WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross westward embayment

  1. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  2. Calaveras reversed: westward younging is indicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Harris, A.G.; Kistler, R.W.; Krauskopf, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of limestone collected from strata in the southern part of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada, which traditionally have been assigned to the Calaveras Formation, have yielded Early Triassic conodonts, and samples of metavolcanic rock indicate an Early Jurassic Rb-Sr age. These ages, together with general westward younging of units rather than with eastward younging as has been assumed until recently by many workers, chiefly on the basis of sparse oservations of bedding facings. The rocks are strongly deformed, and the possibility that tectonism rather than stratigraphic succession accounts for the age pattern cannot be dismissed.-Authors

  3. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  4. Plasma sheet instability related to the westward traveling surge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.; Perraut, S.; Robert, P.; Morane, A.; Pedersen, A.; Korth, A.; Kremser, G.; Aparicio, B.; Rodgers, D.; Pellinen, R.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed analysis of an isolated dispersionless substorm is performed on the basis of field and particle data collected in situ by the geostationary satellite GEOS 2 and of data from ground-based instruments installed close to the GEOS 2 magnetic footprint. These data give evidence for (1) quasi-periodic variations of the magnetic field configuration, which is alternatively taillike and dipolelike, (2) in-phase oscillations of the flux of energetic electrons, which is high when the configuration is dipolelike and vice versa, (3) a gradient in the flux of energetic ions, which is, on the average, earthward but undergoes large fluctuations around this average direction, and (4) large transient fluctuations of the quasi-dc electric field, which reverses its direction from eastward to westward. It is shown that these results are consistent with the development of an instability which leads to a westward propagating wave. The source of the instability is the differential drift of energetic electrons and ions in a highly stressed magnetic field configuration (in a high β plasma). Evidence is given for a system of localized field-aligned currents flowing alternately earthward and equatorward at the leading and trailing edges of the westward propagating wave. This current system resulting from the temporal development of the instability produces the so-called Pi 2 pulsations, at the ionospheric level. The closure of this current system in the equatorial region leads to a current antiparallel to the tail current, and therefore to its reduction or cancellation. This reduction/cancellation of the tail current restores the dipole magnetic field (dipolarization) and generates a large westward directed induced electric field (injection)

  5. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanjargal, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t) entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991...

  6. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bayanjargal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991 to 2006. These drifts are similar to results of other studies.

  7. Westward ionospheric currents over the dip equator during geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbed periods, the q type of sporadic E layer near the dip equator is shown to disappear with maximum error of five minutes during the period when the difference of the geomagnetic H field between the equatorial and non-equatorial station decreases below the night level. These periods are identified with the reversal to westward direction of the electrojet currents at the base of the E region around 100 km level irrespective of the changes in the S/subq/ current system which might be produced by the disturbance

  8. Modeling Compound Flood Hazards in Coastal Embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, H.; Schubert, J. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Luke, A.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal cities around the world are built on lowland topography adjacent to coastal embayments and river estuaries, where multiple factors threaten increasing flood hazards (e.g. sea level rise and river flooding). Quantitative risk assessment is required for administration of flood insurance programs and the design of cost-effective flood risk reduction measures. This demands a characterization of extreme water levels such as 100 and 500 year return period events. Furthermore, hydrodynamic flood models are routinely used to characterize localized flood level intensities (i.e., local depth and velocity) based on boundary forcing sampled from extreme value distributions. For example, extreme flood discharges in the U.S. are estimated from measured flood peaks using the Log-Pearson Type III distribution. However, configuring hydrodynamic models for coastal embayments is challenging because of compound extreme flood events: events caused by a combination of extreme sea levels, extreme river discharges, and possibly other factors such as extreme waves and precipitation causing pluvial flooding in urban developments. Here, we present an approach for flood risk assessment that coordinates multivariate extreme analysis with hydrodynamic modeling of coastal embayments. First, we evaluate the significance of correlation structure between terrestrial freshwater inflow and oceanic variables; second, this correlation structure is described using copula functions in unit joint probability domain; and third, we choose a series of compound design scenarios for hydrodynamic modeling based on their occurrence likelihood. The design scenarios include the most likely compound event (with the highest joint probability density), preferred marginal scenario and reproduced time series of ensembles based on Monte Carlo sampling of bivariate hazard domain. The comparison between resulting extreme water dynamics under the compound hazard scenarios explained above provides an insight to the

  9. A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.P.; Funk, Chris [University of California, Santa Barbara, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Observations and simulations link anthropogenic greenhouse and aerosol emissions with rapidly increasing Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Over the past 60 years, the Indian Ocean warmed two to three times faster than the central tropical Pacific, extending the tropical warm pool to the west by {proportional_to}40 longitude (>4,000 km). This propensity toward rapid warming in the Indian Ocean has been the dominant mode of interannual variability among SSTs throughout the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans (55 E-140 W) since at least 1948, explaining more variance than anomalies associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the atmosphere, the primary mode of variability has been a corresponding trend toward greatly increased convection and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean. The temperature and rainfall increases in this region have produced a westward extension of the western, ascending branch of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Diabatic heating due to increased mid-tropospheric water vapor condensation elicits a westward atmospheric response that sends an easterly flow of dry air aloft toward eastern Africa. In recent decades (1980-2009), this response has suppressed convection over tropical eastern Africa, decreasing precipitation during the 'long-rains' season of March-June. This trend toward drought contrasts with projections of increased rainfall in eastern Africa and more 'El Nino-like' conditions globally by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Increased Indian Ocean SSTs appear likely to continue to strongly modulate the Warm Pool circulation, reducing precipitation in eastern Africa, regardless of whether the projected trend in ENSO is realized. These results have important food security implications, informing agricultural development, environmental conservation, and water resource planning. (orig.)

  10. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for agricultural and municipal uses in the Mississippi embayment. Arkansas ranks first in the Nation for rice and third for cotton production, with both crops dependent on groundwater as a major source of irrigation requirements. Multiple municipalities rely on the groundwater resources to provide water for industrial and public use, which includes the city of Memphis, Tennessee. The demand for the groundwater resource has resulted in groundwater availability issues in the Mississippi embayment including: (1) declining groundwater levels of 50 feet or more in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in parts of eastern Arkansas from agricultural pumping, (2) declining groundwater levels of over 360 feet over the last 90 years in the confined middle Claiborne aquifer in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana from municipal pumping, and (3) litigation between the State of Mississippi and a Memphis water utility over water rights in the middle Claiborne aquifer. To provide information to stakeholders addressing the groundwater-availability issues, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program supported a detailed assessment of groundwater availability through the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). This assessment included (1) an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time through the use of groundwater budgets, (2) development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends, and (3) application of statistical tools to evaluate the importance of individual observations within a groundwater-monitoring network. An estimated 12 million acre-feet per year (11 billion gallons per day) of groundwater was pumped in 2005 from aquifers in the Mississippi embayment. Irrigation constitutes the largest groundwater use, accounting for approximately 10 million acre-feet per year (9 billion gallons per day) in 2000 from the Mississippi

  11. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  13. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  14. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  15. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    OpenAIRE

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Seismic probing of the earth’s deep interior has shown that the inner core, the solid core of our planet, rotates slightly faster (i.e., eastward) than the rest of the earth. Quite independently, observations of the geomagnetic field provide evidence of westward-drifting features at the edge of the liquid outer core. This paper describes a computer model that suggests that the geomagnetic field itself may provide a link between them: The associated electromagnetic torque currently is westward...

  16. Characteristics of the development of the westward electrojet during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.G.; Rostoker, G.

    1975-01-01

    By use of high-, mid-, and low-latitude magnetograms it is concluded that the westward expansion of the substorm westward electrojet is not continuous but takes place as a series of discrete steps or jumps. The substorm is pictured as consisting of the sequential development of a series of westward electrojets, which we have labeled a 'substorm sequence.' The westward electrojets develop in succession at intervals of about 10 min in such a way that each new electrojet appears to the northwest of the previous one. Associated with the westward jumps of substorm activity are enhancements in the growth rate of a ring or cross-tail current. These enhancements are concurrent with the onset of the westward electrojets and occur to the west of that sector which is presently undergoing its initial onset of substorm activity. Each substorm intensification is accompanied by a response in the adjacent sector to the west, consistent with the signatures of growth suggested by McPherron (1972) and Iijima and Nagata (1972). We suggest that growth may be stimulated by the same mechanism which triggers the expansion phase and that the energy responsible for ensuing substorm intensifications in the evening sector is made available in this fashion

  17. Structural framework of the Mississippi Embayment of southern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolata, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the nature, age, and extent of faulting in the Mississippi Embayment of southernmost Illinois. Preliminary results are reported on the mapping of the configuration of the Cretaceous base and the thickness and distribution of Cretaceous sediments. A sub-Cretaceous geologic map is being compiled to locate areas where the embayment areas are faulted and folded. Data from one of the five sites selected for detailed study show that the faulting observed is due to landsliding and not to tectonic activity. Seismic refraction and earth resistivity surveys at a second site have failed to define a geologic structure that is suspected of being a fault, possibly extending into the Paleozoic bedrock

  18. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. SuperDARN Hokkaido radar observation of westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes is investigated based on the first one and a half year observation of the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. A total of 15 events are identified with the criteria of westward flow speed of >1.0 km/s in magnetic latitude from 45 to 65 deg during geomagnetically disturbed period of Kp>3+ at 20 magnetic local time. It is found that especially during the storm recovery phase, the flow enhancement occurs in broad range of Dst amplitude, and the occurrence latitude depends on the amplitude of Dst. It is also found that the disturbed Kp condition is not sufficient for the appearance of the subauroral flow enhancement as seen by Hokkaido radar while storm-like Dst condition is necessary, supporting the idea that ring current particles play an essential role to enhance the westward flow in subauroral latitudes via magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the field-aligned current.

  1. Equatorial westward electrojet impacting equatorial ionization anomaly development during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2013-11-01

    investigate the forward plasma fountain and the equatorial ionosphere in the topside region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm in the Australian sector at ~0900 LT. Space- and ground-based multi-instrument measurements, Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations, and field-aligned observations comprise our results. These reveal an unusual storm development during which the eastward prompt penetration electric (E) field (PPEF) developed and operated under the continuous effects of the westward disturbance dynamo E-field (DDEF) while large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) traveled equatorward and generated strong equatorward wind surges. We have identified the eastward PPEF by the superfountain effect causing the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)'s development with crests situated at ~±28°N (geomagnetic) in the topside ionosphere at ~840 km altitude. The westward DDEF's occurrence is confirmed by mapping the "anti-Sq" current system wherein the equatorial westward current created a weak long-lasting westward electrojet event. Line plots of vertical drift data tracked large-scale TIDs. Four scenarios, covering ~3.5 h in universal time, demonstrate that the westward DDEF became superimposed on the eastward PPEF. As these E-fields of different origins became mapped into the F region, they could interact. Consequently, the eastward PPEF-related equatorial upward E × B drift became locally reduced by up to 75 m/s near the dip equator by the westward DDEF-related equatorial downward E × B drift. Meanwhile, the EIA displayed a better development as equatorial wind surges, reproduced by CTIPe, increased from 501 to 629 m/s, demonstrating the crucial role of mechanical wind effects keeping plasma density high.

  2. Wintertime westward-traveling planetary-scale perturbations over the Euro-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.J. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, M.A.; Casado, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Deque, M. [CNRM, Meteo-France, Toulouse (France)

    2001-07-01

    The features of the wintertime westward-traveling planetary scale perturbations over the Euro-Atlantic region are examined through the use of space-time spectral analysis applied to the 500 hPa geopotential height field. The intention is to understand the nature of these phenomena and the performance of climate models. Data from both ECMWF re-analyses and a simulation from the ARPEGE general circulation model are used. Westward-traveling planetary scale transients are found over the region as local perturbations resembling Rossby normal modes, with a maximum power over the Eastern Atlantic. The westward-traveling planetary scale transients north of 40 {sup circle} N have periods larger than 20 days. South of this latitude, wave periods are shifted to a band around 10 days, so that they can be related to subtropical transient waves. The atmospheric model used, like other models which exhibit reasonable mean climatic properties, tend to have less overall intraseasonal variability than observed. Nevertheless, the model is able to capture most of the features of the westward-traveling low-frequency transients. The differences in basic state, partially produced by scale interactions, would lead to the generation of westward-traveling waves in the model distinct from the observed. However, it is suggested that the improvement of the present model version with regard to previous model versions is due to a better simulation of the time-mean state. The reasonable simulation of the synoptic-scale variability south of 50 {sup circle} N, and thus of its barotropic forcing on the basic state, may also help to explain the realistic westward-traveling transients in the model. (orig.)

  3. Observational evidence for westward propagation of temperature inversions in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Durand, F.; Shetye, S.R.; Rajan, C.K.; Johnson, Z.; Araligidad, N.; Michael, G.S.

    2002 to April 2003 show that temperature inversions occur off the southwest coast of India in early December with the arrival of low-salinity waters from the Bay of Bengal. The low-salinity waters and the inversions propagate westward along...

  4. Westward Extension of the Lionfish Pterois volitans Linnaeus, 1758 along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gokoglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One red lionfish (Pterois volitans was caught in the Gulf of Antalya on October 15th 2016. The present study, seconf record of P. volitans was reported in the coast of the Antalya Bay, Turkey. Our study shows that P. volitans westward extension along to Turkey Mediterranean coasts.

  5. Initial formation of channels and shoals in a short tidal embayment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaars, H.M.; Swart, H.E. de

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated by using a simple model that bedforms in a short tidal embayment can develop due to a positive feedback between tidal currents sediment transport and bedforms The system is forced by a prescribed free surface elevations at the entrance of the embayment The water motions are

  6. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  7. Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Altadill

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  8. Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Altadill

    Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  9. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input

  10. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth's core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth's inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497-502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core.

  11. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth’s core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth’s inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497–502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core. PMID:24043841

  12. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.J.; Wefer, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described

  13. Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment: Hanalei Bay, Kauai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.; Bothner, Michael H.; Presto, M.K.; Draut, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic measurements and sediment samples were collected during the summer of 2006 as part of a multi-year study of coastal circulation and the fate of terrigenous sediment on coral reefs in Hanalei Bay, Kauai. The goal of this study was to better understand sediment dynamics in a coral reef-lined embayment where winds, ocean surface waves, and river floods are important processes. During a summer period that was marked by two wave events and one river flood, we documented significant differences in sediment trap collection rates and the composition, grain size, and magnitude of sediment transported in the bay. Sediment trap collection rates were well correlated with combined wave-current near-bed shear stresses during the non-flood periods but were not correlated during the flood. The flood's delivery of fine-grained sediment to the bay initially caused high turbidity and sediment collection rates off the river mouth but the plume dispersed relatively quickly. Over the next month, the flood deposit was reworked by mild waves and currents and the fine-grained terrestrial sediment was advected around the bay and collected in sediment traps away from the river mouth, long after the turbid surface plume was gone. The reworked flood deposits, due to their longer duration of influence and proximity to the seabed, appear to pose a greater long-term impact to benthic coral reef communities than the flood plumes themselves. The results presented here display how spatial and temporal differences in hydrodynamic processes, which result from variations in reef morphology and orientation, cause substantial variations in the deposition, residence time, resuspension, and advection of both reef-derived and fluvial sediment over relatively short spatial scales in a coral reef embayment.

  14. Explosion source strong ground motions in the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C.A.; Bodin, P.; Powell, C.; Withers, M.; Horton, S.; Mooney, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two strong-motion arrays were deployed for the October 2002 Embayment Seismic Excitation Experiment to study the spatial variation of strong ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment because there are no comparable strong-motion data from natural earthquakes in the area. Each linear array consisted of eight three-component K2 accelerographs spaced 15 m apart situated 1.2 and 2.5 kin from 2268-kg and 1134-kg borehole explosion sources, respectively. The array data show distinct body-wave and surface-wave arrivals that propagate within the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary column, the high-velocity basement rocks, and small-scale structure near the surface. Time-domain coherence of body-wave and surface-wave arrivals is computed for acceleration, velocity, and displacement time windows. Coherence is high for relatively low-frequency verticalcomponent Rayleigh waves and high-frequency P waves propagating across the array. Prominent high-frequency PS conversions seen on radial components, a proxy for the direct S wave from earthquake sources, lose coherence quickly over the 105-m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed by using the ratio of particle velocity to estimates of the strain based on a plane-wave-propagation model. The resulting time-dependent phase-velocity map is a useful way to infer the propagation mechanisms of individual seismic phases and time windows of three-component waveforms. Displacement gradient analysis is a complementary technique for processing general spatial-array data to obtain horizontal slowness information.

  15. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  16. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  17. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  18. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  19. Seismic Evidence of Ancient Westward Residual Slab Subduction Beneath Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern convergence of the Philippine Sea plate toward the Eurasian plate causes the major western Philippine Sea plate boundary to subduct toward the northwest or west directions. However, this phenomenon is not clearly observed along the plate boundary between Luzon and Taiwan. Careful examination of deep seismicity in the southern Taiwan area from the earthquake catalog reported by the Central Weather Bureau shows two seismic zones dipping toward the opposing directions. The first dips toward the east from the surface down to 150 km in depth, while the second dips westward at depths between 150 and 200 km. These two seismic zones are confirmed further by seismogram observation and modeling results generated by two deep faults in the southern Taiwan area. The eastward seismic zone clearly results from the Eurasia plate subduction along the Manila trench, while a small section of the westward seismic zone might likely be a residual slab from the ancient subducted Philippine Sea plate. Based on the subduction speed obtained from GPS observations and the subducted Eurasian plate geometry, we can further estimate the eastward Eurasian plate subduction started at least 3.35 million years ago. This result is roughly consistent with the volcanic ages (3 - 4 Ma observed in the arc between Luzon and Taiwan.

  20. Late Quaternary deglacial history across the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ara; Lee, Jae Il; Seong, Yeong Bae; Balco, Greg; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul; Yoon, Ho Il; Domack, Eugene; Rhee, Hyun Hee; Yu, Byung Yong

    2018-06-01

    We measured meteoric 10Be variation throughout a marine sediment core from the Larsen B embayment (LBE) of the Antarctic Peninsula, and collected in situ 10Be and 14C exposure ages on terrestrial glacial deposits from the northern and southern margins of the LBE. We use these data to reconstruct Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present deglaciation and ice shelf change in the LBE. Core sedimentary facies and meteoric 10Be data show a monotonic progression from subglacial deposits to sub-ice-shelf deposits to open-marine conditions, indicating that its collapse in 2002 was unprecedented since the LGM. Exposure-age data from the southern LBE indicate 40 m of ice surface lowering between 14 and 6 ka, then little change between 6 ka and the 2002 collapse. Exposure-age data from the northern LBE show a bimodal distribution in which clusters of apparent exposure ages in the ranges 4.9-5.1 ka and 1.0-2.0 ka coexist near 50 m elevation. Based on these results, other published terrestrial and marine deglaciation ages, and a compilation of sea bed imagery, we suggest a north-to-south progression of deglaciation in the northeast Antarctic Peninsula in response to Holocene atmospheric and oceanic warming. We argue that local topography and ice configuration inherited from the LGM, in addition to climate change, are important in controlling the deglaciation history in this region.

  1. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  2. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  3. Morphology and sedimentology of the Itaipú Embayment - Niterói/RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVADOR MARCUS VINICIUS S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetric and sedimentological data from water depths between 3 and 28 meters are the basis of a detailed bathymetric map of the Itaipú Embayment and an understanding of its sedimentary dynamics. Shallower than 16 meters the contours are parallel to the shoreline whereas the morphology of the deeper bottom is influenced by the Menina, Mãe, and Pai islands. Medium sand is prevalent, with local variations in more protected or less protected areas. Minor amount of black mud possibly derives from the Itaipú Lagoon. Siliciclastic granules and pebbles may be relict. The Itaipú Embayment's bottom morphology is controlled by stormy waves and the calmer easternmost part of the embayment presents a tendency to accumulate finer sediments.

  4. Combining Inverse and Transport Modeling to Estimate Bacterial Loading and Transport in a Tidal Embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Sisson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Poquoson River is a tidal coastal embayment located along the Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay about 4 km south of the York River mouth in the City of Poquoson and in York County, Virginia. Its drainage area has diversified land uses, including high densities of residence, agricultural, salt marsh land uses, as well as a National Wildlife Refuge. This embayment experiences elevated bacterial concentration due to excess bacterial inputs from storm water runoff, nonpoint sources, and wash off from marshes due to tide and wind-induced set-up and set-down. Bacteria can also grow in the marsh and small tributaries. It is difficult to use a traditional watershed model to simulate bacterial loading, especially in this low-lying marsh area with abundant wildlife, while runoff is not solely driven by precipitation. An inverse approach is introduced to estimate loading from unknown sources based on observations in the embayment. The estimated loadings were combined with loadings estimated from different sources (human, wildlife, agriculture, pets, etc. and input to the watershed model. The watershed model simulated long-term flow and bacterial loading and discharged to a three-dimensional transport model driven by tide, wind, and freshwater discharge. The transport model efficiently simulates the transport and fate of the bacterial concentration in the embayment and is capable of determining the loading reduction needed to improve the water quality condition of the embayment. Combining inverse, watershed, and transport models is a sound approach for simulating bacterial transport correctly in the coastal embayment with complex unknown bacterial sources, which are not solely driven by precipitation.

  5. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  6. Vertical slab sinking and westward subduction offshore of Mesozoic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.

    2013-04-01

    Subducted slabs in the mantle, as imaged by seismic tomography, preserve a record of ancient subduction zones. Ongoing debate concerns how direct this link is. How long ago did each parcel of slab subduct, and where was the trench located relative to the imaged slab position? Resolving these questions will benefit paleogeographic reconstructions, and restrict the range of plausible rheologies for mantle convection simulations. We investigate one of the largest and best-constrained Mesozoic slab complexes, the "Farallon" in the transition zone and lower mantle beneath North America. We quantitatively integrate observations from whole-mantle P-wave tomography, global plate reconstructions, and land geological evidence from the North American Cordillera. These three data sets permit us to test the simplest conceivable hypothesis for linking slabs to paleo-trenches: that each parcel of slab sank only vertically shortly after entering the trench That is, we test whether within the limits of tomographic resolution, all slab material lies directly below the location where it subducted beneath its corresponding arc. Crucially and in contrast to previous studies, we do not accept or impose an Andean-style west coast trench (Farallon-beneath-continent subduction) since Jurassic times, as this scenario is inconsistent with many geological observations. Slab geometry alone suggests that trenches started out as intra-oceanic because tomography images massive, linear slab "walls" in the lower mantle, extending almost vertically from about 800 km to 2000+ km depth. Such steep geometries would be expected from slabs sinking vertically beneath trenches that were quasi-stationary over many tens of millions of years. Intra-oceanic trenches west of Mesozoic North America could have been stationary, whereas a coastal Farallon trench could not, because the continent moved westward continuously as the Atlantic opened. Overlap of North American west-coast positions, as reconstructed in a

  7. Silurian extension in the Upper Connecticut Valley, United States and the origin of middle Paleozoic basins in the Québec embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.W.; Coish, R.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Peng, Z.X.; Wilson, S.A.; Rouff, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-Silurian strata of the Bronson Hill arch (BHA) in the Upper Connecticut Valley, NH-VT are host to the latest Ludlow Comerford Intrusive Suite consisting, east to west, of a mafic dike swarm with sheeted dikes, and an intrusive complex. The rocks are mostly mafic but with compositions ranging from gabbro to leucocratic tonalite. The suite is truncated on the west by the Monroe fault, a late Acadian thrust that carries rocks of the BHA westward over Silurian-Devonian strata of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? trough (CVGT). Dikes intrude folded strata with a pre-intrusion metamorphic fabric (Taconian?) but they experienced Acadian deformation. Twenty fractions of zircon and baddeleyite from three sample sites of gabbrodiorite spanning nearly 40 km yield a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 419 ?? 1 Ma. Greenschist-facies dikes, sampled over a strike distance of 35 km, were tholeiitic basalts formed by partial melting of asthenospheric mantle, with little or no influence from mantle or crustal lithosphere. The dike chemistry is similar to mid-ocean ridge, within-plate, and back-arc basin basalts. Parent magmas originated in the asthenosphere and were erupted through severely thinned lithosphere adjacent to the CVGT. Extensive middle Paleozoic basins in the internides of the Appalachian orogen are restricted to the Que??bec embayment of the Laurentian rifted margin, and include the CVGT and the Central Maine trough (CMT), separated from the BHA by a Silurian tectonic hinge. The NE-trending Comerford intrusions parallel the CVGT, CMT, and the tectonic hinge, and indicate NW-SE extension. During post-Taconian convergence, the irregular margins of composite Laurentia and Avalon permitted continued collision in Newfoundland (St. Lawrence promontory) and coeval extension in the Que??bec embayment. Extension may be related to hinge retreat of the northwest directed Brunswick subduction complex and rise of the asthenosphere following slab break-off. An alternative hypothesis is

  8. Westward equatorial electrojet during daytime hours. [relation to geomagnetic horizontal field depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of the depression of the geomagnetic horizontal field during the daytime hours of magnetically quiet days at equatorial stations is described. These events are generally seen around 0700 and 1600 LT, being more frequent during the evening than the morning hours. The evening events are more frequent during periods of low solar activity and in the longitude region of weak equatorial electrojet currents. The latitudinal extent of the phenomenon is limited to the normal equatorial electrojet region, and on some occasions the phenomenon is not seen at both stations, separated by only a few hours in longitude. During such an event, the latitudinal profile of the geomagnetic vertical field across the equator is reversed, the ionospheric drift near the equator is reversed toward the east, the q type of sporadic E layer is completely absent, and the height of the peak ionization in the F2 region is decreased. It is suggested that these effects are caused by a narrow band of current flowing westward in the E region of the ionosphere and within the latitude region of the normal equatorial electrojet, due to the reversal of the east-west electrostatic field at low latitudes.

  9. The Estuary Book: A Guide to Promoting Understanding and Regional Management of Maine's Estuaries and Embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Jenny

    The objective of this document is to provide information about estuaries, the impact of uses on the environmental health of an estuary, and what communities and concerned individuals can do to manage and protect their local estuarine resources successfully. Much of the information presented here pertains to other embayments along the Maine coast…

  10. Growth performances of juvenile sole Solea solea under environmental constraints of embayed nursery areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffargue, P.; Lagardere, F.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Fillon, A.; Amara, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal embayments in the Bay of Biscay (France) host nursery grounds where common sole, Solea solea, is the most abundant flatfish species. This study aimed to appraise the way those habitats function as nurseries through juvenile sole's responses in somatic growth and condition (Fulton's K) during

  11. SWAT-based streamflow and embayment modeling of Karst-affected Chapel branch watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; M. Jha; A.E. Edwards; T.M. Williams; D.R. Hitchcock

    2011-01-01

    SWAT is a GIS-based basin-scale model widely used for the characterization of hydrology and water quality of large, complex watersheds; however, SWAT has not been fully tested in watersheds with karst geomorphology and downstream reservoir-like embayment. In this study, SWAT was applied to test its ability to predict monthly streamflow dynamics for a 1,555 ha karst...

  12. High-Resolution Body Wave Tomography of the Ross Sea Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the least understood continental rift system on the planet. The 1000 km wide WARS includes the Ross Sea Embayment between Marie Byrd Land and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMS). Active volcanism on Ross Island continues to challenge our understanding of the generally quiescent rift system. Previous regional-scale body wave tomographic investigations have identified areas of low seismic wave speeds to 200 km depth beneath Ross Island. However, the spatial extent of the low velocity structure across the entirety of the WARS remains poorly constrained due to the insufficient resolution of upper mantle structure under the Ross Sea Embayment away from Ross Island. We utilize teleseismic P wave observations recorded on the RIS/DRIS network, which consists of 34 seismometers deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf, along with data from nearby POLENET and TAMSEIS stations to better resolve this region. Relative P wave travel time residuals from 1300 teleseismic events, obtained using a multichannel cross-correlation method, have been inverted for a seismic velocity model of the upper mantle throughout the Ross Sea Embayment. Our results suggest that the low wave speed structure under Ross Island extends roughly halfway across the Embayment and south along the Transantarctic Mountains. This observation is consistent with a two-phase rifting history for the WARS in which broad, late Cretaceous rifting between Marie Byrd Land and the TAMS transitioned to more focused rifting along the TAMS margin in the Cenozoic.

  13. Magma decompression rates during explosive eruptions of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, recorded by melt embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J.; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Plank, Terry; Hauri, Erik H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2016-10-01

    The decompression rate of magma as it ascends during volcanic eruptions is an important but poorly constrained parameter that controls many of the processes that influence eruptive behavior. In this study, we quantify decompression rates for basaltic magmas using volatile diffusion in olivine-hosted melt tubes (embayments) for three contrasting eruptions of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii. Incomplete exsolution of H2O, CO2, and S from the embayment melts during eruptive ascent creates diffusion profiles that can be measured using microanalytical techniques, and then modeled to infer the average decompression rate. We obtain average rates of ~0.05-0.45 MPa s-1 for eruptions ranging from Hawaiian style fountains to basaltic subplinian, with the more intense eruptions having higher rates. The ascent timescales for these magmas vary from around ~5 to ~36 min from depths of ~2 to ~4 km, respectively. Decompression-exsolution models based on the embayment data also allow for an estimate of the mass fraction of pre-existing exsolved volatiles within the magma body. In the eruptions studied, this varies from 0.1 to 3.2 wt% but does not appear to be the key control on eruptive intensity. Our results do not support a direct link between the concentration of pre-eruptive volatiles and eruptive intensity; rather, they suggest that for these eruptions, decompression rates are proportional to independent estimates of mass discharge rate. Although the intensity of eruptions is defined by the discharge rate, based on the currently available dataset of embayment analyses, it does not appear to scale linearly with average decompression rate. This study demonstrates the utility of the embayment method for providing quantitative constraints on magma ascent during explosive basaltic eruptions.

  14. Magma decompression rates during explosive eruptions of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, recorded by melt embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J.; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Plank, Terry; Hauri, Erik H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    The decompression rate of magma as it ascends during volcanic eruptions is an important but poorly constrained parameter that controls many of the processes that influence eruptive behavior. In this study, we quantify decompression rates for basaltic magmas using volatile diffusion in olivine-hosted melt tubes (embayments) for three contrasting eruptions of Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii. Incomplete exsolution of H2O, CO2, and S from the embayment melts during eruptive ascent creates diffusion profiles that can be measured using microanalytical techniques, and then modeled to infer the average decompression rate. We obtain average rates of ~0.05–0.45 MPa s−1 for eruptions ranging from Hawaiian style fountains to basaltic subplinian, with the more intense eruptions having higher rates. The ascent timescales for these magmas vary from around ~5 to ~36 min from depths of ~2 to ~4 km, respectively. Decompression-exsolution models based on the embayment data also allow for an estimate of the mass fraction of pre-existing exsolved volatiles within the magma body. In the eruptions studied, this varies from 0.1 to 3.2 wt% but does not appear to be the key control on eruptive intensity. Our results do not support a direct link between the concentration of pre-eruptive volatiles and eruptive intensity; rather, they suggest that for these eruptions, decompression rates are proportional to independent estimates of mass discharge rate. Although the intensity of eruptions is defined by the discharge rate, based on the currently available dataset of embayment analyses, it does not appear to scale linearly with average decompression rate. This study demonstrates the utility of the embayment method for providing quantitative constraints on magma ascent during explosive basaltic eruptions.

  15. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Stephen J.; Farrell, Kathleen M.; Mallinson, David J.; Willard, Debra A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Riggs, Stanley R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.; Parham, Peter; Snyder, Scott W.; Hillier, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes.Micropaleontological data, coupled with sedimentologic, chronostratigraphic and seismic data provide the bases for detailed interpretations of paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimates in the 90. m thick Quaternary record of the Albemarle Embayment. The data presented here come from a transect of cores drilled through a barrier island complex in the central Albemarle Embayment. This area sits in a ramp-like setting between late Pleistocene incised valleys.The data document the episodic infilling of the Albemarle Embayment throughout the Quaternary as a series of transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles, characterized by inner shelf, midshelf, and shoreface assemblages, that overlie remnants of fluvial to estuarine valley-fill. Barrier island and marginal marine deposits have a low preservation potential. Inner to mid-shelf deposits of the early Pleistocene are overlain by similar middle Pleistocene shelf sediments in the south of the study area but entirely by inner shelf deposits in the north. Late Pleistocene marine sediments are of inner shelf origin and Holocene deposits are marginal marine in nature. Pleistocene marine sediments are incised, particularly in the northern half of the embayment by lowstand paleovalleys, partly filled by fluvial/floodplain deposits and in some cases, overlain by remnants of transgressive estuarine sediments. The shallowing

  16. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  17. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  18. SWAT Model Prediction of Phosphorus Loading in a South Carolina Karst Watershed with a Downstream Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Manoj K. Jha; Thomas M. Williams; Amy E. Edwards; Daniel R.. Hitchcock

    2013-01-01

    The SWAT model was used to predict total phosphorus (TP) loadings for a 1555-ha karst watershed—Chapel Branch Creek (CBC)—which drains to a lake via a reservoir-like embayment (R-E). The model was first tested for monthly streamflow predictions from tributaries draining three potential source areas as well as the downstream R-E, followed by TP loadings using data...

  19. Seasonal variations of 222Rn and SGD fluxes to Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.; Costa, P.; Braga, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate submarine groundwater discharge in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from (3.3±1.1) x 10 3 to (19±5) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 . The estimated total fluxes required to support the inventories varied from (0.6±0.2) x 10 3 to (3.4±0.9) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 x d -1 . Considering these results, the submarine groundwater discharge advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.06 to 1.9 cm x d -1 . During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest 222 Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the relative variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the relative variation was 21%. (author)

  20. Sedimentologic development of a Late Oligocene Miocene forearc embayment, Valdivia Basin Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Tertiary sediments in the southeastern part of the Valdivia Basin commenced during the Late Oligocene with the rapid incision of rivers draining the Palaeo-Coastal Range. Alluvial fans developing along the steep valley flanks joined gravelly braided streams transporting bedload to the coast. Tectonic and eustatic stability lasting into the Early Miocene subsequently allowed lateral erosion of the valley flanks and the development of extensive fluvial and estuarine peat swamps. This stable period was interrupted briefly by a volcanic eruption at 23.5 Ma. Shortly after 23 Ma, rapid uplift caused by an acceleration in plate convergence resulted in renewed erosion of the landscape, as reflected in the deposition of coarse river gravels. Basin subsidence and marine transgression proceeding up the river valleys subsequently formed still, deep embayments, occasionally disturbed by debris flows and turbidity currents originating on the steep, wooded valley flanks. At the upper limits of the inlets, bayhead deltas, tidal flats and beaches existed. In some areas, fan deltas prograded into the embayments, as reflected in the interfingering relationship between conglomerates and marine mudrocks. In the deeper parts of the embayments, the frequency of debris flows and turbidity currents increased markedly during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. The landscape was eventually inundated by continued subsidence and marine transgression, which lasted until a possibly eustatic sea-level fall in the early Tortonian.

  1. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. Holocene earthquakes of magnitude 7 during westward escape of the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen; Wells, Ray; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Buck, Jason; Reitman, Nadine G.

    2017-01-01

    Mountains by north‐directed, margin‐parallel shortening and westward escape of the mountains.

  8. Potentiometric Surface in the Sparta-Memphis Aquifer of the Mississippi Embayment, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    The most widely used aquifer for industry and public supply in the Mississippi embayment in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee is the Sparta-Memphis aquifer. Decades of pumping from the Sparta-Memphis aquifer have affected ground-water levels throughout the Mississippi embayment. Regional assessments of water-level data from the aquifer are important to document regional water-level conditions and to develop a broad view of the effects of ground-water development and management on the sustainability and availability of the region's water supply. This information is useful to identify areas of water-level declines, identify cumulative areal declines that may cross State boundaries, evaluate the effectiveness of ground-water management strategies practiced in different States, and identify areas with substantial data gaps that may preclude effective management of ground-water resources. A ground-water flow model of the northern Mississippi embayment is being developed by the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS) to aid in answering questions about ground-water availability and sustainability. The MERAS study area covers parts of eight states including Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee and covers approximately 70,000 square miles. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality Office of Land and Water Resources measured water levels in wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer in the spring of 2007 to assist in the MERAS model calibration and to document regional water-level conditions. Measurements by the USGS and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality Office of Land and Water Resources were done in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission; the Arkansas Geological Survey; Memphis Light, Gas and Water; Shelby County, Tennessee; and the city of Germantown, Tennessee. In 2005, total water use from the Sparta

  9. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  10. Detection of a westward hotspot offset in the atmosphere of hot gas giant CoRoT-2b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Lisa; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Schwartz, Joel C.; Rauscher, Emily; Zhang, Michael; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Deming, Drake; Sundararajan, Sudarsan; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Zhao, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Short-period planets exhibit day-night temperature contrasts of hundreds to thousands of kelvin. They also exhibit eastward hotspot offsets whereby the hottest region on the planet is east of the substellar point1; this has been widely interpreted as advection of heat due to eastward winds2. We present thermal phase observations of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These measurements show the most robust detection to date of a westward hotspot offset of 23 ± 4°, in contrast with the nine other planets with equivalent measurements3-10. The peculiar infrared flux map of CoRoT-2b may result from westward winds due to non-synchronous rotation11 or magnetic effects12,13, or partial cloud coverage, that obscure the emergent flux from the planet's eastern hemisphere14-17. Non-synchronous rotation and magnetic effects may also explain the planet's anomalously large radius12,18. On the other hand, partial cloud coverage could explain the featureless dayside emission spectrum of the planet19,20. If CoRoT-2b is not tidally locked, then it means that our understanding of star-planet tidal interaction is incomplete. If the westward offset is due to magnetic effects, our result represents an opportunity to study an exoplanet's magnetic field. If it has eastern clouds, then it means that a greater understanding of large-scale circulation on tidally locked planets is required.

  11. On the lifetime and extent of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC observed during a magnetospheric substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available A -190-nT negative bay in the geomagnetic X component measured at Macquarie Island ( -65° L showed that an ionospheric substorm occurred during 09:58 to 11:10 UT on 27 February 2000. Signatures of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC were observed nearly simultaneously in the backscatter power, LOS Doppler velocity, and Doppler spectral width measured using the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar. Many of the characteristics of the AWFC were similar to those occurring during a polarisation jet (PJ, or subauroral ion drift (SAID event, and suggest that it may have been a pre-cursor to a fully developed, intense westward flow channel satisfying all of the criteria defining a PJ/SAID. A beam-swinging analysis showed that the westward drifts (poleward electric field associated with the flow channel were very structured in time and space, but the smoothed velocities grew to ~ 800 ms-1 (47 mVm-1 during the 22-min substorm onset interval 09:56 to 10:18 UT. Maximum west-ward drifts of >1.3 km s-1 (>77 mVm-1 occurred during a ~ 5-min velocity spike, peaking at 10:40 UT during the expansion phase. The drifts decayed rapidly to ~ 300 ms-1 (18 mVm-1 during the 6-min recovery phase interval, 11:04 to 11:10 UT. Overall, the AWFC had a lifetime of 74 min, and was located near -65° L in the evening sector west of the Harang discontinuity. The large westward drifts were confined to a geographic zonal channel of longitudinal ex-tent >20° (>1.3 h magnetic local time, and latitudinal width ~2° L. Using a half-width of ~ 100 km in latitude, the peak electric potential was >7.7 kV. However, a transient velocity of >3.1 km s-1 with potential >18.4 kV was observed further poleward at the end of the recovery phase. Auroral oval boundaries determined

  12. Modeling equilibrium bed profiles of short tidal embayments : On the effect of the vertical distribution of suspended sediment and the influence of the boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Brake, M.C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In many tidal embayments, bottom patterns, such as the channel-shoal systems of the Wadden Sea, are observed. To gain understanding of the mechanisms that result in these bottom patterns, an idealized model is developed and analyzed for short tidal embayments. In this model, the water motion is

  13. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  14. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  15. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  16. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry

    2014-08-01

    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  17. Microphytobenthos potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Jean-Marc; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, Jody L.; Gros, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  18. Microphytobenthic potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  19. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  20. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  1. Effect of site on sedimentological characteristics and metal pollution in two semi-enclosed embayments of great freshwater reservoir: Lake Nasser, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Hassan I.; Aly, Walid

    2018-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effect of site on the spatial variations of sedimentological characteristics and heavy metal pollution of two semi-enclosed embayments of Lake Nasser. Grain Size, texture and mode of transportation as well as some heavy metals and organic matter were assessed in sediment samples from those embayments. The results indicated that the grain size of the lake sediments was affected by site variation. Moreover, heavy metal distribution in the sediments was mainly directed by grain size distribution and organic matter, though, the organic matter was more critical than grain size in controlling heavy metals distribution in each embayment. The main source of heavy metals in studied embayments was concluded to be the metals brought with flood waters rather than being of anthropogenic origin. The results also indicated the association of studied metals with Fe and Mn oxides of suspended matters and dissolved solids which come with flood water and trapped and settled to the bottom sediment in the stagnation period. Measured indices indicated that southern embayment is more polluted than northern one, which could be explained on the basis that the southern embayment reserves larger amounts of suspended matter coming with the flood than northern embayment.

  2. Ascent Rates from Melt Embayments: Insights into the Eruption Dynamics of Arc Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Lloyd, A. S.; Hauri, E.; Rose, W. I.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Plank, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of the magma that is added from the mantle to the subvolcanic plumbing system ultimately erupts at the surface. The initial volatile content of the magmas as well as the interplay between volatile loss and magma ascent plays a significant role in determining the eruption style (effusive versus explosive) as well as the magnitude of the eruption. The October 17, 1974 sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego represents a particularly well-characterized system in terms of volatile content and magma chemistry to investigate the relation between initial water content of the magmas and the ascent rate. By modeling volatile element distribution in melt embayments through diffusion and degassing during ascent we can estimate magma ascent from the storage region in the crust to the surface. The novel aspect is the measurement of concentration gradients multiple volatile elements (in particular CO2, H2O, S) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble documenting the loss of H2O and CO2 compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption. The data is best described by a two-stage model. At high pressure (>145 MPa) decompression is slow (0.05- 0.3 MPa/s) and CO2 is bled off predominantly. At shallow levels decompression accelerates to 0.3-0.5 MPa/s at the point of H2O exsolution, which strongly affects the buoyancy of the ascending magma. The magma ascent rates presented are among the first for explosive basaltic eruptions and demonstrate the potential of the embayment method for quantifying magmatic timescales associated with eruptions of different vigor. [1] Lloyd et al. (2014) JVGR, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.06.002

  3. Summer Drivers of Atmospheric Variability Affecting Ice Shelf Thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott

    2018-05-01

    Satellite data and a 35-year hindcast of the Amundsen Sea Embayment summer climate using the Weather Research and Forecasting model are used to understand how regional and large-scale atmospheric variability affects thinning of ice shelves in this sector of West Antarctica by melting from above and below (linked to intrusions of warm water caused by anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge). El Niño episodes are associated with an increase in surface melt but do not have a statistically significant impact on westerly winds over the continental shelf edge. The location of the Amundsen Sea Low and the polarity of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) have negligible impact on surface melting, although a positive SAM and eastward shift of the Amundsen Sea Low cause anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge. The projected future increase in El Niño episodes and positive SAM could therefore increase the risk of disintegration of West Antarctic ice shelves.

  4. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  5. Distributions of Benthic Foraminifera in the Salisbury Embayment before and after the PETM Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, M. M.; Robinson, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Abrupt climatic perturbations associated with the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) caused major disruptions to the shallow shelf ecology along the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain. Several studies examine the changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the PETM in neritic sediments in New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia and describe a hydrological and sedimentological paradigm shift that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. In the Salisbury Embayment, a flexural low between the South Jersey High and the Norfolk Arch, this shift is seen in the transition between the upper Paleocene Aquia Formation and the lower Eocene Marlboro Clay. Here we map the abundance of seven benthic foraminifera species from five sites within the Salisbury Embayment from both the uppermost Aquia Formation and the lowermost Marlboro Clay. In addition to the benthic foraminiferal turnover at the PETM onset, we show a geographic distribution of species that highlights a past latitudinal biogeographic zonation not unlike what is found on the modern shelf in this region. Sites document a change in the abundance of species between the late Paleocene and early Eocene, showing a decrease in biodiversity of benthic species along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. Spatial extent of the different species also changed across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. On the modern Atlantic shelf, a biogeographic zonation is due to the path of the Gulf Stream marking a boundary between relatively cold sea-surface temperatures to the north and warmer temperatures to the south, guided by the geomorphic expression of the mid-Atlantic coastline. During the Paleocene-Eocene transition, we suspect a similar boundary likely existed between the New Jersey sites and the Maryland and Virginia sites. We speculate that with the addition of more assemblage data, we will be able to partially reconstruct the geomorphic expression of the PETM coastline and/or the path of major coastal ocean currents.

  6. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional current flow and particle precipitation in a westward travelling surge (observed during the barium-GEOS rocket experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Pellinen, R.J.; Baumjohann, W.; Nielsen, E.; Marklund, G.; Eliasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    During the Barium-GEOS rocket experiment on September 24, 1979 the passage of a westward travelling surge (WTS) was observed over Scandinavia. Extended instrument networks in that area, viz., the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array, the STARE radars, all-sky cameras, and riometers, allowed simultaneous observation of the two-dimensional character of magnetic and electric field disturbances and particle precipitation associated with the auroral feature. By combination of the different datasets and additional information from particle and electric field measurements aboard the Barium-GEOS rocket it was possible to derive the two-dimensional distribution of ionospheric electric fields and conductivities and to model the three-dimensional current flow in the vicinity of the westward travelling surge. The main feature of the resulting model current system is the presence of a localized upward field-aligned current directed out of the head of the surge and fed by a westward electrojet, which is composed of both Hall and Pedersen currents. Secondary ionospheric currents, e.g. a counterclockwise loop of mainly Hall currents around the leading edge of the surge, are found to be responsible for most of the transient effects observed by ground-based magnetometers as the WTS passed overhead. The most energetic particle precipitation as inferred from cosmic noise absorption measurements and triangulation of auroral arc altitudes is found to be confined to the leading part and central regions of the surge and to travel westward with the visual auroral form

  8. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  9. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  10. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  11. Regional Forecasting of Wind Speeds during Typhoon Landfall in Taiwan: A Case Study of Westward-Moving Typhoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chiang Wei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on a route where typhoons often strike. Each year, the strong winds accompanying typhoons are a substantial threat and cause significant damage. However, because the terrains of high mountains in Taiwan vary greatly, when a typhoon passes the Central Mountain Range (CMR, the wind speed of typhoons becomes difficult to predict. This research had two primary objectives: (1 to develop data-driven techniques and a powerful artificial neural network (ANN model to predict the highly complex nonlinear wind systems in western Taiwan; and, (2 to investigate the accuracy of wind speed predictions at various locations and for various durations in western Taiwan when the track of westward typhoons is affected by the complex geographical shelters and disturbances of the CMR. This study developed a typhoon wind speed prediction model that evaluated various typhoon tracks (covering Type 2, Type 3, and Type 4 tracks, as defined by the Central Weather Bureau, and evaluated the prediction accuracy at Hsinchu, Wuqi, and Kaohsiung Stations in western Taiwan. Back propagation neural networks (BPNNs were employed to establish wind speed prediction models, and a linear regression model was adopted as the benchmark to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the BPNNs. The results were as follows: (1 The BPNNs generally had favorable performance in predicting wind speeds and their performances were superior to linear regressions; (2 when absolute errors were adopted to evaluate the prediction performances, the predictions at Hsinchu Station were the most accurate, whereas those at Wuqi Station were the least accurate; however, when relative errors were adopted, the predictions at Hsinchu Station were again the most accurate, whereas those at Kaohsiung were the least accurate; and, (3 regarding the relative error rates for the maximum wind speed of Types 2, 3, and 4 typhoons, Wuqi, Kaohsiung, and Wuqi had the most accurate performance, respectively; as

  12. Fluvial fluxes of natural radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Keila Cristina Pinheiro Marchini de

    2008-01-01

    Radium isotopes are among the most important isotopes in the environment from both radioprotection and geo-hydrological points of view. They are also a powerful tool for studying geohydrological processes and have been used intensively as tracers of groundwater sources that discharge into the coastal ocean.The complex exchange of fluvial, subsurface and seawater within a coastal area directly affects global biogeochemical cycles. Environmental scientists have few tools to accurately quantify such processes and must therefore rely on various tracer techniques. Radium isotopes have been frequently applied as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The unique radium signature of SGD is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In this study we determined the fluvial fluxes of the radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, northernmost part of Sao Paulo Bight. The research work was carried out from April/ 2007 to August/ 2007 and covered 17 small rivers sources that belong to the major surface draining system of such coastal area. During this period of investigation, groundwater samples were also collected from 10 sources available in this coastal region. Activity concentrations of 223 Ra in riverine waters discharging to Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba embayments varied from -1 to 335 mBq 1000L -1 (in Cocanha River), while 224 Ra concentrations ranged from 17 mBq 100L -1 to 7270 mBq 100L -1 . Activity concentrations up to 1424 mBq 100L -1 were observed for 226 Ra in riverine waters, while 228 Ra concentrations varied from 1412 mBq 100L -1 to 4058 mBq 100L -1 . Groundwater activity concentrations of 223 Ra varied from 1 mBq 100L -1 to 126 mBq 100L -1 , while 224 Ra ranged from 118 mBq 100L -1 to 3701 mBq 100L -1 . 223 Ra/ 224 Ra activity ratios up to 0.7x10 -1 and 0.2 were observed in riverine and groundwater, respectively. For 226 Ra groundwater activity concentrations

  13. Sedimentary infilling of bedrock-controlled palaeo-embayments off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Sandra; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates two bedrock-controlled palaeo-coastal embayments on the Barbate Platform off Cape Trafalgar near the Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz shelf, SW Iberian Peninsula), aiming to reveal their infilling dynamics and the influence of rocky outcrops on shallow-water hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The approach relies on detailed multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic profiles and tidal current simulations. Elongated rocky outcrops formed a palaeo-coast when sea level was approximately 35 to 20 m below that of the present day, and bound a relatively flat area. However, the seismic profiles enabled to distinguish two main troughs (A and B) that were infilled following a distinctive evolution during the last transgression. Five seismic units were identified (I to V, from base to top). Deposit A is composed of seismic units II to V and is interpreted as a marine embayment infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-embayment (BPE). Deposit B is composed of seismic units I to IV and is interpreted as a palaeo-valley infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-valley (BPV). The complex internal stratigraphic architecture depicts an overall evolution from tidal/fluvial deposits to shallow-water marine deposits. Most significant is the occurrence of coupled tidal flats/estuarine sand bars constituting the infilling of the BPE; this suggests the persistence of a high-energy current in a shallow, confined embayment, which was amplified by the rocky outcrop constrictions and possibly facilitated by the episodic movement of a normal fault. In contrast to this active setting, the nearby straight and narrow BPV was subjected to lower-energy infilling dynamics during its initial flooding phases. There, tidal activity was possibly reduced by the straight morphology of the valley and the occurrence of a topographic constriction (i.e. the Barbate Passage) at the mouth of the valley.

  14. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  15. Seasonal variation of 222Rn in seawater samples from Ubatuba embayments, SP, Brazil, for the assessment of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Patricia da Costa

    2005-01-01

    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 24 vertical profiles established from March/03 to July/05 varied from 345 ±±24 to 18,700 ± 4,900 dpm/m 2 . The highest inventories of excess 222 Rn were observed both in Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, during summer campaigns (rainy season). The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 62 ± 4 to 3,385 +- 880 dpm/m 2 d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.1 x 10 -1 to 1.9 cm/d. Taking into account all SGD fluxes obtained, the percentual variability was 89% (seasonal variation in 3 years period, n = 24 measurements). Although, if we consider each year of study separately, the respective percentual variabilities estimated are 72% in 2003 (n = 10 measurements), 127% in 2004 (n = 6 measurements) and 97% in 2005 (n = 8 measurements). (author)

  16. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  18. Origin of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, Frome Embayment, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Frome Embayment of South Australia is largely a result of tectonic events possibly as old as the Archean. Uranium deposits of several types and ages in the region demonstrate the importance of uranium enrichment in the source area. Mobile zones around the Archean terrane of the Gawler block have been the locus of intermittent tectonic activity from Early Proterozoic to recent time. Vein-type uranium deposits in basement source rocks are concentrated in these zones, because they favor deep crustal partial melting and ascent of Na-rich granitic magmas and hydrothermal solutions. Relatively stable areas bordered by mobile zones, are important for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits because they act as platforms for terrigenous sedimentation from the surrounding, uplifted, uranium-rich basement rocks. Wet, subtropical conditions prevailing at the time of uplift aided rapid erosion and subaerial deposition of channel sands with intermixed organic detritus. Later uplift accompanied by erosion of the recently deposited sands in the headwater area caused increased recharge of oxygenated uraniferous ground water, which led to the formation of geochemical-cell roll-front type deposits like those in the Wyoming basins. Subsequent arid conditions helped preserve the deposits. (author)

  19. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 present in surface sediments at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC) Embayment. WOC receives the majority of surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Following this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems pursued stabilizing sediment migration under provisions of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Section 300.400 et. seq. as a time-critical removal action. However, significant uncertainty exists concerning the applicability of NCP procedural requirements designed for conducting US EPA-led, Superfund-financed response actions, because NCP Subpart K dealing with response actions at federal facilities has not been promulgated. In addition, relatively new guidance exists from DOE concerning National Environmental Policy Act documentation requirements for categorical exclusions associated with conducting removal actions at DOE facilities. A proactive approach was taken to identify issues and involve appropriate state and federal regulatory agencies. This approach required achieving consensus among all involved parties and identification of all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulatory requirements related to the removal action. As a result, this project forms a framework for conducting future time-critical removal actions at federal facilities

  20. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) in surface sedimenus near the mouth of White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE). White Oak Creek (WOC) receives surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems have pursued actions designed to stabilize the contaminated WOCE sediments under provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the implementing regulations in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR Part 300), as a time-critical removal action. By definition, a time-critical removal is an action where onsite activities are initiated within six months of the determination that a removal action is appropriate. Time-critical removal actions allow comparatively rapid mobilization to protect human health and the environment without going through the lengthy and extensive CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Record of Decision process. Many aspects of the project, in terms of compliance with the substantive requirements of the NCP and ARARs, have exceeded the regulatory requirements, despite the fact that there is no apparent authority on conducting removal actions at Federal facilities. Much of the interpretation of the NCP was groundbreaking in nature for both EPA and DOE. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Synthetic Earthquake Statistics From Physical Fault Models for the Lower Rhine Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, G. B.; Hainzl, S.; Zöller, G.

    2012-04-01

    As of today, seismic risk and hazard estimates mostly use pure empirical, stochastic models of earthquake fault systems tuned specifically to the vulnerable areas of interest. Although such models allow for reasonable risk estimates they fail to provide a link between the observed seismicity and the underlying physical processes. Solving a state-of-the-art fully dynamic description set of all relevant physical processes related to earthquake fault systems is likely not useful since it comes with a large number of degrees of freedom, poor constraints on its model parameters and a huge computational effort. Here, quasi-static and quasi-dynamic physical fault simulators provide a compromise between physical completeness and computational affordability and aim at providing a link between basic physical concepts and statistics of seismicity. Within the framework of quasi-static and quasi-dynamic earthquake simulators we investigate a model of the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE) that is based upon seismological and geological data. We present and discuss statistics of the spatio-temporal behavior of generated synthetic earthquake catalogs with respect to simplification (e.g. simple two-fault cases) as well as to complication (e.g. hidden faults, geometric complexity, heterogeneities of constitutive parameters).

  2. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  3. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  4. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  5. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  6. Coastal upwelling seasonality and variability of temperature and chlorophyll in a small coastal embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K.; Armenta, Kevin J.; Shearer, Brandon; Robbins, Ian; Steinbeck, John

    2018-02-01

    While the seasonality of wind-driven coastal upwelling in eastern boundary upwelling systems has long been established, many studies describe two distinct seasons (upwelling and non-upwelling), a generalized framework that does not capture details relevant to marine ecosystems. In this contribution, we present a more detailed description of the annual cycle and upwelling seasonality for an understudied location along the central California coast. Using both the mean monthly upwelling favorable wind stress and the monthly standard deviation, we define the following seasons (contiguous months) and a transitional period (non-contiguous months): "Winter Storms" season (Dec-Jan-Feb), "Upwelling Transition" period (Mar and Jun), "Peak Upwelling" season (Apr-May), "Upwelling Relaxation" season (Jul-Aug-Sep), and "Winter Transition" season (Oct-Nov). In order to describe the oceanic response to this upwelling wind seasonality, we take advantage of nearly a decade of full water-column measurements of temperature and chlorophyll made using an automated profiling system at the end of the California Polytechnic State University Pier in San Luis Obispo Bay, a small ( 2 km wide near study site) and shallow ( 10 m average bay depth) coastal embayment. Variability and average-year patterns are described inside the bay during the various upwelling seasons. Moreover, the role of the local coastline orientation and topography on bay dynamics is also assessed using long-term measurements collected outside of the bay. The formation of a seasonally variable upwelling shadow system and potential nearshore retention zone is discussed. The observations presented provide a framework on which to study interannual changes to the average-year seasonal cycle, assess the contribution of higher-frequency features to nearshore variability, and better predict dynamically and ecologically important events.

  7. A new record of the Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum from the Mississippi Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, B. F.; Gerweck, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene interval is well known as a time of climatic transitions, especially hyperthermals associated with disturbances in the carbon cycle that are used as proxies for impacts of projected anthropogenic global climate change. A recent roadcut in Benton County, Mississippi exposes a disconformity between the Paleocene Naheola Formation and the Eocene Meridian Sand. The disconformity is developed on a thick, kaolinitic paleosol, which we interpret as a mature Oxisol that supported tropical rainforest vegetation (as evidenced by associated well preserved leaf fossils). The nature of the paleosol at the disconformity led us to hypothesize that the strata might contain evidence of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We sampled two Mississippi Mineral Resources Institute (MMRI) cores from the equivalent stratigraphic interval from Benton and Tippah Counties, Mississippi, for bulk organic carbon stable isotopes at 25-cm intervals. Results showed no evidence of the negative excursion characteristic of the PETM. Instead, we found a gradual upsection enrichment that we interpret as the positive trend characteristic of the lower Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum (PCIM). This is reasonable based on published biostratigraphy and absolute ages from elsewhere in the Naheola Formation. Further analyses will be performed to determine whether the PCIM trend continues throughout the remainder of the core. The identification of the PCIM in Mississippi Embayment (ME) sediments is important because stable carbon isotope data may be useful for improving chronostratigraphy in the ME. Also, the PCIM is associated with a gradual warming trend as indicated by previously published stable oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera. Studying successive ME paleosols throughout the PCIM may yield information about the impacts of gradual atmospheric warming on soils and associated terrestrial systems.

  8. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  9. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  10. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  11. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  12. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  13. Probabilistic and Scenario Seismic and Liquefaction Hazard Analysis of the Mississippi Embayment Incorporating Nonlinear Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Dhar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of deep sediment deposits of the Mississippi Embayment (ME) on the propagation of seismic waves is poorly understood and remains a major source of uncertainty for site response analysis. Many researchers have studied the effects of these deposits on seismic hazard of the area using available information at the time. In this study, we have used updated and newly available resources for seismic and liquefaction hazard analyses of the ME. We have developed an improved 3D geological model. Additionally, we used surface geological maps from Cupples and Van Arsdale (2013) to prepare liquefaction hazard maps. Both equivalent linear and nonlinear site response codes were used to develop site amplification distributions for use in generating hazard maps. The site amplification distributions are created using the Monte Carlo approach of Cramer et al. (2004, 2006) on a 0.1-degree grid. The 2014 National Seismic Hazard model and attenuation relations (Petersen et al., 2014) are used to prepare seismic hazard maps. Then liquefaction hazard maps are generated using liquefaction probability curves from Holzer (2011) and Cramer et al. (2015). Equivalent linear response (w/ increased precision, restricted nonlinear behavior with depth) shows similar hazard for the ME compared to nonlinear analysis (w/o pore pressure) results. At short periods nonlinear deamplification dominates the hazard, but at long periods resonance amplification dominates. The liquefaction hazard tends to be high in Holocene and late Pleistocene lowland sediments, even with lowered ground water levels, and low in Pleistocene loess of the uplands. Considering pore pressure effects in nonlinear site response analysis at a test site on the lowlands shows amplification of ground motion at short periods. PGA estimates from ME liquefaction and MMI observations are in the 0.25 to 0.4 g range. Our estimated M7.5 PGA hazard within 10 km of the fault can exceed this. Ground motion observations from

  14. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  15. Successes of Restoration and Its Effect on the Fish Community in a Freshwater Tidal Embayment of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim de Mutsert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After a local wastewater treatment plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April to September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV, once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system switched to an SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance did not change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus, which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes observed were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana, and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides. The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to reduce excess nutrient inputs, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point-source inputs.

  16. Paleocene to Middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.; Commeau, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Paleocene to Middle Miocene sedimentary fill of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment contains a fragmental depositional record, interrupted by numerous local diastems and regional unconformities. Using planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, 15 unconformity-bounded depositional units have been identified, assigned to six formations and seven alloformations previously recognized in the embayment. The units correlate with second- and third-order sequences of the Exxon sequence stratigraphy model, and include transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Alloformation, formation, and sequence boundaries are marked by abrupt, scoured, burrowed, erosional surfaces, which display lag deposits, biostratigraphic gaps, and intense reworking of microfossils above and below the boundaries.Paleocene deposits represent the upper parts of upper Pleocene Biochronozones P4 and P5, and rest uncomformably  on Cretaceous sedimentary beds of various ages (Maastrichtian to Albian). Lower Eocene deposits represent parts of Biochronozones P6 and P9. Middle Eocene strata represent mainly parts of Biochronozones P11, P12, and P14. Upper Eocene sediments include parts of Biochronozones P15, P16, and P17. Oligocene deposits encompass parts of Biochronozones. N4b to N7 undifferentiated, P21a, and, perhaps, N4a. Lower Miocene deposits encompass parts of Biochronozones N4b to N7 undifferentiated. Middle Miocene strata represent mainly parts of Biochronorones N8, N9, and N10.Nine plates of scanning electron micrographs illustrate the principal planktic foraminifera used to establish the biostratigraphic framework. Two new informal formine of Praeterenuitella praegemma Li, 1987, are introduced.

  17. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  18. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  19. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  20. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  1. A large CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, SE-Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the Bay showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10% of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. In the inner part of the bay, the calculated annual CO2 sink (-19.6 mol C m2 yr-1) matched the organic carbon burial in the sediments reported in the literature. The carbon sink and autotrophy of Guanabara Bay was driven by planktonic primary production promoted by eutrophication, and by its typology of marine embayment lacking the classical extended estuarine mixing zone, in contrast to river-dominated estuarine systems, which are generally net heterotrophic and CO2 emitters. Our results show that global CO2

  2. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  3. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  4. Toxicity of waters from the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern to the plankton species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Smith, Alexander J.; George, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The lower Genesee River and Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are a designated Area of Concern (AOC) under the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations” or plankton Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was classified as unknown and in need of further assessment in this AOC because water quality data suggested plankton communities could be effected and community data were either unavailable or indicated impacts. The plankton BUI may now be obsolete because local contaminant sources have been largely eliminated. The present study was conducted between July 2013 and August 2014 to assess the BUI-removal criteria: “AOC plankton bioassays confirm that toxicity in ambient waters (i.e., no growth inhibition) is not significantly higher than comparable non-AOC controls”. Acute and chronic toxicity of waters from 13 sites were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that toxicity of waters from AOC sites was not higher than that of waters from comparable non-AOC reference sites. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia did not differ significantly between site types, systems, or months. The growth of P. subcapitata did not differ between site types, but differed among systems and months. All results indicate that waters from AOC sites were no more toxic to both plankton species than waters from reference sites. Assuming test species represent natural plankton assemblages, water quality should not negatively affect survival and growth of resident plankton populations in the Rochester Embayment AOC.

  5. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  6. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  7. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  8. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  9. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  10. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  12. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  13. An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC and its relationship to field-aligned current, ring current, and plasmapause location determined using multiple spacecraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC is a latitudinally narrow channel of unstable F-region plasma with intense westward drift in the dusk-to-midnight sector ionosphere. AWFCs tend to overlap the equatorward edge of the auroral oval, and their life cycle is often synchronised to that of substorms: they commence close to substorm expansion phase onset, intensify during the expansion phase, and then decay during the recovery phase. Here we define for the first time the relationship between an AWFC, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC, the ring current, and plasmapause location. The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a jet-like AWFC during ~08:35 to 13:28 UT on 7 April 2001. The initiation of the AWFC was preceded by a band of equatorward expanding ionospheric scatter (BEES which conveyed an intense poleward electric field through the inner plasma sheet. Unlike previous AWFCs, this event was not associated with a distinct substorm surge; rather it occurred during an interval of persistent, moderate magnetic activity characterised by AL~−200 nT. The four Cluster spacecraft had perigees within the dusk sector plasmasphere, and their trajectories were magnetically conjugate to the radar observations. The Waves of High frequency and Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER instruments on board Cluster were used to identify the plasmapause location. The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE EUV experiment also provided global-scale observations of the plasmapause. The Cluster fluxgate magnetometers (FGM provided successive measurements specifying the relative location of the ring current and filamentary plasma sheet current. An analysis of Iridium spacecraft magnetometer measurements provided estimates of large-scale ionospheric FAC in relation to the AWFC evolution. Peak flows in the AWFC were located close to the peak of a Region 2

  14. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  16. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by

  17. Fracture enhancement based on artificial ants and fuzzy c-means clustering (FCMC) in Dezful Embayment of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasseri, Aynur; Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Jafar; Tabatabaei Raeisi, S Hashem

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the ant colony algorithm (AC) to a seismic dataset from Dezful Embayment in the southwest region of Iran. The objective of the approach is to generate an accurate representation of faults and discontinuities to assist in pertinent matters such as well planning and field optimization. The AC analyzed all spatial discontinuities in the seismic attributes from which features were extracted. True fault information from the attributes was detected by many artificial ants, whereas noise and the remains of the reflectors were eliminated. Furthermore, the fracture enhancement procedure was conducted by three steps on seismic data of the area. In the first step several attributes such as chaos, variance/coherence and dip deviation were taken into account; the resulting maps indicate high-resolution contrast for the variance attribute. Subsequently, the enhancement of spatial discontinuities was performed and finally elimination of the noise and remains of non-faulting events was carried out by simulating the behavior of ant colonies. After considering stepwise attribute optimization, focusing on chaos and variance in particular, an attribute fusion was generated and used in the ant colony algorithm. The resulting map displayed the highest performance in feature detection along the main structural feature trend, confined to a NW–SE direction. Thus, the optimized attribute fusion might be used with greater confidence to map the structural feature network with more accuracy and resolution. In order to assess the performance of the AC in feature detection, and cross validate the reliability of the method used, fuzzy c-means clustering (FCMC) was employed for the same dataset. Comparing the maps illustrates the effectiveness and preference of the AC approach due to its high resolution contrast for structural feature detection compared to the FCMC method. Accordingly, 3D planes of discontinuity determined spatial distribution of

  18. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  19. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  20. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30–100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  1. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30-100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  2. Geologic mapping of near-surface sediments in the northern Mississippi Embayment, McCracken County, KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Greb, s F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2006-04-01

    POSTER: The Jackson Purchase region of western Kentucky consists of Coastal Plain sediments near the northern margin of the Mississippi Embayment. Within this region is the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), a uranium enrichment facility operated by the US Department of Energy. At PGDP, a Superfund site, soil and groundwater studies have provided subsurface lithologic data from hundreds of monitoring wells and borings. Despite preliminary efforts by various contractors, these data have not been utilized to develop detailed stratigraphic correlations of sedimentary units across the study area. In addition, sedimentary exposures along streams in the vicinityof PGDP have not been systematically described beyond the relatively simple geologic quadrangle maps published by the US Geological Survey in 1966-67. This study integrates lithologic logs, other previous site investigation data, and outcrop mapping to provide a compilation of near-surface lithologic and stratigraphic data for the PGDP area. A database of borehole data compiled during this study has been provided to PGDP for future research and archival.

  3. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  4. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  5. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  6. Greater circadian disadvantage during evening games for the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL) and National Football League (NFL) teams travelling westward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jonathan; Forest, Geneviève

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a circadian disadvantage (i.e. playing in a different time zone) on the winning percentages in three major sport leagues in North America: the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and the National Football League. We reviewed 5 years of regular season games in the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League and National Football League, and noted the winning percentage of the visiting team depending on the direction of travel (west, east, and same time zone) and game time (day and evening games). T-tests and analysis of variance were performed to evaluate the effects of the circadian disadvantage, its direction, the number of time zones travelled, and the game time on winning percentages in each major league. The results showed an association between the winning percentages and the number of time zones traveled for the away evening games, with a clear disadvantage for the teams travelling westward. There was a significant difference in the teams' winning percentages depending on the travelling direction in the National Basketball Association (F 2,5908  = 16.12, P < 0.0001) and the National Hockey League (F 2,5639  = 4.48, P = 0.011), and a trend was found in the National Football League (F 2,1279  = 2.86, P = 0.058). The effect of the circadian disadvantage transcends the type of sport and needs to be addressed for greater equity among the western and eastern teams in professional sports. These results also highlight the importance of circadian rhythms in sport performance and athletic competitions. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of preferential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, L. P.; Bense, V. F.; Dennis, P. F.; Hiscock, K. M.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low δ2H and δ18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7 × 10-4 cm3 (STP) g-1 ± 2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of helium provides a groundwater residence time of ˜107 years. Although fluid exchange between the deep basal aquifer system and the upper aquifer layers is generally impeded by confining clay layers and lignite, this study's geochemical data suggest, for the first time, that deep circulating fluids penetrate shallow aquifers in the locality of fault zones, implying that sub-vertical fluid flow occurs along faults in the LRE. However, large hydraulic-head gradients observed across many faults suggest that they act as barriers to lateral groundwater flow. Therefore, the geochemical data reported here also substantiate a conduit-barrier model of fault-zone hydrogeology in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits, as well as corroborating the concept that faults in unconsolidated aquifer systems can act as loci for hydraulic connectivity between deep and shallow aquifers. The implications of fluid flow along faults in sedimentary basins worldwide are far reaching and of particular concern for carbon capture and storage (CCS) programmes, impacts of deep shale gas recovery for shallow groundwater aquifers, and nuclear waste storage sites where fault zones could act as potential leakage pathways for hazardous fluids.

  8. Receiver function and gravity constraints on crustal structure and vertical movements of the Upper Mississippi Embayment and Ozark Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mickus, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Mississippi Embayment (UME), where the seismically active New Madrid Seismic Zone resides, experienced two phases of subsidence commencing in the Late Precambrian and Cretaceous, respectively. To provide new constraints on models proposed for the mechanisms responsible for the subsidence, we computed and stacked P-to-S receiver functions recorded by 49 USArray and other seismic stations located in the UME and the adjacent Ozark Uplift and modeled Bouguer gravity anomaly data. The inferred thickness, density, and Vp/Vs of the upper and lower crustal layers suggest that the UME is characterized by a mafic and high-density upper crustal layer of ˜30 km thickness, which is underlain by a higher-density lower crustal layer of up to ˜15 km. Those measurements, in the background of previously published geological observations on the subsidence and uplift history of the UME, are in agreement with the model that the Cretaceous subsidence, which was suggested to be preceded by an approximately 2 km uplift, was the consequence of the passage of a previously proposed thermal plume. The thermoelastic effects of the plume would have induced wide-spread intrusion of mafic mantle material into the weak UME crust fractured by Precambrian rifting and increased its density, resulting in renewed subsidence after the thermal source was removed. In contrast, the Ozark Uplift has crustal density, thickness, and Vp/Vs measurements that are comparable to those observed on cratonic areas, suggesting an overall normal crust without significant modification by the proposed plume, probably owing to the relatively strong and thick lithosphere.

  9. Definition of prospective terrains for industrial polymineralic placers in the Mississippi embayment region by use of uranium exploration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosz, A.E.; Greenwood, W.J.; Schruben, P.G.; Grossman, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium, Zr, Hf, rare-earth element (REE), Th, and U data from the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) database, and Th and U from the airborne spectral gamma-ray radiation data base of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are diagnostic of, and may predict the presence of, commercially important concentrations of industrial heavy minerals. An analysis of these data from the Mississippi embayment region shows that regionally anomalous concentrations of these elements in sediment samples and intensifies in airborne radiation surveys can indicate the presence and relative abundance of important industrial heavy minerals such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and monazite. Plots of samples with statistically anomalous concentrations of these elements coincide with known placer deposits of industrial heavy minerals. Cretaceous and younger sediments are indicated as likely hosts to undiscovered economic deposits. Volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks are the sources of the minerals found in these sediments, and thus valley-fill sediments within the crystalline terranes may also host concentrations of placer minerals. Fe/Ti ratios ≤ 1.17 in sediment samples are shown to be sensitive indicators of weathered ilmenite (> 52.7 wt% TiO 2 ); locations of such samples are coincident with Cretaceous and younger sediments in the study area. The data outline large areas suitable for Ti-Hf-REE-bearing placer exploration. Evidence for potential Ti-Hf-REE placer deposits is given for unconsolidated sediments in the floodplain of the Mississippi River. Good correlations between the abundances of Ce and La, Ce and Th, and Th and U in the sediment samples show how the geographically more extensive NURE airborne spectral gamma-ray data base can be used to outline areas favorable for monazite-bearing placer exploration. (author)

  10. A holistic approach to hydrocarbon source allocation in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, embayments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    The complex organic geochemistry record in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska is a result of much industrial and human activity in the region. Recent oil spills and a regional background of natural petroleum hydrocarbons originating from active hydrocarbon systems in the northern Gulf of Alaska also contribute to the geochemical record. Pyrogenic and petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are introduced regularly to the subtidal sediments at sites of past and present human activities including villages, fish hatcheries, fish camps and recreational campsites as well as abandoned settlements, canneries, sawmills and mines. Hydrocarbon contributions are fingerprinted and quantified using a holistic approach where contributions from multiple sources is determined. The approach involves a good understanding of the history of the area to identify potential sources. It also involves extensive collection of representative samples and an accurate quantitative analysis of the source and sediment samples for PAH analytes and chemical biomarker compounds. Total organic carbon (TOC) does not work in restricted embayments because of a constrained least-square algorithm to determine hydrocarbon sources. It has been shown that sources contributing to the natural petrogenic background are present in Prince William Sound. In particular, pyrogenic hydrocarbons such as combustion products of diesel is significant where there was much human activity. In addition, petroleum produced from the Monterey Formation in California is present in Prince William Sound because in the past, oil and asphalt shipped from California was widely used for fuel. Low level residues of weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill are also still present. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  11. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  12. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  13. Connectivity of a large embayment and coastal fishery: spawning aggregations in one bay source local and broad-scale fishery replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P A; Acevedo, S; Jenkins, G P; Newman, A

    2011-04-01

    Ichthyoplankton sampling and otolith chemistry were used to determine the importance of transient spawning aggregations of snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) in a large embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia, as a source of local and broad-scale fishery replenishment. Ichthyoplankton sampling across five spawning seasons within PPB, across the narrow entrance to the bay and in adjacent coastal waters, indicated that although spawning may occur in coastal waters, the spawning aggregations within the bay were the primary source of larval recruitment to the bay. Otolith chemical signatures previously characterized for 0+ year C. auratus of two cohorts (2000 and 2001) were used as the baseline signatures to quantify the contribution that fish derived from reproduction in PPB make to fishery replenishment. Sampling of these cohorts over a 5 year period at various widely dispersed fishery regions, combined with maximum likelihood analyses of the chemistry of the 0+ year otolith portions of these older fish, indicated that C. auratus of 1 to 3+ years of age displayed both local residency and broad-scale emigration from PPB to populate coastal waters and an adjacent bay (Western Port). While the PPB fishery was consistently dominated (>70%) by locally derived fish irrespective of cohort or age, the contribution of fish that had originated from PPB to distant populations increased with age. At 4 to 5+ years of age, when C. auratus mature and fully recruit to the fishery, populations of both cohorts across the entire central and western Victorian fishery, including two major embayments and c. 800 km of coastal waters, were dominated (>70%) by fish that had originated from the spawning aggregations and nursery habitat within PPB. Dependence of this broadly dispersed fishery on replenishment from heavily targeted spawning aggregations within one embayment has significant implications for management and monitoring programmes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish

  14. Fish assemblages associated with natural and anthropogenically-modified habitats in a marine embayment: comparison of baited videos and opera-house traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey B Wakefield

    Full Text Available Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment and modified (rockwall and dredge channel habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment.

  15. Interaction of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and the Arabian-type, deep-seated folds in the Abadan Plain and the Dezful Embayment, SW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fard, Iraj Abdollahie [National Iranian Oil Co., Exploration Directorate, Tehran (Iran); Braathen, Alvar [Bergen Univ., Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research, Bergen (Norway); Mokhtari, Mohamad [International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran (Iran); Alavi, Seyed Ahmad [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Earth Sciences Faculty, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-07-01

    The Dezful Embayment and Abadan Plain (SW Iran) contain major parts of the remaining Iranian oil reserves. These oil provinces are characterized by two types of structural closure: very gentle N-S- to NE-SW-trending basement-cored anticlines (Arabian-type highs) in the SE; and open to tight, NW-SE-trending thrust-related folds in the NE (Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt; ZFTB). Most deep-seated anticlines are upright and symmetrical in Cretaceous and older units. In some cases they reveal steep faults in their core which, in the light of regional observations, suggest that the basement is involved in the faulting. Untested plays around these anticlines include reefal build-ups, debris flows, truncated sedimentary sections and onlapping clastic units. The ZFTB shows a classic structural style, with overall shortening reflected in thrust displacement declining from the Dezful Embayment towards the frontal zone in the Abadan Plain. The Early Cambrian Hormuz Salt represents the fundamental sole for the fold-thrust belt and locates major fault-propagation folds in the southwestern Dezful Embayment. These folds represent the main petroleum target of the area. Another important unit is the Mid-Miocene Gachsaran Formation. This detachment reveals both in-sequence and out-of-sequence thrusting. Interaction of deep-seated anticlines and fold-thrust structures results in thrust imbrications and formation of duplexes within the Gachsaran Formation when thrusts abut deep-seated anticlines. Above the crest of the anticlines, thrusts are forced up-section into syn-tectonic deposits, whereas the forelimb reveals out-of-the-syncline thrusts. Several petroleum plays are identified in such zones of structural interaction, including anticlines above buttress-related duplexes, out-of-sequence imbricate thrust fans with associated folds above major anticlines, truncation of footwall layers below potentially sealing thrusts, and sub-thrust anticlines. (Author)

  16. The crustal structure and tectonic development of the continental margin of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica: implications from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-07-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica represents a key component in the tectonic history of Antarctic-New Zealand continental breakup. The region played a major role in the plate-kinematic development of the southern Pacific from the inferred collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana subduction margin at approximately 110-100 Ma to the evolution of the West Antarctic Rift System. However, little is known about the crustal architecture and the tectonic processes creating the embayment. During two `RV Polarstern' expeditions in 2006 and 2010 a large geophysical data set was collected consisting of seismic-refraction and reflection data, ship-borne gravity and helicopter-borne magnetic measurements. Two P-wave velocity-depth models based on forward traveltime modelling of nine ocean bottom hydrophone recordings provide an insight into the lithospheric structure beneath the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Seismic-reflection data image the sedimentary architecture and the top-of-basement. The seismic data provide constraints for 2-D gravity modelling, which supports and complements P-wave modelling. Our final model shows 10-14-km-thick stretched continental crust at the continental rise that thickens to as much as 28 km beneath the inner shelf. The homogenous crustal architecture of the continental rise, including horst and graben structures are interpreted as indicating that wide-mode rifting affected the entire region. We observe a high-velocity layer of variable thickness beneath the margin and related it, contrary to other `normal volcanic type margins', to a proposed magma flow along the base of the crust from beneath eastern Marie Byrd Land-West Antarctica to the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of upper mantle serpentinization by seawater penetration at the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Hints of seaward-dipping reflectors indicate some degree of volcanism in the area after break-up. A set of gravity anomaly data

  17. Integrating terrestrial and marine records of the LGM in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: implications for grounded ice expansion, ice flow, and deglaciation of the Ross Sea Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, A. J.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the LGM, grounded glacier ice filled the Ross Embayment and deposited glacial drift on volcanic islands and peninsulas in McMurdo Sound, as well as along coastal regions of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), including the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Royal Society Range. The flow geometry and retreat history of this ice remains debated, with contrasting views yielding divergent implications for both the fundamental cause of Antarctic ice expansion as well as the interaction and behavior of ice derived from East and West Antarctica during late Quaternary time. We present terrestrial geomorphologic evidence that enables the reconstruction of former ice elevations, ice-flow paths, and ice-marginal environments in McMurdo Sound. Radiocarbon dates of fossil algae interbedded with ice-marginal sediments provide a coherent timeline for local ice retreat. These data are integrated with marine-sediment records and multi-beam data to reconstruct late glacial dynamics of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound and the western Ross Sea. The combined dataset suggest a dominance of ice flow toward the TAM in McMurdo Sound during all phases of glaciation, with thick, grounded ice at or near its maximum extent between 19.6 and 12.3 calibrated thousands of years before present (cal. ka). Our data show no significant advance of locally derived ice from the TAM into McMurdo Sound, consistent with the assertion that Late Pleistocene expansion of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound, and throughout the wider Ross Embayment, occurs in response to lower eustatic sea level and the resulting advance of marine-based outlet glaciers and ice streams (and perhaps also reduced oceanic heat flux), rather than local increases in precipitation and ice accumulation. Finally, when combined with allied data across the wider Ross Embayment, which show that widespread deglaciation outside McMurdo Sound did not commence until 13.1 ka, the implication is that retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment did

  18. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  19. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  20. Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerilemandahu; Haribala; Xu Xiao; Shen Na; Sai Wenga; Bai Guilin; Wang Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water. Methods: The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method. Results: There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of "2"4"1Am powder amount in the measurement, whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor. The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors. The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant. On the contrary, the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible. The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor. Conclusions: The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples, when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water. (authors)

  1. Determination of gross alpha and gross beta in soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adziz, Mohd Izwan Abdul; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia, has been upgraded to repository facility upon the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process. Thorium waste and contaminated material that may contain some minor amounts of thorium hydroxide were disposed in this facility. This study is conducted to determine the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities in soil samples collected around the repository facility. A total of 12 soil samples were collected consisting 10 samples from around the facility and 2 samples from selected residential area near the facility. In addition, the respective dose rates were measured 5 cm and 1 m above the ground by using survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Soil samples were collected using hand auger and then were taken back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples were cleaned, dried, pulverized and sieved prior to analysis. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Canberra Series 5 XLB - Automatic Low Background Alpha and Beta Counting System. The obtained results show that, the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration ranged from 1.55 to 5.34 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.47 ± 0.09 Bq/g and 1.64 to 5.78 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.49 ± 0.09 Bq/g, respectively. These results can be used as an additional data to represent terrestrial radioactivity baseline data for Malaysia environment. This estimation will also serve as baseline for detection of any future related activities of contamination especially around the repository facility area.

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  3. A strong CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are significant at the global scale but still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the bay, showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10 % of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. The calculated CO2 fluxes for Guanabara Bay ranged between -9.6 and -18.3 mol C m-2 yr-1, of the same order of magnitude as the organic carbon burial and organic carbon inputs from the watershed. The positive and high net community production (52.1 mol C m-2 yr-1) confirms the high carbon production in the bay. This autotrophic metabolism is apparently enhanced by eutrophication. Our results show that global CO2 budgetary assertions still lack information on tropical

  4. Coral reefs in an urban embayment in Hawaii: a complex case history controlled by natural and anthropogenic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, R. W.

    1995-11-01

    The effects of natural and anthropogenic stress need to be separated before coral reef ecosystems can be effectively managed. In this paper, a 25 year case history of coral reefs in an urban embayment (Mamala Bay) off Honolulu, Hawaii is described and differences between natural and man-induced stress are distinguished. Mamala Bay is a 30 km long shallow coastal bay bordering the southern (leeward) shore of Oahu and the city of Honolulu in the Hawaiian Islands. During the last 25 years, this area has been hit by two magnitude 5 hurricane events (winds > 240 km/h) generating waves in excess of 7.5 m. Also during this period, two large sewer outfalls have discharged up to 90 million gallons per day (mgd) or (360 × 106 L/day) of point source pollution into the bay. Initially the discharge was raw sewage, but since 1977 it has received advanced primary treatment. Non-point source run-off from the Honolulu watershed also enters the bay on a daily basis. The results of the study show that discharge of raw sewage had a serious but highly localized impact on shallow (˜10 m) reef corals in the bay prior to 1977. After 1977, when treatment was upgraded to the advanced primary level and outfalls were extended to deep water (> 65 m), impacts to reef corals were no longer significant. No measurable effects of either point or non-point source pollution on coral calcification, growth, species composition, diversity or community structure related to pollution can now be detected. Conversely the effects of hurricane waves in 1982 and 1992 together caused major physical destruction to the reefs. In 1982, average coral cover of well-developed offshore reefs dropped from 60-75% to 5-15%. Only massive species in high relief areas survived. Today, recovery is occurring, and notwithstanding major future disturbance events, long-term biological processes should eventually return the coral ecosystems to a more mature successional stage. This case history illustrates the complex nature of

  5. ϵ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-18

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in d=2+ϵ dimensions. To do this, we extend the “cowpie contraction' algorithm of http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  6. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  7. Gross morphometric study on the reproductive system of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quail farming is emerging in commercial poultry farming to provide alternatives to domestic chicken production and also strengthen the poultry production demands for animal protein. This study was conducted to determine the gross morphometry of the ovary and oviduct of inapparently healthy adult laying Japanese quail ...

  8. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  9. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  10. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  11. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  12. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in our regulations. The definition currently prescribes how the GCWR is... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy...

  13. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR would have taken effect on October 26... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice...

  14. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  15. casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    private saving has both direct and indirect effects on economic growth. ... sector have a bigger impact on GDP than gross domestic savings. ... Development economists have been concerned for decades about the crucial role of ..... higher investment and higher economic growth is not supported by East African countries.

  16. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  17. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  18. Anomaly detection in real-time gross payment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie; Heijmans, R.; Camp, Olivier; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    We discuss how an autoencoder can detect system-level anomalies in a real-time gross settlement system by reconstructing a set of liquidity vectors. A liquidity vector is an aggregated representation of the underlying payment network of a settlement system for a particular time interval.

  19. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  20. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  1. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  2. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  3. The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial agents of ovine and caprine pneumonia and associated gross pathological lesions were studied for a period of ten years (1985-1995). Bacteriological data were obtained from the necropsy report books of the Microbiology and Pathology Dagnostic units of the Department of Vetinary Pathology and ...

  4. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma : gross appearance and corresponding pathologic and radiologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Moon Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Auh, Yong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1999-01-01

    To assess the clinical and pathologic features of each type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which is divided into three types according to gross appearance, and to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting this tumor. The pathologic and CT features of 53 surgically proven cases of intrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma were reviewed. On the basis of their gross appearance, the tumors were divided into three types, as follows : mass forming (n=33), periductal infiltrating (n=6), and intraductal growth type (n=14). CT scans were analyzed for sensitivity of detection and correlation between a tumors appearance and its histopathology. The most common histopathologic feature of mass forming and periductal infiltrating type was tubular adenocarcinoma, while in the intraductal growth type, papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) was common. With regard to pattern of tumor spread, intrahepatic and lymph node metastasis were more common in the mass forming and periductal infiltrating type than in the intraductal growth type. CT findings including intrahepatic mass, ductal wall thickening or intraductal mass associated with segmental dilatation of intrahepataic bile ducts, corresponded with these morphologic types. This classification according to gross appearance is of considerable value when interpreting the pathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. CT seems to be a useful modality for the detection of tumors and may be consistent with their gross morphologic findings

  5. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  6. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  7. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  8. Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the morphology of the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results showed that the mouth and pharynx of the guinea fowl lacked a definite line of demarcation, and so formed a common oropharyngeal cavity. The roof of the oropharynx ...

  9. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  10. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  11. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  12. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  13. New details about the LGM extent and subsequent retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet from the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, J. P.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J. A.; Graham, A. G. C.; Nitsche, F. O.; Frederichs, T.; Arndt, J. E.; Gebhardt, C.; Robin, Z.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Gohl, K.; Jernas, P.; Wacker, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years several previously undiscovered grounding-zone wedges (GZWs) have been described within the Abbot-Cosgrove palaeo-ice stream trough on the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf. These GZWs document both the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 26.5-19 cal. ka BP) grounding-line extent and the subsequent episodic retreat within this trough that neighbors the larger Pine Island-Thwaites trough to the west. Here we combine bathymetric, seismic, and geologic data showing that 1) the grounding line in Abbot Trough did not reach the continental shelf break at any time during the last glacial period, and 2) a prominent stacked GZW constructed from six individual wedges lying upon another was deposited 100 km upstream from the LGM grounding-line position. The available data allow for calculating volumes for most of these individual GZWs and for the entire stack. Sediment cores were recovered seawards from the outermost GZW in the trough, and from the individual wedges of the stacked GZW in order to define the LGM grounding-line extent, and provide minimum grounding-line retreat ages for the respective positions on the stacked GZW. We present implications of a grounded-ice free outer shelf throughout the last glacial period. Furthermore, we assess the significance of the grounding-line stillstand period recorded by the stacked GZW in Abbot Trough for the timing of post-LGM retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet from the Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf.

  14. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  15. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L -1 . For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L -1 , and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L -1 and 30 μg L -1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L -1 and 1.0 Bq L -1 ) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  16. Gross Domestic Savings and Gross Capital: what Matters to Their Formation in an Era of Economic Recession in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Success Abusomwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the long run and short run dynamic impact of interest rate and output on gross domestic savings and gross capital formation in Nigeria. Literatures, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that the rate of interest and output are the key factors influencing savings and investments. A review of factors influencing interest rates and output in Nigeria is necessitated by the recent economic downturns in Nigeria that has resulted in tight monetary policy which some commentators regard as inimical to growth. Employing Ordinary Least Squares, Co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality econometric techniques on a data spanning 1981 to 2014 of the Nigerian economy sourced from the World Development Index, it was found that changes in output explains the long run and short run dynamic behaviour of gross domestic savings and gross capital formation which were used as proxies for savings and investment respectively. Whereas, a bi-causality was established between output and investment, causality flowed from output to savings in Nigeria. The research also found that interest rate is not a significant determinant of savings and investment in Nigeria in both long run and short run. It is therefore recommended that to enhance investment in a period of economic downturn in Nigeria, aggregate demand should be boosted to enhance output through vigorous pursuit of fiscal policy while implementing contractionary monetary policy to address inflationary pressures created by the increase in demand. Domestic savings will improve and gross capital formation will be sustained.

  17. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  18. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2π, and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  19. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  20. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  1. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  2. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  3. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  4. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  5. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  6. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  8. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.

  9. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies

  10. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  11. Improvements of mass formula and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear mass greatly decreases when the number of protons Z and neutrons N is simultaneously equal to a magic number (mutual support of magicities). The mass also tends to decrease due to deformation as both N and Z are away from the magic numbers (mutual support of deformations). These two effects are introduced to a nuclear mass formula containing a constant-type shell term to derive a new formula. The mass excess is expressed by a sum of three parts, i.e. gross part, even-odd part and shell part. The gross part, which represents the general nature, consists of two rest mass terms and a coulomb term. The even-odd part is of a typical form with a correction term. The shell part consists of a proton shell term, neutron shell term, third term expressing the two mutual support effects, and fourth term representing a decrease in coulomb energy due to deformation of the nucleus. The improvements made in the β-decay gross theory are associated with the single particle intensity function D 0 GT (E,ε). They are intended for: (1) reproducing the peak that accounts for about a half of the Gamow-Teller intensity, which has recently been found in (p,n) reactions at energies above the isobaric analogue state and (2) explaining the other half by an exponential-type D 0 GT (E,ε). (Nogami, K.)

  12. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  13. Determination of radon daughter activities of different aerosol fractions by gross-α and gross-β measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.; Jobbagy, V.; Kavasi, N.; Molnar, A.; Imre, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the radioactivities of the radon progenies ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po) attached to the carrier aerosol particles with respect to the size distribution in order to improve the assessment of the inhalation dose. We derived the radionuclide-specific activity concentrations from gross alpha and gross beta measurements provided during 2 hours after sampling and model calculations including parameter estimation. For the aerosol sampling we used an electrical low pressure impactor, which is able to collect aerosol particles in 12 different diameter ranges. In our test investigations the aerosol particles were collected from a closed chamber in a common laboratory building. The chamber contained a relatively high radon concentration (60-90 kBq/m 3 ) in equilibrium with the short lived daughters generated previously without any additional aerosol sources. For the nuclear measurements of the aerosol samples ZnS/plastic sandwich detectors have been used. The time series data of gross alpha and gross beta activities were fitted simultaneously and the initial activities of the daughters were estimated. According to the results from two different fractions (0.06 and 0.7 μm) just followed the end of sampling they contain a higher 218 Po activity than the 214 Pb and 214 Bi ones. The preliminary assessments for the special air conditions show that the 214 Pb-to- 218 Po activity ratios are higher for the small aerosol particles than for the larger ones. The estimated errors of the initial activities were near to 50% in a large part of cases. (author)

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-14 - Miscellaneous items of gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as treble damages under the antitrust laws and exemplary damages for fraud are gross income. Another... by law. Illegal gains constitute gross income. Treasure trove, to the extent of its value in United...

  15. Hydrogeology of the Dakota Group aquifer with emphasis on the radium-226 content of its contained ground water, Canon City Embayment, Fremont and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinckier, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Dakota Group aquifer of the Canon City embayment comprises two primary water-bearing units, the Lytle Sandstone Member at the base and the Dakota Sandstone at the top, separated by the semiconfining, arenaceous Glencairn Shale Member. The ground water in this area probably represents a mixture of some or all of the following genetic types: (1) ground water connate to the Dakota Group; (2) ground water, connate or otherwise, entering the aquifer as leakage from adjacent semiconfining strata; (3) deeply circulated meteoric ground water; and (4) hydrothermal fluids (magmatic or metamorphic ground water) purged from the crystalline basement complex underlying the embayment. The contents of the radium-226 in ground water from 117 wells completed in part or all of the Dakota Group were determined by the dissolved radon-222 emanation method. Sixty-seven percent of the ground water samples have radium-226 activities greater than 5.0 picocuries per liter of water (5.0 pCi/1), the recommended maximum permissible concentration of radium-226 in drinking water established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1973. Inspection of gamma-ray logs of about 20 wells revealed the presence of moderate to extremely high gamma radiation in strata of the Dakota Group, the Morrison Formation, the Fountain Formation, and in the crystalline basement rocks. High levels of radium-226 in drinking water supplies pose potentially serious health hazards to the users. Owners of wells producing such water supplies are advised to (1) install, at the homesite, ion exchange (filtering units) capable of removing 226 Ra 2 + ions and other aqueous radium species from the water or (2) effectively case out those stratigraphic intervals in the bore hole showing high gamma radiation preventing possible radium-rich ground water within these intervals from entering the well

  16. Annual, lunar and diel reproductive periodicity of a spawning aggregation of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in a marine embayment on the lower west coast of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, C B

    2010-10-01

    Ichthyoplankton sampling and ovarian characteristics were used to elucidate whether the reproductive cycles of a spawning aggregation of snapper Pagrus auratus in a nearshore marine embayment were temporally and spatially specific and related with environmental conditions. The reproductive dynamics of this aggregation were studied over four consecutive years (2001-2004). Spawning occurred between September and January each year, when water temperatures ranged from 15·8 to 23·1° C. In all 4 years, the cumulative egg densities in Cockburn Sound were highest when water temperatures were between the narrow range of 19-20° C. The spawning fraction of females was monthly bimodal and peaked during new and the full moons at 96-100% and c. 75%, respectively. The backcalculated ages of P. auratus eggs collected from 16 ichthyoplankton surveys demonstrated that P. auratus in Cockburn Sound spawn at night during the 3 h following the high tide. The spatial distributions of P. auratus eggs in Cockburn Sound during the peak reproductive period in all 4 years were consistent, further implying spawning was temporally and spatially specific. High concentrations of recently spawned eggs (8-16 h old) demonstrated spawning also occurred within the adjacent marine embayments of Owen Anchorage and Warnbro Sound. Water circulation in Cockburn and Warnbro Sounds resembled an eddy that was most prominent during the period of highest egg densities, thereby facilitating the retention of eggs in these areas. The reproductive cycles of P. auratus described in this study have assisted managers with the appropriate temporal and spatial scale for a closed fishing season to protect these spawning aggregations. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  18. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in paragraphs...

  19. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and..., merchandising, or mining business, “gross income” means the total sales, less the cost of goods sold, plus any...

  20. 46 CFR 167.01-8 - Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-8 Inspection of school ships using gross... school ships by relative sizes in gross tonnages. When it is determined in accordance with § 70.05-20 of...

  1. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  2. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident alien...

  3. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  4. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  6. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, B.

    2007-01-01

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  7. Gross beta activity of the Danube river samples in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Our paper presents the results of radioactivity control of the Danube samples on Serbian (Bezdan left coast) in 2006. The measurements were carried out by low-phone proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. Efficiency for activity was 47%. The results of measurements of gross beta activity (water, sediment, algae and fish) reveal that the values are at the same level as they were before the Paks Nuclear power plant started running. Our results of measurements correlate well with the results of Hungarian part. (author) [sr

  8. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed

  9. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  10. A Langevin simulation of the Gross-Neveu spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, R.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.

    1989-01-01

    We study the order parameter of Chiral symmetry, and fermion and boson masses in the Gross-Neveu model as a function of the flavour number N and of the Langevin time step ε in the scaling region. The 1/N dependence of the ε=0 value of the order parameter is in excellent agreement with an analytical calculation up to second order. Care is taken of the important two fermion contribution in the bosonic correlation functions. Mass ratios are found to be ε dependent, but their ε=0 extrapolation is compatible with the analytic expectation

  11. Electron scattering from the deuteron using the Gross equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Van Orden; N. Devine; F. Gross

    1996-01-01

    The elastic electromagnetic form factors for the deuteron are calculated in the context of a one-boson-exchange model using the Gross or Spectator equation [1]. The formalism is manifestly covariant and gauge invariant. Results are shown for the impulse approximation and for pxy exchange currents. The impulse approximation results are quite close to the available data which suggests that only a relatively small exchange current contribution is required. It is shown that by using a soft form factor for the exchange current, the model provides a very good representation of the data.

  12. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak turbulence theory for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; West, R.; Lvov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use the ideas developed for the NLSE to derive a weak turbulence theory for a large set of random waves described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. An interesting picture emerges even from a naive application of the results already obtained for the NLSE case. Imagine an arbitrary initial excitation; a superposition of modes with energies somewhere in the middle of the potential well. Because of the nonlinear interaction (''collisions'') there is a redistribution of energy E and particles N among the modes. (orig.)

  14. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  15. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-García, D.; Llauradó, M.; Rauret, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO 3 , produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. ► The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. ► We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. ► HNO 3 produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. ► The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  16. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherin, F.; Afzal, E.; Seema, N.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  17. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  18. Leadership and professionalism curriculum in the Gross Anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Wojciech; Hromanik, Michael J; Milanese, Tia R; Dierkhising, Ross; Viggiano, Thomas R; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2006-09-01

    Today's physicians must demonstrate both professionalism and leadership skills in order to succeed in largely team-based healthcare environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if professionalism attributes, leadership style, and leadership style adaptability are associated with academic performance among first-year students early in their medical curriculum. Students were divided into 4-member dissection groups for the duration of the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Leadership responsibility was randomly assigned to a team member on a rotating basis every 5 weeks. After each 5-week block, student performance was measured by written and practical examinations, and each student assessed their leader's or their own professionalism attributes and leadership style using validated survey instruments. Most students demonstrated either a "selling" only (57%) or "participating" only (30%) leadership style with low to moderate leadership adaptability. "Participating" and "delegating" leadership styles have the highest average group written exam scores (89.4%, P leadership styles and aspects of professionalism are associated with written and practical examination scores in the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Furthermore, it demonstrates that first-year medical students are in need of leadership skill development.

  19. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  20. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. The determination of the national background radioactivity of gross alpha and gross beta in water samples at the PUSPATI site and its neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the natural background radioactivity in water samples has been made at the PUSPATI site and its environs. The study was performed in January 1981 until June 1981. Samples of river, rain and tap water are periodically collected and analyzed in order to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity. In general, the total radioactivity of water is considerably low. The mean concentration of gross alpha in river water and tap water samples are 1.2 +- 0.1 and 0.2 +- 0.1 pCi/ respectively. The level of gross alpha in rain water is however, below the background rate of the detector. The mean concentration of gross beta in river water, tap water and rain water samples are 4.2 +- 0.6, 1.6 +- 0.3, and 1.9 +- 0.3 pCi/ respectively. (author)

  2. The effect of westward travel across five time zones on sleep and subjective jet-lag ratings in athletes before and during the 2015's World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Treff, Gunnar; Winkert, Kay; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-11-01

    This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P travel fatigue probably had a major effect on perceptual decrements, sleep during travel and time to recover upon arrival should be emphasised. Coaches and practitioners should consider higher sleep propensity in the early evening by scheduling training sessions and meetings until the late afternoon.

  3. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  4. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  6. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermü ller, Michael; Marahrens, Daniel; Markowich, Peter A.; Sparber, Christof

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  7. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  8. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  9. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  10. Changing pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Helmut; Abdel Jaber, Wael; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Floricioiu, Dana; Melchior van Wessem, Jan; Nagler, Thomas; Miranda, Nuno; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-04-01

    We analysed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers on the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the periods 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016, using high-resolution topographic data from the bistatic interferometric radar satellite mission TanDEM-X. Complementary to the geodetic method that applies DEM differencing, we computed the net mass balance of the main outlet glaciers using the mass budget method, accounting for the difference between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the discharge of ice into an ocean or ice shelf. The SMB values are based on output of the regional climate model RACMO version 2.3p2. To study glacier flow and retrieve ice discharge we generated time series of ice velocity from data from different satellite radar sensors, with radar images of the satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X as the main source. The study area comprises tributaries to the Larsen A, Larsen Inlet and Prince Gustav Channel embayments (region A), the glaciers calving into the Larsen B embayment (region B) and the glaciers draining into the remnant part of the Larsen B ice shelf in Scar Inlet (region C). The glaciers of region A, where the buttressing ice shelf disintegrated in 1995, and of region B (ice shelf break-up in 2002) show continuing losses in ice mass, with significant reduction of losses after 2013. The mass balance numbers for the grounded glacier area of region A are -3.98 ± 0.33 Gt a-1 from 2011 to 2013 and -2.38 ± 0.18 Gt a-1 from 2013 to 2016. The corresponding numbers for region B are -5.75 ± 0.45 and -2.32 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The mass balance in region C during the two periods was slightly negative, at -0.54 ± 0.38 Gt a-1 and -0.58 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The main share in the overall mass losses of the region was contributed by two glaciers: Drygalski Glacier contributing 61 % to the mass deficit of region A, and Hektoria and Green glaciers accounting for 67 % to the mass deficit of region B. Hektoria and Green glaciers accelerated significantly in 2010

  11. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  12. Metal concentrations in zebra mussels and sediments from embayments and riverine environments of eastern Lake Erie, southern Lake Ontario, and the Niagara River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Day, D D

    2002-10-01

    Concentrations of 14 metals were studied in the soft tissues of zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments from 16 Great Lakes embayments and riverine environments. Samples were collected in 1993 and 1994 during the early and late autumn period when the body mass of mussels is least affected by reproductive activities. There was a significant difference in geometric mean concentrations of all metals except Cu in mussels sampled from different sites, and there was a significant difference in the geometric mean concentrations of all metals but Cd, Mn, and Zn between years. The higher metal concentrations in mussels from this study were generally similar to those in mussels from contaminated European and U.S. locations, and those with lower concentrations were similar to those from uncontaminated European and U.S. locations. Geometric mean sediment concentrations of all metals differed significantly among sites. Sediment concentrations of metals from some sites were above EPA guidelines for moderately polluted harbor sediments. Sites where zebra mussels had higher concentrations of Al, Cr, and V tended to be the same sites as those where sediment concentrations of these metals were also higher. However, there was not a significant statistical relationship between concentrations of metals in zebra mussels and sediments, except for Mg.

  13. A multivariate assessment of the coral ecosystem health of two embayments on the lee of the island of Hawai'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Michael L. [Marine Science Department, University of Hawai' i at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)], E-mail: mparsons@fgcu.edu; Walsh, William J. [Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 (United States); Settlemier, Chelsie J.; White, Darla J.; Ballauer, Josh M.; Ayotte, Paula M.; Osada, Kara M. [Marine Science Department, University of Hawai' i at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Carman, Brent [Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Four coral-dominated coastal sites within two embayments (Kealakekua Bay and Honokohau Bay) on the lee of the island of Hawai'i were studied to assess evidence of anthropogenic impacts in these relatively pristine locales. Nutrient-loading parameters were analyzed in relation to benthic composition data. Statistically, there were significant positive relationships between nitrate + nitrite, silicate, and ammonium with the abundance of macroalgae, coralline algae, and dead coral, and between {delta}{sup 15}N and dead coral abundance. The north outside site of Kealakekua Bay and the south outside site of Honokohau Bay appear to be most impacted by nutrient-loading factors in each bay, respectively. Comparisons with past nutrient data indicate that nutrient inputs have increased to the two bays, and that early impacts of these increased loadings are evident. It is predicted that at current nutrient-loading rates, the north sites of Kealakekua Bay and the south sites of Honokohau Bay will exhibit evidence of further degradation in future years.

  14. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  15. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Hospital costs estimation by micro and gross-costing approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, P; Hayes, N; Bertaux, A-C

    2018-03-01

    Cost analysis has become increasingly commonplace in healthcare facilities in recent years. Regardless of the aim, the first consideration for a hospital costing process is to determine the point of view, or perspective, to adopt. Should the cost figures reflect the healthcare facility's point of view or enlighten perspectives for the public health insurance system? Another consideration is in regard to the method to adopt, as there are several. The two most widely used methods to determine the costs of hospital treatments in France are the micro-costing method and the gross-costing method. The aims of this work are: (1) to describe each of these methods (e.g. data collection, assignment of monetary value to resource consumption) with their advantages and shortcomings as they relate to the difficulties encountered with their implementation in hospitals; (2) to present a review of the literature comparing the two methods and their possible combination; and (3) to propose ways to address the questions that need to be asked before compiling resource consumption data and assigning monetary value to hospital costs. A final diagram summarizes methodologies to be preferred according to the evaluation strategy and the impact on patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cleber Nogueira de; Monti, Carlos Roberto; Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    2001-01-01

    Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapy planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment, as well as the verification of the calculations of the patient's dose and the revision of the plan charts. As a contribution to the improvement of quality control, we present some recommendations to avoid failure of treatment due to error in the delivered dose, such as redundant check of the manual or computer calculations, weekly check of the total dose for each patient, and prevention of inadvertent access to any safety system of the equipment by any staff member that is only supposed to operate the machine. Moreover, the use of a computerized treatment record and verification system should be considered in order to eliminate errors due to incorrect selection of the treatment parameters, in a daily basis. We report four radioactive incidents with patient injuries occurred throughout the world and some gross errors of dose. (author)

  18. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  19. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nanda, Smiti; Bhalla, Kapil; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF) occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks) with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%), talipes equinovarus (17.02%) and meningomyelocele (10.63%). Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07%) in-comparison to booked (1.01%) mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]); gravida status of at least 3 (2.69%) followed by 1 (1.43%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively; pre-term (5.13%) vs. term (0.66%); cesarean section (4.36%) versus vaginal delivery (0.62%). Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35%) than normal (0.34%) newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid) that needs appropriate attention and management.

  20. The gross anatomy of the renal sympathetic nerves revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompeo, Blanca; Maranillo, Eva; Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Larkin, Theresa; Sanudo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Catheter-based renal denervation techniques focus on reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension. This procedure requires exact knowledge of the anatomical interrelation between the renal arteries and the targeted renal nervous plexus. The aim of this work was to build on classical anatomical studies and describe the gross anatomy and anatomical relationships of the renal arteries and nerve supply to the kidneys in a sample of human cadavers. Twelve human cadavers (six males and six females), age range 73 to 94 years, were dissected. The nervous fibers and renal arteries were dissected using a surgical microscope. The renal plexus along the hilar renal artery comprised a fiber-ganglionic ring surrounding the proximal third of the renal artery, a neural network along the middle and distal thirds, and smaller accessory ganglia along the course of the nerve fibers. The fibers of the neural network were mainly located on the superior (95.83%) and inferior (91.66%) surfaces of the renal artery and they were sparsely interconnected by diagonal fibers. Polar arteries were present in 33.33% of cases and the renal nerve pattern for these was similar to that of the hilar arteries. Effective renal denervation needs to target the superior and inferior surfaces of the hilar and polar arteries, where the fibers of the neural network are present. Clin. Anat. 29:660-664, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  2. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  3. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  4. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.804-3 Gross investment income of a life...

  5. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  6. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  7. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  8. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  9. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  10. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  11. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  12. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  13. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  14. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  15. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  16. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  17. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  18. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  19. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  20. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country), plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30-100 m) remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems). Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as an empirical database for

  1. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs reasonably well for these additional events.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, plasma waves and instabilities, auroral ionosphere

  2. Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)

  3. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  4. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael; Drake, Richard; Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  5. Meteorologic, oceanographic, and geomorphic controls on circulation and residence time in a coral reef-lined embayment: Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Cheriton, O. M.; Messina, A. M.; Biggs, T. W.

    2018-06-01

    Water circulation over coral reefs can determine the degree to which reef organisms are exposed to the overlying waters, so understanding circulation is necessary to interpret spatial patterns in coral health. Because coral reefs often have high geomorphic complexity, circulation patterns and the duration of exposure, or "local residence time" of a water parcel, can vary substantially over small distances. Different meteorologic and oceanographic forcings can further alter residence time patterns over reefs. Here, spatially dense Lagrangian surface current drifters and Eulerian current meters were used to characterize circulation patterns and resulting residence times over different regions of the reefs in Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa, during three distinct forcing periods: calm, strong winds, and large waves. Residence times varied among different geomorphic zones of the reef and were reflected in the spatially varying health of the corals across the embayment. The relatively healthy, seaward fringing reef consistently had the shortest residence times, as it was continually flushed by wave breaking at the reef crest, whereas the degraded, sheltered, leeward fringing reef consistently had the longest residence times, suggesting this area is more exposed to land-based sources of pollution. Strong wind forcing resulted in the longest residence times by pinning the water in the bay, whereas large wave forcing flushed the bay and resulted in the shortest residence times. The effect of these different forcings on residence times was fairly consistent across all reef geomorphic zones, with the shift from wind to wave forcing shortening mean residence times by approximately 50%. Although ecologically significant to the coral organisms in the nearshore reef zones, these shortened residence times were still 2-3 times longer than those associated with the seaward fringing reef across all forcing conditions, demonstrating how the geomorphology of a reef environment sets a

  6. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  7. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  8. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution. OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036). OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.

  9. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  10. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  11. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.

  12. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  13. Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Karina A; Karol, Lori A; Jeans, Kelly A; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P < .01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

  14. A time series analysis of transportation energy use per dollar of gross domestic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation energy use relative to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining within the past decade. However, the total transportation energy consumed (see figure 1) shows only a more recent decline. To see clearly the long-term decline, the...

  15. Source of gross-alpha radioactivity anomalies in recharge wells, central Florida phosphate district. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oural, C.R.; Brooker, H.R.; Upchurch, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The central Florida phosphate industry utilizes recharge wells to mitigate withdrawals of water from the Florida aquifer and to dewater the surficial aquifer prior to mining. From a water-management point of view, these wells are efficient and serve a vital function. Recent monitoring of the radiation environment in these wells, however, casts doubts on the safety of the wells. While most of the wells conform to state and federal standards for radium, gross-alpha radiation frequently exceeds standards. The purpose of the study was to determine the radionuclide(s) responsible for the high gross-alpha radiation and to identify a method for sampling of the recharge wells that would standardize data across the phosphate district. It was found that excess gross alpha is primarily due to polonium-210. Since gross alpha and polonium-210 measurements are quite sensitive to methods of sample collections, preservation and analyses, standard procedures for sample processing are presented in the report

  16. The Hans Gross Museum of Criminology at the Karl-Franzens-University Graz

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Bachhiesl

    2008-01-01

    The Hans Gross Museum of Criminology combines scientific research and academic activity with a wide range of public events, such as crime thriller readings and stage plays, connecting the campus with the wider community.

  17. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  18. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: trunk-002@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun no. 10, Jakarta, 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  19. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D.; Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J.

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author)

  20. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Gross Domestic Product takes into account the market value of ... economic growth of Nigeria using GDP as an indicator and ... where the best opportunity of investors lies. Paul [6] ... the information encoded in past events and.

  1. Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena embayment, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Hitzman, Murray W.; Zieg, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the fault system, where replacement-style chalcopyrite mineralization is spatially associated mostly with the two stratigraphically lowest massive pyrite zones. These mineralized pyritic horizons are intercalated with debris flows derived from synsedimentary movement along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone. Cominco American Inc. delineated a geologic resource of 4.5 Mt at 2.5% Cu and 0.1% Co in the upper sulfide zone and 4 Mt at 4% Cu within the lower sulfide zone. More recently, Tintina Resources Inc. has delineated an inferred resource of 8.48 Mt at 2.96% Cu, 0.12% Co, and 16.4 g/t Ag in the upper sulfide zone. The more intact upper sulfide zone displays significant thickness variations along strike thought to represent formation in at least three separate subbasins. The largest accumulation of mineralized sulfide in the upper zone occurs as an N-S–trending body that thickens southward from the generally E trending Volcano Valley Fault and probably occupies a paleograben controlled by normal faults in the hanging wall of the Volcano Valley Fault. Early microcrystalline to framboidal pyrite was accompanied by abundant and local barite deposition in the upper and lower sulfide zones, respectively. The sulfide bodies underwent intense (lower sulfide zone) to localized (upper sulfide zone) recrystallization and overprinting by coarser-grained pyrite and minor marcasite that is intergrown with and replaces dolomite. Silicification and paragenetically late chalcopyrite, along with minor tennantite in the upper sulfide zone, replaces fine-grained pyrite, barite, and carbonate. The restriction of chalcopyrite to inferred

  2. Integral equation for inhomogeneous condensed bosons generalizing the Gross-Pitaevskii differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angilella, G.G.N.; Pucci, R.; March, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    We give here the derivation of a Gross-Pitaevskii-type equation for inhomogeneous condensed bosons. Instead of the original Gross-Pitaevskii differential equation, we obtain an integral equation that implies less restrictive assumptions than are made in the very recent study of Pieri and Strinati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 030401 (2003)]. In particular, the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the restriction to small spatial variations of the order parameter invoked in their study are avoided

  3. A Closer Look at Revealed Comparative Advantage: Gross-versus Value Added Trade Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the availability of international value added trade data it has become evident that gross export data and value added data do not provide the same information. Although gross exports crosses national borders and is the target of trade policy, value added data tell us what fragment in the production chain is internationally competitive in a particular country. With respect to comparative advantage the differences between the two types of data are often illustrated by means of examples usi...

  4. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BX tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BX tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanism

  5. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  6. Higher-spin currents in the Gross-Neveu model at 1/n"2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manashov, A.N.

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents, both singlet and non-singlet, in the Gross - Neveu model at the 1/n"2 order. It was conjectured that in the critical regime this model is dual to a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS_4. The AdS/CFT correspondence predicts that the masses of higher-spin fields correspond to the scaling dimensions of the singlet currents in the Gross - Neveu model.

  7. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  8. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Gaikwad, R.H.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  10. The new energy management policy: Indonesian PSC-gross-split applied on steam flooding project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, S.; Julyus, P.

    2018-01-01

    “SIPY” oil field has been producing oil using steam flooding technology since 1992 under the PSC-Cost-Recovery policy. In 2021, the contract will be finished, and a new agreement must be submitted to the Indonesian government. There are two applied fiscal policies on oil and gas management: PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-split which makes more profit. The aim of this research is to determine the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating contractor cash flow and comparing the Profitability Indexes. The results of this study are (1) Net Present Values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and the PSC-Gross-Split are 15 MMUS and 61 MMUS, respectively; and (2) Internal Rate of Return values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split are 10% and 11%, respectively. The conclusion is that the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return of PSC-Gross-Split are greater than those of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but in Pay Out Time of PSC-Gross-split is longer than Pay Out Time in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, the new energy management policy will be more attractive than PSC-Cost-Recovery.

  11. Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.

  12. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The new management policy: Indonesian PSC-Gross split applied on CO2 flooding project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, S.; Sibuea, S. N.; Danu, A.

    2018-01-01

    “SIAD” oil field will be developed by CO2 flooding. CO2, a famous pollutant gas, is injected into the oil reservoir to optimize the oil recovery. This technique should be conducted economically according to the energy management policy in Indonesia. In general, Indonesia has two policy contracts on oil and gas: the old one is PSC-Cost-Recovery, and the new one is PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split which makes more profit. The aim of this paper is to show the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating and comparing the economic indicators. The result of this study are (1) NPV for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is -46 MUS, while for the PSC-Gross-Split is 73 MUS, and (2) IRR for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is 9%, whereas for the PSC-Gross-Split is 11%. The conclusion is that the NPV and IRR for PSC-Gross-Split are greater than the NPV and IRR of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but POT in PSC-Gross-split is longer than POT in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, in this case, the new energy policy contract can be applied for CO2 flooding technology since it yields higher economic indicators than its antecendent.

  14. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  15. Gross Motor Skills and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.

  16. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  17. Interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Coggan, Sarah; Pinto, Rafael Z; Jirikowic, Tracy; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Latimer, Jane

    2016-11-29

    Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar databases and clinical trial registries were searched. Published randomised controlled trials including children 3 to ≤18 years with (i) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level 1) or Developmental Delay or Minimal Acquired Brain Injury or Prematurity (gross motor outcomes obtained using a standardised assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the pooled effect of intervention on gross motor function. Methodological quality and strength of meta-analysis recommendations were evaluated using PEDro and the GRADE approach respectively. Of 2513 papers, 9 met inclusion criteria including children with CP (n = 2) or DCD (n = 7) receiving 11 different interventions. Only two of 9 trials showed an effect for treatment. Using the least conservative trial outcomes a large beneficial effect of intervention was shown (SMD:-0.8; 95% CI:-1.1 to -0.5) with "very low quality" GRADE ratings. Using the most conservative trial outcomes there is no treatment effect (SMD:-0.1; 95% CI:-0.3 to 0.2) with "low quality" GRADE ratings. Study limitations included the small number and poor quality of the available trials. Although we found that some interventions with a task-orientated framework can improve gross motor outcomes in children with DCD or CP, these findings are limited by the very low quality of the available evidence. High quality intervention

  18. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  19. The effect of height, weight and head circumference on gross motor development in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; Ware, Robert S; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether height, weight, head circumference and/or relationships between these factors are associated with gross motor milestone acquisition in children with achondroplasia. Population-based data regarding timing of major gross motor milestones up to 5 years were correlated with height, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months in 48 children with achondroplasia born in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2009. Although as a group children with achondroplasia showed delayed gross motor skill acquisition, within group differences in height, weight or head circumference did not appear to influence timing of gross motor skills before 5 years. The exception was lie to sit transitioning, which appears likely to occur earlier if the child is taller and heavier at 12 months, and later if the child has significant head-to-body disproportion. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between common musculoskeletal impairments associated with achondroplasia and timing of gross motor achievement. Identification of the musculoskeletal factors that exacerbate delays in transitioning from lying to sitting will assist clinicians to provide more proactive assessment, advice and intervention regarding motor skill acquisition for this population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  1. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  2. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. Methods and Materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. Conclusions: The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy

  4. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy.

  5. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  6. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test of Children's Gross Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Close-range airborne Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry for high-resolution beach morphometric surveys: Examples from an embayed rotating beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Fleury, Jules; Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The field of photogrammetry has seen significant new developments essentially related to the emergence of new computer-based applications that have fostered the growth of the workflow technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Low-cost, user-friendly SfM photogrammetry offers interesting new perspectives in coastal and other fields of geomorphology requiring high-resolution topographic data. The technique enables the construction of topographic products such as digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophotographs, and combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS surveys and the high density and accuracy of airborne LiDAR, but at very advantageous cost compared to the latter. Three SfM-based photogrammetric experiments were conducted on the embayed beach of Montjoly in Cayenne, French Guiana, between October 2013 and 2014, in order to map morphological changes and quantify sediment budgets. The beach is affected by a process of rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River that generate spatial and temporal changes in wave refraction and incident wave angles, thus generating the reversals in longshore drift that characterise this process. Sub-vertical aerial photographs of the beach were acquired from a microlight aircraft that flew alongshore at low elevation (275 m). The flight plan included several parallel flight axes with an overlap of 85% between pictures in the lengthwise direction and 50% between paths. Targets of 40 × 40 cm, georeferenced by RTK-DGPS, were placed on the beach, spaced 100 m apart. These targets served in optimizing the model and in producing georeferenced 3D products. RTK-GPS measurements of random points and cross-shore profiles were used to validate the photogrammetry results and assess their accuracy. We produced dense point clouds with 150 to 200 points/m², from which we generated DSMs and orthophotos with respective resolutions of 10 cm and 5 cm. Compared to the GPS control

  10. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  11. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the growth and gross morphology of Zea mays, Linn. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ann Kristine Joy T.; Mendiola, Carlo Paulo T

    2000-03-01

    The study was conducted with a descriptive experimental design in order to determine the effects of broad spectrum ultraviolet radiation on growth factors, seedling height, root length, chlorophyll content, organic weights, and percentage survival, as well as gross morphological factors, leaf, stem, and root appearance, of native sweet corn seedlings. The study was limited to the seedling stage of the plant and observations were taken after 20 days of treatment. The results gathered show that there was a visible manifestation of the detrimental effects of UV on the irradiated seedlings. There were observed decreases in the growth parameters while the gross morphological parameters exhibited signs of wilting and stress. It was therefore concluded that based on the observed results, UV had a detrimental effect on the studied growth and gross morphological parameters. (Author)

  12. Measurement of gross beta radioactivity in high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lin Cansheng; Zhang Xianzi; Chen Guoan; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    Using beta plastic scintillation counter of low level background, gross beta radioactivity of twelve samples for high-level liquid waste is determined directly. Beta efficiency curves of plastic scintillation counter for four mass thickness are calibrated in advance. Determining gross beta radioactivity, gross efficiency of the scintillation counter for various energy beta ray is calculated via weighted mean method with the ratio of radioactivity for each nuclide. The ratio of radioactivity for nuclides which have gamma disintegration is determined in terms of the radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer. The ratio of the radioactivity for 90 Sr which has purity beta disintegration is calculated in terms of half life time approximation. The ratio of the radioactivity for 147 Pm which also has purity disintegration is calculated by means of apparent cooling-time approximation. The uncertainty of results for the present work is about +-15%

  13. a Gross Error Elimination Method for Point Cloud Data Based on Kd-Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Huang, G.; Yang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data's pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  14. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross......The ongoing climate change affects biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but the magnitude and direction of this impact is yet unclear. To shed further light on the climate change impact, we investigated alterations in the soil nitrogen (N) cycling in a Danish heathland after 5 years......CO(2). In the full treatment combination, simulating the predicted climate for the year 2075, gross N transformations were only moderately affected compared to control, suggesting a minor alteration of the N cycle due to climate change. Overall, our study confirms the importance of multifactorial field...

  15. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  16. Improvement to the gross theory of β decay by inclusion of change in parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    An improvement to the single-particle structure is made to the gross theory, which is a global β -decay model. The gross theory is based on the sum rule of the intensity of the β -decay transition and a strength function. This model provides reasonable results for β -decay rates and delayed neutrons for the entire nuclear mass region. An attempt is made to improve the gross theory of nuclear β decay by considering the change in parity at the single-particle level of ground-state nuclei. In this treatment, the nuclear matrix elements are suppressed when the parity of the single neutron and proton levels is different for the allowed transition. The assignment of parity is performed using the Woods-Saxon-type single-particle potential. The discrepancies from experimental half-lives, which appeared in the vicinity of the magic numbers of neutrons and protons, are systematically improved in the nuclear mass region.

  17. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  18. Controls on gross fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from an active agricultural ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. H.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural soils can be a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Most research on the dynamics of these gases measure net fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface. This approach limits our ability to determine driving variables because production and consumption processes occur simultaneously, and may be controlled by different factors. We used the trace gas stable isotope pool dilution technique to simultaneously measure field rates of gross production and consumption of N2O and CH4 during the growing season in a corn field located in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. We also measured net nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to explore their role as drivers of greenhouse gas fluxes. Across five sampling dates spanning from seeding to senescence, net N2O fluxes ranged from 0 - 4.5 mg N m-2 d-1 and averaged 1.6 × 0.2 mg N m-2 d-1 (n = 112). Gross N2O production ranged from 0.09 - 6.6 mg N m-2 d-1 and gross N2O reduction rates ranged from 0.00 - 0.95 mg N m-2 d-1. The N2O yield averaged 0.68 × 0.02 (n = 40). At peak growth (days after seeding 59 and 94), 89 % of the variability in gross N2O production rates was predicted by the combination of soil moisture, soil temperature, net N mineralization, and CO2 emissions (n = 15, p seeding 11, 24, and 171), gross N2O production was most strongly correlated with soil temperature (R2 = 0.20, n = 24, p = 0.03), and gross N2O reduction rates were best predicted by CO2 emissions (R2 = 0.80, n =24, p production in 36 out of 37 measurements. Gross CH4 production reached as high as 5.4 mg C m-2 d-1 with rates trending higher throughout the growing season. Gross CH4 production rates were marginally significantly higher in rows than in inter-rows (p = 0.10). Gross CH4 oxidation did not differ significantly among sampling dates (Figure 2b), averaging 1.1 × 0.2 mg C m-2 d-1 across all measurements (n = 37). However

  19. A GROSS ERROR ELIMINATION METHOD FOR POINT CLOUD DATA BASED ON KD-TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data’s pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  20. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of gross theory of beta-decay for application to nuclear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical study of β decay and delayed neutron has been carried out with a global β-decay model, the gross theory. The gross theory is based on a consideration of the sum rule of the β-strength function, and gives reasonable results of β-decay rates and delayed neutron in the entire nuclear mass region. In a fissioning nucleus, neutrons are produced by β decay of neutron-rich fission fragments from actinides known as delayed neutrons. The average number of delayed neutrons is estimated based on the sum of the β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities multiplied by the cumulative fission yield for each nucleus. Such a behavior is important to manipulate nuclear reactors, and when we adopt some new high-burn-up reactors, properties of minor actinides will play an important roll in the system, but these data have not been sufficient. We re-analyze and improve the gross theory. For example, we considered the parity of neutrons and protons at the Fermi surface, and treat a suppression for the allowed transitions in the framework of the gross theory. By using the improved gross theory, underestimated half-lives in the neutron-rich indium isotopes and neighboring region increase, and consequently follow experimental trend. The ability of reproduction (and also prediction) of the β-decay rates, delayed-neutron emission probabilities is discussed. With this work, we have described the development of a programming code of the gross theory of β-decay including the improved parts. After preparation finished, this code can be released for the nuclear data community.

  3. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  4. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Yue, Chao; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Bastos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) carbon fluxes (ELULCC). The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data) and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016) with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999) and Hansis et al. (2015). We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years) vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross), above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  5. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute radiotherapy toxicity in 57 dogs with gross and microscopic mast cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, L; Tanis, J B; Harper, A; Amores-Fuster, I; Killick, D R; Finotello, R

    2018-05-15

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each). All were treated with external beam radiotherapy, and toxicity assessed at the end of treatment and 10 to 14 days later (first recheck). All patients developed some acute radiation toxicity by the end of the course. However, there was no difference in the severity of toxicity between gross and microscopic disease in either site group at either time point. The only variable associated with an increased frequency of grade 2 or 3 toxicity at the first recheck was the use of prednisolone prior to radiotherapy (P = .05). No other factors were identified which were associated with increased toxicity. For the head group, the site of highest grade toxicity was mucosa or, if included in the field, nasal planum, which was often more severely affected than the mucosa. No significant late toxicity was identified. Two dogs developed acute haematemesis during the radiotherapy course, but both completed the course without further events. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Deformational and erosional history for the Abiquiu and contiguous area, north-central New Mexico: Implications for formation of the Abiquiu embayment and a discussion of new geochronological and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahm, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, age determinations, and geochemistry of rocks exposed in the Abiquiu area of the Abiquiu embayment of the Rio Grande rift, north-central New Mexico, provide data to determine fault-slip and incision rates. Vertical-slip rates for faults in the area range from 16 m/m.y. to 42 m/m.y., and generally appear to decrease from the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau to the Abiquiu embayment. Incision rates calculated for the period ca. 10 to ca. 3 Ma indicate rapid incision with rates that range from 139 m/m.y. on the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau to 41 m/m.y. on the western part of the Abiquiu embayment.The Abiquiu area is located along the margin of the Colorado Plateau–Rio Grande rift and lies within the Abiquiu embayment, a shallow, early extensional basin of the Rio Grande rift. Cenozoic rocks include the Eocene El Rito Formation, Oligocene Ritito Conglomerate, Oligocene–Miocene Abiquiu Formation, and Miocene Chama–El Rito and Ojo Caliente Sandstone Members of the Tesuque Formation (Santa Fe Group). Volcanic rocks include the Lobato Basalt (Miocene; ca. 15–8 Ma), El Alto Basalt (Pliocene; ca. 3 Ma), and dacite of the Tschicoma Formation (Pliocene; ca. 2 Ma). Quaternary deposits consist of inset axial and side-stream deposits of the ancestral Rio Chama (Pleistocene in age), landslide and pediment alluvium and colluvium, and Holocene main and side-stream channel and floodplain deposits of the modern Rio Chama. The predominant faults are Tertiary normal high-angle faults that displace rocks basinward.A low-angle fault, referred to as the Abiquiu fault, locally separates an upper plate composed of the transitional zone of the Ojo Caliente Sandstone and Chama–El Rito Members from a lower plate consisting of the Abiquiu Formation or the Ritito Conglomerate. The upper plate is distended into blocks that range from about 0.1 km to 3.5 km long that may represent a larger sheet that has been broken up and partly eroded.Geochronology (40Ar/39

  9. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  10. Estimation of delayed neutron emission probability by using the gross theory of nuclear β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1999-01-01

    The delayed neutron emission probabilities (P n -values) of fission products are necessary in the study of reactor physics; e.g. in the calculation of total delayed neutron yields and in the summation calculation of decay heat. In this report, the P n -values estimated by the gross theory for some fission products are compared with experiment, and it is found that, on the average, the semi-gross theory somewhat underestimates the experimental P n -values. A modification of the β-decay strength function is briefly discussed to get more reasonable P n -values. (author)

  11. The EIR-programmes for computing the gross heat output of solar collectors (MURD and ETA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widder, F.

    1980-11-01

    For the computation of the gross heat output of solar collectors by means of meteo data and characteristic collector parameters two programs were developed: MURD for the determination of the ''mean usable radiation density'' and ETA for the calculation of the collector efficiency i.e. relative values of gross heat output. The main features of these programs are described and detailed instructions for the use of them are given. Results of some cases for the meteo-situation of Zurich airport are given. (Auth.)

  12. Variational solution of the Gross-Neveu model; 2, finite-N and renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Arvanitis, C; Iacomi, M; Kneur, J L; Neveu, A

    1995-01-01

    We show how to perform systematically improvable variational calculations in the O(2N) Gross-Neveu model for generic N, in such a way that all infinities usually plaguing such calculations are accounted for in a way compatible with the renormalization group. The final point is a general framework for the calculation of non-perturbative quantities like condensates, masses, etc..., in an asymptotically free field theory. For the Gross-Neveu model, the numerical results obtained from a "two-loop" variational calculation are in very good agreement with exact quantities down to low values of N.

  13. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  14. Determination of 90Sr, 129I and gross beta radioactivity concentration in some teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan Sahin; Mahmut Dogru

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ), 129 I (150 keVβ - ) and the gross beta radioactivity concentrations were determined for the samples of tea as the most leading consumed hot drink in the markets (processed and packaged for sale) in our country. Furthermore, the obtained data were statistically analyzed. For determination of 129 I (150 keVβ - ), 90 Sr (540 keVβ - ) and gross radioactivity concentrations in tea samples, a sensor system consisting of scintillation detector with BP4 probe sensitive to beta radiation and a radiation meter (ST7) configurable for windows at desired power was used. (author)

  15. GPELab, a Matlab toolbox to solve Gross-Pitaevskii equations II: Dynamics and stochastic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Xavier; Duboscq, Romain

    2015-08-01

    GPELab is a free Matlab toolbox for modeling and numerically solving large classes of systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations that arise in the physics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The aim of this second paper, which follows (Antoine and Duboscq, 2014), is to first present the various pseudospectral schemes available in GPELab for computing the deterministic and stochastic nonlinear dynamics of Gross-Pitaevskii equations (Antoine, et al., 2013). Next, the corresponding GPELab functions are explained in detail. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to show how the code works for the complex dynamics of BEC problems.

  16. Higher-spin currents in the Gross-Neveu model at 1/n{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manashov, A.N. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Hamburg, D-22761 (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Regensburg, D-93040 (Germany); Skvortsov, E.D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 (Germany); Lebedev Institute of Physics,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-30

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents, both singlet and non-singlet, in the Gross-Neveu model at the 1/n{sup 2} order. It was conjectured that in the critical regime this model is dual to a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS{sub 4}. The AdS/CFT correspondence predicts that the masses of higher-spin fields correspond to the scaling dimensions of the singlet currents in the Gross-Neveu model.

  17. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  18. PERGERAKAN HARGA SAHAM AKIBAT PERUBAHAN NILAI TUKAR, INFLASI, TINGKAT BUNGA, DAN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Heru Satoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to provide an empirical evidence of the influence of macroeconomic variablesand the time varying volatility phenomena on stock price. This research used manufactured firms that list onIndonesian Capital Market on 2009 until 2011 periods for the sampel. This research also used several macroeconomicsvariables such as exchange rate, inflation, BI rate, and Gross Domestic Product. The empirical resultshowed that exchange rate, BI rate, and Gross Domestic Product influenced stock price. The result also showedthat time varying volatility was happenend on stock price fluctuation. This result indicated that Indonesianstock price have high volatility on 2009 til 2011 periods

  19. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoling; Zhao Feng; Wu Meigui; Du Jinzhou

    2010-01-01

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  20. 77 FR 57492 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Grosse Tete Bayou, Iberville Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... modified from a moveable to a fixed bridge, without publishing an NPRM. The change removes the section of... the Union Pacific railroad swing bridge over Grosse Tete Bayou, mile 14.7, Iberville Parish, Louisiana. This bridge has been modified from a swing bridge to a fixed bridge and the current special operating...

  1. Gross alpha/beta analyses in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.T.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA; Soliman, V.M.; Perera, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for analyzing gross alpha and gross beta in water is evaporation of the sample and radioactivity determination of the resultant solids by proportional counting. This technique lacks precision, and lacks sensitivity for samples with high total dissolved solids. Additionally, the analytical results are dependent on the choice of radionuclide calibration standard and the sample matrix. Direct analysis by liquid scintillation counting has the advantages of high counting efficiencies and minimal sample preparation time. However, due to the small sample aliquants used for analysis, long count times are necessary to reach required detection limits. The procedure proposed consists of evaporating a sample aliquant to dryness, dissolving the resultant solids in a small volume of dilute acid, followed by liquid scintillation counting to determine radioactivity. This procedure can handle sample aliquants containing up to 500 mg of dissolved solids. Various acids, scintillation cocktail mixtures, instrument discriminator settings, and regions of interest (ROI) were evaluated to determine optimum counting conditions. Precision is improved and matrix effects are reduced as compared to proportional counting. Tests indicate that this is a viable alternative to proportional counting for gross alpha and gross beta analyses of water samples. (author)

  2. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  3. Gross and histopathological evaluation of human inflicted bruises in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs are hampering animal welfare, are an infringement of the animal protection act, and are a focus of public attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gross appearance of human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs and to compare ...

  4. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake : Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Arain, M. Altaf; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bondeau, Alberte; Cescatti, Alessandro; Lasslop, Gitta; Lindroth, Anders; Lomas, Mark; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Margolis, Hank; Oleson, Keith W.; Roupsard, Olivier; Veenendaal, Elmar; Viovy, Nicolas; Williams, Christopher M.; Woodward, F. Ian; Papale, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO 2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  5. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of b...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate... returned. Property shall not be returned at the value at which it is assessed for local tax purposes unless... by devise or inheritance, or by reason of death, form of ownership, or other conditions (including...

  7. 26 CFR 1.691(a)-3 - Character of gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....691(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(a)-3 Character of gross income. (a) The right..., or by the person entitled to receive such amount by bequest, devise, or inheritance from the decedent...

  8. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables.

  9. Integrability of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with Feshbach resonance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dun; Luo Honggang; Chai Huayue

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we study the integrability of a class of Gross-Pitaevskii equations managed by Feshbach resonance in an expulsive parabolic external potential. By using WTC test, we find a condition under which the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is completely integrable. Under the present model, this integrability condition is completely consistent with that proposed by Serkin, Hasegawa, and Belyaeva [V.N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, T.L. Belyaeva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 074102]. Furthermore, this integrability can also be explicitly shown by a transformation, which can convert the Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the well-known standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation. By this transformation, each exact solution of the standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be converted into that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which builds a systematical connection between the canonical solitons and the so-called nonautonomous ones. The finding of this transformation has a significant contribution to understanding the essential properties of the nonautonomous solitons and the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates by using the Feshbach resonance technique

  10. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  11. Level of gross margin among vegetable farmers in Iwo Zone of Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the level of gross margin in vegetable farmers' production in Iwo zone of Osun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Data for the study was collected through structured interview schedule with 150 vegetable farmers selected through multistage sampling technique. These data were ...

  12. Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sjöström, M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon...

  13. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  14. Variance-based sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC for gross and net primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, R.; Hamm, N.A.S.; van der Tol, C.; Stein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameterization and calibration of a process-based simulator (PBS) is a major challenge when simulating gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). The large number of parameters makes the calibration computationally expensive and is complicated by the dependence of several parameters on other

  15. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  16. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-coated high- Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>10 23 m −2 s −1 ), typical for the divertor region. In this

  17. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  18. 26 CFR 1.83-2 - Election to include in gross income in year of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subsequent appreciation in the value of the property is not taxable as compensation to the person who....83-2 Election to include in gross income in year of transfer. (a) In general. If property is... fair market value of the property at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any lapse...

  19. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  20. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  1. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO ... capital (K), educational enrolment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor ... Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by ...

  2. 76 FR 71491 - Gross Estate; Election to Value on Alternate Valuation Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... 14 may be applicable to determine fair market value for Federal estate tax purposes. (iii... valuation period shall be added to the value of the entity on the alternate valuation date. The sum of the... Gross Estate; Election to Value on Alternate Valuation Date AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  3. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO ...

  4. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  5. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Steene, Jan; Linthout, Nadine; de Mey, Johan; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Claassens, Cornelia; Noppen, Marc; Bel, Arjan; Storme, Guy

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were

  6. Data Reconciliation and Gross Error Detection for Troubleshooting of Ammonia Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Data reconciliation (DR and gross error detection are two common tools used in industry to provide accurate and reliable data, which is useful to analyse plant performance and basis for troubleshooting. DR techniques improve the accuracy of measurements by using redundancies in material and energy balances. This provides reliable information that could help decision making regarding plant operation, which potentially leads to financial benefit. This paper presents the utilization of plant data to perform troubleshooting of ammonia reactor, in particular the profile of catalyst activity. Bad plant data are collected and then analysed using DR to produces reconciled data, which could be used to detect and identify the gross error measurements. The input data for DR and gross error detection were gathered from Aspen HYSYS V8.8 simulations by modelling the single-bed ammonia reactor. The result presents that bad plant data could define actual system condition such as gross error measurements in normal condition or catalyst activity problem. Both conditions are modelled by DR to indicate actual system condition using statistical analysis and to perform troubleshooting. Appropriate troubleshooting could save time and provide financial benefits by avoiding wrong accusation of system problem, specifically in ammonia reactor evaluated in this paper.

  7. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  8. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  9. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  10. The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic Product. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  12. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account

  13. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  14. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  15. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... persons). (iii) Property. For purposes of this section, the term property refers to both tangible and... adjustments. For rules relating to the penalty imposed with respect to a substantial or gross valuation...

  16. Modeling gross primary production of an evergreen needleleaf forest using MODIS and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Qingyuan Zhang; David Hollinger; John Aber; Berrien, III Moore

    2005-01-01

    Forest canopies are composed of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV, chloroplasts) and nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, e.g., cell wall, vein, branch). The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (FAPAR) should be partitioned into FAPARPAV and FAPARNPV. Gross primary production (...

  17. 26 CFR 1.691(a)-2 - Inclusion in gross income by recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion in gross income by recipients. 1.691(a)-2 Section 1.691(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(a)-2 Inclusion in...

  18. The Histopathologic Reliability of Tissue Taken from Cadavers within the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P., III; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution.…

  19. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  20. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  1. 26 CFR 1.872-2 - Exclusions from gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... monetary theory and continued to receive a salary from such foreign branch while studying in the United... gross income of the earnings of foreign aircraft. (3) Definition of earnings. For purposes of.... 538). (2) Definition of foreign employer. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “foreign employer...

  2. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  3. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies va...

  4. Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostrom, M.; Zhao, M.; Archibald, S.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon assimilation per unit photosynthetically active

  5. Measurement of the gross α radioactivity in a river near a sewerage of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Congxue; Li Tianduo; Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Ma Wenyan

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduced the measurement of the gross α radioactivity in a river near a sewerage of a uranium mine. By using the drip infusion set, the water was transfused into the sample trays and evaporated directly. This method makes it possible batch the water samples

  6. Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students during Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Hoffarth, Brianna L.; Kohlwey, Scott R.; Kramer, Christine M.; Petro, Jaime L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite nearly 200 accredited entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States that culminate in a doctoral degree, only a paucity of reports have been published regarding the efficacy of peer teaching in gross anatomy. No one has described the usefulness of peer teaching from the viewpoint of the peer teacher. An organized…

  7. The Pragmatic Idealist: Valerie Gross--Howard County Library, Columbia, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the two years since Valerie Gross became director of the Howard County Library (HCL), it has won the county's Community Organization of the Year award, its Accessibility Award, and its Chamber of Commerce's Non-Profit Business of the Year ACE award for contributions to education, economic development, and quality of life. And for the first…

  8. The Determination of Gross Alpha And Beta Activity of Drinking Water in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, A.T.; Cifter, C.; Altay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Man and his environment must be protected from the adverse effects of pesticides, radiation, noise and other forms of pollutions. Radioactive materials occur naturally in the environment (for example uranium, thorium and potassium). Same radioactive compounds arise from human activities (for example from medical or industrial uses of radioactivity). Drinking water should be safe to use and aesthetically pleasing. World Health Organisation (WHO) and Turkish Standards (TSE) have established maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha and gross beta. The purpose of these study is to determine the level of gross alpha and gross beta activities of samples collected from the different Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI)). After that compare the results versus permissible values of World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. Collected samples from 14 Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI), have completed. All the analyses results suitable for WHO and TSE. We will give all the research our final report after completed the other Regional Directories' s analyses

  9. Gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jun, J.S.; Oh, H.P. (Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Republic of Korea))

    1984-06-01

    The measurement of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables such as Brassica Campestris, Raphanus Sativus and Lactuca Sativa grown in Daejeon area was carried out during the period of April through August 1983. The observed levels of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the levels of the vegetables were, on average, 189.2+-51.8pCi/g-ash (2372+-827pCi/kg-fresh) and 44.4+-11.5sup(90)Sr pCi/g-Ca(2.5+-0.5sup(90) pCi/g-ash or 31.6+-8.6 sup(90)Sr pCi/kg-fresh), respectively, while the mean level of the gross beta activity in roots was 158.6+-19.4pCi/g-ash(2121+-899pCi/kg-fresh). On the basis of the ICRP recommendations, an estimative evaluation was made for the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables, and it was turned out to be far below the permissible level. An attempt was also made to look for any existing difference in the gross beta, activities of the vegetables grown in vinyl house and in open field, taking seasonal variation of airborne radioactivity into account for normalizing the activity deposited during the course of discrepant farming period.

  10. Vegetation-specific model parameters are not required for estimating gross primary production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yuan, W.; Cai, W.; Liu, S.; Dong, W.; Chen, J.; Altaf Arain, M.; Blanken, P. D.; Cescatti, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Georgiadis, T.; Genesio, L.; Gianelle, D.; Grelle, A.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Liu, D.; Marek, Michal V.; Merbold, L.; Montagnani, L.; Panferov, O.; Peltoniemi, M.; Rambal, S.; Raschi, A.; Varlagin, A.; Xia, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, NOV 24 2014 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : light use efficiency * gross primary production * model parameters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2014

  11. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable tax year unless a certified statement is provided by a certified public accountant or attorney...) For a person filing a separate tax return, the amount reported as “adjusted gross income” on the final federal income tax return for the person for the applicable tax year; (2) For a person filing a joint tax...

  12. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing methods... highest profit to F under the combined taxable income administrative pricing method of section 925(a)(2... the combined taxable income administrative pricing method to determine F's profit for the grouping of...

  13. Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…

  14. Dynamic Relationship between Gross Domestic Product and Domestic Investment in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, Bruno; Ruranga, Charles; Kaberuka, William

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a VAR model to analyse the dynamic relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic investment (DI) in Rwanda for the period 1970 to 2011. Several selection lag criteria chose a maximum lag of one, and a bivariate VAR(1) model specification in levels was adopted. Unit root tests show that both GDP and DI series are…

  15. 76 FR 21637 - Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI AGENCY: Coast... portion of Lake St. Clair River during the Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks. DATES: This rule is effective... vessels during the setup, loading, and launching of the Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks Display. The...

  16. Divergent Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…

  17. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2017-10-20

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  18. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  19. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  20. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  1. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  2. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  3. Gross National Happiness Philosophy Manifested In The Selected Speeches Of His Excellency Tshering Tobgay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A nation's progress has been measured in terms of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP throughout modern history. Suffice it to say that the higher a country's GDP, the more progressive a country is considered to be. An internationally used measure of a country's economic activity, GDP has undergone much thought as to its statistical and conceptual bases, but it mainly measures a country's market production. Clearly, there is a need for a coherent complement to a nation's GDP. Every nation can benef it from a fresh and transformational approach to defining and measuring their progress and this can be done by considering the country’s Gross National Happiness (GNH. It is a holistic and sustainable developmental approach targeted at achieving a healthy balance between material and non - material values while giving utmost priority to human happiness and well - being. This study is an analysis of Bhutan's Prime Minister His Excellency Tshering Tobgay’s Gross National Happiness philosophy, highlighting key in sights from the selections. Analysis revealed that His Excellency exemplified the core philosophy of Gross National Happiness in true adherence and embodiment of the pillars which constitute the said philosophical concept, and these are in terms of good go vernance, socio - economic development, cultural preservation and environment sustainability. Likewise, he achieved the efficiency of connecting with his audience and effectively sending his message across by utilizing rhetorical devices such as humor, ethos , logos and pathos. This paper likewise uncovered and discussed important insights which foster values essential to a nation's well - being and to appreciation of literature as manifested in his discourses, which in themselves can be considered as ample proo fs that a nation's well - being and the appreciation of literature can be secured by advocating the holistic approaches within the philosophy of Gross National Happiness.

  4. Gross Instability After Hip Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Case Reports Evaluating Surgical and Patient Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marco; Memon, Muzammil; Simunovic, Nicole; Belzile, Etienne; Philippon, Marc J; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-06-01

    Gross hip instability is a rare complication after hip arthroscopy, and there is limited literature surrounding this topic. This systematic review investigates cases of gross hip instability after arthroscopy and discusses the risk factors associated with this complication. A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating gross hip instability after hip arthroscopy up to October 2015. Study parameters including sample size, mechanism and type of dislocation, surgical procedure details, patient characteristics, postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and level of evidence were analyzed. The systematic review identified 9 case reports investigating gross hip instability after hip arthroscopy (10 patients). Anterior dislocation occurred in 66.7% of patients, and most injuries occurred with a low-energy mechanism. Common surgical factors cited included unrepaired capsulotomy (77.8%) and iliopsoas release (33.3%), whereas patient factors included female gender (77.8%), acetabular dysplasia (22.2%), and general ligamentous laxity (11.1%). Postoperative restrictions and protocols were variable and inconsistently reported, and their relation to post-arthroscopy instability was difficult to ascertain. This systematic review discussed various patient, surgical, and postoperative risk factors of gross hip instability after arthroscopy. Patient characteristics such as female gender, hip dysplasia, and ligamentous laxity may be risk factors for post-arthroscopy dislocation. Similarly, surgical risk factors for iatrogenic hip instability may include unrepaired capsulotomies and iliopsoas debridement, although the role of capsular closure in iatrogenic instability is not clear. The influences of postoperative restrictions and protocols on dislocation are also unclear in the current literature. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risk factors when performing hip arthroscopy and be mindful that these factors appear to occur in combination. Level IV

  5. The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.

  6. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  8. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  9. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  11. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger... Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate survival craft with enough capacity...

  12. Factors Associated with Enhanced Gross Motor Progress in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størvold, Gunfrid V; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Romild, Ulla K; Bratberg, Grete H

    2018-05-01

    To examine associations between interventions and child characteristics; and enhanced gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Prospective cohort study based on 2048 assessments of 442 children (256 boys, 186 girls) aged 2-12 years registered in the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Program and the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway. Gross motor progress estimates were based on repeated measures of reference percentiles for the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) in a linear mixed model. Mean follow-up time: 2.9 years. Intensive training was the only intervention factor associated with enhanced gross motor progress (mean 3.3 percentiles, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.5 per period of ≥3 sessions per week and/or participation in an intensive program). Gross motor function was on average 24.2 percentiles (95% CI: 15.2, 33.2) lower in children with intellectual disability compared with others. Except for eating problems (-10.5 percentiles 95% CI: -18.5, -2.4) and ankle contractures by age (-1.9 percentiles 95% CI: -3.6, -0.2) no other factors examined were associated with long-term gross motor progress. Intensive training was associated with enhanced gross motor progress over an average of 2.9 years in children with CP. Intellectual disability was a strong negative prognostic factor. Preventing ankle contractures appears important for gross motor progress.

  13. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  14. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1 - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1 Section 1.668(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section 668(a) provides that...

  15. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1A - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1A Section 1.668(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section 668(a) provides that...

  16. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  17. 77 FR 40515 - Safety Zone; Detroit Symphony Orchestra at Ford House Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Detroit Symphony Orchestra at Ford House Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe... Detroit Symphony Orchestra at the Ford House Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from 10.... 165.T09-0600 Safety Zone; Detroit Symphony Orchestra at Ford House Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse...

  18. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country, plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30–100 m remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems. Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as

  19. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange F. Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001, the time of manipulation (p<0.001 and gross motor function (p<0.001 over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001 and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02 from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  20. The effect of water content on gross mineralization and immobilization of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada C, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil-plant N cycle. It is hypothesised that moisture regime may also play an important role on this processes of soils. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization, nitrification and immobilization, in a Ultisol soil, was incubated at 25 a C, under two moisture regime, field capacity (40%w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34%w/w). Using mirror image 15N isotope dilution techniques it was possible to determine that both gross nitrification and mineralization rates were greater with 85%FC, the direct nitrification rates in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85%FC. The immobilization and the amount of the microbial biomass N in the soil was greater with FC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  1. Spreadsheet design and validation for characteristic limits determination in gross alpha and beta measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Rodrigo G.P. do; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The identification and detection of ionizing radiation are essential requisites of radiation protection. Gross alpha and beta measurements are widely applied as a screening method in radiological characterization, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. As in any other analytical technique, test performance depends on the quality of instrumental measurements and reliability of calculations. Characteristic limits refer to three specific statistics, namely, decision threshold, detection limit and confidence interval, which are fundamental to ensuring the quality of determinations. This work describes a way to calculate characteristic limits for measurements of gross alpha and beta activity applying spreadsheets. The approach used for determination of decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval, the mathematical expressions of measurands and uncertainty followed standards guidelines. A succinct overview of this approach and examples are presented and spreadsheets were validated using specific software. Furthermore, these spreadsheets could be used as tool to instruct beginner users of methods for ionizing radiation measurements. (author)

  2. Professor Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) and His Innovations in Surgery and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos

    2018-06-01

    Professor Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) is considered as one of the founders of American surgery. He was a skillful surgeon who could excellently perform a lithotomy, an amputation, and a cataract surgery. He introduced many new surgical techniques and designed new surgical and medical instruments. He expertise was not limited to surgery alone; he also published studies concerning internal medicine, pathology, experimental physiology, and pharmacology. His most important treatise was his 2-volume work, A System of Surgery, Pathological, Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Operative (1861), which was a standard reference book in surgery in the United States during the second half of 19th century. Gross received many honors during his life. He was active in the operating room until his death.

  3. Violations of the Callan-Gross relation as function of X,Q2 from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Arroyo, A.

    1980-07-01

    The Callan-Gross relation, originally based on the parton model, predicts that, in (say) electroproduction, sigmasub(L)/sigmasub(T) = 0. When QCD corrections are taken into account this relation gets modified by terms of order αsub(c)(Q 2 ). We define R approximately sigmasub(L)/sigmasub(T) to measure the violation of the Callan-Gross relation. One can obtain exactly the behaviour of R(x,Q 2 ) at the endpoints x = 0,1 from QCD. This will incidentally allow us to write a simple and explicit parametrization, which is exact at x = 0,1 and a good approximation at all other x. We will carry out the analysis for proton targets and e, μ projectiles; the extension to ν scattering or other targets is straightforward

  4. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  5. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  6. The calculation of the detection efficiency in the calibration of gross alpha-beta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian Romeo Calin; Ileana Radulescu; Alexandru Erminiu Druker

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for efficiency calibration of a measuring alpha-beta system PROTEAN ORTEC, MPC-2000-DP, using standard radioactive sources. The system is used to measure gross alpha-beta activity concentrations in environmental samples. The calculated efficiencies of detection were subsequently introduced in the system for two working geometries: measuring geometry-gross alpha-beta ε α g = 31,37 ± 0.25 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β g 44.94 ± 0.69 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk g = 25.59 ± 0.50 (%) and measuring geometry up alpha-beta ε α u 36.23 ± 0.29 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β u = 48.53 ± 0.74 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk u 31.08 ± 0.60 (%). (author)

  7. The algebras of higher order currents of the fermionic Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltini, Luis Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported from our studies on the following 2-dimensional field theories: the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model and the fermionic Gross-Neveu model. About the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, an attempt is made to solve the the algebraic problem of finding the non-local conserved charges and the corresponding algebra, extending the methods described in a previous article for the case of the purely bosonic non linear sigma model. For the fermionic Gross-Neveu model, we intend to construct the conserved currents and the respective charges, related to the abelian U(1) symmetry and non-abelian SU(n) symmetry, at the conformal point and calculate the correlation functions between them. From these results at the conformal point, we want to study the effects of perturbation to get a massive but integral theory

  8. [Effect of prescribed burning on grassland nitrogen gross mineralization and nitrification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhong; Zhu, Tingcheng; Li, Jiandong; Zhou, Daowei

    2003-02-01

    The seasonal dynamics of nitrogen gross mineralization, nitrification, and mineral nitrogen consumption rates in burned and unburned Leymus chinensis grasslands were studied with 15N pool dilution technique. The results indicated that the gross mineralization and nitrification rates in burned area were higher than those in unburned area in April and May, and lower than those in unburned area in September. NH4(+)-N consumption rates were higher than unburned area in April and May, and lower in September. NO3(-)-N consumption rates were higher than control in April and May, and lower than control in July and September. The NH4(+)-N concentrations were higher in burned area in April, May and July, and no difference in September. NO3(-)-N concentrations were no difference between burned and unburned areas in April and May, and higher in burned areas in July and September.

  9. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  10. Phase structure of Gross-Neveu model with compactification in the presence of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhokhov, R.N.; Kolmakov, P. B.; Zhukovsky, V.Ch.; Klimenko, K.G.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper there have been studied Gross-Neveu model in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with one compactified dimension in presence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. Magnetic field is directed along the uncompactified dimension that is along the axis of the cylinder on which the system lives. Chiral symmetry breaking and corresponding phase structure of the model is investigated in the leading order of (1/N) expansion

  11. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  12. Effect of harvesting interval and n-fertilizer application on the gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in gross energy (GE) content by increasing N application and much more increase by increasing interval between harvests. For the three species, highest GE/kgN applied was obtained with 150kgN/ha-1 than with 0kgN/ha/yr or 450kgN/ha/yr. Harvesting frequencies and N ...

  13. Morphometric Changes in Talus of Club Foot A Gross Observation in Human Foetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Faruqi, Nafis A

    2012-01-01

    Both the feet of six human foetuses of different age groups having unilateral club feet, were dissected for morphological study. Six morphometric parameters considered for comparing gross anatomical changes in normal and deformed feet, were 1-Maximum length of the talus, 2-Longitudinal dimension of head of talus, 3-Anterior trochlear breadth, 4-Maximum medial talar height, 5-Talar neck and calcaneal angle, 6-Talocalcaneal angle. All the foetuses with congenital club feet have almost similar d...

  14. One-loop beta functions for the orientable non-commutative Gross Neveu model TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhoua, A.; Vignes-Tourneret, F.; Wallet, J.-C.

    2007-11-01

    We compute at the one-loop order the β-functions for a renormalisable non-commutative analog of the Gross Neveu model defined on the Moyal plane. The calculation is performed within the so called x-space formalism. We find that this non-commutative field theory exhibits asymptotic freedom for any number of colors. The β-function for the non-commutative counterpart of the Thirring model is found to be non vanishing.

  15. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  16. Correlation of computed tomography, sonography, and gross anatomy of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, C.F.; Zeman, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Although the vascular and segmental anatomy of the liver is well defined in the sonographic and computed tomographic (CT) literature, the three-dimensional relations of hepatic structures remain conceptually complex. As an aid to understanding and teaching this anatomy, axially and sagitally sectioned gross liver specimens were correlated with appropriate sonographic and CT scans. Major hepatic landmarks and vascular structures are used to identify four distinct transverse planes and four sagittal planes

  17. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Beta Emission Rates from Ceramic Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wudthicharoonpun, Piyasak; Chankow, Nares

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Ceramic tiles normally used to cover floors and walls contain naturally occurring radioactive elements i.e. potassium-40, uranium, thorium and their daughters from raw materials. Thus, radioactivity was dependent upon source of raw materials and the amount used. The objective of this research was to measure gross alpha and beta emission rates to be used as a database for safety assessment and for selection of rooms to measure radioactive radon-222 gas

  18. Investigating the use of quick response codes in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Courtney J; Hoffman, Leslie A; Seifert, Mark F; Wilson, Adam B

    2015-01-01

    The use of quick response (QR) codes within undergraduate university courses is on the rise, yet literature concerning their use in medical education is scant. This study examined student perceptions on the usefulness of QR codes as learning aids in a medical gross anatomy course, statistically analyzed whether this learning aid impacted student performance, and evaluated whether performance could be explained by the frequency of QR code usage. Question prompts and QR codes tagged on cadaveric specimens and models were available for four weeks as learning aids to medical (n = 155) and doctor of physical therapy (n = 39) students. Each QR code provided answers to posed questions in the form of embedded text or hyperlinked web pages. Students' perceptions were gathered using a formative questionnaire and practical examination scores were used to assess potential gains in student achievement. Overall, students responded positively to the use of QR codes in the gross anatomy laboratory as 89% (57/64) agreed the codes augmented their learning of anatomy. The users' most noticeable objection to using QR codes was the reluctance to bring their smartphones into the gross anatomy laboratory. A comparison between the performance of QR code users and non-users was found to be nonsignificant (P = 0.113), and no significant gains in performance (P = 0.302) were observed after the intervention. Learners welcomed the implementation of QR code technology in the gross anatomy laboratory, yet this intervention had no apparent effect on practical examination performance. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  20. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  1. Soil gross nitrogen transformations in responses to land use conversion in a subtropical karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-15

    Gross nitrogen (N) transformations can provide important information for assessing indigenous soil N supply capacity and soil nitrate leaching potential. The current study aimed to assess the variation of gross N transformations in response to conversion of maize-soybean fields to sugarcane, mulberry, and forage grass fields in a subtropical karst region of southwest China. Mature forests were included for comparison. Gross rates of N mineralization (GNM) were highest in the forests, intermediate in the maize-soybean and forage grass fields, and lowest in the sugarcane and mulberry fields, suggesting capacity of indigenous soil N supply derived from organic N mineralization was lowered after conversion to sugarcane and mulberry fields. The relative high indigenous soil N supply capacity in the maize-soybean fields was obtained at the cost of soil organic N depletion. Gross nitrification (GN) rates were highest in the forests, intermediate in the forage grass fields and lowest in the other three agricultural land use types. The nitrate retention capacity (24.1 ± 2.0% on average) was similar among the five land use types, implying that nitrate leaching potential was not changed after land use conversion. Microbial biomass N exerted significant direct effects on the rates of N mineralization, nitrification, ammonium immobilization and nitrate immobilization. Soil organic carbon, total N and exchangeable magnesium had significant indirect effects on these N transformation rates. Our findings suggest that forage grass cultivation instead of other agricultural land uses should be recommended from the perspective of increasing indigenous soil N supply while not depleting soil organic N pool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the thoron daughter working level by a one gross alpha-count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Lau, W.K.

    1983-02-01

    A study has been done on the determination of the thoron daughter Working Level, WL(Tn), by a one gross α-count. The relationship between the gross α-count rate per unit of volume of air sampled and WL(Tn), denoted the F-factor, has been investigated as a function of sampling time, elapsed time from the end of the sampling period, i.e., waiting time, and the thoron daughter disequilibrium ratio [ThC]/[ThB]. It has been found that F depends on both the waiting time and [ThC]/[ThB]. If α-count measurements are made at least 300 min after the end of sampling, F changes by less than 10 percent over the full range of theoretical values of [ThC]/[ThB], i.e., from 0 to 1. The F-factor is independent of [ThC]/[ThB] at approximately 215 min after the end of sampling. This feature can be used to determine WL(Tn) with higher accuracy and at least 1.5 hr earlier than is commonly done using other one gross α-count methods reported in the literature

  3. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  4. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danmaigoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum. Thirty male bats (adults n=17 and juveniles n=13 were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31±6.30 g, 12.14±0.19 cm and 69.54±7.68 g, 7.77±0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology.

  5. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Takeya, Toshiki

    1997-06-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans` ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans` ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  7. Sources of variability in the determination by evaporation method of gross alpha activity in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Caceres (Spain). Environmental Radioactivity Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Determining the gross alpha activity concentration of water samples is one way to screen for waters whose radionuclide content is so high that its consumption could imply surpassing the Total Indicative Dose as defined in European Directive 98/83/EC. One of the most commonly used methods to prepare the sources to measure gross alpha activity in water samples is desiccation. Its main advantages are the simplicity of the procedure, the low cost of source preparation, and the possibility of simultaneously determining the gross beta activity. The preparation of the source, the construction of the calibration curves, and the measurement procedure itself involve, however, various factors that may introduce sufficient variability into the results to significantly affect the screening process. We here identify the main sources of this variability, and propose specific procedures to follow in the desiccation process that will reduce the uncertainties, and ensure that the result is indeed representative of the sum of the activities of the alpha emitters present in the sample. (orig.)

  8. Investigating the correlation between paediatric stride interval persistence and gross energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stride interval persistence, a term used to describe the correlation structure of stride interval time series, is thought to provide insight into neuromotor control, though its exact clinical meaning has not yet been realized. Since human locomotion is shaped by energy efficient movements, it has been hypothesized that stride interval dynamics and energy expenditure may be inherently tied, both having demonstrated similar sensitivities to age, disease, and pace-constrained walking. Findings This study tested for correlations between stride interval persistence and measures of energy expenditure including mass-specific gross oxygen consumption per minute (, mass-specific gross oxygen cost per meter (VO2 and heart rate (HR. Metabolic and stride interval data were collected from 30 asymptomatic children who completed one 10-minute walking trial under each of the following conditions: (i overground walking, (ii hands-free treadmill walking, and (iii handrail-supported treadmill walking. Stride interval persistence was not significantly correlated with (p > 0.32, VO2 (p > 0.18 or HR (p > 0.56. Conclusions No simple linear dependence exists between stride interval persistence and measures of gross energy expenditure in asymptomatic children when walking overground and on a treadmill.

  9. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukali, Serhat; Baris, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning.

  11. Digital lectures for learning gross anatomy: a study of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anudeep; Min, Aung Ko Ko

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the level of students' learning and attitudes towards the teaching and learning process when using digital lectures to teach gross anatomy to year 1 medical students. The study sampled year 1 medical students of cohorts 2013 and 2014. The year 1 medical students in 2013 were taught gross anatomy of the heart by didactic classroom lectures while those in 2014 were taught with digital lectures using the same content. A review session was conducted for the 2014 cohort. A 19-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The 2014 cohort had a mean score of 47.65 for short essay questions and 51.19 for multiple choice questions, while the 2013 cohort scored an average of 36.80 for short essay questions and 49.22 for multiple choice questions. The difference in scores for each type of question was found to be significant. Using a 5-point Likert scale, students gave an average of 4.11 when asked if they liked the teaching and learning process and would like it to be applied further. The results of the study provide strong evidence that the digital teaching and learning process was well received by students and could also lead to improved performance. Digital lectures can provide a satisfactory substitute for classroom lectures to teach gross anatomy, thus providing flexibility in learning and efficient learning, whilst also freeing lecture slots to promote mastery learning.

  12. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke; Takeya, Toshiki.

    1997-01-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans' ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans' ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  13. Spontaneous movements of preterm infants is associated with outcome of gross motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Lisa; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-30

    We conducted a longitudinal cohort study to analyze the relationship between outcome of gross motor development in preterm infants and factors that might affect their development. Preterm infants with a birth weight of antigravity limbs movements by 3D motion capture system at 3 months corrected age. Gross motor developmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months corrected age were evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Statistical analysis was carried out by canonical correlation analysis. Eighteen preterm infants were included. In the 6 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Prone and Sitting at 6 months corrected age of AIMS. In the 12 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Sitting and Standing at 12 months corrected age of AIMS. In preterm infants, better antigravity spontaneous movements at 3 months corrected age were significantly correlated with better gross motor development at 6 or 12 months corrected age. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross α/β analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross α/β analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross α/β analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross α/β analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower

  15. Recent progress in atomic mass formulas and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masami

    1988-01-01

    The first half of the report focuses on atomic mass formulas which have been developed by the author and his coworkers for accurate representation of the mass of various nuclides at their ground state. The one most frequently used by them is the Uno-Yamada Formula, which consists of two parts representing the gross behavior and the fluctuations due to each nuclide, or so called shell effect. The latter part is the sum of a proton shell term and a neutron shell term, and may be constant or linear depending on the form of the shell terms. Two new formulas have been derived by incorporating the effect of proton-neutron interaction into the above-mentioned constant-type formula. One of them is different from the constant-type Uno-Yamada Formula in that the shell effect part contains a proton-neutron interaction term. Modification is also made to take into account the coulombic energy. The second half of the report addresses the β-decay gross theory. A modified β-decay gross theory is presented, in which improvements are made to reflect the effect of the UV factor and to meet the sum rules related with the Fermi transition. The monoparticle intensity function is also improved by taking into account solutions of many-body problems related with the sum rules. (N.K.)

  16. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  17. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP. Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP. Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results. Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant. Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  18. Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khattak, S.T.; Elahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

  19. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  20. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey); Baris, Kemal [Mining Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)

  1. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7- to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n=56; 39 boys, 17 girls), gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and measured annually during a 3-year period. Motor scores of 253 typically developing children (125 boys, 112 girls) were collected for references values. The multilevel analyses showed that the ball skills of children with LD improved with age (p50). Boys had higher ball skill scores than girls (p=.002) and these differences were constant over time. Typically developing children outperformed the children with LD on the locomotor skills and ball skills at all ages, except the locomotor skills at age 7. Children with LD develop their ball skills later in the primary school-period compared to typically developing peers. However, 11 year-old children with LD had a lag in locomotor skills and ball skills of at least four and three years, respectively, compared to their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of diurnal sleep on the consolidation of a complex gross motor adaptation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Birklbauer, Juergen; Schabus, Manuel; Eibenberger, Patrick; Rigler, Sandra; Mueller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal sleep effects on consolidation of a complex, ecological valid gross motor adaptation task were examined using a bicycle with an inverse steering device. We tested 24 male subjects aged between 20 and 29 years using a between-subjects design. Participants were trained to adapt to the inverse steering bicycle during 45 min. Performance was tested before (TEST1) and after (TEST2) training, as well as after a 2 h retention interval (TEST3). During retention, participants either slept or remained awake. To assess gross motor performance, subjects had to ride the inverse steering bicycle 3 × 30 m straight-line and 3 × 30 m through a slalom. Beyond riding time, we sophisticatedly measured performance accuracy (standard deviation of steering angle) in both conditions using a rotatory potentiometer. A significant decrease of accuracy during straight-line riding after nap and wakefulness was shown. Accuracy during slalom riding remained stable after wakefulness but was reduced after sleep. We found that the duration of rapid eye movement sleep as well as sleep spindle activity are negatively related with gross motor performance changes over sleep. Together these findings suggest that the consolidation of adaptation to a new steering device does not benefit from a 2 h midday nap. We speculate that in case of strongly overlearned motor patterns such as normal cycling, diurnal sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep might even help to protect everyday needed skills, and to rapidly forget newly acquired, interfering and irrelevant material. PMID:25256866

  3. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  4. Effect of a 12-Week Physical Activity Program on Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2). Each student's TGMD-2 score was converted to a percentage of the total possible score. A 7 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance test with repeated measures was employed to examine the effects of age, sex, and time on TGMD-2 percent scores, adjusting for clustering within the data structure. There were greater TGMD-2 percent scores at follow-up compared with baseline (82.4% vs. 72.6%, mean difference = 9.8%, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.67), and greater improvements were seen in younger children compared with older children (mean difference of change = 4.0%-7.5%, p < .01, Cohen's d = 0.30-0.55).

  5. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  6. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive

  7. Goats reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii: loss of viable prolificacy and gross revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe determined the reproductive parameters and clinical disorders in pregnant goats infected and reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii, and posteriorly the loss of gross revenue due to congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated. Of the 25 non-pregnant females negative for T. gondii, 20 were orally inoculated (ME 49 strain and of these, 15 pregnant females chronically infected were orally reinoculated (VEG strain with T. gondii oocysts. Five groups were formed (n=5: GI, GII and GIII (reinoculations at 40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, respectively, GIV (inoculation and GV (no inoculation. Clinical and serological exams were performed on days 0 (prior to inoculation, 3, 6 9, 15 and 21 and every 7 days post-inoculation. Exams were also performed on day 3 and every 7 days post-reinoculation. Reproductive management was performed on all females and initiated when the females infected displayed IgG titers IFAT<1,024. From the average prolificacy indexes of each experimental group were estimated: total production of kilograms of live weight (total kg LW of goats for slaughter, gross revenue and loss of gross revenue in U.S. dollars (US$, designed for a herd of 1,000 matrices. The unviable prolificacy indexes were 0.8 (GI, 1.2 (GII and 0.2 (GIII. Clinical disorders affected 57.1% (GI, 75.0% (GII and 16.7% (GIII of the offspring of goats reinfected with T. gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis in goats reinfected resulted in the loss of 26.5% of gross revenues, being GI (US$ 10,577.60 or 57.1% and GII (US$ 12,693.12 or 60% holders of the highest values and percentages of economic losses. It was found that congenital toxoplasmosis reinfection cause clinical disorders in goats chronically infected with T. gondii and their offspring with birth of unviable animals and loss of gross revenue, at different stages of pregnancy (40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, being in the initial and intermediate stages of pregnancy the largest estimates of these losses.

  8. A design study investigating augmented reality and photograph annotation in a digitalized grossing workstation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce A Chow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Aims: Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. Settings and Design: The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Subjects and Methods: Our research institute focused on an experimental and “designerly” approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as “rapid ethnography” and “conversation with materials”. Results: We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the

  9. A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit

    2017-01-01

    Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as " rapid ethnography " and " conversation with materials ". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though

  10. Determining the level of gross alpha and beta radioactivity of water from Marilao river using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Magtaka, J.; Balisi, R.; Castaneda, Soledad; De Vero, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of gross alpha- and beta- radioactivity present in the Marilao River. Liquid Scintillation Counter was used to detect samples radioactivity. Water samples were taken along the different spots of Marilao River. The results showed that the radioactivity are below the Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water (PNSDW) which is 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha activity and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta activity set by the Dept. of Health. Hence water samples from Marilao River, is safe in terms of the level of radioactivity levels.(author)

  11. Fortran programs for the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a fully anisotropic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, P.; Adhikari, S. K.

    2009-10-01

    Here we develop simple numerical algorithms for both stationary and non-stationary solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates at ultra low temperatures. In particular, we consider algorithms involving real- and imaginary-time propagation based on a split-step Crank-Nicolson method. In a one-space-variable form of the GP equation we consider the one-dimensional, two-dimensional circularly-symmetric, and the three-dimensional spherically-symmetric harmonic-oscillator traps. In the two-space-variable form we consider the GP equation in two-dimensional anisotropic and three-dimensional axially-symmetric traps. The fully-anisotropic three-dimensional GP equation is also considered. Numerical results for the chemical potential and root-mean-square size of stationary states are reported using imaginary-time propagation programs for all the cases and compared with previously obtained results. Also presented are numerical results of non-stationary oscillation for different trap symmetries using real-time propagation programs. A set of convenient working codes developed in Fortran 77 are also provided for all these cases (twelve programs in all). In the case of two or three space variables, Fortran 90/95 versions provide some simplification over the Fortran 77 programs, and these programs are also included (six programs in all). Program summaryProgram title: (i) imagetime1d, (ii) imagetime2d, (iii) imagetime3d, (iv) imagetimecir, (v) imagetimesph, (vi) imagetimeaxial, (vii) realtime1d, (viii) realtime2d, (ix) realtime3d, (x) realtimecir, (xi) realtimesph, (xii) realtimeaxial Catalogue identifier: AEDU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data

  12. MODIS/Terra Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km SIN Grid V055

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra/MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product (MOD17A2) is a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation-use efficiency concept that is...

  13. Chlorophyll fluorescence better captures seasonal and interannual gross primary productivity dynamics across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations and how it changes as a function of factors such as scale, biophysical constraint, and vegetation ...

  14. Spectra and gross features of vertical temperature and salinity profiles off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Nagarajan, R.

    Continuous vertical profiles of temperature and salinity recorded by a CTD-system from the continental slope and the continental rise off Goa, west coast of India, were used for delineating the gross statistical features of the fine structure...

  15. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs. [Solid state nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D. (Inst. of Security, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author).

  16. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  18. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso,Felipe; Mirande,Juan Marcos; Pandolfi,Matías

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  19. MotorSense: Using Motion Tracking Technology to Support the Identification and Treatment of Gross-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Boyle, Bryan; Bossavit, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    MotorSense is a motion detection and tracking technology that can be implemented across a range of environments to assist in detecting delays in gross-motor skills development. The system utilises the motion tracking functionality of Microsoft's Kinect™. It features games that require children to perform graded gross-motor tasks matched with their chronological and developmental ages. This paper describes the rationale for MotorSense, provides an overview of the functionality of the system and illustrates sample activities.

  20. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222 Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3 . Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 212 Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212 Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0