges of linguistic creativity is to use words in a way that is novel and striking and even whimsical, to convey meanings that remain stubbornly grounded in the very same world of familiar experiences as serves to anchor the most literal and unimaginative language. The challenge remains unmet by systems that merely shuttle or arrange words to achieve novel arrangements without concern as to how those arrangements are to spur the processes of meaning construction in a listener. In this paper we explore a problem of lexical invention that cannot be solved without a model - explicit or implicit - of the perceptual grounding of language: the invention of apt new names for colours. To solve this problem here we shall call upon the notion of a linguistic readymade, a phrase that is wrenched from its original context of use to be given new meaning and new resonance in new settings. To ensure that our linguistic readymades - which owe a great deal to Marcel Duchamp's notion of found art - are anchored in a consensus model of perception, we introduce the notion of a lexicalised colour stereotype.

  17. Fundamentals of applied probability and random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    This book is based on the premise that engineers use probability as a modeling tool, and that probability can be applied to the solution of engineering problems. Engineers and students studying probability and random processes also need to analyze data, and thus need some knowledge of statistics. This book is designed to provide students with a thorough grounding in probability and stochastic processes, demonstrate their applicability to real-world problems, and introduce the basics of statistics. The book''s clear writing style and homework problems make it ideal for the classroom or for self-study.* Good and solid introduction to probability theory and stochastic processes * Logically organized; writing is presented in a clear manner * Choice of topics is comprehensive within the area of probability * Ample homework problems are organized into chapter sections

  18. Applying the Theory of Optimising Professional Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Margaret Piko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaser (2014 wrote that “the application of grounded theory (GT is a relatively neglected topic” (p. 1 in the literature. Applying GT to purposely intervene and improve a situation is an important adjunct to our knowledge and understanding of GT. A recent workshop of family doctors and general practitioners provides a useful example. The theory of optimising professional life explains that doctors are concerned about sustainment in their career and, to resolve this concern, they implement solutions to optimise their personal situation. Sustainment is a new, overarching concept of three needs: the need for self-care to sustain well-being, the need for work interest to sustain motivation, and the need for income to sustain lifestyle. The objective of the workshop was to empower doctors to reinvent their careers using this theory. Working individually and in small groups, participants were able to analyse a problem and to identify potential solutions.

  19. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  20. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  1. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1409 - Ground limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ground limestone. 184.1409 Section 184.1409 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1409 Ground limestone. (a) Ground limestone consists essentially... classifying of naturally occurring limestone. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  3. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  4. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where...

  5. 49 CFR 234.249 - Ground tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tests. 234.249 Section 234.249 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.249 Ground tests. A test for grounds on each energy...

  6. 49 CFR 236.107 - Ground tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tests. 236.107 Section 236.107...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.107 Ground tests. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a test for grounds on each energy bus furnishing power to circuits,...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... connected to the grounding bus in the distribution panelboard or disconnecting means. (2) In the electrical... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.809 Grounding. (a) General. Grounding of both electrical and nonelectrical metal parts in a manufactured home shall...

  8. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  9. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  10. Circumpolar mapping of ground-fast lake ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Annett; Pointner, Georg; Leibman, Marina O.; Dvornikov, Yuri A.; Khomutov, Artem V.; Trofaier, Anna M.

    2017-02-01

    Shallow lakes are common across the entire Arctic. They play an important role as methane sources and wildlife habitats, and they are also associated with thermokarst processes which are characteristic of permafrost environments. Many lakes freeze to the ground along their rims and often over the entire extent during winter time. Knowledge on the spatial patterns of ground-fast and floating ice is important as it relates to methane release, talik formation and hydrological processes, but no circumpolar account of this phenomenon is currently available. Previous studies have shown that ground-fast ice can easily be detected using C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter intensity data acquired from satellites. A major challenge is that backscatter intensity varies across the satellite scenes due to incidence angle effects. Circumpolar application therefore requires the inclusion of incidence angle dependencies into the detection algorithm. An approach using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath data (approximately 120 m spatial resolution) has therefore been developed supported by bathymetric measurements for lakes in Siberia. This approach was then further applied across the entire Arctic for late winter 2008. Ground-fast ice fraction has been derived for (1) two million lake objects larger than 0.025 km² (post-processed GlobeLand30), (2) a 50 x 50 km grid and (3) within certain zones relevant for climate studies (permafrost type, last glacial maximum, Yedoma). Especially lakes smaller than approximately 0.1 km² may freeze completely to the ground. The proportion of ground-fast ice increases with increasing soil organic carbon content in the proximity of the lakes. This underlines the importance of such lakes for emission studies and the need to map the occurrence of ground-fast lake ice. Clusters of variable fractions of ground-fast ice occur especially in Yedoma regions of Eastern Siberia and Alaska. This reflects the nature of thaw lake dynamics. Analyses of lake

  11. 78 FR 64415 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Ground Pivoting Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... in static equilibrium, with the loads being applied at the ground contact points. (c) The limit..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) Towing at the nose gear at the critical towing angle with no brakes applied, including cases with...

  12. Polarimetry from the Ground Up

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, C U

    2008-01-01

    Ground-based solar polarimetry has made great progress over the last decade. Nevertheless, polarimetry is still an afterthought in most telescope and instrument designs, and most polarimeters are designed based on experience and rules of thumb rather than using more formal systems engineering approaches as is common in standard optical design efforts. Here we present the first steps in creating a set of systems engineering approaches to the design of polarimeters that makes sure that the final telescope-instrument-polarimeter system is more than the sum of its parts.

  13. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  14. "Naturalist Inquiry" und Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  15. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  16. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  17. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  18. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  19. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  20. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  1. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  2. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  3. The grounding of temporal metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  4. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  5. Improving the detection of explosive hazards with LIDAR-based ground plane estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional point clouds generated by LIDAR offer the potential to build a more complete understanding of the environment in front of a moving vehicle. In particular, LIDAR data facilitates the development of a non-parametric ground plane model that can filter target predictions from other sensors into above-ground and below-ground sets. This allows for improved detection performance when, for example, a system designed to locate above-ground targets considers only the set of above-ground predictions. In this paper, we apply LIDAR-based ground plane filtering to a forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) sensor system and a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor system designed to detect explosive hazards along the side of a road. Additionally, we consider the value of the visual magnitude of the LIDAR return as a feature for identifying anomalies. The predictions from these sensors are evaluated independently with and without ground plane filtering and then fused to produce a combined prediction confidence. Sensor fusion is accomplished by interpolating the confidence scores of each sensor along the ground plane model to create a combined confidence vector at specified points in the environment. The methods are tested along an unpaved desert road at an arid U.S. Army test site.

  6. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  7. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  8. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  9. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas.

  10. Hybrid-Empirical Ground Motion Estimations for Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsereteli Nino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. In seismically active regions without sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models, hybrid models become vital. Georgia does not have sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models. In this study, we have applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism, while the other is in Iran with the prevalence of reverse-mechanism events. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced in Campbell (2003. An initial set of hybrid empirical ground motion estimates is obtained for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia.

  11. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  12. Thematic Review and Analysis of Grounded Theory Application in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Badreddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present metacodes, a new concept to guide grounded theory (GT research in software engineering. Metacodes are high level codes that can help software engineering researchers guide the data coding process. Metacodes are constructed in the course of analyzing software engineering papers that use grounded theory as a research methodology. We performed a high level analysis to discover common themes in such papers and discovered that GT had been applied primarily in three software engineering disciplines: agile development processes, geographically distributed software development, and requirements engineering. For each category, we collected and analyzed all grounded theory codes and created, following a GT analysis process, what we call metacodes that can be used to drive further theory building. This paper surveys the use of grounded theory in software engineering and presents an overview of successes and challenges of applying this research methodology.

  13. Transfer model of water-soluble material in saturated/unsaturated ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shun; Kawai, Katsuyuki; Kakui, Shunsuke; Tachibana, Shinya; Kanazawa, Shinichi; Iizuka, Atsushi

    The ground pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues all over the world now. Industrial wastes discharged from various human activities infiltrate to the ground, diffuse and damage to plants and animals indirectly. Therefore, it is strongly requested to know the transfer behavior of contaminant movement in the ground. In this study, continuous equations and advection-dispersion equation are derived from mass conservation laws in soil, water, air and dissolved material phases. These governing equations are applied to the constitutive model for unsaturated soil and formulated in the framework of the initial boundary value problems with the finite element method The soil/water/air coupled analysis program, DACSAR-M_ad, applied mass transfer equation to is coded. Here, the mass within the ground due to loading is simulated with this code.

  14. Real-time simulation of ground displacement by digital accelerograph record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金星; 马强; 李山有

    2005-01-01

    With the development of accelerograph, strong ground motion data can be widely applied to many fields. Especially, it is an important milestone for strong motion observation to expand application fields into earthquake monitoring that real-time simulation of ground displacement can be obtained by strong motion records for determining three earthquake parameters. For the purpose of application, on the basis of principle of seismic response of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system, this paper presents a suit of formula of simulating ground displacement records by using strong ground motion records with the help of simulator of SDOF system. The research results show that the technique is very efficient and can be widely applied to earthquake monitoring.

  15. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torquato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic “stealthy” bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space R^{d} is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d, and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g_{2}(r and structure factor S(k must obey for any d. We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like “pseudo”-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g_{2}(r and S(k are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive

  16. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical

  17. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles

    2003-09-01

    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  18. Science, values, and common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human workers, and the humane treatment of animals. I also propose that there are fundamental differences between improvement motivated by profit and improvement motivated by ethical values. Positive moral change is sometimes revolutionary, although it is often a matter of promoting positive incremental changes and keeping one's attention on the effects of actions and attitudes. In conclusion, I suggest that in animal agriculture, positive change can be brought about by "getting closer" to the objects of scientific research, including nonhuman animals, by paying more attention to their welfare.

  19. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  20. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gaylard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE method to be able to work in a limited memory environment and in a reasonable amount of time but without compromising the accuracy of results. The study was further extended to take into account the car model size effect. Three car model sizes have been investigated and compared with MIRA scale wind tunnel results. Parameters that lead to drag value closer to experiment with less memory and computational time have been identified. Scaling the optimized mesh size with the length of car model was successfully used to predict the drag of the other car sizes with reasonable accuracy. This investigation was carried out using STARCCM+ commercial software package, however the findings can be applied to any other CFD package.

  1. DynaMax+ ground-tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, Brandon; Gader, Paul; Wilson, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for performing ground-tracking using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Ground-tracking involves identifying the air-ground interface, which is usually the dominant feature in a radar image but frequently is obscured or mimicked by other nearby elements. It is an important problem in landmine detection using vehicle-mounted systems because antenna motion, caused by bumpy ground, can introduce distortions in downtrack radar images, which ground-tracking makes it possible to correct. Because landmine detection is performed in real-time, any algorithm for ground-tracking must be able to run quickly, prior to other, more computationally expensive algorithms for detection. In this investigation, we first describe an efficient algorithm, based on dynamic programming, that can be used in real-time for tracking the ground. We then demonstrate its accuracy through a quantitative comparison with other proposed ground-tracking methods, and a qualitative comparison showing that its ground-tracking is consistent with human observations in challenging terrain.

  2. Engaging Students in Applied Research: Experiences from Collaborative Research and Learning in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Leon, Marcela; Burke, Brian; Radonic, Lucero

    2009-01-01

    A critical interest of applied anthropology is to educate students to be theoretically grounded and capable of assuming a level of social responsibility that extends beyond academia. In this paper, we reflect on the issue of student preparation for work in the policy arena by focusing on the experiences of a five-year applied research project that…

  3. Engaging Students in Applied Research: Experiences from Collaborative Research and Learning in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Leon, Marcela; Burke, Brian; Radonic, Lucero

    2009-01-01

    A critical interest of applied anthropology is to educate students to be theoretically grounded and capable of assuming a level of social responsibility that extends beyond academia. In this paper, we reflect on the issue of student preparation for work in the policy arena by focusing on the experiences of a five-year applied research project that…

  4. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction in Seismic Hazard Analysis: PEGASOS and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, F.; Bommer, J. J.; Cotton, F.; Bungum, H.; Sabetta, F.

    2005-12-01

    The SSHAC Level 4 approach to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which could be considered to define the state-of-the-art in PSHA using multiple expert opinions, has been fully applied only twice, firstly in the multi-year Yucca Mountain study and subsequently (2002-2004) in the PEGASOS project. The authors of this paper participated as ground-motion experts in this latter project, the objective of which was comprehensive seismic hazard analysis for four nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland, considering annual exceedance frequencies down to 1/10000000. Following SSHAC procedure, particular emphasis was put on capturing both the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. As a consequence, ground motion prediction was performed by combining several empirical ground motion models within a logic tree framework with the weights on each logic tree branch expressing the personal degree-of-belief of each ground-motion expert. In the present paper, we critically review the current state of ground motion prediction methodology in PSHA in particular for regions of low seismicity. One of the toughest lessons from PEGASOS was that in systematically and rigorously applying the laws of uncertainty propagation to all of the required conversions and adjustments of ground motion models, a huge price has to be paid in an ever-growing aleatory variability. Once this path has been followed, these large sigma values will drive the hazard, particularly for low annual frequencies of exceedance. Therefore, from a post-PEGASOS perspective, the key issues in the context of ground-motion prediction for PSHA for the near future are to better understand the aleatory variability of ground motion and to develop suites of ground-motion prediction equations that employ the same parameter definitions. The latter is a global rather than a regional challenge which might be a desirable long-term goal for projects similar to the PEER NGA (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Next

  5. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  6. Study on influence of ground settlement in bored metro tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    At present the bored construction method is one of the main construction methods of metro and tunnel construction in China. The empirical estimated formulas of tunnel ground surface settlement using the bored construction method were obtained,combining the mechanical stimulant calculated result of tunnel model of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method and the actual measurement data of Beijing metro construction. According to the regressed analysis of calculated data, the calculated equations of ground surface settlement value and settlement range of tunnel section under the condition of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method were gained. Among them there are some empirical formulas can apply to the construction design ofmetro tunnel directly.

  7. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  8. Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianello, Alvise; Sotiriadis, Spyros

    2016-08-01

    A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.

  9. Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Bastianello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.

  10. Tunnel face stability and ground settlement in pressurized shield tunnelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艺; 汪国锋; 周庆宏

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the stability of large-diameter circular tunnels and ground settlement during tunnelling by a pressurized shield was presented. An innovative three-dimensional translational multi-block failure mechanism was proposed to determine the face support pressure of large-shield tunnelling. Compared with the currently available mechanisms, the proposed mechanism has two unique features: (1) the supporting pressure applied to the tunnel face is assumed to have a non-uniform rather than uniform distribution, and (2) the method takes into account the entire circular excavation face instead of merely an inscribed ellipse. Based on the discrete element method, a numerical simulation of the Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel was carried out using the Particle Flow Code in two dimensions. The immediate ground movement during excavation, as well as the behaviour of the excavation face, the shield movement, and the excavated area, was considered before modelling the excavation process.

  11. Ground extraction from airborne laser data based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Yang, Yan; Jiang, Bowen; Li, Jia

    2007-11-01

    With the advantages of high resolution and accuracy, airborne laser scanning data are widely used in topographic mapping. In order to generate a DTM, measurements from object features such as buildings, vehicles and vegetation have to be classified and removed. However, the automatic extraction of bare earth from point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanning equipment remains a problem in LIDAR data filtering nowadays. In this paper, a filter algorithm based on wavelet analysis is proposed. Relying on the capability of detecting discontinuities of continuous wavelet transform and the feature of multi-resolution analysis, the object points can be removed, while ground data are preserved. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, we applied it to the data set used in the ISPRS filter test in 2003. 15 samples have been tested by the proposed approach. Results showed that it filtered most of the objects like vegetation and buildings, and extracted a well defined ground model.

  12. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianello, Alvise, E-mail: abastia@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Sotiriadis, Spyros [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Institut de Mathématiques de Marseille (I2M), Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, UMR 7373, 39, rue F. Joliot Curie, 13453, Marseille (France); University of Roma Tre, Department of Mathematics and Physics, L.go S.L. Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.

  14. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  15. Simple system for locating ground loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P M

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100 kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  16. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  17. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  18. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  19. Development of the Applied Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Bragg, Debra D.; Ruud, Collin M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing demands for economic competitiveness and educational effectiveness have led states and institutions to implement new approaches to facilitating baccalaureate completion. This study examined one of these approaches, the applied baccalaureate degree, which is designed to incorporate applied associate course work and degrees once…

  20. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  1. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  2. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  3. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  4. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-15

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  5. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  6. Grounded cognition: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2010-10-01

    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive science, shifting from relatively minor status to increasing importance. Nevertheless, researchers wonder whether grounded mechanisms lie at the heart of the cognitive system or are peripheral to classic symbolic mechanisms. Although grounded cognition is currently dominated by demonstration experiments in the absence of well-developed theories, the area is likely to become increasingly theory driven over the next 30 years. Another likely development is the increased incorporation of grounding mechanisms into cognitive architectures and into accounts of classic cognitive phenomena. As this incorporation occurs, much functionality of these architectures and phenomena is likely to remain, along with many original mechanisms. Future theories of grounded cognition are likely to be heavily influenced by both cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience, and also by developmental science and robotics. Aspects from the three major perspectives in cognitive science-classic symbolic architectures, statistical/dynamical systems, and grounded cognition-will probably be integrated increasingly in future theories, each capturing indispensable aspects of intelligence.

  7. Grounded Theory Approach in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Venkat Pulla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology in producing sound theoretical basis for practice. Selected narratives from the author’s recent studies are used to explain the processes of Grounded Theory methodology.

  8. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  9. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  10. Current climate change effects on the ground thermal regime in Central Yakutia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stepan Varlamov; Yuri Skachkov; Pavel Skryabin

    2014-01-01

    The-evolution-of-ground-thermal-state-has-been-studied-to-assess-impacts-of-current-climatic-warming-on-permafrost-in-Central-Yakutia.-The-analysis-of-long-term-data-of-regional-weather-stations-has-revealed-one-of-the-highest-increasing-trends-in-mean-annual-air-temperature-in-northern-Russia.-A-forecast-of-surface-air-temperature-fluctuations-has-been-made-by-applying-a-frequency-analysis-method.-Monitoring-of-ground-thermal-conditions-allows-us-to-identify-inter-annual-and-long-term-variability-among-a-wide-range-of-natural-conditions.-Experimental-research-has-indicated-a-long-term-dynamics-of-ground-thermal-state-evolution:-ground-temperatures-at-the-depth-of-zero-annual-amplitude-and-seasonally-thawed-layer-depth.-Long-term-variability-of-thaw-depth-shows-near-zero-to-weak-positive-trends-in-small-valleys-in-contrast-to-weak-negative-trends-on-slopes.-With-significant-climatic-warming,-the-thermal-state-of-near-surface-layers-of-permafrost-demonstrates-steadiness.-Anthropogenic-impacts-on-ground-thermal-regime-in-various-terrain-types-have-been-qualitatively-evaluated.-Clear-cutting,-ground-cover-stripping,-and-post-fire-deforestation-in-inter-alas-type-terrains-result-in-a-significant-increase-of-temperature-and-seasonal-ground-thaw-depth,-as-well-as-adverse-cryogenic-processes.-The-dynamics-of-mean-annual-ground-temperature-in-slash-and-burn-sites-have-been-evaluated-in-reference-to-stages-of-successive-vegetation-recovery.

  11. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  12. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  13. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  14. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  15. Infrasound from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  16. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  17. Analysis of ground-motion simulation big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Fujiwara, H.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a parallel distributed processing system which applies a big data analysis to the large-scale ground motion simulation data. The system uses ground-motion index values and earthquake scenario parameters as input. We used peak ground velocity value and velocity response spectra as the ground-motion index. The ground-motion index values are calculated from our simulation data. We used simulated long-period ground motion waveforms at about 80,000 meshes calculated by a three dimensional finite difference method based on 369 earthquake scenarios of a great earthquake in the Nankai Trough. These scenarios were constructed by considering the uncertainty of source model parameters such as source area, rupture starting point, asperity location, rupture velocity, fmax and slip function. We used these parameters as the earthquake scenario parameter. The system firstly carries out the clustering of the earthquake scenario in each mesh by the k-means method. The number of clusters is determined in advance using a hierarchical clustering by the Ward's method. The scenario clustering results are converted to the 1-D feature vector. The dimension of the feature vector is the number of scenario combination. If two scenarios belong to the same cluster the component of the feature vector is 1, and otherwise the component is 0. The feature vector shows a `response' of mesh to the assumed earthquake scenario group. Next, the system performs the clustering of the mesh by k-means method using the feature vector of each mesh previously obtained. Here the number of clusters is arbitrarily given. The clustering of scenarios and meshes are performed by parallel distributed processing with Hadoop and Spark, respectively. In this study, we divided the meshes into 20 clusters. The meshes in each cluster are geometrically concentrated. Thus this system can extract regions, in which the meshes have similar `response', as clusters. For each cluster, it is possible to determine

  18. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  19. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  20. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  1. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  2. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  3. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1. Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136. The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result is methodological confusion and an often unconscious remodelling of the original methodology (Glaser, 2003. Given the various interpretations and approaches that have been popularised under the rubric of grounded theory, this paper addresses the important distinction between grounded theory as a general methodology and its popularisation as a qualitative research method. The paper begins with a brief overview of grounded theory’s origins and its philosophical foundations then continues by addressing the basic distinction between abstract conceptualisation as employed in classic grounded theory and the conceptual description approach as adopted by many qualitative researchers. The paper continues with a brief overview of the criteria for judging the quality of classic grounded theory and concludes by detailing its methodological principles.

  4. Design of ground segments for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Guy

    1994-01-01

    New concepts must be implemented when designing a Ground Segment (GS) for small satellites to conform to their specific mission characteristics: low cost, one main instrument, spacecraft autonomy, optimized mission return, etc. This paper presents the key cost drivers of such ground segments, the main design features, and the comparison of various design options that can meet the user requirements.

  5. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  6. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  7. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  8. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  9. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  10. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  11. ECRB ALCOVE AND NICHE GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Keifer

    1999-05-09

    The purpose of the analysis is to provide design bases for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) alcove and niche ground support drawings. The objective is to evaluate the ESF Alcove Ground Support Analysis (Ref 5.1) to determine if the calculations technically bound the ECRB alcoves and to address specific differences in the conditions and constraints.

  12. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  13. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  14. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding...

  15. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  16. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  17. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  18. Coupled cluster calculations of ground and excited states of nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, K L; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Papenbrock, T; Piecuch, P

    2004-01-01

    The standard and renormalized coupled cluster methods with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples and their generalizations to excited states, based on the equation of motion coupled cluster approach, are applied to the He-4 and O-16 nuclei. A comparison of coupled cluster results with the results of the exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the same model space shows that the quantum chemistry inspired coupled cluster approximations provide an excellent description of ground and excited states of nuclei. The bulk of the correlation effects is obtained at the coupled cluster singles and doubles level. Triples, treated noniteratively, provide the virtually exact description.

  19. Growing Open: The transition from QDA to Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Doing a PhD can principally be carried out in three ways; firstly by applying existing theories on new data, secondly by theoretically comparing existing theories and thirdly by generating a new theory. Choice of approach of course depends on awareness and accessibility of alternatives. In essence, most PhD studies are exploratory journeys in a jungle of descriptive methodologies based on very uniform data. In this paper, the author elaborates the exploratory research process that subconsciously, and later consciously, required a shift from the initial QDA approach to grounded theory. The cutting point was discovering the multifaceted implications of the all-is-data dictum in GT.

  20. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  1. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with...

  2. Comparison and statistical analysis of long-term overheating indices applied on energy renovated dwellings in temperate climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholders, researchers and designers apply different overheating metrics because they follow different comfort theories or comply with different regulations and standards. As a result, there is no common ground for generalization, intercomparison and final concordance of their conclusions. Cor...

  3. Applied statistical inference with MINITAB

    CERN Document Server

    Lesik, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Through clear, step-by-step mathematical calculations, Applied Statistical Inference with MINITAB enables students to gain a solid understanding of how to apply statistical techniques using a statistical software program. It focuses on the concepts of confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, validating model assumptions, and power analysis.Illustrates the techniques and methods using MINITABAfter introducing some common terminology, the author explains how to create simple graphs using MINITAB and how to calculate descriptive statistics using both traditional hand computations and MINITAB. Sh

  4. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  5. Optimization of a ground coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D.; Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative analytical project has optimized a horizontal ground coil heat pump system for the Pittsburgh climate. This is the first step in the exploration of several advanced designs including various ground coil devices and advanced heat pump components. The project made use of new and existing design tools to simulate system performance and determine first cost. The system life cycle cost was minimized while constraining the system to meet the design day cooling load using a function minimizing program. Among the system parameters considered were: air-to-refrigerant frontal area, air-to-refrigerant fin pitch, air-to-refrigerant air flowrate, compressor displacement, liquid-to-refrigerant coil length, liquid-to-refrigerant coil diameter, ground coil fluid flowrate, ground coil length, and ground coil depth.

  6. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  7. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...

  8. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our......In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... discussion to the potential value of grounded theory research to the field of entrepreneurship and thus the need in this field of further grounded theory....

  9. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  10. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  11. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  12. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Bruintjes, Roelof; Serafin, Robert; Orville, Harold; Boe, Bruce; Cotton, William; Warburton, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single phase titanomagnetites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthal, W., E-mail: wms@andrew.cmu.edu; Liu, X.; Cox, T.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Mesa, J. L.; Diaz-Michelena, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain); Maicas, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ISOM-ETSIT, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    The focus of this paper is the study of cation distributions and resulting magnetizations in titanomagnetites (TMs), (1−x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4−x}Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} solid solutions. TM remnant states are hypothesized to contribute to planetary magnetic field anomalies. This work correlates experimental data with proposed models for the TM pseudobinary. Improved synthesis procedures are reported for single phase Ulvöspinel (Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}), and TM solid solutions were made using solid state synthesis techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show samples to be single phase solid solutions. M-H curves of TM75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 (TMX where X = at. % of ulvöspinel) were measured using a Physical Property Measurement System at 10 K, in fields of 0 to 8 T. The saturation magnetization was found to be close to that predicted by the Neel model for cation distribution in TMs. M-T curves of the remnant magnetization were measured from 10 K to 350 K. The remnant magnetization was acquired at 10 K by applying an 8 T field and then releasing the field. Experimental Neel temperatures are reported for samples in the Neel model ground state.

  14. Reduced M(atrix) theory models: ground state solutions

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to find exact ground state solutions to reduced models of the SU($N$) invariant matrix model arising from the quantization of the 11-dimensional supermembrane action in the light-cone gauge. We illustrate the method by applying it to lower dimensional toy models and for the SU(2) group. This approach could, in principle, be used to find ground state solutions to the complete 9-dimensional model and for any SU($N$) group. The Hamiltonian, the supercharges and the constraints related to the SU($2$) symmetry are built from operators that generate a multicomponent spinorial wave function. The procedure is based on representing the fermionic degrees of freedom by means of Dirac-like gamma matrices, as was already done in the first proposal of supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum cosmology. We exhibit a relation between these finite $N$ matrix theory ground state solutions and SUSY quantum cosmology wave functions giving a possible physical significance of the theory even for finite $N$.

  15. Comparison of algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation without ground truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Karan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    Image segmentation is a pre-requisite to medical image analysis. A variety of segmentation algorithms have been proposed, and most are evaluated on a small dataset or based on classification of a single feature. The lack of a gold standard (ground truth) further adds to the discrepancy in these comparisons. This work proposes a new methodology for comparing image segmentation algorithms without ground truth by building a matrix called region-correlation matrix. Subsequently, suitable distance measures are proposed for quantitative assessment of similarity. The first measure takes into account the degree of region overlap or identical match. The second considers the degree of splitting or misclassification by using an appropriate penalty term. These measures are shown to satisfy the axioms of a quasi-metric. They are applied for a comparative analysis of synthetic segmentation maps to show their direct correlation with human intuition of similar segmentation. Since ultrasound images are difficult to segment and usually lack a ground truth, the measures are further used to compare the recently proposed spectral clustering algorithm (encoding spatial and edge information) with standard k-means over abdominal ultrasound images. Improving the parameterization and enlarging the feature space for k-means steadily increased segmentation quality to that of spectral clustering.

  16. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  17. Hybrid RANS/LES applied to complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    aspect ratio in the RANS layer and thereby resolve the mean near-wall velocity profile. The method is applicable to complex terrain and the benefits of traditional LES are kept intact. Using the hybrid method, simulations of the wind over a natural complex terrain near Wellington in New Zealand......Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wind in complex terrain is limited by computational cost. The number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-ground turbulent structures (eddies) are very high. The traditional solution to the problem has been to apply a wall function...... that accounts for the whole near-wall region. Recently, a hybrid method was proposed in which the eddies close to the ground were modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense (RANS) and the eddies above this region were simulated using LES. The advantage of the approach is the ability to use shallow cells of high...

  18. Transmissivity evolution through interface of composite liners under applied constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M

    2011-08-01

    In landfill liners, geomembranes have defects that constitute preferential passages of leachate from rainwater percolation. Non-woven geotextiles are widely used in wastelandfills as materials having the functions of protection, separation, filtration and drainage. This study seeks to select geotextiles through an investigation conducted among landfill operators who commonly arise a geotextile in the geomembrane-clay interface to facilitate geomembrane welding and to prevent its puncture by angular materials. It also attempts to find out the influence of geotextile in a decimetric transmissivity cell size under 50 kPa stress and smooth ground surface. The results show that the transmissivity in composite liner interface is almost the same as the one calculated with the European standard EN ISO 12958. Transmissivity depends on the mechanical stress applied to the bottom liner, on the geotextile type in the interface and on the ground surface.

  19. Ground motion analysis of OSSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, R.P.; Snell, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield experiment, OSSY, was performed to investigate the viability of a high-explosive technique to help estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the 100-pound OSSY experiments performed in hole UE-10 ITS No. 3 at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity wave forms from these experiments show a distinct dual-pulse structure in the close-in and far-field regions, with the amplitude of the second pulse being as large as or larger than the first pulse. To gain some insight into the cause of the dual-pulse feature, we examine how the explosion-induced close-in response is affected by (1) certain features of inelastic rock/soil constitutive models applied in the near-field region, (2) the large length-to-diameter charge ratio of 8, (3) the charge and gauge package emplacement, and (4) geology (e.g., layering) in the vicinity of the explosion. Our results from 1-D and 2-D simulations show the following: (a) the response, measured by accelerometers located above the charges, is significantly influenced by the charge length-to-diameter ratio out to a distance of 8 m. (b) the grout emplacement of the charge has very little effect on the response. (c) the geologic layering serves mainly to phase the arrival of the pulses. (d) the second pulse can be best accounted for by applying a dilatant feature that allows for pore recovery during unloading. Other material property variations do not provide any contribution to the formation of a second pulse.

  20. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews PhD

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the latest in a family of Grounded Theory books by Glaser that continue to build on previous work and make the methodology much more explicit. Its purpose is quite simply to provide Grounded Theory researchers with a set of procedures that can be followed to generate a Formal Grounded Theory (FGT. Despite several chapters in previous books that deal with generating formal grounded theory it has been given scant attention by researchers and this book aims to reverse this. It brings together and synthesises these previous writings in one book and seeks to specify much more clearly what is meant by a formal grounded theory. As with other more recent books by Glaser, this one is based on data in that the procedures outlined are come from previously generated formal grounded theories. However, Glaser cautions that this is based on limited data since not many FGTs exist yet and as more are generated, the method will become more explicit. The book has been eagerly anticipated by grounded theorists and it does not disappoint.

  1. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  2. From art to applied science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzberg, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Before "applied science" and "technology" became keywords, the concept of art was central to discourse about material culture and its connections to natural knowledge. By the late nineteenth century, a new discourse of applied science had replaced the older discourse of art. This older discourse of art, especially as presented in Enlightenment encyclopedias, addressed the relationship between art and science in depth. But during the nineteenth century the concept of fine art gradually displaced the broader meanings of "art," thus undermining the utility of the term for discourse on the relationship between knowledge and practice. This narrowed meaning of "art" obscured key aspects of the industrial world. In effect, middle-class agents of industrialism, including "men of science," used the rhetoric of "applied science" and, later, "technology" to cement the exclusion of artisanal knowledge from the discourse of industrial modernity.

  3. Near-surface applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Everett, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook fo...

  4. Activities report in applied physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  5. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  6. Utilization of ground waste seashells in cement mortars for masonry and plastering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwattanaruk, Pusit; Makul, Natt; Siripattarapravat, Chalothorn

    2012-11-30

    In this research, four types of waste seashells, including short-necked clam, green mussel, oyster, and cockle, were investigated experimentally to develop a cement product for masonry and plastering. The parameters studied included water demand, setting time, compressive strength, drying shrinkage and thermal conductivity of the mortars. These properties were compared with those of a control mortar that was made of a conventional Portland cement. The main parameter of this study was the proportion of ground seashells used as cement replacement (5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% by weight). Incorporation of ground seashells resulted in reduced water demand and extended setting times of the mortars, which are advantages for rendering and plastering in hot climates. All mortars containing ground seashells yielded adequate strength, less shrinkage with drying and lower thermal conductivity compared to the conventional cement. The results indicate that ground seashells can be applied as a cement replacement in mortar mixes and may improve the workability of rendering and plastering mortar.

  7. Transition and verification of ground fault protection method in Hokuriku Shinkansen line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiteru Koyanagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical discharge gaps called S type horn are applied to the ground fault detection and protection in AC traction power supply system for high speed railway called Shinkansen. In this method, the earth resistance of the steel pipe pillar is an important factor for the ground fault protection by the electrical discharge. In this study, the analyses of the transient characteristics of grounding fault are carried out by using EMTP, and the ground resistance value required to trigger discharge at S type horn was calculated. Moreover, the protection effect of a discharge gap called GP the substation equipment that is a discharge gap which is inserted between rails and substation mesh is evaluated.

  8. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a Primitive motion capture library. The Library will be used by the human factors engineering in the future to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the Primitive models are being developed for the library the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the SLS and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the Motion Capture of unique ground systems activities are being used to verify the human factors analysis requirements for ground system used to process the STS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  9. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Factors Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a primitive motion capture library. The library will be used by human factors engineering analysts to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the primitive models are being developed for the library, the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the motion capture of unique ground systems activities is being used to verify the human factors engineering requirements for ground systems used to process the SLS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  10. Grounding line variability and subglacial lake drainage on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Shean, David E.; Smith, Ben E.; Dutrieux, P.

    2016-09-01

    We produced a 6 year time series of differential tidal displacement for Pine Island Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using speckle-tracking methods applied to fine-resolution TerraSAR-X data. These results reveal that the main grounding line has maintained a relatively steady position over the last 6 years, following the speedup that terminated in ~2009. In the middle of the shelf, there are grounded spots that migrate downstream over the 6 year record. Examination of high-resolution digital elevation models reveals that these grounded spots form where deep keels (thickness anomalies) advect over an approximately flow-parallel bathymetric high, maintaining intermittent contact with the bed. These data sets also reveal several subsidence and uplift events associated with subglacial lake drainages in the fast-flowing region above the grounding line. Although these drainages approximately double the rate of subglacial water flow over periods of a few weeks, they have no discernible effect on horizontal flow speed.

  11. The Grounded Theory Method: Deconstruction and Reconstruction in a Human Patient Simulation Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Parker PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain modes of qualitative inquiry, such as grounded theory, can serve to uncover the abstract processes and broad conceptual themes influencing the personal experiences of undergraduate nursing students encountering clinical scenarios utilizing human patient simulators (HPS. To date insufficient research has been conducted to uncover the basic social-psychological processes encountered by students as they engage in a HPS-based clinical scenario. The authors assert that HPS-based learning experiences are in reality social endeavors that lead to the creation of socially negotiated knowledge and meanings relevant to the adult learner. To understand how grounded theory is suited to deriving answers to these questions, an analysis of the theoretical and philosophical foundations of grounded theory is undertaken. This critical analysis concludes with a discussion of specific considerations to be reflected upon by researchers when applying the inductively derived method of grounded theory in uncovering the social processes that occur within HPS-based clinical scenarios.

  12. Trajectory approach to the Schrödinger–Langevin equation with linear dissipation for ground states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2015-11-15

    The Schrödinger–Langevin equation with linear dissipation is integrated by propagating an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories for the ground state of quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the Schrödinger–Langevin equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation with linear dissipation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation is simultaneously integrated with the trajectory guidance equation. Then, the computational method is applied to the harmonic oscillator, the double well potential, and the ground vibrational state of methyl iodide. The excellent agreement between the computational and the exact results for the ground state energies and wave functions shows that this study provides a synthetic trajectory approach to the ground state of quantum systems.

  13. Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume Emery Griffiths model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2008-05-01

    We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and Jnon-uniform phases. We have also constructed the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the model on the triangular lattice and found 20 and 59 fundamental phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found.

  14. Spatial-temporal and modal analysis of propeller induced ground vortices by particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-10-01

    During the ground operation of aircraft, there is potentially a system of vortices generated from the ground toward the propulsor, commonly denoted as ground vortices. Although extensive research has been conducted on ground vortices induced by turbofans which were simplified by suction tubes, these studies cannot well capture the properties of ground vortices induced by propellers, e.g., the flow phenomena due to intermittent characteristics of blade passing and the presence of slipstream of the propeller. Therefore, the investigation of ground vortices induced by a propeller is performed to improve understanding of these phenomena. The distributions of velocities in two different planes containing the vortices were measured by high frequency Particle Image Velocimetry. These planes are a wall-parallel plane in close proximity to the ground and a wall-normal plane upstream of the propeller. The instantaneous flow fields feature highly unsteady flow in both of these two planes. The spectral analysis is conducted in these two flow fields and the energetic frequencies are quantified. The flow fields are further evaluated by applying the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition analysis to capture the coherent flow structures. Consistent flow structures with strong contributions to the turbulent kinetic energy are noticed in the two planes.

  15. Vadose zone-attenuated artificial recharge for input to a ground water model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William E; Wurstner, Signe K; Eslinger, Paul W

    2007-01-01

    Accurate representation of artificial recharge is requisite to calibration of a ground water model of an unconfined aquifer for a semiarid or arid site with a vadose zone that imparts significant attenuation of liquid transmission and substantial anthropogenic liquid discharges. Under such circumstances, artificial recharge occurs in response to liquid disposal to the vadose zone in areas that are small relative to the ground water model domain. Natural recharge, in contrast, is spatially variable and occurs over the entire upper boundary of a typical unconfined ground water model. An improved technique for partitioning artificial recharge from simulated total recharge for inclusion in a ground water model is presented. The improved technique is applied using data from the semiarid Hanford Site. From 1944 until the late 1980s, when Hanford's mission was the production of nuclear materials, the quantities of liquid discharged from production facilities to the ground vastly exceeded natural recharge. Nearly all hydraulic head data available for use in calibrating a ground water model at this site were collected during this period or later, when the aquifer was under the diminishing influence of the massive water disposals. The vadose zone is typically 80 to 90 m thick at the Central Plateau where most production facilities were located at this semiarid site, and its attenuation of liquid transmission to the aquifer can be significant. The new technique is shown to improve the representation of artificial recharge and thereby contribute to improvement in the calibration of a site-wide ground water model.

  16. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  17. GROUND FILTERING LiDAR DATA BASED ON MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF HEIGHT DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rashidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a necessary step to generate digital terrain model (DTM from LiDAR dataset. In this research, a new method based on multi-scale analysis of height difference threshold is proposed for ground filtering of LiDAR data. The proposed method utilizes three windows with different sizes in small, average and large to cover the entire LiDAR point clouds, then with a height difference threshold, point clouds can be separated to ground and non-ground in each local window. Meanwhile, the best threshold values for size of windows are considered based on physical characteristics of the ground surface and size of objects. Also, the minimum of height of object in each window selected as height difference threshold. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, two datasets in rural and urban area were applied. The overall accuracy in rural and urban area was 96.06% and 94.88% respectively. These results of the filtering showed that the proposed method can successfully filters non-ground points from LiDAR point clouds despite of the data area.

  18. Applied medical statistics using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Der, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    ""Each chapter in the book is well laid out, contains examples with SAS code, and ends with a concise summary. The chapters in the book contain the right level of information to use SAS to apply different statistical methods. … a good overview of how to apply in SAS 9.3 the many possible statistical analysis methods.""-Caroline Kennedy, Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd., Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 2015""… a well-organized and thorough exploration of broad coverage in medical statistics. The book is an excellent reference of statistical methods

  19. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  20. Ground Bounce Noise Reduction in Vlsi Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available : Scaling of devices in CMOS technology leads to increase in parameter like Ground bounce noise, Leakage current, average power dissipation and short channel effect. FinFET are the promising substitute to replace CMOS. Ground bounce noise is produced when power gating circuit goes from SLEEP to ACTIVE mode transition. FinFET based designs are compared with MOSFET based designs on basis of different parameter like Ground bounce noise, leakage current and average power dissipation. HSPICE is the software tool used for simulation and circuit design.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  2. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  3. Langevin equation path integral ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Steve; Schmidt, Matthew; Ing, Christopher; Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2013-08-15

    We propose a Langevin equation path integral ground state (LePIGS) approach for the calculation of ground state (zero temperature) properties of molecular systems. The approach is based on a modification of the finite temperature path integral Langevin equation (PILE) method (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 124104) to the case of open Feynman paths. Such open paths are necessary for a ground state formulation. We illustrate the applicability of the method using model systems and the weakly bound water-parahydrogen dimer. We show that the method can lead to converged zero point energies and structural properties.

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  5. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  6. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stanfield, R. [US Army CECOM, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems.

  8. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  9. 7 CFR 1755.402 - Ground resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ground resistance of electronic equipment such as span line repeaters, carrier terminal equipment... Protection Grounding Fundamentals,” for a comprehensive discussion of ground resistance measurements. (d... electronic equipment, the ground resistance shall not exceed 25 ohms. Where the measured ground...

  10. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77.701-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground...

  11. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  12. Behavior Subtraction applied to radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Caro Cuenca, M.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm developed for optical images has been applied to radar data. The algorithm, Behavior Subtraction, is based on capturing the dynamics of a scene and detecting anomalous behavior. The radar application is the detection of small surface targets at sea. The sea surface yields the expected s

  13. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Smeenk, R.J.M.; Mazy, A.; Jacques, P.; Argüello, L.; Mills, S.

    2003-01-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company costs

  14. Applying statistics in behavioural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Applying Statistics in Behavioural Research is written for undergraduate students in the behavioural sciences, such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Sociology and Ethology. The topics range from basic techniques, like correlation and t-tests, to moderately advanced analyses, like multiple regression and MAN

  15. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul E.

    This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

  16. SEM in applied marketing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey ...

  17. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  18. The Applied Connection for Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the 76 graduates of Kent State's applied sociology masters program, designed to prepare students for employment outside academe, found one graduate employed outside her field, four who continued their education and became practicing sociologists, and a majority who used their training as human service practitioners. (MSE)

  19. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  20. Seven papers in applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Anosov, D V; Bogolyubov, N N; Bogoyavlenskii, O I; Bondarchuk, V S

    1985-01-01

    These papers in applied mathematics have been carefully selected by a joint committee of the AMS, the Association for Symbolic Logic (ASL), and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (IMS) from publications not otherwise translated into English. The translated papers are carefully edited prior to publication.

  1. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  2. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  3. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  4. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  5. Ground roll attenuation using a curvelet-SVD filter: a case study from the west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Bahareh; Torabi, Siyavash; Javaherian, Abdorahim; Mortazavi, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    In reflection seismology, a ground roll is a low frequency, low velocity and high amplitude surface wave. It usually has stronger amplitude than reflections, and masks valuable information carried by signals. Many filters in different domains have been used for ground roll attenuation such as tau-p and f-k filters. Recently, in many studies, the curvelet transform has been used for ground roll attenuation. The curvelet transform creates a good separation between ground roll and reflections in dip and frequency, especially in high frequency subbands. In this paper, based on the adaptive curvelet filter, a new method is introduced through a combination of the adaptive curvelet and adaptive singular value decomposition (ASVD) filters and is called a curvelet-SVD filter. In this filter, the subbands in a curvelet domain are divided into three categories based on the ground roll energy in each subband. These categories are subbands (1) with high energy containing only ground roll, (2) with medium energy that contains both ground roll and reflections, and (3) with low energy containing only reflections. The category that contains only ground roll will be muted, as in common usage of the adaptive curvelet filter. If the category that contains both ground roll and reflections is unchanged, part of the ground roll will not be attenuated. If this category is muted, part of the reflections will be damaged. To overcome this problem, ASVD is applied to attenuate ground roll in the subbands of this category. The category that contains only reflections will not be touched. This filter was applied to a synthetic and to a real data set from the west of Iran. The synthetic data contained dispersed and aliased ground roll. A curvelet-SVD filter could attenuate dispersed ground roll but it could not completely attenuate aliased ground roll. Because of the damage to the reflections, the energy threshold for applying ASVD in the curvelet domain could not be selected any lower. In real

  6. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  7. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  8. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  9. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  10. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  11. 3D Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    GPiR (ground-penetrating imaging radar) is a new technology for mapping the shallow subsurface, including society’s underground infrastructure. Applications for this technology include efficient and precise mapping of buried utilities on a large scale.

  12. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  13. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  14. The Porcupine herd of barren ground caribou

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the porcupine herd of the barren ground caribou. The report covers the short history, the winter range, migration route, phenology, movements and...

  15. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  16. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  17. (AJST) EFFECTS OF GROUND INSULATION AND GREENHOUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific ... and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Biogas ... the effect of ground insulation on biogas production. ..... Methane Generation from Human, Animal.

  18. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  19. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  20. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  1. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  2. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  3. [Thoughts regarding researchers utilizing Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Joséte Luzia; da Silva, Laura Johanson; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with the objective to present the characteristics of researchers who use the Grounded Theory method, and outline the development of aptitudes for the researcher to become a Grounded Theoretician. The theoretical discussion was based on the frameworks of this methodology and supported by the literature. The article presents the main demands of qualitative studies using Grounded Theory, and important behaviors, attitudes and characteristics developed by the researchers. It is concluded that learning about Grounded Theory involves more than operationalizing a group of procedures and techniques. It also involves facing challenges to change one's attitude as a researcher and develop new ways of thinking and researching, gathering knowledge based on data to form a theory.

  4. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  5. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Sun

    2004-07-09

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).

  6. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  8. A 2.5-D Diffraction Tomography Inversion Scheme for Ground Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A new 2.5-D inversion scheme is derived for ground penetrating radar (GPR) that applies to a monostatic fixed-offset measurement configuration. The inversion scheme, which is based upon the first Born approximation and the pseudo-inverse operator, takes rigorously into account the planar air...

  9. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  10. On the ground state energy of the delta-function Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold

    2016-10-01

    The weak coupling asymptotics to order γ of the ground state energy of the delta-function Fermi gas, derived heuristically in the literature, is here made rigorous. Further asymptotics are in principle computable. The analysis applies to the Gaudin integral equation, a method previously used by one of the authors for the asymptotics of large Toeplitz matrices.

  11. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  12. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  13. A New Method for the Atomic Ground-State Energy in the Screened Coulomb Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Peng-Peng; GUO Hua

    2001-01-01

    The new method proposed recently by Friedberg,Lee and Zhao is applied to the derivation of the atomic ground-state energy with the inclusion of the screening effect.The present results are compared with those obtained in the pure Coulomb potential and by the variational approach.The overall good results are obtained with this new method.``

  14. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  15. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  16. On the ground state of metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1978-01-01

    A proposed liquid ground state of metallic hydrogen at zero temperature is explored and a variational upper bound to the ground state energy is calculated. The possibility that the metallic hydrogen is a liquid around the metastable point (rs = 1.64) cannot be ruled out. This conclusion crucially hinges on the contribution to the energy arising from the third order in the electron-proton interaction which is shown here to be more significant in the liquid phase than in crystals.

  17. A global approach to ground state solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study radial solutions of semilinear Laplace equations. We try to understand all solutions of the problem, regardless of the boundary behavior. It turns out that one can study uniqueness or multiplicity properties of ground state solutions by considering curves of solutions of the corresponding Dirichlet and Neumann problems. We show that uniqueness of ground state solutions can sometimes be approached by a numerical computation.

  18. A global approach to ground state solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We study radial solutions of semilinear Laplace equations. We try to understand all solutions of the problem, regardless of the boundary behavior. It turns out that one can study uniqueness or multiplicity properties of ground state solutions by considering curves of solutions of the corresponding Dirichlet and Neumann problems. We show that uniqueness of ground state solutions can sometimes be approached by a numerical computation.

  19. A numerical model for ground temperature determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczur, M.; Polepszyc, I.; Biernacka, B.; Sapińska-Śliwa, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ground surface temperature and the temperature with respect to depth are one of the most important issues for geotechnical and environmental applications as well as for plants and other living organisms. In geothermal systems, temperature is directly related to the energy resources in the ground and it influences the efficiency of the ground source system. The ground temperature depends on a very large number of parameters, but it often needs to be evaluated with good accuracy. In the present work, models for the prediction of the ground temperature with a focus on the surface temperature at which all or selected important ground and environmental phenomena are taken into account have been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model may result in a similar temperature variation, yet at a very low depth and for specific cases only. A detailed analysis shows that taking into account different types of pavement or a greater depth requires more complex and advanced models.

  20. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  1. Is space the ultimate high ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Stallings, Francis P.

    2011-06-01

    Military experts often refer to space as the ultimate high ground under the premise that placing systems in orbit provides advantages consistent with the military doctrine of high ground. Although space provides the ultimate "observation post", it has none of the other advantages traditionally associated with high ground. Army Field Manual (FM) 34-130 states the other advantages of holding key terrain: commanding avenues of approach, overcoming obstacles, and affording cover and concealment as additional benefits of high ground. Yet systems in orbit incur none of these additional advantages. Finally, international restrictions and reciprocity concerns limit the employment of weapons in space nullifying many of the unique capability advantages that would otherwise support the "high ground" aspect of space. As the ultimate observation post, satellites provide a large quantity of vital data to military decision makers. This massive amount of data needs to have as much context as possible to convert this data to useful knowledge. To use space assets optimally, the military needs to learn from the past and make space and cyber products distributed and tactical. It is absolutely essential to distribute the right information to the lowest level (tactical elements) of the organization or the "boots on the ground" in a timely manner.

  2. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  3. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.

    2016-04-13

    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  4. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  5. Transcription Against an Applied Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Wang, Michelle D.; Svoboda, Karel; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.; Gelles, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    The force produced by a single molecule of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase during transcription was measured optically. Polymerase immobilized on a surface was used to transcribe a DNA template attached to a polystyrene bead 0.5 micrometer in diameter. The bead position was measured by interferometry while a force opposing translocation of the polymerase along the DNA was applied with an optical trap. At saturating nucleoside triphosphate concentrations, polymerase molecules stalled reversibly at a mean applied force estimated to be 14 piconewtons. This force is substantially larger than those measured for the cytoskeletal motors kinesin and myosin and exceeds mechanical loads that are estimated to oppose transcriptional elongation in vivo. The data are consistent with efficient conversion of the free energy liberated by RNA synthesis into mechanical work.

  6. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  7. Modern applied U-statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    A timely and applied approach to the newly discovered methods and applications of U-statisticsBuilt on years of collaborative research and academic experience, Modern Applied U-Statistics successfully presents a thorough introduction to the theory of U-statistics using in-depth examples and applications that address contemporary areas of study including biomedical and psychosocial research. Utilizing a "learn by example" approach, this book provides an accessible, yet in-depth, treatment of U-statistics, as well as addresses key concepts in asymptotic theory by integrating translational and cross-disciplinary research.The authors begin with an introduction of the essential and theoretical foundations of U-statistics such as the notion of convergence in probability and distribution, basic convergence results, stochastic Os, inference theory, generalized estimating equations, as well as the definition and asymptotic properties of U-statistics. With an emphasis on nonparametric applications when and where applic...

  8. NIIEFA accelerators for applied purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorogushin, M. F.; Strokach, A. P.; Filatov, O. G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the foundation of the institute, we have designed and delivered more than three hundred different accelerators to Russia and abroad: cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and neutron generators. The technical characteristics of our equipment makes it competitive on the international market. Here we present the application, main parameters, and status of accelerators manufactured by NIIEFA, as well as prospects for the development of electrophysical systems for applied purposes.

  9. An Applied Physicist Does Econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.

    2010-02-01

    The biggest problem those attempting to understand econometric data, via modeling, have is that economics has no F = ma. Without a theoretical underpinning, econometricians have no way to build a good model to fit observations to. Physicists do, and when F = ma failed, we knew it. Still desiring to comprehend econometric data, applied economists turn to mis-applying probability theory---especially with regard to the assumptions concerning random errors---and choosing extremely simplistic analytical formulations of inter-relationships. This introduces model bias to an unknown degree. An applied physicist, used to having to match observations to a numerical or analytical model with a firm theoretical basis, modify the model, re-perform the analysis, and then know why, and when, to delete ``outliers'', is at a considerable advantage when quantitatively analyzing econometric data. I treat two cases. One is to determine the household density distribution of total assets, annual income, age, level of education, race, and marital status. Each of these ``independent'' variables is highly correlated with every other but only current annual income and level of education follow a linear relationship. The other is to discover the functional dependence of total assets on the distribution of assets: total assets has an amazingly tight power law dependence on a quadratic function of portfolio composition. Who knew? )

  10. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  11. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  12. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil

    2015-04-01

    displayed ductile behaviour under standard strain-controlled monotonic shear tests. We applied dynamic stresses of varying amplitude, frequency and sequence, and monitored the resultant strain response to determine which factors, when combined, create significant deviations from standard monotonic shear behaviour. Critically, we demonstrate that multiple dynamic stress/shaking events that are largely insufficient to cause permanent strain accumulation (and hence are conventionally deemed geomorphologically ineffective) can, under favourable though limited conditions, affect material stiffness such that the future behaviour of the sediment/landslide differs considerably from that observed in standard monotonic shear tests. In other words, low-magnitude ground shaking events can be effective precursory geomorphic processes. Our results have important implications for studies of long-term landscape evolution, in which modelled hillslopes are repeatedly subjected to multiple earthquake events but that currently lack appropriate empirically-constrained strength parameters.

  13. Applying sport psychology to improve clinical performance().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Helen R; Rumbold, James L; Sandars, John

    2017-08-08

    Preparedness for practice has become an international theme within Medical Education: for healthcare systems to maintain their highest clinical standards, junior doctors must "hit the ground running" on beginning work. Despite demonstrating logical, structured assessment and management plans during their undergraduate examinations, many newly qualified doctors report difficulty in translating this theoretical knowledge into the real clinical environment. "Preparedness" must constitute more than the knowledge and skills acquired during medical school. Complexities of the clinical environment overwhelm some junior doctors, who acknowledge that they lack strategies to manage their anxieties, under-confidence and low self-efficacy. If uncontrolled, such negative emotions and behaviors may impede the delivery of time-critical treatment for acutely unwell patients and compound junior doctors' self-doubt, thus impacting future patient encounters. Medical Education often seeks inspiration from other industries for potential solutions to challenges. To address "preparedness for practice," this AMEE Guide highlights sport psychology: elite sportspeople train both physically and psychologically for their discipline. The latter promotes management of negative emotions, distractions and under-confidence, thus optimizing performance despite immense pressures of career-defining moments. Similar techniques might allow junior doctors to optimize patient care, especially within stressful situations. This AMEE Guide introduces the novel conceptual model, PERFORM, which targets the challenges faced by junior doctors on graduation. The model applies pre-performance routines from sport psychology with the self-regulatory processes of metacognition to the clinical context. This model could potentially equip junior doctors, and other healthcare professionals facing similar challenges, with strategies to optimize clinical care under the most difficult circumstances.

  14. Applied Mathematical Problems in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between engineering and mathematics, which has led to the development of new techniques in recent years. Likewise the developments in technology and computers have led to new ways of teaching mathematics for engineering students and the use of modern techniques and methods.  This research aims to provide insight on how to deal with mathematical problems for engineering students. This is performed by means of a fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis applied to conflict resolution of Public Participation Projects in support to the EU Water Framework Directive.

  15. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  16. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.

  17. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  18. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  19. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  20. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tang

    2000-01-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.